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# Content

Steady performance Stepped planing hulls Dynamic stability Porpoising Wave-induced motions Maneuvering

## Planing vessel lecture

O.M.Faltinsen CeSOS,NTNU

Planing craft

Steamer duck
Ready for planing ! Froude number up to 3 Distance up to 1km

## Typical planing hull

Double-chine hull

Interceptors

## Drop test of wedge

2D+t representation

f3 =
f3 = U

## Consequences of simplified lift formula

The vessel must have a transom stern and a trim angle to get hydrodynamic lift Flow separation from the chines is important for trim

d ( a33V ) dt
d ( a33U ) dx

L = U 2 a33 ( xT )

f3 = U

L = U 2 a33 ( xT )

d ( a33U ) dx

## Design to avoid cavitation,i.e dynamic instabilities

Avoid negative pressures relative to atmospheric pressure Simplified vertical load formula gives: Avoid convex keel and buttock lines aft of the bow sections Careful with how the planing surface is warped

## Warped planing surface

d (a33U ) dx dz = dx f3 = U

Savitskys formula
1.1 0.5 2.5 2 CL 0 = deg (0.012W + 0.0055W / FnB )

## Prismatic planing hull

0.6 CL = CL 0 0.0065 CL 0

lp

W B

= 0.75

1 2 2 5.21FnB / W + 2.39

= 20 = 4 =3

1/FnB

= 20 = 4 =3

1/FnB

## Lift force and moment on planing vessels

2.5D Analysis with flow separation and zero gravity 3D Correction in the bow area Hydrostatic pressure Suction pressure at the stern

FnB

FnB

## Stepped planing hull

Free-surface-piercing propeller

## Separation aft of chine separation

Ventilating Rudder

## Free-surface profile at the transom

= U S X + Ar 3 / 2 cos(3 / 2) U S = 2 gD + U 2

## Pressure distribution on the hull

Infinite pressure gradient at the transom stern The local transom stern flow does not match the 2.5D theory

Z = AX 3 / 2

## Savitskys empirical formula

Z X X = C1 C2 B B B
2 2.44

X + C3 B
2

2.44

Heel Angle

## Steady heel instability and chine walking

GZ(m) 0.02 GZ curve at Fn=0 0.01 0 0 0.01 Fn=1.6 (deg) 20 Heel Angle (deg) measured W=5.31kg

## Porpoising stability criterion

Porpoising analysis

Porpoising
Equilibrium position for given speed Stability analysis of coupled linearized heave and pitch equations without excitation

Porpoising analysis
( M + A33 )
A53

j = ja e t
Instability:

= + i

>0

Heave force

## Restoring Coefficients Savitskys Formula

Pitch moment

High-frequency strip theory No forward speed effect

## 2D infinite frequency heave added mass

Damping
No wave radiation Hull lift damping. Use lift part of Savitskys formula in a quasi-steady analysis Example heave

Porpoising

## Vertical accelerations of 57-foot boat in sea state 5

= a sin(et kx)
= a sin et cos kx a cos et sin kx a sin et xk a cos et
F3FK = C33 a sin et + C35 k a cos et
F5FK = C53 a sin et + C55 k a cos e t

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## Strong nonlinearities in ship motions of a planing craft

Heave/Wave amplitude

Maneuvering

Wave length/L