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Classiﬁcation of library materials on Islam: a literature survey
IRI, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan, and Berlin School of Library & Information Science, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop understanding of the problems of classiﬁcation, to discover the classiﬁcation practices of libraries with rich collections on Islam cited in the literature, to ﬁnd the gaps, and to determine the point from which to start work on further development. Design/methodology/approach – Published and unpublished literature, both print and electronic, that is relevant to the problem was reviewed objectively in the compilation of this paper. Findings – Standard classiﬁcation systems lack proper space for materials on Islam for two reasons: less awareness on the part of devisers of the depth and variety of Islamic topics; and their bias and lack of interest in Islam. Different indigenous classiﬁcation systems and expansions have been developed, using either the original notation or alternative notations. Some systems have been developed without following any standards or logic. This study has revealed a need for empirical study of libraries with rich collections on Islam in order to gain a better understanding of the problem and ﬁnd an optimal solution. Research limitations/implications – No empirical ﬁeld data are included in this study. This is a review of the literature. Originality/value – The author indicates the current situation of the problem and a potential framework for its solution. Keywords Islam, Classiﬁcation schemes, Cataloguing, Libraries Paper type Literature review
Received July 2010 Revised October 2010 Accepted December 2010
OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives Vol. 27 No. 2, 2011 pp. 124-145 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1065-075X DOI 10.1108/10650751111135427
Introduction Classiﬁcation plays a signiﬁcant role in the organisation, physical arrangement, access to, and retrieval of library materials. Different standard classiﬁcation systems have been developed for this purpose. Most of these systems have been developed by Western authors. The authors of these systems were of such a background that they provided a sufﬁcient place for the ﬁelds of Western knowledge in their schemes, but these schemes lack adequate room for Eastern/Oriental ﬁelds of knowledge, languages and literature. The class of religion is also among such grey areas where these systems cannot maintain a balance. Libraries that have a considerable amount of literature/collections on Islam and its related disciplines are facing problems of classifying and arranging these materials in a way that helps and supports library users effectively and efﬁciently. The reason for this problem is the unavailability of a suitable, comprehensive classiﬁcation system to cover all the aspects of Islamic literature. For example, the Dewey Decimal Classiﬁcation (DDC), which is a widely used scheme in libraries throughout the world (Chan, 1981), has provided only one notation out of 1,000 for Islam (i.e. 297). This notation has been provided with further extensions, but these are insufﬁcient and
inconvenient for libraries that have rich collections on Islam. It cannot be denied that literature is being produced very extensively on Islam and its different aspects. Moreover, many new disciplines and topics are emerging in Islamic studies (Idrees and Mahmood, 2009). This has created a substantial classiﬁcation problem for libraries that have built extensive collections on Islam. The Library of the Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad, which has a collection of 160,000 volumes on Islam, and is representative of such libraries, is mentioned by Idrees (2007). An institution with a similar collection is the Indian Institute of Islamic Studies, New Delhi (Indian Institute of Islamic Studies, 1974, p. ii). This study aims to review the available relevant literature on the topic to draw an exact and accurate picture of the problems being faced by libraries that have a reasonable number of collections on Islam, so that possible solutions to these problems can be addressed. Objectives and methods This study was designed to serve the following objectives: . to develop an understanding of the problems related to the classiﬁcation of materials being published on Islam; . to review the literature that has been produced on the classiﬁcation of Islamic materials; . to determine the classiﬁcation practices of libraries with rich collections on Islam cited in the literature; and . to discover the gaps and determine where to work on further development. Published and unpublished literature, both print and electronic, that is relevant to the problem, was reviewed objectively in the compilation of this paper. Review of the literature Literature being published on Islam Muslims have developed, saved, transmitted and preserved knowledge for thousands of years, even in times when it was very difﬁcult to produce multiple volumes. This has also steered Muslims towards establishing libraries. The library of Al-Sahib Ibn Ibad during the fourth century of the Islamic calendar (tenth century AD ) had a collection of 6,200 books, of which a ten-volume catalogue was compiled. Al-Aziz Fatimid had a collection of 1.6 million books in his library (Dohaish, 1986). Reservoirs of knowledge were created from the early history of the Muslims. The establishment of the world famous Darulhikma Library during the Abbasid caliph Mamoon ur Rasheed’s era, Khazainulqusoor during the Fatimid period with a collection of 1.6 million books, and Hakam II’s library with a collection of 400,000 books in Spain are remarkable examples. This trend of public and many private libraries can be seen throughout Islamic history (Siddiqui, 1986, p. 36). A steady publishing trend and the emergence of new topics in the Islamic studies’ body of knowledge has been evidenced during recent times as well. When a search on Amazon for books available on Islam was made, it came up with the following results: . 17,726 book titles were published from 2000 to date (Amazon, 2010a); . 14,829 book titles were published from 2002 to date, which shows that there were 2,897 titles published between 2001 and 2002 (Amazon, 2010b);
Library materials on Islam 125
ideals.953 book titles were published from 2006 to date. 175 reference works. .515 titles published between 2003 and 2004 (Amazon.361 titles published between 2005 and 2006 (Amazon. duties. This data demonstrates an extensive demand for.e.314 book titles were published from 2004 to date. 297. They currently have available 840 titles on Islam that have been published since 2001.211 297. books on Islam. The Netherlands. 7. including the world-famous Encyclopaedia of Islam and Encyclopaedia of Quran.3 297. which shows that there were 4. and 1. duties.13 297. expansions have been made in DDC and the notations originally given to Christianity.6 Original in DDC XVI Oral traditions Doctrines and dogmas Allah Forms of worship Religious rites and ceremonies Morals. fast and alms giving shifted to the class of devotional and practical theology.5 Table I.31 Used for morals and ideals. and 23 yearbooks on Islam. and omissions of categories of information were discovered afterwards. A search of books available on Islam at Barnes & Noble resulted in 12.38 297. 3. . 2010d). have also been alternatively used for Islam (Riazuddin. 2010c). Qaisar’s proposed alterations to DDC XVI 297. Brill (2010).050 titles published between 2007 and 2008 (Amazon. 2010f).3 Muslim movements Source: Qaisar (1974) . Barnes & Noble (2010) is also an online bookseller. is currently publishing 29 journals on Islamic studies. Classiﬁcation of Islamic literature The compilers of classiﬁcation schemes have all been from Western countries. Class 297.e. on more than 100 main topics of Islam.212 titles. These schemes were created with a given context in mind. fast. 1/1. Lebanon. 1993). with the exception of Ranganathan. which is insufﬁcient. and supply of. alms giving Religious organisation and leaders Proposed Science of Hadith Kalam Tawhid Devotional and practical theology Shifted to 297.2 297. This publisher has more than 4. As a result of this shortcoming. The alterations suggested by Qaisar are shown in Table I.286 book titles were published from the year 2009 to date (Amazon. a renowned publisher based in Leiden.000 – has been allocated for literature on Islam. They have published 50 book series. Only one notation in DDC at the third level – i.2 . A summary of the classes proposed by Qaisar is given in Table II. Qaisar (1974) mentioned the shortcomings of DDC that Asian libraries face. A reasonable amount of expansion has also been proposed.903 book titles were published from 2008 to date.400 running titles that are recently available. He proposed some expansions and deviations in the notations speciﬁed for Islam. 2010e). 11. 126 . which shows that there were 3. i.OCLC 27. which shows that there were 3. Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah (2009) is a book publisher based in Beirut.
and sub.1 297. These recommendations were sent for incorporation in the 18th edition of the DDC but were not added.2 297. in his compilation Shaﬁ Dewey Decimal Expansions for Islam: An Introduction.and sub.5 297.4 297.3 297.4 297. has devised a classiﬁcation scheme for Islam.9 Islam: general topics Quran Hadith and the life of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) Logic & Beliefs Islamic sects Worship Islamic Morality Suﬁsm Islamic history and geography Further subclasses were also coined. (2) main class. commented on the efforts made by Shaﬁ for the expansion in DDC classes for Islam.6 297. 297 297.1 297. .7 297.of subclasses 17 sub.and sub. The author invented a scheme. The book has been composed to serve two objectives as mentioned by the author: “to encourage debate or discussion on the acute need for contemporary classiﬁcation schemes on Islam.6 297. The summary of classes devised by Shaﬁ (1962) was given in this sequence: 297 297.of subclasses Library materials on Islam 127 Source: Qaisar (1974) Table II.and sub. and to present a model.8 297. Sardar (1979).of subclasses Three sub.sub and sub. although the misconception spread in the Indo-Pak subcontinent that the recommendations had been included.of subclasses 14.5 297.2 297. in his book Islam: Outline of a Classiﬁcation Scheme.and sub.Class no.3 297.7 297.of subclasses 53 sub. albeit a primitive one.9 Description Islam Sources of Islam Kalam Devotional and practical theology Suﬁsm Moral exhortations Muslim movements Activities inspired by religious motives Sects History of Islam and Muslim empires Additions Nine subdivisions 99 sub.and sub.8 297. for consideration and criticism”.of subclasses Five sub. which was divided into four main parts: (1) pre-main class.and sub.of subclasses 30 sub. Qaisar’s proposed classes for Islam in DDC XVI Khurshid (1977).of subclasses 20 sub.of subclasses 18 sub.and sub.
Development of classiﬁcation . time. Ibn Al-Nadeem and Ibn Abi Al-Rabie were quoted. Twenty-two topics were been included in the scheme. Judaism and Christianity. or similar to recent practices. Shia’ism. In this scheme. The author used capital letters for main classes and small letters for subclasses. Ibn Sena. Bajwa (1969) wrote a Master’s thesis titled “A select study of classiﬁcation systems devised by Muslim scholars”. The main class includes 21 classes related to Islam and different relevant ﬁelds of knowledge. Shaﬁ’s expansions to the DDC are used by the library for the classiﬁcation of collections on Islam in Western languages. developed by him. Kawarzami Ikhwan-Al-Safa. geographical subdivisions.e.d. user-friendly.e.e. Secularism.) compiled a classiﬁcation scheme for the oriental languages collections on Islam in the Central Library of Punjab University. This is a good effort. The works of Farabi. and (4) auxiliary schedules. Ismailis. and . and then roman numerals are used in the notation. In his study. The works of all these ancient scholars can help and guide in the development of a comprehensive classiﬁcation scheme for Islam. 510-55) went through the historical background of classiﬁcation.) and common attributes that include the common terms and can be synthesised with other classes. . contemporary philosophies (i. etc. Labhu Ram (n. This scheme is still being used in the Central Library of Punjab University. bibliographic form division. “P” for Persian and “U” for Urdu collections are used as notation preﬁxes. The auxiliary schedules include: . i. etc. Quadianism. Raghib Asfahani.2 (3) post-main class. Ghazali. In regard to Razi’s system. Chishti (1978. . languages. Ibn Abdul Birr. These letters are followed by another alphabet. he included the contributions made by 128 Figure 1.OCLC 27.). Lahore. According to Chishti (1978). Pre-main classes include the pre-Islamic religions. The post-main class includes the minority views (i. respectively. but it has the limitations of not being comprehensive. Bahaism. “Ar” for Arabic. pp. pre-Judaic religions. the theory and practice of classiﬁcation developed historically as shown in Figure 1. Materialism. Ibn Hazam. the author mentioned 60 main classes and many subclasses.
Shaﬁ and TEBROC was also included in the study. 200. and class M by both letters and numerals. including Islam in the class of religion. Adam Gacek (2008). Classical Islam (until about 1800 AD ) M. The author analysed the coverage of Pakistani topics. A comparison of these four schemes was also included in a tabular format. Later. this scheme was replaced with the Library of Congress Classiﬁcation. in reference to the classiﬁcation system developed by Professor Smith. Interestingly. Arabic literature. This project translated the DDC into Arabic. law and especially Islamic religion. Extra-Islamic subjects C. The changes made to the class of religion. the founding head of the Institute. Library materials on Islam 129 Talking of the structure of the Smith classiﬁcation system Mr Gacek said: It is entirely on Islam (in its broad sense) and is divided into four main classes: A. classes B and C by Arabic numerals. It was an in-house system which no other library used. All books classiﬁed originally in Smith classiﬁcation have been reclassiﬁed to LC. The system has not been used since 1982. . Cross references were also given in the system. was the core of this project. A brief comparison of ﬁrst-level subclasses of Islam in the expansions of Naqvi. Ibn Al-Nadeem. An index was included. The author compared the changes and additions made in different indigenous expansions in different editions of the DDC.ancient Muslim scholars in the ﬁeld of the classiﬁcation of knowledge. It was abandoned in favor of the Library of Congress Classiﬁcation. LIS faculty. the ﬁrst founder of the Institute. and amended and expanded the classes of Arabic language. A total of 113 Islamic topics along with standard subdivisions were included in the list. Islamic history and the history of Saudi Arabia. In this historical research. Islam. and Islamic studies scholars. Tashkandi supervised a project of translation and expansions of the DDC for classifying the University library materials. Head of the Islamic Studies Library at McGill University. It seems that the founder of the Institute found the in-practice classiﬁcation systems of that time (during the decade of 1960) insufﬁcient and unsuitable for their library. Islamic philosophy. the following works were introduced: Al-Farabi. Hassan (1973) translated Dewey Decimal Classiﬁcation classes into Urdu with additions in the areas of language. Reference works B. Smith. Ibn Khuldun and Tashkubrizada. King Abdul Aziz University’s (1977) Dean of Library Affairs Dr Abbas S. The amendments made in this class can be seen in Table III. Qaisar. The author declared this work to be the partial story of the classiﬁcation schemes devised by Muslim scholars. Modern Islamic world (from about 1800 AD ) Class A is subdivided by other letters of the Roman alphabet. This classiﬁcation was never published. The Khan (1999) suggested a comprehensive study on the topic by a committee of working librarians. told the authors in a personal communication: The Smith classiﬁcation system was developed by Prof. some of the additions in the schedule regarding Islam are missing in the index. Hina Khan (1999) compiled a Master’s dissertation entitled “Treatment of Pakistani topics in Dewey decimal classiﬁcation scheme”.
The Cataloguing and Arabic Processing Department of the International Islamic University of Malaysia (n. translated the abridged edition of the DDC into Arabic and expanded the Islamic topics using DDC classes 210-260 for Islam. addressed the issue of a classiﬁcation system for Islamic literature in detail.d. In response to this problem. in an editorial that was published in Pakistan Library Bulletin. a need for formal classiﬁcation systems was felt and systems such as DDC and LCC were initiated.OCLC 27. King Abdul Aziz University. At present it is difﬁcult to have a universal standard classiﬁcation system for Islam. A standard classiﬁcation system for Islam is sorely needed. He has referred to the classiﬁcation used in the ancient libraries of Ashurbanipal. Among these are the works of Sardar. Sabzwari and Ibrahim. all the expansions made in standard classiﬁcation Notation 210 220 230 240 250 260 270. Notations BP140-158 were used for this purpose. UDC and LCC. in his article “Universal Islamic classiﬁcation” introducing DDC. adjudged the minimal coverage of Islam in these systems to be one of the core problems of libraries in the Islamic world. Indian Institute of Islamic Studies. indigenous schemes and expansions in standard schemes have been devised and used in the libraries of the Muslim world.) has also developed an expansion scheme in LCC to cover the areas of Islamic Law. Shaﬁ. In the face of these problems. There is no uniformity or harmony among indigenous schemes. In these circumstances.2 130 Dr Shaniti (1960) of Egypt also worked on the DDC. None of these was conducted at a national level. when the press was invented and knowledge was spread at mass level. the most important of which is insufﬁcient space for Islamic literature. the Islamic Documentation & Information Centre. . where more than 380 areas and subareas of Islamic Law were covered. while 270-290 were speciﬁed for Christianity and other religions of the world. or was the result of any coordinated effort. the Muslim Students Association of United States and Canada. there are shortcomings in these systems. Shaniti. It will play a role in coordination among libraries and improving services to scholars and library users. 280 290 Class description Islam Quran and Quranic Sciences Hadith Tawhid Islamic Jurisprudence Suﬁsm Christianity Other religions Table III. Despite their suitability and convenience in classifying library materials adequately. An important question that must be raised is: who should take the initiative and coordinate to achieve this goal? The following are options that may help to answer this question: . King Abdul Aziz University expansion in religion . Later. Sabzwari (1982). the Islamic Council of Europe. Usmani (1982). and/or . different schemes and expansions have been developed. Karachi. Organization of Islamic Conference . TEBROC.
.d. Ulumul Quran 2. They used the notations 220-280 and seven classes for Islam. There had been no problem in the ﬁelds of science. originally speciﬁed for Christianity. The problem areas were the classes of languages. Abdul Quddus Hashmi. and Pakistan. For example. Japan and Iran. who was an Islamic Studies scholar. No effort has been made to get any feedback. It is also noteworthy that no contact was made with the DDC for the incorporation of this expansion.) has developed its own scheme. may be taken as a basis for this purpose.d. The main classes of religion in this scheme are shown in Table IV. if there are ten titles on Quranic studies. local literature. Quaid-e-Azam Library (n. Coverage of 152 subjects was provided in this scheme. This scheme can help in the development of a comprehensive scheme for Islam. which was only 300 years old.) in Lahore developed a scheme for Islam. So. and not a qualiﬁed library professional. This centre would design and perform such activities that will support the development of a universal Islamic classiﬁcation system. DS was used for the histories of Asian countries China. Any of the standard classiﬁcation systems. and social sciences. technology. It was devised by the Librarian. He concluded that the translations and/or expansions were made of either the DDC or the Library of Congress Classiﬁcation (LCC). general topics Quran & Quranic Studies Hadith Jurisprudence Islamic theology and beliefs Suﬁsm Miscellaneous topics Other and comparative religions Table IV. A list of subjects followed by Arabic numeral serial numbers was made. of the individual countries. their classiﬁcation number would be Ulumul Quran 1. and every book on a particular subject that arrives in the library is given the next serial number of the subject.systems or locally developed systems should be pooled together in one place and reviewed. Soltani (1995) presented a paper at the 61st IFLA General Conference in August 1995 on translations and expansions of classiﬁcation systems in Arab countries and Iran. Further work should be done to develop a universal Islamic classiﬁcation system. E and F had been allocated to American history. history. This scheme is in fact an expansion with some alterations in the structure of the 19th edition of the DDC. They expanded the scheme in a detailed way. Library materials on Islam 131 Notation 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 Class description Islam. and so on according to their chronological appearance in the library. The Islamic Research Institute (n. preferably DDC. the systems suited the materials of these disciplines without any difﬁculty. The main problem with this scheme is absence of a revision policy or practice. nor has an effort been made to market this scheme to attract other libraries to use it. An Islamic Research Centre for Library and Information Sciences (IRC/LIS) established by OIC or any developed Islamic country is proposed in the paper. etc. India. whereas D had been speciﬁed for history of all other countries of the world. and religion. etc. Scheme devised by Quaid-e-Azam Library . The shortcomings and inadequacies of these classes could be seen by the example of LCC’s class of history where two letters (classes).
Abd al-Karim al-Amin developed an expansion in 1963 in Iraq. made a combined effort to develop this system. using numbers 210-219 for Islam. The second revised Persian edition was expected to be published in 1995. Expansions for language and literature were devised ﬁrst. in addition to a knowledge of library science. followed by expansions made for the class of religion. the expansion was sent to the Library of Congress and the publisher of the DDC (Forest Press) for inclusion in their schemes. Mr Kamran Fani had been working on expansions in Islamic philosophy and his work was also expected to be published in 1995. Prior to publication. He had a similar experience before the partition of India in 1947 as the convener of the Indian Library Association’s committee for the same type of work. “IS” (standing for Islam) was used as a preﬁx in the notation. an extensive library collection on Islam was built. He continued this work when he arrived in Pakistan and devised expansions for DDC. but only after remarkable research work and consultation with the scholars of other Islamic countries and the formation of a committee from all the Islamic countries. while Mahmud al-Shaniti of Egypt did the similar. and works on its expansion were started in the second half of the twentieth century. He had a thorough knowledge of all the Islamic disciplines. The ﬁrst expansion work in LCC was published in 1979 after sustained research covering two years. The next editions did not incorporate anything from these expansions. Dr Taheri made the revisions based on the literary warrant of College of Theology’s collection in the city of Mash’had. These countries also made alterations or expansions in their speciﬁc required ﬁelds. the ofﬁcial expansion was started in the 1960s with the establishment of the Tehran Book Processing Centre (TEBROC). A survey was conducted to ﬁnd a potential solution to the problem. which agreed on the expansion scheme. Shaﬁ’s expansions were presented for approval at the Pakistan Library Association (PLA) Conference in Dhaka in 1963. yet none of the standard classiﬁcation systems was found to be convenient for the proper organisation of library materials. This revision and expansion was not initiated. who declined to adopt the revisions. The Indian Institute of Islamic Studies (1974) also devised a scheme for materials on Islam. which published its expansion of Iranian languages in 1971 and of Islam in 1975. Mr S. however.2 132 which had long histories. DDC was widely used in Arab countries.H.H. The translations of Dewey’s classiﬁcation system were made in many of the countries. having backgrounds in library science and Islamic studies respectively. Libraries and classiﬁers of Egypt with collections on Islam were also consulted in this work. but these efforts were not successful and were turned down. The proposed . Although expansions for different sections of the DDC started very early with its initiation in Iran. they said they would use these expansions as a guide. The Christianity numbers were alternatively used for Islam in these expansions.A. Consequently. An English version of this work was also prepared and sent to LOC. The translation and expansion of the DDC’s abridged edition in Kuwait has also been mentioned. Abidi. A mixed notation was used in the scheme. Usmani (1973) and Qudsi (1969) revealed that Shaﬁ played a vital and leading role in developing an appropriate classiﬁcation system for Islam. covering all gaps in the standard DDC system. Qaisar and Mr S. Hundreds of topics and aspects of Islamic knowledge and literature were covered in this scheme. When the Institute was formed. The ﬁrst summary of the scheme can be seen in Table V.M. a classiﬁcation system based on UDC was developed.OCLC 27.
and suggests extensions in the DDC notation speciﬁed for Islam (i.Notation IS 2 IS 21 IS 22 IS 23 IS 24 IS 25 IS 26 IS 27 IS 28 IS 29 Class description Religion Islamic philosophy Islam. 297). As this was only an extension to one number. Riazuddin (2002). demarks its limitations regarding Islamic literature. which is in fact an expansion of the DDC 18th edition’s class for Islam (i. its origin and source Fiqh (Islamic law) Ilm kalam and aqaid Islamic mysticism (Suﬁsm) and philosophy Activities inspired by religious motives Muslim customs and folklore and related subjects Heresies and sects History of Islam and auxiliary sciences Library materials on Islam 133 Table V. its scope is very limited and problems like lengthy notations and congestion are present in these extensions.1-9 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 Class description Islam & Islamic studies Standard subdivisions Philosophy & ideologies Islam & religions of the world Islamic morality Islam & other topics Sacred days.d. gives a detailed introduction of DDC. The Tehran Notation 210 210. in his book Classiﬁcation of Islamic literature. the central library of Karachi University used Shaﬁ expansions for their collection on Islam.e.d. Eraqi (1985) authored a book entitled Dewey Decimal Classiﬁcation: Eslam. According to Fatima (1981).) . Scheme devised by Gondal (n. Quran Academy. The structure of the scheme is shown in Table VI.e. which is used by the libraries of Mosques Department of Punjab University. worships and shrines Islamic movements Propagation & spreading Islam Islamic literature Islamic biographies Quran & Quranic studies Hadith & Hadith studies Jurisprudence & studies Islamic government (Islamic organisations) Beliefs & sects Christianity Other religions Table VI. Lahore. places. Gondal (n. and partially in the Punjab University Central Library. Scheme devised by the Indian Institute of Islamic Studies (IIIS) expansions were abandoned due to demands from some participants for more time to review them. 297).) devised a classiﬁcation scheme for Islam.
2 134 Book Processing Centre (1975) also devised an expansion. he included a classiﬁcation scheme for Islam altering the DDC classes 210-260. 220 Quran-e-Karim and Quranic Sciences. Efforts were made by different people to make expansions to the DDC. which is in fact similar to that of Eraqi. Notation 297 297. except that it is in English whereas Eraqi’s is in Persian.000 topics and subtopics was given in the proposed expansion. Sabzwari (2007) stated that the popular library classiﬁcation scheme known as DDC was being used in the majority of Pakistani libraries. Expansions devised by Eraqi (1985) . including very importantly the efforts of Shaﬁ.6 297. but has two limitations: (1) it is in Persian. 230 Hadith Sharif. The Religion of Islam. Asian. Other religions are assigned the class 290.8 297. and Islamic subjects lacked proper coverage in this scheme. This is a good effort and can help libraries. Standard subdivisions were provided with every class. This scheme is based on the 18th edition of the DDC.1 297.7 297. The author mentioned that Eastern. The expansion can be seen in Table VII. the Principles of the Religion.9 Class Description Islam Subdivisions Qur’an Hadith Fiqh & Usul (Islamic law) Philosophy & beliefs Islamic sects & religions Islamic ethics Manners & customs Suﬁsm and mysticism Islamic History and geography Table VII. In the second volume of the book.01-09 297. which were originally designated for Christianity. The numbers from 270 to 289 are assigned to Christianity. and sects are given under the main class 240.2 297. The numbers were allotted to different Islamic topics as per the following schedule: 210 The Religion of Islam. This caused a number of problems for Eastern libraries.OCLC 27. leadership. the history and different periods are given in 210. Coverage of almost 2. different creatures.5 297. These efforts had not been fruitful and expansions had not been included in the DDC. and (2) the notation is sometimes very lengthy due to expansion in only one base number. Tawhid (the Oneness of Allah). For example. This is a good effort and has been adopted by many Iranian libraries. and is known and understood by a limited number of people.3 297. Topics regarding prophets. but the observations on the arrangement and illogical order of the subjects demonstrated some shortcomings.4 297. This is why Sabzwari (2007) felt the need to make the necessary alterations to the structure of the DDC notations and used them for Eastern libraries.
6307 297. The proposed expansions are as follows: 297.e. socio-political. in response to the classiﬁcation problems of Islamic collections.635 297. 297.6303 297. Keeping the importance of the subject in view. which also indicates the bulkiness of collections on Islam in Muslim countries. being the second largest religion in terms of numbers of followers. Dictionaries/Encyclopaedias. Muhammad (PUBH)’s Family and Companions.633 297. Proofs of Prophethood.636 297. d. Study and teaching.631 297. etc. personal and family life. 2004).240 Tawhid (the Oneness of Allah).63 Muhammad (PBUH) the Prophet. political. 297. Khan (2004) has mentioned the insufﬁciency of the classes designated to Islam by DDC. According to Sadiq (2006). as literature is being produced widely throughout the world.64 297. has produced a vast amount of literature. 632. Geography of Sirah. Karachi University. Khan (2004) suggested expansions to the notation in the 21st edition of the DDC speciﬁed for the life of the Prophet. educational.634 Bibliographies. 250 Islamic Jurisprudence. economic and other initiatives. Library materials on Islam 135 297. formed a committee to . Character/Personality. which includes the sayings. economic. Evidence of this is the large collections on Islam in some American and European libraries. 297.63091 297.632 297. Comprehensive works focusing on various aspects of the life of Muhammad (PUBH): social. Period at Medina. It is mentioned by Khan (2004) that the second most important source of Islamic studies after the Qur’an is the sirah of the Prophet. Literature on the sirah is being produced extensively by Muslim and non-Muslim scholars throughout the world. 260 Suﬁsm. Islam. Period prior to call to Prophethood.63.6305 297. Serials.63016 297. the Principles of the Religion. Sahabah (Companions).6301-09 Standard subdivision. Period at Makkah.646 (Note: The same use of capitalization and bold font is observed as is used in Khan. charters and activities and companions of the Prophet Muhammad. i.
2 136 develop expansions for Islam and other areas lacking in the DDC. pre-main class. and . . Pre-partition expansions include Asa Don Dickinson’s expansion. Colon classiﬁcation. In 1940. This committee. Ziauddin Sardar and Ghaniul Akram Sabzwari also developed a scheme. 26-36) gives an expansion of the DDC number 297 for Islam. (2003) would confuse library users rather than guiding them. which presented an expansion in 1935.OCLC 27. and irrational. which could work towards the development of a Universal Islamic Classiﬁcation Scheme. The ﬁrst volume consists of a theoretical discussion. Sajjad Rizvi quoted an expansion made by the librarian of Jamia Usmania. 1940. TEBROC in Iran and King Abdul Aziz University in Saudi Arabia also devised expansions for the DDC for the classiﬁcation of materials on Islam. while Sardar developed his own scheme for Islam. . The Indian Institute of Islamic Studies also developed a scheme for Islam based on UDC. Yousufuddin Ahmad. 91-116. (2003) also included materials being published on Islam. The author devised a schedule of Islamic topics. Mahmood Shaniti also devised an expansion in DDC. auxiliary tables. Sadiq suggested the formation of a “Library Research Group” by OIC or by any developed Muslim country. Rizwi. Intazam-e-Kutub Khana. This schedule is based on Shaﬁ’s expansion with some amendments and additions. A committee was formed by the Library and Information Science Department of Karachi University. post-main class. developed and presented an expansion in 1962 (Rizwi. His scheme comprises the following main portions: . Dickinson was a ﬁrst-hand pupil of Dewey and worked as a librarian and trainer in the Punjab University Library. Rizwi (1975) conducted research and wrote a report as the partial fulﬁlment of a Master’s degree. The classiﬁcation scheme coined by Rehman et al. The scheme of Rehman et al. Bliss classiﬁcation. An effort was made to cover many aspects of Islam. without the provision of any notation. but he used the numbers 210-260 for Islam. Altaf Shaukkat (1970) wrote a two-volume book. and format are in many places illogical. Nizam-e-kutub khana (Library Administration). Sabzwari made expansions to the DDC using the Christianity numbers for Islam. pp. confusing. After the creation of Pakistan. This committee developed an expansion scheme without changing the original organisation of the DDC. . concepts. made in 1916. main class. 1996). which is almost similar to Shaﬁ’s expansion. but the order. as stated by the author. Expansions in the most widely used classiﬁcation system in the Indo-Pak subcontinent have been made since the second decade of the twentieth century. The problem. DDC and LCC were reviewed and found to be insufﬁcient for the purpose. Shaﬁ presented an expansion for the DDC in his book. and the second volume (pp. also chaired by Shaﬁ. The Indian Library Association formed a committee under the chairmanship of Molvi Shaﬁ. which has been used in some Pakistani libraries. published in 1949. was the extensive writings and collections in libraries on Islam and improper classiﬁcation schemes to classify them.
with the same nature of the libraries using the original DDC or the other expansions of the DDC because in the original schema. only one notation was given for Islam without any of its further extensions. Aabdi (1999) used the six classes (i. In the 21st (Dewey. shows that in the early editions of DDC (Dewey.e. rather than “Islam”. Sects Islamic Jurisprudence Suﬁsm Christianity Other religions Table VIII. 210-260) from the third summary of DDC for Islam rather than Christianity. along with a picture of historical developments in different editions of DDC regarding Islam. and used 270 and 280 for Christianity. According to Idrees and Mahmood (2010) DDC is the only standard classiﬁcation system that is being used in Pakistani libraries with rich collections on Islam. a brief comparison between indigenous expansions and DDC. Expansions devised by Aabdi (1999) . these notations were speciﬁed for Christianity. It covers almost all the important main topics of Islam. Aabdi (1999) included almost 200 topics and subtopics in his expanded translation of the scheme. standard subdivisions. which has been adapted from Idrees and Mahmood (2010). Hierarchy and enumeration may be questioned and differ as developed by Aabdi. notation 200 was speciﬁed for Religion. B-200 for Buddhism. literature. geography and history and the religion of Islam. The local expansions. Figure 2. some radical expansions within notation 297 were provided. which made the notation too lengthy. the heading of “Islam” was adopted and further extensions. is presented in Figure 2. 1958). still provide for more options and place for materials on Islam. and number building instructions were included. and again B-200 for Islam: religion of abundance blessing. The same is the case with other Muslim countries. A summary of the amendments that he made to the religion class is very similar that made by King Abdul Aziz University in 1977. I-200 for Islam. which were mainly developed decades before the 21st and 22nd editions of the DDC. 280 290 Class description Religions The Islamic Religion Quranic Studies Hadith Studies Islamic Principles. as mentioned by Sabzwari (1982). but it is a useful scheme for the libraries with moderate collections on Islam.For instance. Keeping this fact in mind. Library materials on Islam 137 Notation 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270. Aabdi (1999) compiled a concise Arabic translation of DDC’s 21st edition and made some amendment expansions in the classes of Arabic language. In the later editions. 1951) until the 16th edition (Dewey. 2003) editions. Table VIII presents the main classes of his expansions for Islam and other religions. The question of homogeneity and contradictions of the organisation of the materials will of course remain in the libraries using this system. It is also notable that the given heading was “Mohammedanism” until the 15th edition. Tawhid [Oneness of God]. 1996) and 22nd (Dewey.
2 138 Figure 2.OCLC 27. A brief comparison of DDC and indigenous expansions for the treatment of Islam .
we have completed the two-edition plan that was initiated in DDC 21 (Dewey. has admitted the presence of Christian bias and an improper place for Islam in the DDC. Khurshid (1980) presented a conference paper on developments in the ﬁelds of cataloguing and classiﬁcation in Pakistan. held in Berlin in August 2003: In DDC 22.1-. in the scheme. UDC. Ranganathan’s CC was found to be non-explanatory. including Eastern religions. but all these efforts could not create positive results. and it did not even include the Quran in the sacred religious books. 1996) to reduce Christian bias in the 200 Religion schedule. Elazar (2000) and Broughton (2000) criticised the DDC. BR for other religions. and the whole C class for the Christian and Jewish religions. He mentioned the efforts of the Indian Library Association in the earliest expansion for DDC numbers. literature. the four schools of thought. and relocated the standard subdivisions for Christianity from 201-209 to speciﬁc numbers in 230-270. We also revised and expanded the schedules for two major religions. and LCC) and found all the schemes to be inconvenient and insufﬁcient for the classiﬁcation of collections on Islam. history. BC. pp. Broughton (2000). its arrangement was found to be improper and some topics had been repeated. He mentioned the unsuitability and insufﬁciency of notations in the renowned classiﬁcation schemes. Cutter’s EC is also not user friendly and only a dozen special and small public libraries were using it. We integrated the standard subdivisions of comparative religion with those for religion in general in 200. geography. and the organization of Hadith knowledge. Editor in-Chief of DDC. The Punjab Library Primer demonstrated that no classiﬁcation system was complete and comprehensive. like Muslim worship. Still. The best effort was made by Shaﬁ. while quoting the following in a paper that was presented in 69th IFLA General Conference and Council. BC was found to have incomplete entries. Dickinson (1916. we moved comprehensive works on Christianity from 200 to 230. In DDC 21. DDC. Library materials on Islam 139 According to Chan (1981). Mitchell (2003). stated: . Khurshid (1980) also mentioned the efforts of the Tehran Book Processing Centre. and LC of Christian bias in their papers presented at the 66th IFLA Conference in Jerusalem. It uses class B for philosophy and religion. discussing such problems in UDC. He appreciated the efforts made by the Indian Institute of Islamic Studies (IIIS) for the expansion of UDC. which created no result.9. DDC was found to miss very important Islamic topics. like Islamic jurisprudence. Suﬁsm also needed to be expanded. 29-35). while serving at the Punjab University Library.Criticisms of classiﬁcation schemes Many authors have criticised current classiﬁcation schemes over their shortcomings regarding Eastern and Oriental topics and their Western bias. Anglo-American bias can be seen very clearly in DDC in the classes of language. LCC also contains national bias in emphasis and terminology. and especially in religion. mentioned the challenges in the prevailing classiﬁcation schemes in his book. Further. Dickinson mentioned a need for expansion in the ﬁelds of Asian knowledge. 296 Judaism and 297 Islam. The author found LCC to be comparatively better than the other three schemes. stating the shortcomings of DDC. Joan S. Its order was also incorrect from a Muslim’s perspective of Islamic knowledge. and is based on the Library of Congress’s literary warrant. Rizwi (1975) reviewed four popular schemes (CC.
It was.OCLC 27. He states further: Bias occurs. If only the Dewey’s religion section were more topically proportionate. Christianity) than all other faiths and philosophies. Ibrahim (1982) raised four objections to DDC. made up nearly exclusively. He commented on the DDC’s approach as follows: I wonder whether DDC can continue to meet the needs of expanding knowledge and changing worldviews. in fact. A wide range of seven classes has been dedicated to Christianity and only one class has been given to the remaining religions of the world. commenting on the devisers of the DDC and the LCC. or is perceived to occur. or they had no interest in it. which has created an inadequate state of . . One recommendation was: The 200’s are dominated. I feel that. providing more space to Western faiths (i. that the 200’s really needs to be reorganized. According to Khan (1963.” DDC Editor-in-Chief Mitchell (2005) published a paper on the OCLC website.2 A major difﬁculty in constructing a classiﬁcation for religious literature is that of avoiding bias (whether real or apparent) toward some speciﬁc religion or denomination. to the point that every single other religion is crammed into the 290’s. pointed out that they were either unaware of the range of literature being produced on Islam at a mass level. in three main areas: 140 . I am overjoyed that this topic is being addressed. He quoted the schemes of Sardar for Islam and Elazar & Elazar for Judaic literature. 107-8). Sabzwari (1981) mentioned the biased treatment of Asian topics in DDC. it would approach a perfect system. despite not really wishing to reclassify all the books my library has on religion. or distribution of notation. The survey respondents revealed their dissatisfaction by demanding changes in the current structure of DDC’s class of religion. Dewey could not provide proper numbers for Eastern languages. that causes one system to appear as dominant use of vocabulary that has a strong ﬂavor of one system or is special to that system inadequate provision of detail other than for the “favored” religion. That is why they gave the least importance and place to this discipline. Another respondent stated the views as quoted in the following lines: Greetings. Morgan (1996) criticized DDC for being very unsuitable for special libraries on religious collections other than Christianity. Dewey’s bias in this class is very powerful.e. the report of a survey conducted regarding the class of religion. Usmani (1982). . Scale back on the numbers devoted to Christianity to allow more numbers to other religions. I am an up and coming Information Scientist. According to the author. pp. by Christianity. an illogical order. The fourth of his objections was regarding the class of religion. He said: “They should be little broad minded and unprejudiced in treatment of all faiths. literature and religions.
These expansions are in two forms: (1) using the same notation of 297. to get more placement for Islam. which made them unsuitable for libraries with Eastern collections. due to tremendous confusion. or disciplines. saying: [. but also in other countries. literature and religion. As a result.g. UDC has been found to be suitable for special libraries. . which is used in a majority of Pakistani libraries. Conclusion The review of the literature on this topic shows that there is a dissatisfaction and unrest regarding the classiﬁcation of Islamic literature. Eraqi (1985) mentioned the biases of and lesser awareness of Islam by compilers that caused these inconveniences. This state of affairs gives a clear impression that the digital system is suffering from unmanageable confusion. . any effort of overhauling and redressing it cannot be useful. This system. Soltani (1995) criticised standard classiﬁcation systems like DDC and LCC because of their bias. Eastern library administrators have made expansions individually. Eraqi (1985) quoted different efforts made in different quarters. This literature also reveals that other religions of the world (e. The failure of such efforts has resulted in the development of different indigenous classiﬁcation systems. especially DDC. People understand that the standard classiﬁcation systems lack proper space for materials on Islam for two reasons: (1) lesser awareness on the part of devisers of the depth and variety of Islamic topics. These efforts were the effect of an insufﬁcient place for Islamic materials in the DDC and other renowned schemes. become dinosaurs. sometimes 210-280. It does not provide sufﬁcient place for materials on Islam. (2003) have criticised DDC.] classiﬁcation numbers due to horrifying length. lesser coverage of Islamic topics. Rehman et al. and sometimes using any class of ten numbers. Different people have conducted studies and made efforts to contact the standard classiﬁcation systems.existence for these libraries. including the Indian Institute of Islamic Studies (IIIS) and efforts in Iran and Arab countries. and (2) alternatively using the notations of Christianity for Islam. and (2) their bias towards and interest in Christianity and less or even no interest in Islam. not only in the Indian subcontinent and Muslim countries. subjects. These indigenous systems for Islam are mainly based on DDC expansions. Judaism) have also not been provided a sufﬁcient place. DDC has an Anglo-American bias in the classes of history & geography. It will be ridiculous to expect any good from it (p. complication and tediousness. Library materials on Islam 141 Sadiq (2006) mentioned the limitations and the inherent Western inﬂuence of the standard classiﬁcation schemes. . A-1). but it does not suit academic and public libraries and libraries that have rich collections on Islam. At this disappointing stage. has become a devil shop. These efforts have not produced positive effects. and non-cooperation with efforts that were made to bridge the gaps in these systems. sometimes 210-260.
com/gp/search/ ref¼sr_adv_b/?search-alias¼stripbooks&unﬁltered¼1&ﬁeld-keywords¼islam&ﬁeldauthor¼&ﬁeld-title¼&ﬁeld-isbn¼&ﬁeld-publisher¼&node¼&ﬁeld-p_n_conditiontype¼&ﬁeld-feature_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-binding_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-subject¼&ﬁeldlanguage¼&ﬁeld-dateop¼After&ﬁeld-datemod¼&ﬁeld-dateyear¼2009&sort¼daterank & Adv-Srch-Books-Submit.com/gp/search/ ref¼sr_adv_b/?search-alias¼stripbooks&unﬁltered¼1&ﬁeld-keywords¼islam&ﬁeldauthor¼&ﬁeld-title¼&ﬁeld-isbn¼&ﬁeld-publisher¼&node¼&ﬁeld-p_n_condition-type ¼&ﬁeld-feature_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-binding_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-subject¼&ﬁeldlanguage¼&ﬁeld-dateop¼After&ﬁeld-datemod¼&ﬁeld-dateyear¼2004&sort¼daterank & Adv-Srch-Books-Submit.x¼0&Adv-Srch-Books-Submit.y¼0 (accessed 18 April 2010). Amazon (2010d). Amazon (2010e). Amazon (2010a).com/gp/search/ref ¼sr_adv_b/?search-alias¼stripbooks&unﬁltered¼1&ﬁeld-keywords¼islam&ﬁeldauthor¼&ﬁeld-title¼&ﬁeld-isbn¼&ﬁeld-publisher¼&node¼&ﬁeld-p_n_condition-type ¼&ﬁeld-feature_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-binding_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-subject¼&ﬁeldlanguage¼&ﬁeld-dateop¼After&ﬁeld-datemod¼&ﬁeld-dateyear¼2006&sort¼daterank & Adv-Srch-Books-Submit.y¼0 (accessed 18 April 2010). Amazon (2010f).A.x¼0&Adv-Srch-Books-Submit. “Books ‘Islam’: advanced search”. their practices. “Books ‘Islam’: advanced search”.y¼0 (accessed 18 April 2010). Concise Decimal Classiﬁcation for Small Libraries.com/gp/search/ref ¼sr_adv_b/?search-alias¼stripbooks&unﬁltered¼1&ﬁeld-keywords¼islam&ﬁeldauthor¼&ﬁeld-title¼&ﬁeld-isbn¼&ﬁeld-publisher¼&node¼&ﬁeld-p_n_conditiontype¼&ﬁeld-feature_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-binding_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-subject¼&ﬁeldlanguage¼&ﬁeld-dateop¼After&ﬁeld-datemod¼&ﬁeld-dateyear¼2008&sort¼daterank & Adv-Srch-Books-Submit. “Books ‘Islam’: advance search”.amazon.com/gp/search/ ref¼sr_adv_b/?search-alias¼stripbooks&unﬁltered¼1&ﬁeld-keywords¼islam&ﬁeldauthor¼&ﬁeld-title¼&ﬁeld-isbn¼&ﬁeld-publisher¼&node¼&ﬁeld-p_n_condition-type ¼&ﬁeld-feature_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-binding_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-subject¼&ﬁeldlanguage¼&ﬁeld-dateop¼After&ﬁeld-datemod¼&ﬁeld-dateyear¼2002&sort¼daterank &Adv-Srch-Books-Submit.x¼0&Adv-Srch-Books-Submit. Amazon (2010b). available at: www. (1999). available at: www. advanced search”. “Books ‘Islam’. and perceptions regarding an optimal solution to the problem.com/gp/search/ ref¼sr_adv_b/?search-alias¼stripbooks&unﬁltered¼1&ﬁeld-keywords¼islam&ﬁeldauthor¼&ﬁeld-title¼&ﬁeld-isbn¼&ﬁeld-publisher¼&node¼&ﬁeld-p_n_condition-type ¼&ﬁeld-feature_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-binding_browse-bin¼&ﬁeld-subject¼&ﬁeldlanguage¼&ﬁeld-dateop¼After&ﬁeld-datemod¼&ﬁeld-dateyear¼2000&sort¼daterank &Adv-Srch-Books-Submit. . or whether they need an independent and comprehensive classiﬁcation scheme for Islam. Cairo. available at: www. available at: www. available at: www.amazon.x¼0&Adv-Srch-Books-Submit.amazon.OCLC 27.amazon.x¼0&Adv-Srch-Books-Submit. M. References Aabdi. “Books ‘Islam’: advanced search”.2 142 Some institutions have developed their own independent systems without any basis or background in any of the standard classiﬁcation systems or logics.amazon. whether they need amendments and expansions in these schemes.y¼0 (accessed 18 April 2010). The proposed study should reveal whether such libraries with rich Islamic collections are functioning properly with existing classiﬁcation schemes. available at: www. Amazon (2010c). This study has also revealed the need for a further study of libraries having rich collections in Islam for the development of a better understanding of their problems.y¼0 (accessed 18 April 2010).y¼0 (accessed 18 April 2010).x¼0&Adv-Srch-Books-Submit. “Books ‘Islam’: advanced search”. Academic Publisher.amazon.
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C. “Classiﬁcation system for Islamic literature and Muslim countries (Editorial)”. M. International Islamic University. 13 No. Siddiqui. Bingley. Z. (1995). Vol. 122-8.haroonidrees@gmail. London.A. 22. Gomal University Journal of Research.W. A Review of Library Classiﬁcation Schemes on Islam: A Pakistani Perspective. pp. Lahore (in Urdu). (1979). Pakistan Library Bulletin. LIS marketing. and is currently on study leave from IRI. Shaukkat.A. (1979). Saarbrucken. pp. pp. Haroon Idrees can be contacted at: h. McGill University Islamic Studies Library. He has also served as a Librarian and LIS faculty in Pakistan. (2010). Sardar. Pakistan Library Review. Vol. Shaﬁ.com Or visit our web site for further details: www. Quaid-e-Azam Library. technical services. ´ Montreal. Usmani. Sheikh Ghulam Ali & Sons. “Abridged decimal classiﬁcation scheme”.com Library materials on Islam 145 To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight. (2006). Usmani. (1973). Further reading Idrees. Islam: Outline of a Classiﬁcation Scheme. Tehran. Institute for Research & Planning in Science and Education. His areas of interest include library automation.emeraldinsight. and is currently pursuing a PhD at Humboldt University of Berlin. M. “Classiﬁcation of Islamic literature”. Cairo (in Arabic). Nizam-e-Kutub Khana. Lahore (in Urdu). “Translation and expansion of classiﬁcation systems in the Arab countries and Iran”. About the author Haroon Idrees received his Master’s in Library and Information Science from the University of the Punjab. Shaniti. 42-88. Vol. M. (1982). pp. Vol. (1970). P. “Haji Muhammad Shaﬁ in Karachi University Library”. Islamic and Pakistani topics”. i-vi. Cairo University. Islamabad. McGill University and Weryho. J. Montreal”. A.Sadiq. 2.com/reprints . Our Religious Libraries. unpublished doctoral dissertation. Proceedings of the 61st IFLA General Conference. H. 4 Nos 1/2. “Expansions of Dewey Decimal Classiﬁcation relating to oriental. Soltani. M. Dewey Decimal Classiﬁcation and Relative Index: Islam. Tehran Book Processing Centre (1975). 20-25 August. (1962). Lahore. M. S. (1986). “Smith Islamic classiﬁcation in use at McGill ´ University Islamic Studies Library. ¨ VDM Publishing. 15-21. 5 Nos 3/4. (1960). Pakistan Library Bulletin. academic libraries and biographies. ICTs in LIS.
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