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Optimizing Air-Conditioner EER SEER Efficiencies - Optimizing Evaporator Input


Condenser Output BTUH HeatLoad, EER, SEER, Ratings Condenser Temp-Splits Knowing Operating Static Pressures | RM T-stat Differential | R410a_Evacuation | Selecting Correct CFM Fan Speeds | Gurgling sounds at TEV | Oil Furnace blower Graph Design Engineering | Determining which metering device TXV or Fixed Orifice | 50% Load HomeAir Leaks There are dozens of other things you can do to decrease the heatload & increase A/C efficiencies reducing cooling costs!| Cynergy Home HVAC Energy Raters Listen While Reading! A/C Trouble
shooting link - at bottom Affordable Test Instrument You Need |*

Sizing Units to Adequate

Airflow |* CONDENSING TEMP DIAGNOSIS California Research Report on EER SEER pdf - download 07/23/08, SEER Payback - cannot be accurately
represented! - with Darrell Udelhoven - HVAC RETIRED - udarrell

"Establishing the 'proper heatload' on the evaporator coil"


First, before doing anything else check and thoroughly seal all the ductwork! For efficient operation, always check the return air temperature at the blower & at the Return Air Grille(s)
INTRODUCTION TO TOTAL COOLING PERFORMANCE;

How improper installation of a 3-ton system can become a 1.5-ton system of actual delivered cooling, or heat transfer to the outdoors! (SURPRISE!)
The second thing you must do & know "before charging any system" is to establish the proper airflow and heatload through the evaporator coil. It is impossible to accurately charge a Cap-Tube, Piston-Flow-Rator, or (TXV) Thermostatic Expansion Valve refrigerant fed evaporator coil, without "an adequate an evenly distributed heat-load passing through all the coil's circuits." Some liquid refrigerant must be supplied throughout the total length of the evaporator coils along with an adequate heat-load to vaporize it in order to achieve the coils full BTU/hr capacity. If an insufficient heat-load is supplied a TXV will shut down the flow of refrigerant, a Piston-Flow-Rator will tend to 2
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overload the coil with liquid, with the potential of compressor slugging.

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You must know & record the operating feet per minute (FPM) velocity & the CFM to each room & the Total CFM airflow! You know the scenario: an oversized unit and high humidity with room TH set at 68 or 70-F degrees (clammy cold) too large a piston metering device matched to a 48,000-BTU/hr evaporator coil, --only heat evaporation/absorbing 26,000-btu/hr. (Check the condenser Temp/split.)
========================== Air Conditioning Performance Diagnosis using listed (CT) Condensing Temperatures Using Goodman 16-SEER "Expanded Performance Data" Find the correct (CT) Condensing Temperature with the following known mfgers data. Outdoor Ambient Temp (OAT) 85-F; IDB 75-F; IWB 63-F or 50%-RH. Listed pressure is 316-psig, or 99-F CT; that is 99-F -85-F is a 14-F SPLIT. The delta T or temp-split should be within a 10-psig range or, +/- 2-F degrees; 97 or 101-F. The mfgers Supply Outlet should be able to provide Contractors & Techs with those performance data charts. Goodman has their Expanded Performance Data on the Internet. BTUH = CFM X

enthalpy difference from Chart X 4.5 <-Click

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------------------------------Especially if your system is oversized or there are a lot of low AC load days use an adjustable differential room TH. TH Differential: Some have cycles per hour settings, however...

Especially if your system is oversized or there are a lot of lighter AC load days, we need an adjustable differential room t stat. With the addition of fans to move air when system is off; this is what I want in a room t stat. TH Differential: Differential is defined as the difference between the cut-in and cut-out points as measured at the thermostat. I would want one with at least half degree increments, up to at least 3-F differential. For example, if the thermostat turns the Cooling Equipment ON at 78-F & OFF at 75-F or a 3 degree differential setting; heating mode, on at 70 degrees F and turns the heating equipment off at 74 degrees F, or 4 degrees F differential, and also uses an adjustable heat anticipator. Some have half degree increment settings over several degrees of differential spread. Cooling anticipators use to be fixed settings by mfg'ers, heating anticipators were adjustable. For example, in Rockford, IL a 2,400 sq./ft home with 600-sq./ft of window area, those using wrong headed 600-sq./ft per-ton, it figures to take 4 tons or so to cool it. However, a 2-Ton Unit moving 1,000-CFM of air (or 500-cfm per ton of cooling), even at 95 degrees with a blazing sun heat outside and very high humidity the 2-ton cooling equipment system still cycles! It is very comfortable at around 75-F and 50% Relative Humidity or less. On mild days with a high humidity an adjustable differential t-stat would be very helpful. The comfort zone at lower humidities with adequate air movement covers a wide range of temps. At 50% Relative Humidity the Human Comfort Zone is max 79-F to min 73-F, or a 6 degree differential. That would allow an oversized unit to produce longer cycles higher SEER performance & get humidity in a comfort zone.
There's a 2400 sq./ft home in Lancaster (SW WI) and one I know of in Ohio, cooling the homes to very comfortable levels using 2-ton A/C systems. --------------------------------------The most common cause of low suction pressure and low btu/hr output is an insufficient heat-load on the evaporator coil. Before you do anything else, always make certain that at normal room TH settings, an optimal heat-load is going through the evaporator coil, and also that the coil and blower wheel blades are clean. (Check Condenser coils and fins too.) The evaporator coil works the opposite of the condenser, here refrigerant liquid is converted to gas, absorbing heat from the air in the process. When the liquid refrigerant reaches the evaporator its pressure has been reduced, dissipating its heat content and making it much cooler than the fan air flowing around it. This causes the refrigerant to absorb heat from the warm air and reach its low boiling point rapidly. The refrigerant then vaporizes, absorbing the maximum amount of heat. --------------------------An Affordable Test Instrument You Need!
All I had was the Sling Psychrometer & spinning it was a bit time consuming, but I used it religiously, it is information you need. The Testo 605-H2 Humidity Stick (wet bulb), displays relative humidity, air temperature and wet bulb temperature. It is very affordable & because of its potential to help deliver tons of other data everyone should have one! For more information on it: http://www.amazon.com/Testo-605-H2-H.../dp/B000774B6A

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The other test data you need is the system's CFM airflow through the evaporator coil, then with software I have you can peg the BTUH the operating unit is delivering under those conditions. Add to that a low cost Magnehelic gauge to read static pressures to compare with mfg'ers blower performance charts; plus a velocity meter & you have a ballparked CFM to plug into for the BTUH. We could easily provide a detailed psychrometric print out of exactly what the operating system is delivering including condensate lbs/hr, & actual sensible & latent cooling BTUH & Ratio, every data detail imaginable. Think about what that would mean to you & those you serve. - Darrell

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Determining which metering device TXV or Fixed Orifice the system has without physically looking
If you do not absolutely know whether the metering device is a TXV, or a fixed orifice device or cap tube. Hook up your manifold gauges, block off considerable condenser air intake for a short time. If the suction pressure starts rising, you have a piston, or a cap tube. If only the high side goes up, you have a TXV. Have things with you in your van or truck to block-off the condenser air for a short time. Check every time you are not certain what metering device it has. There will be a lot of guessing in the future. Do this procedure on known metering devices to observe the difference. Report back to me how well it works for you. In some situations, that could save you from cutting a hole in the plenum. Squirrel cage wheels with forward curved blades on residential systems unload when discharge air is blocked off too much & will overload when there is no static pressure.

There is a preferable ESP range for each Air Handler blower design, that ought to be listed on the blower; they vary at the p If you amp-probe check enough of those blower motors, if the amp draw is too low according to its rating, you can begin to Additionally, mfg'ers could list the amp draw at various design ESP numbers, then we could amp-probe & know if it was too if amp reading is too low, it is time to check all static pressures & delivered CFM to each room.

I lot of us used to set a nearly empty R-22 cylinder on top of a condenser to warm it a little. Back then fan motors had more & higher amp draws, therefore it didn't seem to cause any harm, just more noise.

Back in the 1960's & 1970's there were a far number of TXV metering devices & some table top condensers' that had the fa Well, where there were cottonwood trees, nearby clothes dryer lint vents, or a lot of leaves or other debris under the unit, th I don't understand the engineering genius of that moronic design. However, on hot days & a heat-loaded E-Coil, You could move your wrist over the condenser from outlet up to inlet, & tell if the liquid was taking up too much area of the

-------------------Always get the CFM airflow correct, first, if it is a piston or cap tube, use the superheat method to charge it. If it is a TXV, subcooling is the way to charge it, but check the Superheat to verify the TXV is holding within its ====================
Quick Check for Sizing Units to enough Airflow Actually, even on service calls where there are cooling problems the ductwork should have a quick Manual D performed. Then take the ESP static pressure & compare to blower graph or chart, also take the FPM duct velocity. Then do a quick estimate of airflow per equipment tonnage. To find area of a round duct; Duct diam is 7"; 7"X7"= 49-sq.ins., X's .7854 = 38.04845-sq.ins divided/ by 144= 0.2672541-sq.ft. area X's FPM Velocity 600-FPM = 160.35246-CFM X30 = 4,810.5738 each 7" run X's 6 branch runs = 28,863-BTUH, or airflow for 2.4-ton.
(12,000-BTUH /400-cfm per-ton = 30-BTU per cfm ratio | / 450 = 26.666-BTUH per-cfm)

That would also be good for 2-ton; at 550-FPM velocity X's 0.2672541= 147-CFM X 30 = 4,410-BTUH each run X 6-runs = airflow for 26,460-BTUH.

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*Never sell units requiring more airflow than the duct system will support! - Darrell =======================

Selecting Correct CFM Fan Speeds


An adequate CFM of warm enough air is essential to the evaporation process in the coil. The amount of heat exchanged depends upon a temperature differential of the air and the refrigerant. An optimally high air temperature and Cubic Feet per-Minute (CFM) airflow through the cooling coil will allow rapid heat transfer between the air and the refrigerant --resulting in more rapid boiling and more total heat absorption per-minute (more BTU/hr) of run-time. An unbalanced airflow through the evaporator coil (DX coil) circuits can cause a large reduction in heat absorption capacity. The non heat loaded vapor or ultra cold liquid will cause a TEV to shut down the flow of refrigerant to the coil. Superheat charging will be inaccurate when the coil is fed by flow rator pistons. Total BTUH capacity could drop 15 to 30% or more. An 18000-BTUH unit losing 30% of design capacity would be delivering only 12600-BTUH. Design Engineering and Installation Objectives should be focused towards achieving the most efficient and effective means toward a conditioned space that is within the "Human Comfort Zone, and within an affordable investment 'payback' period."
Summer Comfort Zone Relative Humidity Maximum Comfortable Temperature Minimum Comfortable Temperature 60% 50% 40% 30% 78.5oF 79oF 79.5oF 80oF 72.5oF 73oF 73.5oF 74oF

The above comfort zone was found to be acceptable to 90% of test subjects drawn from a range of age groups and genders, with work and life-styles involving varying levels of activity and clothing. An air conditioning system that establishes and maintains indoor conditions within this zone will provide thermal comfort. It will produce a neutral sensation, occupants will feel neither too hot nor too cold. Above chart and findings From: Home Energy Magazine Online September/October 1996) Sizing Air Conditioners: If Bigger Is Not Better, What Is? by John Proctor and Peggy Albright Toward Optimal Occupant Comfort If you over pay for over capacity equipment, --you will be paying more every month and will not be as comfortable as you would sizing it right to also achieve the appropriate humidity levels!
SEER
'Max' condenser air temp delta-T Max temp spread 'across' E-Coil 'Max' SA/Return Entering Air Delta-T

7 SEER or less 8 SEER 9 SEER 10 SEER 12 SEER 13 SEER


30 20 33 25 22 30 24 24 26 +23 26 23 21 >more 19 <less >more <less

The Supply Air & the Entering Return Air delta-T, (< less than, symbol)- tends towards less & less as the SEER goes higher, therefore, dehumidification could become more difficult at the highest SEER levels. The EER & SEER levels widen, as SEER sky rockets.

====================

My Scan of My ThermoPride OL 11 Graphed Blower-Curve-Chart Thermopride OL 11 Graph ipg image - Thank you Dave Staso, CA. for the better expandable image! "After it loads Right click "Show Original Images" - Move cursor arrow over graph - Click + when 'over graph' for expanded image," then print on the highest quality setting.
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Every manufacturer should furnish blower curve charts with their units and also put them on the Internet for service tech's to download and print. Also, air conditioning codes should be updated in respect to proper sizing of the duct work which must include all the pressure inducing factors when sizing the supply and return ducts. Also, illustrate best furnace to evaporator coil transitions, especially on oil furnaces! You should always keep the ESP to 0.5" or mfg'ers listing. The evaporator must be mounted 4 to 6 inches above this model oil furnace to achieve adequate airflow! Below is an example of this problem with a (Thermo Pride OL 11 oil furnace). The low airflow probable cause is "an unbalanced airflow heatload through the evaporator coil, along with what is known as "static regain," due to the evaporator coil being too close to the large oil furnace heat exchanger. Those oil furnaces have a very large heat exchanger that goes to near the top of the furnace, --due to a low basement ceiling the DX coil sets perhaps illegally close to the heat exchanger causing an airflow restriction, and a few of the coil's circuits to be unevenly heatloaded. Since the liquid refrigerant is not completely evaporated it will cause the outlet line that the TEV sensor bulb is on, to be too cold and the TEV will shut-down the refrigerant flow, which greatly reduces the BTUH capacity of the DX coil and the system. On piston refrigerant control systems, they may flood back liquid which could damage the compressor, unless the system is way under-charge. Thermo Pride could install airflow turning vanes just above the heat exchanger to funnel the air directly into the DX coil, instead of most of the airflow hitting the bottom of the DX's drain pan causing extreme back-pressure/turbulence and an imbalanced DX coil circuitry heatload! Static regain explained: every time the velocity is reduced there is a conversion to static pressure. In this case it not only loses all of the velocity airflow energy due to hitting the evaporator drain pan, but also skyrockets static pressure, greatly reducing the blower's ability to deliver the required CFM! The required main trunk Supply Air velocity and static pressure is lost between the heat exchanger and the evaporator drain pan, and therefore there is insufficient velocity and static pressure at the SA diffusers to deliver the throw and requisite CFM!

Flooded or Starved Evaporator Coils


Changing the state of the refrigerant in the evaporator coils is as important as the air flow over the coils. Liquid refrigerant supplied to the coils by the expansion valve expands to a vapor as it absorbs heat from the air. Some liquid refrigerant must be supplied throughout the total length of the evaporator coils for full capacity. ----------------------Gurgling sounds at TEV: Low evaporator heat-loads lead to reduced liquid line mass and increased evaporator mass could be due to airflow problems. Eliminate low evaporator heat-loads before looking into adjusting the refrigerant charge. Gurgling and pulsation noises at the expansion device can be caused by low charge, and/or non-condensibles and moisture in the system. Unbalanced airflow through the various distributor circuits of the evaporator coil will cause the TEV to close down refrigerant flow starving the coil. Piston-flow-rators will make it impossible to properly charge the system and cooling will be greatly compromised unless you eliminate the cause! On every Rheem condenser cover it lists "non-condensibles and or moisture" as causes for a gurgling or pulsating noise at the expansion device. The entire evaporator circuits, may not become active for various reasons, - "the entire coil must become fully active for efficient performance." A starved evaporator coil is a condition in which not enough refrigerant has been supplied through the total coil length. Therefore, expansion of the refrigerant has not occurred through the whole coil length, resulting in too-low a heat exchange and lowered BTU/hr capacity operation.

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The purpose of these recommendations is to provide liquid refrigerant at the expansion device and provide efficient operation. Hopefully, this will aid your research. If I can be of additional assistance, contact me.
----------------------------------------Too many do not properly purge & evacuate contaminated central air conditioning systems. The Triple Evacuation Method is normally done on refrigeration systems, R-410a systems require it on central air conditioning systems: First, remove any valve cores with a special valve core remover this will speed up the evacuation time. Back service valves two turns off their back seat. 1) Re-claim unit charge (Recover all the refrigerant) 2) Charge system to 150 PSIG with dry nitrogen and leak test 3) On contaminated systems replace the filter dryers. Then Repair all leak(s) 4) Evacuate system to 500 microns valve off & see if it holds 500 microns for ten minutes, if it holds, break the vacuum with dry nitrogen 5) Evacuate system to a deeper 400 microns, valve off vac pump, & again break the vacuum with dry nitrogen 6) Evacuate system to 400 microns and & then Check to see if it holds. (Recharge with fresh clean refrigerant) 7) Check to see if the Supply and Return air ducts were correctly sized & sealed by the original installer. If a vacuum pump will not evacuate a system below 1500 microns there is a problem with the pump itself, a leak in the system, or moisture in the system. Moisture is most likely because water vaporizes at 1500 microns. Many HVAC contractors will consider this excessive time & effort for contaminated residential air conditioning systems, however it is a must for low temp applications. The micron is a metric unit of measure for distance. The micron is a unit of linear measure; one micron equals 1/25,400ths of an inch. Modern high capacity vacuum pumps help speed up the evacuation process. When a system has been evacuated below 500 microns, the pump is valved-off with the micron gauge connected, if the vacuum rises to 1500 microns and stops, there is moisture remaining in the system. If it rises above 1500 microns & continues to rise there is a leak. You should allow at least 15 minutes after the pump has been shut off an accurate micron gauge reading. When a system will not evacuate below 1500 microns there is either a lot of water or there is a system leak. ===============================================================

A flooded evaporator is the opposite of the starved coil. Using a Flow-rator Piston refrigerant control, too much refrigerant is passed through the evaporator coils, resulting in unevaporated liquid passing onto the suction line and an under capacity system. http://www.udarrell.com/air_temperature_drop_evaporator.jpg Air Temperature Drop Through Evaporator Coil (1987 Period) "Indoor temperature and humidity load variations graph." Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning (ARI) Second Edition, Page 624, 1987 Measuring Low Airflow

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I normally would measure the airflow with a flow hood, also called a capture hood. You should normally have around 400 CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) per ton of cooling. Half of the systems I measure have [a mere] 200 CFM per ton, OR LESS. This will be aggravated by a dirty air filter, Some Restrictive high efficiency air filter's or grilles closed in rooms that you are not using. Normally, do not turn the thermostat down below 70 [74 76 -better] degrees. A/C Tech guru, 'Stretch' A/C OWNERS: Measuring the air temperature rise across the outdoor condenser coils is the easiest check point to determine the total amount of latent and sensible BTUH of heat your air-conditioner is actually transferring to the outside. You will enjoy doing it, doing it could lead to making changes that could considerably improve your Air Conditioning System's performance, thus improving your total comfort while in most cases greatly reducing your cooling bills. SEE CHARTS BELOW. By way of background: ARI introduced the Energy Efficiency Ratio "EER" in 1975. This was an "HVAC" industry instituted and policed way "to determine the relative efficiencies" of one unit to another in the cooling mode. "EER" was determined by dividing the published steady state capacity by the published steady sate power input at 80F dB/ 67F Wb indoor and 95F dB outdoor. This was quite objective yet unrealistic with respect to system "real world" operating conditions. The SEER of a system is determined by multiplying the steady state Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) measured at conditions of 82F outdoor temperature, 80F dB/ 67F Wb indoor entering air temperature by the (run time) Part Load Factor (PLF) of the system. A major factor NOT considered, is the actual part loading factor of the indoor evaporator cooling coil, that greatly reduces the unit's listed btuh capacity and SEER efficiency level.

Optimizing the "Evaporator HeatLoad" will Optimize the Condenser BTUH HeatLoad Output from your Home
Most evaporator coils are under-loaded when operating at the normal room temp setting! The airflow should be adjusted to fully load the evaporator coil at the normal room temperature setting! This airflow adjustment will optimize your air conditioner's BTUH and SEER performance. Most air conditioner's have an underloaded evaporator coil at the room temp thermostat setting, where the vast majority of its run time will take place! In 8 foot ceilings, Return Air (RA) should always come from the warmer ceiling air areas. On TXV metered systems the Subcooling should be within +/- 2-F of the mfgers installation instructions. ========================== Air Conditioning Performance Diagnosis using listed (CT) Condensing Temperatures Using Goodman 16-SEER "Expanded Performance Data" What is the correct (CT) Condensing Temperature with the following known mfgers data? Outdoor Ambient Temp (OAT) 85-F; IDB 75-F; IWB 63-F or 50%-RH. Listed pressure is 316-psig, or 99-F CT; that is 99-F -85-F is a 14-F SPLIT. The delta T or temp-split should be within a 10-psig range or, +/- 2-F degrees; 97 or 101-F. The mfgers Supply Outlet should be able to provide Contractors & Techs with those performance data charts. Goodman has their Expanded Performance Data on the Internet.
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In an oil furnace installation, a high static pressure can be partially due to the evaporator coil being installed too close to the big round heat exchanger. If you have room, a reducer transition should be stalled to funnel the air into the aperture opening of the A coil. Installing the coil on to of the furnace can cause high turbulence and back pressure, which combined with inadequate, (along with floor level intake returns) ducting coupled with long runs and other problems

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could increase the static pressure so high that your blower motor's HP will not move enough heat loaded room air across the heat absorbing evaporator coils and fins to fully heat load the outside condenser coil. Floor level supply and return air quadruples the problem. External static pressures need to be kept within or below 0.5" Water Column for efficient operation of the blower wheel design and motor HP. Too low an air flow, or SA and RA air at the floor level, can greatly reduce the capacity of your AC unit. In the case of a thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) (liquid refrigerant metering device); it will simply shut down the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator coil to keep it at the TEV's usual 10F Super-Heat setting. A flow rator type metering device will continue to feed to much refrigerant into the coil which can cause it to drop below freezing temperatures which will block air flow and also can flood liquid back to the compressor causing severe damages to it. Additionally, the refrigerant charge will not be accurate unless it is weighed into the system. There can be NO accurate measure of Superheat without an optimally balanced heat load through all the evaporator coil circuits. Take the condenser entering air temp and leaving air temp, subtract for the temp-split. As a double verification: You can use the high-side (SCT) Saturated Condensing Temperature minus the outdoorsambient temperature; the difference gives you the condenser temperature-rise or temperature/split. There is NO excuse for not utilizing this important diagnostic check. Always use an accurate volt meter and amprobe to make sure you are not overloading the compressor's Wattage Service Factor and check the compressor discharge line to see that it is under 225-F. On wrap-around condenser coil top air discharge condensers' --first, check the condenser entering air dry-bulb temp., and the condenser dry-bulb discharge air temp., while moving the TH around in the air stream. (This will usually be around a 18 to 24 degree condenser temperature split rise. Older units run a higher temperature split.) Techs should get the condenser air flow data in CFM from the manufacturer's data. Because all the heat discharged by the condenser air flow also includes the converted latent heat of the evaporator's absorbed condensation heat, you can determine the total BTUH of heat exhausted by the AC condenser and thus determine if it is getting anywhere near its BTUH rating. You also need to add the additive heat of the condenser's compressor and fan motor. The indoor blower motor is also a heat contributing factor, not figured in this formula. You can make up the charts for 10, 12, and 14 SEER units for specific makes. One chart might include many different makes. The 14 SEER is a whole different bucket of bolts, as it uses a larger condenser and a very high CFM for a lower temp-split. For the uninitiated, Delta-T is the difference between the air temperature entering and leaving the outdoor AC condensing unit. This is a good diagnostic check because it measures the latent heat of condensation as well as the sensible heat absorbed by the vaporizing refrigerant in the indoor evaporator coil. I'm betting when you find out approximately how many BTUH that the AC system is actually transferring outside, you may be shocked. Many new Packaged Units have a very high condenser CFM airflow and a LOW TEMPERATURE SPLIT! Very high SEER units have oversized condenser coils and very low temp-splits! To get the gross BTUH Heatload the Evaporator (DX) Coil is absorbing (which includes both latent, sensible heat) (These are ARI Formulas) There are many ways to figure the amount of heat the evaporator is transferring to the condenser. First, determine the Gross Rated BTUH the condenser is ejecting. Condensers Gross Btuh = Condensers rated CFM Xs Temp Split Xs 0.88 Brothers Example: Heil, 1.5-ton, with 2-ton DX (evaporator) coil with a TEV refrigerant control, -Condenser Rated at 18,400-BTUH, with a 13-SEER rating. 1400-cfm Xs (13-temp rise Xs 1.08) = 19,656-Gross BTUH heat ejected, subtract the 6,562.5-btuh motor heat additive = only 13,093-NET BTUH transferred from the evaporator (DX) Coil to the condenser, compared to a net heat transfer rating of 18,400-btuh! A loss of 6,307-btuh or over half a ton loss, or over a one-third loss of heat transfer! A one ton condenser would have done almost as much! As the rooms cool it is only a 12-F temp-split or 11,582-btuh output! The actual lack of an adequate DX coil heatload would only require a small one-ton condenser!

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CONDENSER TEMP-SPLITS - My Brother's Heil 12-SEER Condensing Unit 1.5-Ton - Rated at 18,400-BTUH, Condenser fan CFM 1400 (Total Cond. Watts 2221 X's power Factors 0.88 X's= 1887 X's = 1954.48 * 3.413 = 6,670-BTUH Motor Heat additive +18400= Motor Power "Rated Gross Heat Ejection" is 25,070-BTUH / 1400 = 17.9-F Temp Rise Cond/Split. The condenser only gets a 10 to 13-F temp-rise-split, depending on the heat load in the house. Supply air and return air are both at the floor level recirculating the coldest air in the room to the DX coil, the evaporator is NOT being supplied with an adequate temp split heat load or, an unbalanced heatload on the DX coil's circuitry. The probable cause is "an unbalanced airflow heatload through the evaporator coil. "It's a (Thermo Pride OL 11 oil furnace). Those oil furnaces have a very large round heat exchanger that goes to near the top of the furnace, --due to a low basement ceiling the DX coil sets perhaps illegally close to the heat exchanger causing a few of the coil's circuits to be under heatloaded. Since the liquid refrigerant is not completely evaporated it will cause the outlet line that the TEV sensor bulb is on to be too cold and the TEV will shut-down the flow, which greatly reduces the BTUH capacity of the DX coil and the system. On piston refrigerant control systems, they may flood back liquid which could damage the compressor, unless the system is way under-charge. Thermo Pride could install airflow turning vanes just above the heat exchanger to funnel the air directly into the DX coil, instead of most of the airflow hitting the bottom of the DX's drain pan causing extreme turbulence back-pressure and an imbalanced DX coil circuitry heatload! The chart split listed below is at Condenser Design conditions: Indoor Return Air 80-F dry bulb 67-F Wet Bulb or 50% Relative Humidity as you go up to 99% RH the condenser split could increase by up to 6-F; down as much as 4-F at a low humidity of 55-F Wet Bulb. Do your own figuring based on this formula. Motor BTU/hr additive = Watts X's PF x's 3.413 for Btu/Watts additive added to rated BTUH, divided by condenser fan CFM X's 1.08 = condenser Temp-Split. Get the Motor Power Factors (PF) of the compressor and fan motor from the manufacturers. (A 0.80 factor could be close.) Some of the 10-SEER temp-split figures need correcting, will do ASAP. Most Splits rounded off.
Formula for finding CFM Airflow from Velocity in FPM If you can measure the air velocity coming from a known size duct or open area of a SA register, here is a rough ballpark formula to get the CFM: CFM = (velocity in (FPM) Feet per Minute times the Square Footage of the duct area). To convert sq.ins. multiply by 0.00694 for sq.ft., or divide sq.ins. by 144. Converting square duct inches to round duct size, Figuring the Square Inches of Round Ducts, an 8" x 8" duct = 64-sq.ins. x .7854 = 50.26 sq. ins. You round off to 50 sq. ins. for an 8" duct. Or, simply getting the square inches of round ducts: a 7" duct; 7" x 7" = 49 x .7854 = 38.48-sq.ins. or divide / by 144 = .2672222-sq.ft. X's a velocity of 500-fpm = 133.6-cubic feet per minute delivered to the room; 133.6-cfm x 30 = 4,008-BTUH. Sized for in the chart below - BTU/hr per CFM figures "are figured for heatpumps at 450-CFM per ton of cooling." Use 800 to 900-FPM MAINS' VEL. Use an optimum of 500-FPM VEL for Supply Branch Runs | Air speed Face of Return. Air Filter Rack Sizing

I realize this will never happen if you use the furnace filter size; however, Air Filter Rack Sizing for efficient operation - Size Gross Return Air filter grille area for 200-sq. ins. per ton. For a 5-Ton system, that would mean Two filter racks 25X20's each, I would go with Two 30X18" RA filter racks for 1080-sq.ins for a 5-Ton system. Do your own figuring based on this formula. Get the Motor Power Factors (PF) of the compressor and fan motor from the manufacturers. CONDENSER TEMP-SPLITS 12-SEER units - Comfortmaker | Heil | Temp Star - used 0.88 Motor Power Factors ARI Conditions are: 95F-OAT; 80F-IDB; 67F-IWB or 50%RH | ARI Conditions; 95-OAT; 80F-IDB; 63-IWB or around 50%RH | &Try 85F-OAT | Outdoor Ambient Temperature (OAT) 1.5-Ton 18,000 21-F Split Cond. CFM 1400 WATTS 1536

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*** 1.5-Ton is from actual published DATA - Only ARI Rating Conditions 1.5-Ton 18,000 @ 95F OAT; Indoors 75-IDB; 63F-IWB or near 50%RH; @ 600-CFM; Outdoor Ambient Temperature (OAT); 18F condenser split | @ 85F OAT; 67-IWB or 66.5%RH; +20F cond. split. To figure this; units pressure chart, the Temps, instead of IWB the %RH, & CFM, For users, No gauges required, to check if your A/C is near specs! However, the temperatures & indoor humidity make a big difference in the condenser split. (Airflow & proper heat-load on evaporator!) Take the both the indoor Supply Air & Return Air DB, WB or %RH , too! If you have an accurate airflow CFM, I can Ballpark the BTUH your A/C or Heat Pump is delivering in the cooling mode. 12-SEER 1.5-Ton 18,000 18-F @ 63-F IWB 50% RH conditions to 20-F Condenser Temp Split @ 67-F IWB 66.5%
RH; Don's @ 10-F Split - needs critical attention! 2-Ton 24,800 24-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 1400 WATTS 2659 (All below ARI Conditions) 2.5-T 30,200 21-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 2000 WATTS 3404 3-Ton 35,600 18-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 2800 WATTS 4117 3.5 T 42,500 21-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 2800 WATTS 4554 4-T 48,500 19.5-F Split Cond. CFM 3400 WATTS 4761 5-Ton 59,000 25-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 3400 WATTS 6969 ========================================================== http://www.udarrell.com/air_return_latent_condenser_split.jpg Page 618, Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning (ARI) Second Edition, 1987 Those lower SEER units had higher condenser splits than 12-SEER and higher units. Sorry, I defiled the graph. 90-db outdoor, 80-db indoors with 67 wet bulb/50% RH represents the condenser splits shown above. http://www.udarrell.com/air_temperature_drop_evaporator.jpg Air Temperature Drop Through Evaporator Coil (1987 Period) "Indoor temperature and humidity latent load variations graph." Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning (ARI) Second Edition, Page 624, 1987 ------------As you put more total heat-load through the evaporator coil, up to its capacity ceiling, both total capacity and efficiency increase for optimal Btu/hr, EER, and SEER. You can achieve a higher latent ratio in high humidity climates through design changes, evaporator, and TXV metering device selection, set at 6 F for optimum reduction of the temperature of the DX Coil, and reducing airflow after the unit gets the humidity near 50%. At the higher humidity levels, the unit will operate closer to its Btu/hr rating set at 400-cfm/ton. Using modern control systems, this would be easy to achieve. When we use to have an oversized compressor in relationship to the evaporator's capacity, it could get that DX coil very cold in a hurry and keep it that way. Specially engineer-designed DX Coils could optimize total latent capacity at the highest to below 50% relative humidity levels. Areas of Florida, Louisiana and even Green Bay, WI need unit systems designed for optimal latent heat operating capacities.

Do your own figuring based on this formula. Get the Motor Power Factors (PF) of the compressor and fan motor from the manufacturers. CONDENSER TEMP-SPLITS 12-SEER units - Comfortmaker | Heil | Temp Star - used 0.88 Motor Power Factors ARI Conditions are: 95F-OAT; 80F-IDB; 67F-IWB or 50%RH | ARI Conditions; 95-OAT; 80F-IDB; 63-IWB or around 50%RH | &Try 85F-OAT | Outdoor Ambient Temperature (OAT) 1.5-Ton 18,000 21-F Split Cond. CFM 1400 WATTS 1536 *** 1.5-Ton is from actual published DATA - Only ARI Rating Conditions 1.5-Ton 18,000 @ 95F OAT; Indoors 75-IDB; 63F-IWB or near 50%RH; @ 600-CFM; Outdoor Ambient Temperature (OAT); 18F condenser split | @ 85F OAT; 67-IWB or 66.5%RH; +20F cond. split.

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To figure this; units pressure chart, the Temps, instead of IWB the %RH, & CFM, For users, No gauges required, to check if your A/C is near specs! However, the temperatures & indoor humidity make a big difference in the condenser split. (Airflow & proper heat-load on evaporator!) Take the both the indoor Supply Air & Return Air DB, WB or %RH , too! If you have an accurate airflow CFM, I can Ballpark the BTUH your A/C or Heat Pump is delivering in the cooling mode. 12-SEER 1.5-Ton 18,000 18-F @ 63-F IWB 50% RH conditions to 20-F Condenser Temp Split @ 67-F IWB 66.5%
RH; Don's @ 10-F Split - needs critical attention! 2-Ton 24,800 24-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 1400 WATTS 2659 (All below ARI Conditions) 2.5-T 30,200 21-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 2000 WATTS 3404 3-Ton 35,600 18-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 2800 WATTS 4117 3.5 T 42,500 21-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 2800 WATTS 4554 4-T 48,500 19.5-F Split Cond. CFM 3400 WATTS 4761 5-Ton 59,000 25-F Temp-S Cond. CFM 3400 WATTS 6969 ========================================================== http://www.udarrell.com/air_return_latent_condenser_split.jpg Page 618, Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning (ARI) Second Edition, 1987 Those lower SEER units had higher condenser splits than 12-SEER and higher units. Sorry, I defiled the graph. 90-db outdoor, 80-db indoors with 67 wet bulb/50% RH represents the condenser splits shown above. http://www.udarrell.com/air_temperature_drop_evaporator.jpg Air Temperature Drop Through Evaporator Coil (1987 Period) "Indoor temperature and humidity latent load variations graph." Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning (ARI) Second Edition, Page 624, 1987 ------------As you put more total heat-load through the evaporator coil, up to its capacity ceiling, both total capacity and efficiency increase for optimal Btu/hr, EER, and SEER. You can achieve a higher latent ratio in high humidity climates through design changes, evaporator, and TXV metering device selection, set at 6 F for optimum reduction of the temperature of the DX Coil, and reducing airflow after the unit gets the humidity near 50%. At the higher humidity levels, the unit will operate closer to its Btu/hr rating set at 400-cfm/ton. Using modern control systems, this would be easy to achieve. When we use to have an oversized compressor in relationship to the evaporator's capacity, it could get that DX coil very cold in a hurry and keep it that way. Specially engineer-designed DX Coils could optimize total latent capacity at the highest to below 50% relative humidity levels. Areas of Florida, Louisiana and even Green Bay, WI need unit systems designed for optimal latent heat operating capacities. --------------

Typical matched units from major manufacturers have Sensible Heat Ratios (SHR) in the 68% to 80% range (or 32% t 95-F outside and 75-F with 50% relative humidity inside. Proper mixing of the air and proper distribution to indivi comfort. The condenser fan speeds are slower on several of the 10-SEER Tonnage Models. We are only trying to get a figure t When new condensers and Evaporator coils "are installed on older air handlers" the new, or old, evaporator coils (Always, check voltage and amp draw!) The Base Spec sheets 12-SEER part no. 421 41 33301 03, Feb 2001. These are the Comfortmaker units, which are units. I used the first rating on each tonnage class. While the "Performance Cooling Data" is listed at a 95-F outside amb adjust the indoor airflow to get the Nominal BTUH Rating at the customer's normal indoor stat' temp' settin temperature/degree operating hours.

Take the "listed watts" of the compressor and Condenser fan and multiply that wattage by 0.85 X's 3.413 to get the B motor then add the listed BTUH of the condenser to it, and then divide by the condenser fan's CFM.

By using the various units' "base specification sheet data" from the dealer, you can determine if it is operating near its BT packaged units run a very high condenser discharge CFM airflow!

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Some "Condenser Makes" will have different temp-splits. The 2-ton 10-SEER, Janitrol; GMC; Goodman; with th or 23000-btuh, I subtracted a reasonable amount from the total of the wattage and come up with 19 to 20-F temp-spl 1400, --get the figures on the "different Makes." The figures are used to provide an idea of what the condenser temp-spli unit's owner and the service tech.

With a properly sized system and proper evaporator airflow you will have consistent optimal nominal capacity hea coupled with the requisite longer run-time cycles. I believe that optimal efficiencies, with variable latent/sensible heat l achieved through the use of computerized control system components.

For efficiencies sake, do this immediately. Measure the "Return Air" duct/chase area. If it's a round duct measure th you the sq.ins. For "Return Air" Sizing: Take your air conditioner's btuh and divide it by 120, (or dividing 24,000-btuh by 150 will give you 160 sq.ins., close Static Pressure drop) to get the amount of free air square inches for the Return Air duct system.

A 4-ton condensing unit, 48,000 btuh would need 400 sq.ins. or two 16" rd. ducts. A 5 ton 60,000 btuh calls for 500 sq for 510 sq.ins. A two ton 24,000 btuh takes 200 sq. ins., or one 16" rd. duct. For a 18000-btuh or 180 sq. ins., go with th This will permit building more pressure at the supply air diffuser grilles providing more throw across the room. Before tests, it is very important that your condenser coil and evaporator coil and indoor blower wheel be truly clean.

This AC system would have to be sized to the combined latent and sensible heat load targets (i.e., 75F/50RH) and the changes that we would like per hour. This would need to be performed accurately to achieve the requisite run time, and cooling coil, to achieve our combined comfort zone and unit efficiency goals.

Proper duct sizing and location is important. If you have a high ceiling supply air and return air ducts should be at the f advantage of air stratification. There is no need to cool the air above the occupant height level.

When U have lighter load conditions: To achieve a proper evaporator heat load level with a floor level SA/RA syste 475-CFM per ton of cooling capacity may be necessary. If the conditioned space is extreme hot it might be wise to shu ducts and partially cover the Return Air grilles so the condenser doesn't become overloaded."

I'm talking about any heatload that might be excessive at 475-cfm per ton of cooling. The combination of being real hot o lead to an overloaded condenser. Also, in some cases we are using a larger tonnage cooling coil.

Most older homes need reduced ambient air infiltration and more effective use of vapor barriers coupled with ad Windows are special areas to work on. My upstairs windows around the pulley wheels allowed air to blow in unrestricte winter and summer.

All air conditioning condenser manufacturers' should publish the CFM and normal temperature rise range across the c service tech's can measure the heat transferred from the evaporator coil. Most high efficiency units will have temperatur and 25F. Older lower SEER condensers can have temperature rises up to 30 degrees.

Such temperature rise data provides a guide to the actual heat transfer by the evaporator coil to the outdoor condense whether the proper design amount of (cubic feet per minute) CFM of indoor air/per ton of cooling BTU/HR, is passing t cooling coil.

Let's say you had 0.20-IWC without evaporator coil," then due to the large oil furnace heat exchanger near the bottom 0.20 IWC, the coil adds 0.20 IWC for a total of 0.70IWC. That is without adding everything else! Additionally, the pr where you do not want it. You want all of the pressure & velocity possible at the diffusers to get the requisite CFM & th
Component Cooling coil Pleated filters Electrostatic filters. Grilles and Pressure Drops IWC 0.15 to 0.50-IWC 0.10-in. to 0.45-in. 0.20-in. to 0.80-in. 0.02-in. to 0.15-in.

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registers Transitions, Boots Elbows, - Use Turning Vanes! 100-ft. duct length Disposable filters 0.05-in. to 0.35-in. 0.01-in. to 0.10-in. 0.05-in. to 0.20-in. 0.05-in. to 0.30-in.

Check the static pressure with a wet coil then check the Units Blower Curve Chart to see if you are getting 375 to depending on the humidity removal needs. Is your motor horsepower, blower wheel size and blower RPM up to the task?

Subtract 50 cfm from the cfm derived from the formula for the wet cooling coil cfm. It may not be getting the requisite cooling, especially if there is a low demand for heating in your area and a high demand for cooling tonnage, or the cooling furnace's heat exchanger causing a restriction and a lot of turbulence back pressure, running static pressures as high column static pressures (view blower curve chart).

Owner's of AC systems should check the return air filters frequently and the blower wheel squirrel cage curved accumulation. If the blower wheel and motor are dirty the evaporator fins and coils will need to be checked on the air entry be cleaned to regain btu/hr heat transfer efficiency to original specifications. It will cost you big-time on your cooling c blower wheel blades and the cooling coil clean. Also, the blower motor is air cooled and will overheat and burn out prematu

The condenser coils and fins must also be clean. Never use household detergents, most detergents have an oil base that which will reduce the evaporator & condenser coil's heat absorbing efficiencies. Use only the proper AC coil cleaning fluids and outdoor air conditioning heat transfer coils. High pressure water can be used but you must never bend the coil's hea stream perfectly straight with the fins.

Typically, a system is designed where the appropriate fixed sized metering device bridges (or matches) condenser capacity dictated by the compressor and a specified CFM at a specific temperature/humidity heatload point. With a TEV refrigeran coils, the CFM range can be any workable CFM from 350 to 450 CFM per ton of condenser cooling capacity. Variable spee will provide those 350 to 450 CFM/ton, would be ideal," or adjustable speed belt drive blowers allow the technician to provi an optimal heat load at normal indoor temperature and humidity levels. If these factors are ignored and are out of the re new unit won't deliver the btu/hr or the SEER you paid for. Your new 12 or 14 SEER may be delivering only 8 or 9 SEER.

Subject: What design for lower duct static and lower blower motor HP? Remember that many oil furnaces have a large round heat exchanger in the center up to near the top, and if the evaporat can cause extreme air turbulence and back pressure which could be a huge factor in running the static pressure way up!

Need for Low Flow Resistance Residential Duct Systems Beyond improving evaporator airflow, reducing fan power and duct leakage are two further reasons to promote proper external pressure drop than those encountered in many research studies.

For instance a duct system moving 800 cfm with a pressure drop similar to that measured in a study (0.63 IWC evaporator coil) would result in a power draw of 347-Watts. However, a duct system with a total pressure drop of only evaporator coil would produce a power demand of only 167 Watts -- a fan power reduction of 52%. If the compressor elect to produce 24,000 Btu/hr (7032 Watts) of cooling at the coil (not including fan energy), the improvement would alter EER -- a 10% net increase in cooling efficiency and capacity.

One HP = 746 watts: with S.P. @0.83" | 347 watts / 746 = 0.465 HP or a Half HP Motor | with S.P. @0.4 | 167 watts / 7 quarter HP motor. Properly sized and laid out ducting is critically important to performance.

The larger AC units are usually short changed on return air filtering area! Figure the sq. in. of your furnace's return air filte air filter area should be sized for the largest AC unit it will handle!

The heat-load is determined by the amount of heat the evaporator coil is absorbing from the conditioned areas' --air flowin CFM heat-load level will properly load the compressor and condenser. Let's take a closer look at the effects of a low heat with a evaporator temperature controlling TEV refrigerant control.

The lower heat-load will cause the temperature sensor bulb to reduce the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator coil normal suction pressure which reduces the volumetric capacity of the compressor, and liquid refrigerant will begin to back which also reduces its capacity.

This means that your entire cooling system, (which includes the ductwork design), would NOT be delivering the unit's adequate airflow heatload through the evaporator coil will reduce the BTUH transfer of heat by the evaporator, therefo condenser and on to the outside air.

Under very light heat-load conditions the subcooling might appear close to Normal. However, the BTU capacity of the sys

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would the SEER rating because the total amp draw of the system does not drop enough from a fully heat loaded BTU des to the resultant inefficiency.

A fixed orifice would begin to flood the evaporator with liquid refrigerant reducing its capacity, because there wouldn't b vaporize it. Liquid refrigerant could flood back to the compressor causing irreparable damage.

The relationship between head pressure variation with liquid subcooling and suction superheat is not the same with TE fixed orifice. With a fixed orifice, the relationship is immediately obvious to experienced tech's.

When condenser dT (temperature difference) is very low, a static pressure fan-curve-graphic chart check-up, is required p systems" ("break out your Magnehelic / manometers") this procedure is essential "before attempting to charge a TEV syste systems" --that may have serious airflow heat-load mismatches.

Additionally, a liquid line sight glass near the evaporator coil is a help, in that you can recover refrigerant until it begins to according to the manufacturer's Return Air F match to the wet bulb / dry bulb listed Temp. difference figures, Super also monitoring liquid line Subcooling.

Service techs' put your Magnehelic gauge and Digital Micromanometer to good use to measure the static pressure an blower curve charts on each system you are working on, then you know you're getting the proper evaporator airflow tem meet the customer's desired humidity and temperature comfort zone. It is always very good practice to measure the exte systems; you can do this with a simple magnehelic gauge or with a digital micromanometer. In any case, static pressures a investigated and reduced if at all possible. Service techs' use your sling-psychrometers' and do the job right.

With an Insufficient Heat Load on the Evaporator COIL: Suction will be LOW. Super-Heat LOW - with fixed orifice or flow-rater control (TEV 10F) Head-pressure - LOW Subcooling - LOW Compressor Amps- LOW With the TEV, liquid would probably still back up some in the condenser coils reducing BTU capacity, which it doesn't need evaporator load. Air Infiltration sources DTI Corp Catalog

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============================

Knowing the operating static pressure is a first order essential to revealing the operating CFM. If ductwork retrofitting d Blower wheel RPM and blower motor Horse Power may need to be increased to achieve the optimal CFM to achieve your U and Energy Efficiency Rating. (80% don't !) There ought to be a code requiring every manufacturer of an airhandler or f taps ahead of the evaporator coil and ahead of the blower for easy static pressure testing access.

Read the pressure on the gauge, and record the reading on the supply side, then on the return side. Use a (+) sign be side reading to show where it was taken, and a (-) sign before the negative or return side reading.

Add the two pressures. Disregard the positive and negative signs before the pressures, because both negative and positiv as a force, so they must be added together to determine the total resistance the fan has to overcome. For example a +.35" equals a total static pressure reading of .60" I.W.C.

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Record the pressure readings on a diagnostic report or on your service ticket. Write the pressures on the cooling coil for Any future changes in static pressure reveals a change in the system that should be addressed. Finding the New Static Pressure: SP2 = (rpm2/rpm 1)2 X SP1 = SP2 Required fan motor horsepower (hp) varies as to the cube of the rpm speed: hp2 = (rpm2/rpm1)3 x hp1 = hp2 CFM Fan delivery varies directly as to the fan RPM speed: cfm2 = (rpm2/rpm1) X cfm1 = cfm2 A few calculations and presto, a matched airflow with your systems' heat absorbing coil capacities, delivering near its BTUH, EER, and SEER ratings at normal room temperature settings! (80% don't) You will need a good service tech to make the proper tests, and perform the proper adjustments. Utilizing numerous other energy savings techniques, you'll save tons! Below, PDF File: ThermoPride Blower-Curve-Chart - Click Print , Click on Properties, Click on Graphics, Slide Setting to the Darkest Setting, click OK, or blower curve lines won't show up on the printed copy! (for Techs) My scan of my doctored Thermopride OL 11 http://www.udarrell.com/Blower_Curve_Graph.tif SL11B.pdf PDF File: Blower curve lines show in (blasted) yellow, use darkest printing page settings to get readable lines! Every manufacturer should furnish blower curve charts with their units and put them on the Internet for service tech's to download and print. Also, air conditioning codes should be updated in respect to proper sizing of the duct work which must include all the pressure inducing factors when sizing the supply and return ducts. TEL ASP FR Chart Graph Loads slow using dailup - Save both the pdf to a quick access PC folder for review Designing or Redesigning Duct Systems Chart Print

Variable Speed Motors and Static Pressure


DISCLAIMER: I assume NO responsibility for the USE of any information I post on any of my Web pages, in E-Mails or News Groups. All HVAC/R work should always be done by a licensed Contractor & properly licensed Techs! This information is only placed on these pages primarily for your understanding & communication with contractors & techs. This information is also for the edification of Contractors and Techs. Never attempt anything that you are NOT competent to do in a SAFE manner! I am NOT liable for your screw-ups, you are liable for what you do! - Darrell Udelhoven Federal Refrigerant Licensed - Retired Licensed Tech & Contractor

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Please write me if you have anything you'd like to contribute! - Darrell Click here to tell a friend about this Web site Please feel free to link your web pages to any of mine

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ac-trouble-shooting-chart.html I'm finally posting this page I


created long ago

Air-conditioning manufacturing companies - increasing the value of their heating and air-conditioning equipment to consumers Engineering Air Conditioner's with Computerized Digital Readouts for Efficiency Operation Verification AC Superheat and Subcooling The Air Side of Air Conditioning - Static Pressure AIR-CONDITIONER RUNNING TOO MUCH
3.5-ton system getting less than 1.5-ton of capacity! Low charge - plus Link below, 3.5-ton to less than 1.5-ton, too! - Way Overcharged Excessive Airflow coupled with an Excessive Charge will greatly reduce AC capacity
Air Conditioning SEER Levels - Are you losing 15 to 50% under SEER & Capacity Rating?

Determining Your Air Conditioner's Actual BTUH Capacity Output Proper Sizing of Residential Heating & Air Conditioning Ductwork Systems Air Conditioning Engineered for Latent Heat Removal For high humidity climates
An Air Conditioning and Heating Efficiency Check Up - Contractor Air Conditioning System Sizing for Optimal Efficiency Air Conditioning - Latent Heat Removal Comfort-Zone Efficienc FINDING the LATENT HEAT of CONDENSATION of Your Air Conditioner Optimizing Room Air Conditioner's EER OIL HEATING AIRFLOW TEST Using Thermometers Best Practices Guide for residential HVAC retrofit

New TEC Energy Conservation Testing TechnologiesNew! Energy Star New! Study the Failure Rate Graph - Great Information! - pdf

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GARDEN WEB - Heating & Air Conditioning Forum - New DIY Do It Yourself Forum" "Do It Yourself" TV- I Am "HVAC RETIRED"
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HVAC Discussions Mike Holmes HVAC Forum - New Refrigeration Engineer Forums - New
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Darrell Udelhoven - udarrell Empowerment Communications Covering The Real Political Issues Posted: 05/14/05; Edited: 08/16/09 Darrell Bloomington

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