Oxygen Cycle The continual interchange of oxygen between the atmosphere and the water, the plants and

animals and mineral matter is called the oxygen cycle. During the early evolution of earth, oxygen was released from H2O vapor by UV radiation. This accumulated in the atmosphere as the hydrogen escaped into the earth's atmosphere. With the advent of plant life, photosynthesis also became a source of oxygen. Oxygen was also released as organic carbon in CHO, and got buried in sediments. Why should I be aware of this?

Oxygen cycle is critical to both our health and the health of our environment. We need oxygen for respiration. The oxygen that we breathe oxidizes the sugars in the food to generate energy. During this process carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. Humans need oxygen to breathe Oxygen is needed for decomposition of organic waste. Water can dissolve oxygen and it is this dissolved oxygen that supports aquatic life. Oxygen cycle, greenhouse effect and global warming With recent developments it is now feasible to measure variations in the oxygen content of the atmosphere at the parts per million (ppm) levels. Regular measurements of changes in atmospheric oxygen (O2) are currently being made at a number of locations around the world using two independent techniques, one based on interferometry and one based on stable isotope mass spectroscopy. Oxygen measurements can inform us about fundamental aspects of the global carbon cycle. Oxygen is generated by green plants in photosynthesis and converted to carbon dioxide (CO2) in animal and human respiration. Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas of most concern due to its abundance in the atmosphere (~ 360 ppm) and anthropogenic sources. Variations in atmospheric O2 are controlled largely by fluxes of carbon (e.g., photosynthesis and respiration CO2 + H2O <=> CH2O + O2). All about the Oxygen Cycle?

The oxygen cycle is a complex series of processes in which all of the oxygen atoms present in the earth circulate. Oxygen is one of the more than 100 known elements, and one of six main constituents of living organisms. The earth does not receive matter from outside except from occasional meteorites (and this is negligible). Thus, the oxygen atoms (along with other elements) are part of a closed system, that is, they cannot be lost or replenished. These fixed number of oxygen atoms are recycled throughout all of earth s processes that use chemicals that contain oxygen. These processes form a cycle that

It is never found floating around as individual atoms. plants hold onto a bit of the oxygen which they produced in photosynthesis and use that oxygen to break down carbohydrates. Oxygen uptake rate (O.R. oxygen enters water when water runs over rocks and creates tremendous amounts of surface area. The oxygen molecule has two oxygen atoms. and the nonliving spheres lithosphere. the sugars are broken down into water and carbon dioxide. Since organisms are constantly using up oxygen in the water and oxygen is constantly reentering the water from the air. But in order to maintain their metabolism and continue respiration at night. the plants must absorb oxygen from the air and give off carbon dioxide just as animals do. Animals breathe that oxygen and both plants and animals use the sugars for energy. They use oxygen in many forms. consuming oxygen in the process. atmosphere and hydrosphere.oxygen enters water in rapids and leaves water in pools. the amount of oxygen in water remains relatively constant. During the day. there are also other biogeochemical cycles like the carbon cycle. the night-time consumption of oxygen by plants can create low oxygen conditions in some water habitats. Organisms Last are the organisms of the world. When the water in a stream enters a pond. This is another form of oxygen cycle . Then the cycle begins again. Water Oxygen in water is known as dissolved oxygen or DO.U.involves the living sphere called the biosphere. but is always with other elements. The high surface area allows oxygen to transfer from the air into the water very quickly. It is also found in water molecules and . Plants are able to use the energy of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen in a process called photosynthesis. Even though plants produce approximately ten times as much oxygen during the day as they consume at night. Through the process of metabolism. Oxygen Oxygen is one of the major compounds found in the atmosphere of the Earth. the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle. What is oxygen cycle? The oxygen cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles. microorganisms in the pond begin to metabolize (break down) organic matter.) is the rate at which oxygen is consumed by living organisms in the water. Some molecules have three oxygen atoms called ozone. Plants Plants mark the beginning of the oxygen cycle. Plants take in that carbon dioxide and combine it with water to create sugars and oxygen molecules. In a healthy ecosystem. In nature. Their role in the cycle begins with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. the rates of oxygen transfer (being used up) and oxygen uptake are balanced in the water.

5%). Marine organisms in the biosphere create calcium carbonate shell material (CaCO3) that is rich in oxygen. odorless gas at ordinary temperatures. Animals form the other half of the oxygen cycle.carbon dioxide. Only a small fraction is present as free oxygen in the biosphere (0. Oxygen is essential for life. Most of the Oxygen present in the atmosphere is used during respiration and decay mechanisms in which animal life and bacteria consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. Biosphere and Atmosphere Within the biosphere and atmosphere. Because lithospheric minerals are oxidized using oxygen. They breathe in oxygen which they use to break carbohydrates down into energy in a process called respiration. An additional supply of atmospheric oxygen comes from photolysis. Carbon dioxide produced during respiration is breathed out by animals into the air. chemical weathering of exposed rocks also consumes oxygen. That oxygen floats through the atmosphere until it comes down to Earth and starts one of many cycles It is highly reactive. But the oxygen cycle is not actually quite that simple. During the early evolution of earth. It is present in the atmosphere in the form of ozone and provides protection to life by filtering out the sun s ultraviolet rays. Living organisms require oxygen to breathe and to produce energy.there might come a time when the amount of carbon . When the organism dies its shell is deposited on the shallow sea floor and buried over time to create the limestone rock of the lithosphere. Plants and animals extract nutrient minerals from rocks and release oxygen in the process. Oxygen is also cycled between the biosphere and lithosphere. plants mark the beginning of the oxygen cycle. as we know it on earth. Plants must also break carbohydrates down into energy just as animals do. Burning or combustion is essentially an oxidation reaction. A colorless. It is vital in many other ways too.01%) and atmosphere (0. it turns to a bluish liquid at -183° C. But plants produce approximately ten times as much oxygen as they consume.49%). Reservoirs of oxygen By far the largest reservoir of Earth's oxygen is within the silicate and oxide minerals of the crust and mantle (99. whereby high energy ultraviolet radiation breaks down atmospheric water and nitrite into component atoms. Plants are able to use the energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen in a process called photosynthesis. ultraviolet radiation on water vapor is believed to have released Oxygen which then accumulated in the atmosphere. Maintaining the Oxygen Cycle With the increase in the level of atmospheric pollution and large scale deforestation. Weathering processes initiated by organisms can also free oxygen from the lithosphere. This means that plants "breathe" in carbon dioxide and "breathe" out oxygen. The free Hydrogen and Nitrogen atoms escape into space leaving Oxygen in the atmosphere. experts worry about disturbing the balance in the atmosphere -.

The content of biodegradable substances in waste waters is expressed by a special index called "biological oxygen demand" (BOD). It is imperative that we plant more trees and reduce vehicular and industrial pollution. helium. carbon dioxide is released back to the atmosphere. Oxygen is less common than hydrogen. . When dead tissue (carbon compounds) decays by a combination of oxidation and microorganism decay. representing the amount of oxygen needed by aerobic bacteria to decompose the waste.di oxide is very large and there are very few plants and trees to convert it into Oxygen. Copper Bytes Oxygen is the most common element by volume or mass (weight) on Earth. In each breath taken by a human being. This crisis will not know international boundaries. With not enough oxygen available for these bacteria. about 47% of the earth's crust. they die and anaerobic bacteria that do not need oxygen take over. Oxygen makes 90% of water (bymass). A slower cycle occurs whenever mineral matter is oxidized. Oxygen Cycle and environment Oxygen cycle plays a vital role in decomposition of organic waste. and neon in the Universe. one-fifth of the molecules are oxygen There are twelve trillion tonnes of oxygen in the air. These bacteria change waste material into H2S and other poisonous and foul-smelling substances. such as in the formation of rocks. but by far the most common element on the Earth. for example. to waste much in a body of water. Plants produce approximately 10x as much oxygen during the day as they consume at night. as well as 23% of dry air and 65% of the human body. The night-time consumption of oxygen by plants can create low oxygen conditions in some water habitats.