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Steady performance Stepped planing hulls Dynamic stability Porpoising Wave-induced motions Maneuvering

Planing vessel lecture

O.M.Faltinsen CeSOS,NTNU

Planing craft

Steamer duck
Ready for planing ! Froude number up to 3 Distance up to 1km

Typical planing hull

Double-chine hull

Hard-chine planing hull

2.5D analysis of steady vertical forces = The water entry problem


Drop test of wedge

2D+t representation

Water entry of a wedge

Water entry of wedge Theory and experiments

Simplified lift (L) calculations

f3 =
f3 = U

Consequences of simplified lift formula

The vessel must have a transom stern and a trim angle to get hydrodynamic lift Flow separation from the chines is important for trim

d ( a33V ) dt
d ( a33U ) dx

L = U 2 a33 ( xT )

f3 = U

L = U 2 a33 ( xT )

d ( a33U ) dx

Design to avoid cavitation,i.e dynamic instabilities

Avoid negative pressures relative to atmospheric pressure Simplified vertical load formula gives: Avoid convex keel and buttock lines aft of the bow sections Careful with how the planing surface is warped

Warped planing surface

d (a33U ) dx dz = dx f3 = U

Savitskys formula
1.1 0.5 2.5 2 CL 0 = deg (0.012W + 0.0055W / FnB )

Prismatic planing hull

0.6 CL = CL 0 0.0065 CL 0



= 0.75

1 2 2 5.21FnB / W + 2.39

Planing hulls (Ikeda et al.)

Lift force on prismatic planing hull

= 20 = 4 =3


Lift force on prismatic planing hull

Hydrostatic force calculations

= 20 = 4 =3


Lift force and moment on planing vessels

2.5D Analysis with flow separation and zero gravity 3D Correction in the bow area Hydrostatic pressure Suction pressure at the stern

Lift Force on Prismatic Planing Hull


Lift Force on Prismatic Planing Hull


Stepped planing hull

Free-surface-piercing propeller

Separation aft of chine separation

Ventilating Rudder

Flow separation at transom

Free-surface profile at the transom

= U S X + Ar 3 / 2 cos(3 / 2) U S = 2 gD + U 2

Local analysis of free-surface profile

Pressure distribution on the hull

Infinite pressure gradient at the transom stern The local transom stern flow does not match the 2.5D theory

Z = AX 3 / 2

Savitskys empirical formula

Z X X = C1 C2 B B B
2 2.44

Center-line free-surface profile

X + C3 B

0.7 deg C1 = 0.02064 0.6 Fn B

0.7 deg C2 = 0.00448 0.6 Fn B 0.34 C1 = 0.0108W deg


2D flat planing surface

Lift force and moment on 2D flat planing surface.

2D flat planing surface. Nonlinearities

Running attitude and resistance

M=27,000 kg lcg=8.84m B=4.27 m Deadrise=10deg U=20.58m/s

Keel and chine wetted lengths

Steady roll stability as a function of speed

Heel Angle

Steady heel instability and chine walking

GZ(m) 0.02 GZ curve at Fn=0 0.01 0 0 0.01 Fn=1.6 (deg) 20 Heel Angle (deg) measured W=5.31kg

Monohull. Ref.:Per Werenskiold

Water entry of heeled section

Simplified water entry analysis of heeled section

Porpoising in nature and of planing vessels

Porpoising stability criterion

Porpoising analysis

Equilibrium position for given speed Stability analysis of coupled linearized heave and pitch equations without excitation

Porpoising analysis
( M + A33 )

Instantaneous position of COG and keel

d 23 d d 2 d + B33 3 + C333 + A35 25 + B35 5 + C355 = 0 2 dt dt dt dt

d 23 d d 2 d + B53 3 + C533 + ( I 55 + A55 ) 25 + B55 5 + C555 = 0 2 dt dt dt dt

j = ja e t

= + i


Restoring Coefficients Savitskys Formula

Heave force

Restoring Coefficients Savitskys Formula

Pitch moment

Added Mass
High-frequency strip theory No forward speed effect

2D infinite frequency heave added mass

No wave radiation Hull lift damping. Use lift part of Savitskys formula in a quasi-steady analysis Example heave

Effect of lcg on porpoising

Porpoising. Sensitivity to hydrodynamic coefficients

Planing boat in waves

Stability parameter <0


Vertical accelerations of 57-foot boat in sea state 5

Generalized Froude Kriloff loads

= a sin(et kx)
= a sin et cos kx a cos et sin kx a sin et xk a cos et
F3FK = C33 a sin et + C35 k a cos et
F5FK = C53 a sin et + C55 k a cos e t

Long wave length approximation of wave excitation

Resonant wave length condition


Strong nonlinearities in ship motions of a planing craft

Heave/Wave amplitude


Wave length/L

Steady turning motion

GZ during turning