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SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN ACTIVE VEHICLE SUSPENSION SYSTEM
A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Mechanical)
This project was carried out to study the performance of a two degree-offreedom (DOF) active vehicle suspension system with active force control (AFC) as the main proposed control technique. The overall control system essentially comprises two feedback control loops. First is intermediate AFC control loop for the compensation of the disturbances and second is the outermost Proportional-IntegralDerivative (PID) control loop for the computation of the optimum commanded force. Iterative learning method (ILM) and crude approximation (CA) were used as methods to approximate the estimated mass in the AFC loop. Both simulation and experimental studies were applied in this project. A quarter car model consists of sprung and unsprung masses is considered in developing of the computer simulation model in Simulink and also in the experimental set-up. Both simulation and experimental work were carried out and the results between the two of them are compared. The results of the simulation study show that active suspension system using AFC with CA and ILM gives better performance compared to PID controller and passive suspension system. Experimental results obtained in the study further verified the potential and superiority of the performance of the active suspension system with AFC strategy compared to the PID control.
5 General Introduction Objective Scope of Work Project Implementation Organisation of Thesis 1 1 2 2 3 7 .vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE TITLE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF APPENDICES i ii iii iv v vi vii x xi xiv xvi xvii 1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.
8 2.6 2.6 3.1 Active Suspension System with AFC-CA Strategy 3.4 Introduction Definition of Suspension System Functions of a Vehicle Suspension Types of Suspension System 2.1 Passive Suspension 2.5 2.2 Active Suspension System Model with AFC-ILM 3.3 Active Suspension 2.4.1 2.3 2.7 2.1 3.2 188.8.131.52 Semi-active Suspension 2.1 Introduction 35 35 .2 2.7 Modelling and Simulation Parameters Conclusion 23 23 23 26 28 29 30 31 33 37 4 SIMULATION RESULTS 4.viii 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.5 Introduction Quarter Car Model Disturbance Models Passive Suspension System Model Active Suspension System Model 3.5.4 3.4.9 PID Controller Active Force Control (AFC) Iterative Learning Method Review on Previous Research Conclusion 8 8 8 10 11 12 13 13 15 17 19 20 21 3 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND SIMULATION 3.3 3.
5 Parameters for Experiments Conclusion 42 42 42 47 49 49 52 53 54 6 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 6.1 7.2 Electrical/Electronic Device 5.2 5.1 6.2 4.3 6.4 6.3 Computer Control 5.3.3 4.2 Conclusion Recommendation for Future Works 66 66 67 REFERENCES 68 APPENDICES 71 .5 Introduction System Response Without Disturbance System Response with the Sinusoidal Disturbance System Response with the Step Disturbance Conclusion 55 55 56 59 62 65 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 7.4 5.1 5.3.6 Passive Suspension Active Suspension Active Suspension with AFC-CA Active Suspension with AFC-ILM Conclusion 35 37 38 40 41 5 EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP 5.ix 4.3.2 6.4 4.3 Introduction Simulink Model in Real-Time Workshop (RTW) Experimental Set-up 5.5 4.1 Mechanical System 5.
1 3.x LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE 3.2 5.1 Parameters for suspension model Simulation parameters Suspension and pneumatic actuator parameters 33 33 53 .
3 (c) 3.5 2.6 3.3 (b) 3.2 2.1 3.1 (b) 4.7 3.7 3.6 2.1 1.8 4.2 (a) 4. Active suspension response to sinusoidal disturbance 5 6 10 12 13 14 16 18 19 24 25 27 27 28 29 30 31 32 32 36 36 37 38 .3 (a) 3.1 2.5 3.2 2.xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE 1.3 2.1 (a) 4.4 2.2 (b) Flow chart of the project implementation Gantt Chart of the project schedule A suspension system Passive suspension system Semi-active suspension Active suspension system A block diagram of suspension system using PID controller The schematic diagram of AFC strategy A model of iterative learning method Quarter car vehicle passive suspension Quarter car vehicle active suspension Step input Bump and hole Sinusoidal Simulink model of passive suspension system Simulink model of active suspension system Simulink model of active suspension system with AFC-CA Simulink model of active suspension system with AFC-ILM Subsystem of iterative learning method in AFC Passive suspension response to step input disturbance Passive suspension response to sinusoidal disturbance Active suspension response to step input disturbance.2 3.4 3.
8 5.1 AFC-CA suspension response to step input disturbance AFC-CA suspension response to sinusoidal disturbance AFC-ILM suspension response to step input disturbance AFC-ILM suspension response to sinusoidal disturbance Simulink model with RTW related to PID and AFC-ILM control 5.7 5.xii 4.9 5.17 6.5 6.5 5.10 Tyre deflection response with the sinusoidal disturbance Disturbance model type step. 61 62 59 60 60 61 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 47 48 48 50 50 51 51 52 53 56 57 58 58 39 39 40 41 43 .3 (b) 4.14 5.4 (b) 5.13 5.4 Active suspension Simulink model in RTW Pneumatic actuator subsystem Body acceleration subsystem Tyre acceleration subsystem Disturbance subsystem Suspension deflection system Force tracking subsystem AFC with ILM subsystem Fotograph of the suspension system The schematic of the experimental set-up Accelerometer to measure body acceleration Laser sensor to measure suspension deflection LVDT to measure disturbance Pressure sensor to measure actuator force A computer set as the main controller DAS 1602 interface card slotted in the CPU Graph for body displacement response without disturbance The close-up of body displacement response Body displacement response without disturbance for B vary Close-up body displacement response without disturbance for B vary 6.4 5.2 5.2 6.4 (a) 4.7 6.8 Disturbance model type sinusoidal Body displacement response with the sinusoidal disturbance Body acceleration response with the sinusoidal disturbance Suspension deflection response with the sinusoidal disturbance 6.3 6.10 5.1 6.12 5.9 6.11 5.3 5.6 5.6 6.15 5.3 (a) 4.16 5.
13 6.11 6.14 Body displacement response with the step disturbance Body acceleration response with the step disturbance Suspension deflection response with the step disturbance Tyre deflection response with the step disturbance 63 63 64 64 .12 6.xiii 6.
xiv LIST OF SYMBOLS a A - Acceleration of the body Proportional learning parameter Derivative learning parameter Damping coefficient Derivative Error (output – input) Derivative error Actuator force Actuated force Estimated force Integral Derivative controller gain Integral controller gain Proportional controller gain Spring stiffness Tyre stiffness Control signal Sprung mass Unsprung mass Estimated mass of the body Proportional Error value/current root of sum squared position track error B bs D e (t ) e (t ) fa Fa F* I Kd Ki Kp ks kt m (t ) ms mu - M* P TEk .
xv uk uk +1 zr zs zu zs zu zs zu - Current estimate value Next estimated value Displacement of road Displacement of sprung mass Displacement of unsprung mass Velocity of sprung mass Velocity of unsprung mass Acceleration of sprung mass Acceleration of unsprung mass Deflection of suspension Deflection of tyre z s − zu zu − z r - .
xvi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ADC AF-AFC AFC AFC-CA AFC-ILM CA DAS DCA DOF FLC I/O IAFCRG ILM LVDT PC PD PID PLC RTW SANAFC - Analoque-to-digital converter Adaptive fuzzy active force control Active force control Active force control with crude approximation Active force control with iterative learning method Crude approximation Data acquisition system Digital-to-analoque converter Degree of freedom Fuzzy logic control Input/output Intelligent Active Force Control Research Group Iterative learning method Linear variable differential transformer Personal computer Proportional-Derivative Proportional-Integral-Derivative programmable logic control Real-Time Workshop Skyhook and adaptive neuro active force control .
xvii LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX A B C D E F G H TITLE Simulation Result for Various Conditions Experimental Results for Various Learning Parameter Experimental Results for Different Conditions The Sketch of the Experimental Rig The LVDT The Pressure Sensor The Data Acquisition System Card DAS 1602 The Accelerometer PAGE 71 72 80 83 84 86 88 90 .
handling and ride quality. Good ride comfort requires a soft suspension wheras insentivity to applied load requires stiff suspension.1 General Introduction Traditionally.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Active suspensions are considered to be a way of increasing the freedom one has to specify independently the characteristics of load carrying. load carrying and passenger comfort. suspension design has had to be something of a compromise. . provide directional control during handling manouevres and provide effective isolation of passenger payload from road disturbances . automotive suspension designs have been a compromise between three conflicting criteria of road holding. The suspension system must support the vehicle. Good handling requires a suspension setting somewhere between the two. Due to these conflicting demands. largely determined by the type of use for which the vehicle was designed.
1. An active suspension system has the ability to store.2 A passive suspension system has the ability to storage energy via a spring and to dissipate it via a damper.2 Objective The main objective of this project is to study the performance of an active suspension system using active force control (AFC) through simulation and experimental works. For the simulation works. Its parameters are generally fixed. the scope involve is as follows: i) ii) To use an existing mathematical model of an active suspension.3 Scope of work The scope of this study consists of two major parts. 1. The first is simulation works and the second is experimental works. load carrying and comfort. being chosen to achive a certain level of compromise between road holding. Apply active force control (AFC) with crude approximation (CA) and . dissipate and to introduce energy to the system. It may vary its parameters depending upon operating conditions and can have knowledge other than the strut deflection the passive system is limited to.
3 iterative learning method (ILM) to active suspension system. dynamic equation for passive suspension system is derived followed by active . The scopes involved in an experimental works is as follows: i) ii) iii) iv) Prepare experimental set-up. AFC strategy is used with iterative learning method (ILM) is applied to approximate the estimated mass. Run experiment. Develop Simulink model in Real-Time Workshop (RTW). Study the performance of active suspension system using AFC-ILM strategy compare to PID control with the different disturbance. 1. v) Compare simulation results with the experimental results. iii) Simulate active suspension system with active force control with crude approximation (AFC-CA) and active force control with iterative learning method (AFC-ILM) strategy incorporated with different road profile. A quarter car model is considered in both simulation and experimental study.4 Project Implementation The research is started with deriving the mathematical model of the main dynamic system for the vehicle suspension system using Newton’s Second Law. iv) Study the performance of active suspension using AFC-CA and AFCILM strategy compare to PID control. In experimental works. The study in experimental work will compare the result between PID and AFC-ILM only with different type of disturbance. First.
Experimental set-up for the proposed system then was prepared. Then experimental results was compared to simulation results in order to validate the results obtained for both method. control scheme was developed and modelled. The work involve during the set-up preparation is to develop experimental modules in the MATLAB which known as Simulink model with Real-Time Workshop (RTW). Based on the derived models. The simulation results of active suspension system using AFC strategy and PID controller also were compared. Then the experiment was carry out and the results obtained are analysed. Started with the passive suspension system with open loop system followed by closed loop system of active suspension system. The schemes include PID and AFC strategy employing both crude estimation and iterative learning method.2.4 suspension system. The model used is a two degree of freedom (DOF) system representing a class of passenger car. Gantt Chart of the project schedule is shown in Figure 1. This project implementation can be illustrated in a form of a flow chart as shown in Figure 1. . The results of the simulations were then compared for both passive and active suspension.1. a simulation study using MATLAB and Simulink was carried out. Then. Disturbances also were modeled mathematically.
5 Figure 1.1: Flow chart of the project implementation .
Activities 1 Prepare experiments 2 Run experiments 3 Analyze result Compare simulation results with 4 experimental results * * * * * * * * Semester break W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17 W18 * * * * * * * * * 5 Report writing 6 Presentation Figure 1. 1 Brief idea 2 Literature review 3 Study dynamic system 4 Modelling proposed system 5 Simulate proposed system 6 Report writing 7 Presentation Activities W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17 W18 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * SEMESTER 2 No.SEMESTER 1 No.2: Gantt chart of the project schedule 6 .
Parameters used for simulation is highlighted in this chapter. Disturbances model and proposed simulation models also discussed in detail. active force control (AFC) and iterative learning method (ILM) also done in this chapter. Then.7 1. In chapter 5. Hardware components that used in the set-up also described. Chapter 4 presents the simulation results for the different types of suspension system with various control strategies. Mathematical modelling based on quarter car model is presented in Chapter 3. This includes the development of the Simulink model with Real-Time Workshop (RTW) complete with all related subsystems in the model. General introduction to the suspension system. Explanation of types of suspension system and the concept of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. parameters for experiment is presented. Chapter 2 discussed about theoretical information and literature review related to the project backgraound. Chapter 6 presents experimental results. System response with various conditions are presented and disscussed adequately. Chapter 7 gives the overall conclusion on the study that has been done and recommend of future works could be considered as extension to this study. This includes the definition of the suspension systems and its function. the objective and the scope of the project and how the project is implemented is presented in Chapter 1. A number of related research is reviewed adequately in this chapter. .5 Organisation of Thesis This thesis is organised into seven chapters. experimental set-up for this project is explained in detail.
Three competing types of suspension systems are also described in this chapter which are passive. active force control (AFC) strategies and iterative learning method (ILM) are also discussed. 2.CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. They able to store the energy applied to them in the form of loads and deflections.2 Definition of Suspension System Suspension system is a system that supports a load from above and isolates the occupants of a vehicle from the road disturbances. They have the ability to absorb energy and bend when . Then. function of the vehicle suspension and the vehicle dynamics. PID control. the review of the previous research related to the active suspension system is given.1 Introduction This chapter includes the study of the suspension definition. semi active and active suspension system. Springs in the suspension system are flexible elements.
The energy that released by spring is converted to heat and dissipated partly by friction in the system by damper. locating links and anti-roll bars are shown in Figure 2. It also used to ensure the wheel assembly always contact with the road by being excited at its natural vibration frequency. tyres.9 they are compressed to shorter lengths. The spring will go through a series of oscillations. They exert a force which is proportional to the square of the piston velocity. Some of these elements are simple links and multi-role members such as transverse torsion bars used to stabilize the vehicle in corners by restricting roll. bushes. Dampers usually in the form of piston working in cylinders filled with hydraulic fluid. . When a spring releases its stored energy. The function of damper is to restrain undesirable bounce characteristic of the sprung mass. Other mechanical elements in a suspension system are the wheel assemblies and control geometry of their movement. However. contractions and extension until all of the energy in the spring is released. When a tyre meets an obstruction. A suspension system comprises many elements that include spring. The natural frequency of the spring and suspension will determine the speed of the oscillations. it does so with such quickness and momentum that the end of the spring usually extends too far.1. damper. the spring absorbs this energy for a short time only and it will release the energy by extending back to its original condition. it is forced upward and the spring absorbs energy of this upward motion.
Ride comfort. handling. Acceleration forces are experienced by the passengers as a disturbance and set demands on the load and the vehicle. safety. . The lower the acceleration.3 Functions of a Vehicle Suspension A vehicle suspension system is a complicated system as it has to fulfill a large number of partly contradictory requirements. Ride comfort can be determined by the acceleration of the vehicle body. the better the rides comfort.10 Figure 2. The suspension system has the task to isolate these disturbances from the vehicle body which caused by the uneven road profile. body leveling and noise comfort are among the most important requirements that has to fulfill.1: A suspension system  2.
the suspension system has to keep the vehicle level as constant as possible. so that the complete suspension travel is available for the wheel movements. Another function of the suspension system is the isolation of the vehicle body from high frequency road disturbances. When there is changes in loading. They are: i) ii) iii) passive suspension semi-active suspension active suspension . The passengers in the car note these disturbances acoustically and thus the noise comfort is reduced. The vehicle suspension system is required to keep the wheels as close the road surface as possible.11 The safety of the vehicle during traveling is determined by the wheels ability to transfer the longitudinal and lateral forces onto the road. A lower suspension travel means that lower suspension working space and this is a good suspension design. In order to fulfill all these contradict requirements certain marginal conditions have to be considered. Wheel vibration must be dampened and the dangerous lifting the wheels must be avoided. If the dynamic forces occurring between the wheels and the road surface are small.4 Types of Suspension System Generally there are three types of the suspension system. 2. The necessity of dampening the tyre system is the reason for the known conflict of aims between comfortable and safety tuning. driving and lateral forces can be transferred to the road in an optimal manner. the braking.
it will compress until the force produced by the compression is equal to the load force. The function of the dampers in this passive suspension is to dissipate the energy and the springs is to store the energy.2: Passive suspension system . It consists two elements namely dampers and springs. Damping coefficient and spring stiffness for this type of suspension system are fixed so that this is the major weakness as parameters for ride comfort and good handling vary with different road surfaces.4. When the load is disturbed by an external force. However it is still to be found on majority of production car. Dampers will absorb this oscillation so that it would only bounce for a short period of time. If a load exerted to the spring. Figure 2.12 2.1 Passive Suspension Passive suspension system is the conventional suspension system. vehicle speed and disturbances. it will oscillate around its original position for a period of time.
2 Semi-active Suspension The element in the semi-active suspension system is same with passive suspension system and it uses the same application of the active suspension system where external energy is needed in the system.4.3: Semi-active suspension 2. This suspension system exhibits high performance while having low system cost. The difference compare to conventional suspension is active suspension system able .4. The fully active suspension is modified so that the actuator is only capable of dissipating power rather than supplying it as well.13 2.3 Active Suspension The concept of active suspension system was introduced as early as 1958. The difference is the damping coefficient can be controlled. The actuator then becomes a continuously variable damper which is theoretically capable of tracking force demand signal independently of instantaneous velocity across it . Figure 2. light system weight and low energy consumption.
cost and power requirements. Consequently. it has not yet put into mass production. maintaining a level vehicle geometry and by minimizing vertical accelerations to the vehicle. would consume a considerable amount of energy and need high bandwidth actuators (30 Hz) and control valves (100 Hz) [4. It is recognized that full active suspension. Figure 2. and has not been mass produced. How ever due to its complexity. An important issue in active suspension is energy consumption. The active suspension system consists an extra element in the conventional suspension which is basically an actuator that is controlled by a high frequency response servo valve and which involves a force feedback loop.4: Active suspension system .4 shows an active suspension system. Active suspension can make use of more degrees of freedom in assigning transfer functions and thus improve performance. is governed by a control law which is normally obtained by application of various forms of optimal control theory . Figure 2.14 to inject energy into vehicle dynamic system via actuators rather than dissipate energy. typically generated in a microprocessor. Theoretically. it was only installed in some expensive and exclusive car or Formula One cars. this suspension provides optimum ride and handling characteristics.5]. which must carry the full weight of vehicle. The demand foce signal. It is done by maintaining an approximately constant tire contact force.
They have proven to be quite robust in the control of many important applications for specific operating conditions. Pure PID control is excellent for slow speed operation and with very small or no disturbances. m ( t ) = control signal (2.15 2. there exists a set of unstable plants that they cannot be stabilized with any member of the PID family.5 PID Controller PID control is a particular control structure that has become almost universally used in industrial control. Integral and Derivative. the performance severely degrades in the adverse conditions. Nevertheless. However. The PID method is error driven and largely relies on the proper tuning of the controller gains and accurate information from the feedback element (sensor). PID also most conveniently integrated with other more advanced control techniques which more often than not results in better overall performance. The basic algorithm of the PID is expressed as follows: m ( t ) = K p e ( t ) + K i ∫ e ( t )dt + K d e ( t ) where. The letters ‘PID’ stand for Proportional. the versatility of PID control ensures continued relevance and popularity for this controller. Indeed. It structure is simple but very effective feedback control method applied to dynamical systems.1) Kp = proportional controller gain = integral controller gain = derivative controller gain Ki Kd . the simplicity of these controllers is also their weakness where it limits the range of plants that they can control satisfactorily.
This later limitation is due to the fact that its frequency response is bounded for all frequencies. A proportional controller can control unstable plant but it provides limited performance and non zero steady-state errors. I and D parameters to the system are as follows: a) Proportional (P) action This parameter provides a contribution which depends on the instantaneous value of the control error. This characteristic is also evident in its low-pass frequency response. Figure 2.16 e (t ) e (t ) = error (output – input) = derivative error A simple PID controller applied to a vehicle suspension system can be illustrated as shown in Figure 2.5.5: A block diagram of suspension system using PID controller. . The effects of the P. b) Integral (I) action Integral parameter gives a controller output that is proportional to the accumulated error. The integral mode plays a fundamental role in achieving perfect plant inversion at zero frequency. which implies that it is a slow reaction mode.
c) Derivative (D) action Derivative action acts on the rate of change of the control error. One of the succesful AFC strategy applications is controlling robot arm. it is a fast mode which ultimately disappears in the presence of constant errors. The study has been demonstrated that AFC is superior compared to the conventional method in controlling the robot arm. done by Mailah . Fa (measured by force sensor) and acceleration of the body. The essence of the AFC is to determine the estimated force F * by measuring two importants parameters. uncertainties and varied operating conditions . such as errors induced by set-point changes or measurement noise. These parameters are the actuated force.6 Active Force Control (AFC) Active force control strategy applied to dynamic system was proposed in the early 80s by Hewit . Consequently. a yielding the estimated force. An appropriate estimation of the estimated mass of the body. The main limitation of the derivative mode is its tendency to yield large control signals in response to high-frequency control errors. The mathematical model for AFC can be written as follows: . M * was then multiplied with the acceleration of the body. High robustness system can be achieved such that the system remains stable and effective even in the presence of known or unknown disturbances. It sometimes referred to as a predictive mode because of its dependence on the error trend. a (measured by accelerometer).17 This forces the steady-state error to zero in the presence of a step reference and disturbance. 2.
Figure 2. M * in Figure 2.18 F * = Fa − M * ⋅ a (2.2) If equation ( 2. Thus. neural network. Figure 2.6: The schematic diagram of AFC strategy .5 can be determined by a number of methods such as crude approximation method. However in this project. it is the main aim of the study to apply the AFC method to control a suspension effectively.2 ) can be fulfilled. fuzzy logic.6 shows a schematic of the AFC strategy applied to a dynamic system. it is expected that very robust system can be achieved. Note that the estimated mass. crude approximation (CA) and iterative learning method (ILM) were used. iterative learning and genetic algorithms.
the proposed iterative learning algorithm takes the following form. IM 1 Me(u k+1) Add du/dt Derivative 1 TEk k B k A IM(uk) Figure 2.7 Iterative Learning Method (ILM) Iterative learning method (ILM) is one of the popular method in estimate the next value. It has been applied to control a number of dynamic system . the track error converges to near zero datum and the dynamic system is then said to operate effectively. uk +1 = uk + A(TEk ) + B where uk +1 uk TEk = next estimated value = current estimate value = error value/current root of sum squared position track error = learning parameter d (TEk ) dt (2.19 2. As the number of iteration increases. B Figure 2.7: A model of iterative learning method . In this project.3) A.7 shows a graphical representation of the ILM algorithm.
D’Amato and Viassolo described that the goal of this paper is to minimize vertical car body acceleration. Tomizuka applied a discrete time. Tomizuka suggested his control logic could be realized in practice by moving previewed samples through shift registers. The outer loop implements a FLC to provide the desired actuation force. and to avoid hitting suspension limits using fuzzy logic control (FLC) . The first preview in the control of an active system for a 1-DOF model was to introduced by Bender in 1967. Crude approximation and iterative learning method . The methodology proved effective when applied to a quarter car model of suspension system. Omar introduced a novel approach to control vehicle suspension system using AFC strategy .8 Review on Previous Research Active suspensions have been extensively studied nowadays compare to passive suspension. A controller consisting of two control loops is proposed to attain this goal. Many researchers have studied and proposed a number of control methods for vehicle suspensions. The potential of the preview control was demonstrated by subsequent studies for 2-DOF models by Thomson.20 2. Bender assumed an integrated white noise terrain profile. The optimal control scheme of that study involved both feedforward and feedback elements. state space approach to Bender's problem . In their paper. Controller parameters are computed by genetic algorithm based optimization. He developed an optimal pair of damping coefficient and spring stiffness by using Wiener filter theory to provide a wide range of vibration isolation . A proportional-derivative (PD) controller was incorporated into the AFC control scheme. The inner loop controls a nonlinear hydraulic actuator to achieve tracking of a desired actuation force.
From the experimental result it shows that SANAFC controller is very effective in isolating the vibration effects on the sprung mass which in turn considerably improve the overall system performance. The simulation result shows the performance of the proposed control method is found to be significantly superior compared to the other systems considered in the study. Mailah and Priyandoko proposed an adaptive fuzzy active force control (AFAFC) to control vehicle active suspension system . 2. Priyandoko et al. Iterative learning method (ILM) that will apply to estimate the estimated mass in AFC also discussed. Skyhook and adaptive neuro active force control (SANAFC) are used as a control scheme.9 Conclusion The theoretical backgrounds and previous research related to this study have been outlined in this chapter. functions and type of suspension were adequately discussed. It is found that.21 were used to estimated the initial mass in the AFC to effect the control action. The simulation results have shown that the AFC is able to compensate the presence of known or unknown disturbances to ensure that the system achieve the desired input. Non linear hydraulic actuator are used in the study. many research papers discussed on optimization of various types of . The information of the suspension in term of definition. The conventional PID controller and the fundamental concept of active force control (AFC) applied to the dynamic system were also explained. The technique proposed are mainly for simplicity of the control low and to reduce the computational burden. introduced the practical design of a control technique apply to a vehicle active suspension system .
22 suspension system to improve ride quality and road handling by using various types of control schemes. .
a full modeling of the system dynamics related to the vehicle suspension system. The active suspension system is specifically designed and modelled with the feedback control element embedded into the system.1 Introduction In this chapter. 3. The suspension system is modelled based on a quarter car configuration. The mathematical modelling of the dynamic system is performed using the Newtonian mechanics. A number of assumption that are made throughout the modeling and simulation study is also described. proposed control strategies and road disturbances are described. This shall provide the basis for the rigorous computer simulation study to be carried out using MATLAB and Simulink software package.2 Quarter Car Model Quarter car model are used to derive the mathematical model of the active suspension system.CHAPTER 3 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND SIMULATION 3. The quarter car model is popularly used in suspension analysis .
The tyre (unsprung mass) is assumed to have only the spring feature and is in contact with the road terrain at the other end.1: Quarter car vehicle passive suspension The equations of motion for the the passive system are based on Newtonian mechanics and given as:  ms z s = − k s ( zs − zu ) − bs ( z s − zu ) where ms and mu bs mu zu = k s ( z s − zu ) + bs ( zs − zu ) − kt ( zu − zr ) : sprung mass and unsprung mass respectively : damping coefficient (3.24 and design because it is simple to analyze but yet able to capture many important characteristics of the full model. Figure 3. Single wheel and axle are connected to the quarter portion of the car body (sprung mass) through a passive spring and damper.1 shows a quarter car vehicle passive suspension system.1) . The road terrain serves as an external disturbance input to the system. Figure 3. It is also realistic enough to validate the suspension simulations.
Sprung Mass Ms Zs Ks Bs Unsprung Mass Mu fa Zu Kt Zr road profile Figure 3.25 ks and kt z s and zu zr z s − zu zu − z r z s and zu z s and zu : stiffness of spring and tyre respectively : displacement of sprung mass and unsprung mass respectively : displacement of road : deflection of suspension : deflection of tyre : velocity of sprung mass and unsprung mass respectively : acceleration of sprung mass and unsprung mass respectively Active suspension system for a quarter car model can be constructed by adding an actuator parallel to spring and dampe.2) .2: Quarter car vehicle active suspension The equations of motion for an active system are as follows: ms z s = − k s ( zs − zu ) − bs ( z s − zu ) + f a where fa : actuator force mu zu = k s ( z s − zu ) + bs ( z s − zu ) − kt ( zu − zr ) − f a Eq.2 shows a schematic of a quarter car vehicle active suspension system. Figure 3.(3.
and sinusoidal disturbance. (b) and (c) show the disturbances. The assumptions are: i. the behaviour of the vehicle can be represented accurately by a quarter car model. bump and hole. step input. They are the step input. iii. 3.3 Disturbance Models There are three types of disturbances introduced to the vehicle suspension system in this study. Both bump and hole and sinusoidal are called the road disturbances which represent the irregular road profile. The actuator is assumed to be linear with a constant gain. the suspension spring stiffness and tyre stiffness are linear in their operation ranges and tyre does not leave the ground. bump and hole and sinusoidal respectively. ii. The bump followed by a hole disturbance model is adapted from the study by Roh and Park in  and the sinusoidal road input is adapted from the work by Roukieh and Titli .3 (a). Figures 3.26 Some assumptions are made in the process of modeling the active suspension system. . The displacements of both the body and tyre can be measured from the static equilibrium point.
27 Figure 3.3 (a): Step input Figure 3.3 (b): Bump and hole .
.4 Passive Suspension System Model The suspension system Simulink model is started basically with developing the passive suspension system of a quarter car model.1). This model was built based on the equation (3. The dynamical system is separated into two systems as the suspension system involves two degrees of freedoms. This passive suspension model was modeled in Simulink form as shown in Figure 3.3 (c): Sinusoidal 3.28 Figure 3.4. There is an open loop system with no feedback element for appropriate adjustment of parameters.
. The actuator force is controlled by the PID controller which involves a feedback loop. The model in Simulink was built based on the equation (3.29 Clock zr Road profile zsdot 1 s 1 s zs XY Graph ms k2 kt zuddot 1 zudot 1 1/m2 s s mu zu k1 ks 1/m1 zsddot du/dt b1 Derivative bs Figure 3. The actuator force. Fa is an additional input to the suspension system model.5 Active Suspension System Model Active suspension system requires an actuator force to provide a better ride and handling than the passive suspension system.2) and shown in Figure 3.4: Simulink model of passive suspension system 3.5.
The input to the AFC control is the sprung mass acceleration and the output is summed with the PID controller output before multiply with the actuator gain which finally results the generated actuator force. Crude approximation method is used to estimated the estimated mass in the AFC. The AFC-CA control Simulink blocks include the estimated mass gain. This model is shown in Figure 3.5: Simulink model of active suspension system 3. .6. active suspension system in Simulink model was further develop by introduced active force control with crude approximation (AFC-CA) in the system.5.30 zr Road disturbance kt k2 Clock PID ref PID Controller -K1/m2 actuator mu 1 s 1 s k1 zu ks 1/m1 ms 1 s 1 s zs XY Graph du/dt Derivative b1 bs Figure 3. parameter 1/Ka gain and the percentage of AFC application gain.1 Active Suspension System Model with AFC-CA Strategy Instead of using only PID controller.
31 zr Road disturbance kt k2 Clock PID ref PID Controller -K1/m2 actuator mu 1 1 s 1 s k1 zu ks 1/m1 ms 1 s 1 s zs XY Graph du/dt -KDerivative b1 bs -KMe Figure 3. One of the intelligent method is iterative learning method (ILM).6: Simulink model of active suspension system with AFC-CA 3.5.7 . This type of method applied with AFC can be modelled as shown in Figure 3. .2 Active Suspension System Model with AFC-ILM To estimate the estimated mass for AFC. systematic method such as intelligent method is appropriate to use rather than try and error.
8.8: Subsystem of iterative learning method in AFC .32 zr Road disturbance kt k2 Clock PID ref PID Control ler -K1/m2 actuator mu 1 1 s 1 s k1 zu ks 1/m1 ms 1 s 1 s zs XY Graph du/dt -KDerivative b1 bs Product In1 Out1 y(n)=Cx(n)+Du(n) x(n+1)=Ax(n)+Bu(n) Discrete State-Space1 Subsystem Figure 3.7: Simulink model of active suspension system with AFC-ILM Subsytem for iterative learning method is shown in Figure 3. IM 1 Me(u k+1) Add du/dt Derivative 1 TEk k B k A IM(uk) Figure 3.
2: Simulation parameters Parameters Solver Type Simulation time Minimum step size Maximum step size Initial step size Relative tolerance Absolute tolerance Zero crossing control Value Ode45 (Dormand Prince) Variable-step 10 s Auto Auto Auto 1e3 Auto use local setting . Table 3.1: Parameters for suspension model.6 Modelling and Simulation Parameters The suspension parameters used in this study are adopted from the previous study .1 and the simulation parameters are shown in Table 3.130 Ns/m 86.240 N/m Table 3.33 3. The detail of suspension model parameters are shown in Table 3. Parameters Sprung mass ( ms ) Unsprung mass ( mu ) Spring stiffness ( ks ) Damping coefficient ( bs ) Tyre stiffness ( kt ) Value 170 kg 25 kg 10.520 N/m 1.2.
The active suspension control systems in particular were fully modelled complete with the control scheme with intelligent element to be simulated to observe their responses. the Simulink models for passive and active suspension system were constructed.34 3. The simulation results for all models are presented in the next chapter. The disturbances also modelled in the Simulink. Then.7 Conclusion The mathematical equations of vehicle suspension system are derived using quarter car model based on Newtonian mechanics. .
This causes the sprung mass displacement to occur for a long period of time.1 Introduction This chapter presents the simulated suspension responses results for all suspension systems that are described in the previous chapter. different type of disturbances and different type of control system are also discussed. 4. Response shown for the step input is not stable and need some time to settle down while under sinusoidal disturbance the passive suspension could not adapt to the force given.1 (a) and (b) show the response of passive suspension system to the step and sinusoidal inputs respectively.2 Passive Suspension Figure 4. The main concern of the simulated suspension system responses results is the sprung mass displacement. . Comparisons of the results between types of the suspension system.CHAPTER 4 SIMULATION RESULTS 4.
5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4.36 Body Displacement 1.6 0.2 0 Displacement (cm) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4.5 0 -0.1 (a): Passive suspension response to step input disturbance Body Displacement 1.5 1 Displacement (cm) 0.4 1.8 0.2 1 0.5 -1 -1.1 (b): Passive suspension response to sinusoidal disturbance .6 1.4 0.8 1.
Ki = 5 and Kd = 4. Kp = 12.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4. for sinusoidal disturbance the response is not good and not much different with the passive suspension. PID gain used are as follows. Body Displacement 1.3 Active Suspension Figure 4.2 (a) and (b) show the response given by active suspension to the step input and sinusoidal respectively.4 1.5 to observe their response.2 (a): Active suspension response to step input disturbance . PID controller is used in this suspension and it is a close loop system.8 0.4 and 4.37 4.2 1 Displacement (cm) 0.6 0. These values are remain for the following sub chapter 4.4 0. However. PID is tuned optimisely so that the response for the step input disturbance is good.
AFC gives a good result although disturbance is change.5 -1 -1.4 Active Suspension with AFC-CA Figure 4.3 (a) and (b) show the response given by active suspension with AFC strategy and crude approximation method to the step input and sinusoidal respectively.5 1 Displacement (cm) 0. under step input and sinusoidal disturbance is much better compare to PID controller only.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4.38 Body Displacement 1.2 (b): Active suspension response to sinusoidal disturbance 4. Both response. . Estimated mass used in this simulation is 300 kg.5 0 -0.
8 0.8 0.4 1.3 (b): AFC-CA suspension response to sinusoidal disturbance .2 1 Displacement (cm) 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4.39 Body Displacement 1.4 0.4 1.3 (a): AFC-CA suspension response to step input disturbance Body Displacement 1.2 1 Displacement (cm) 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4.
Value of learning parameter A is set to 4 and B = 5.4 (a) and (b) show the response of active suspension with AFC strategy and iterative learning method to the step input and sinusoidal disturbance respectively. Body Displacemnt 5 4 3 Displacement (cm) 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4.4 (a): AFC-ILM suspension response to step input disturbance . In other words the active suspension with AFC is not affected by the changing of the disturbance.40 4. Initial condition used is 200. This condition shows that the active suspension system with AFC strategy still gives a good response although the disturbance is change.5 Active Suspension with AFC-ILM Figure 4. The response given for both disturbance also as good as AFC-CA suspension.
PID controller is not capable to compensate for that disturbance. This means with AFC the high robust of suspension system can be achieved. The system will remain stable and effective even in the presence of known or unknown disturbance. But when there is changes in the disturbances. active suspension will response much much better than without AFC.4 (b): AFC-ILM suspension response to sinusoidal disturbance 4.6 Conclusion From the results it is proven that by using AFC. Passive suspension is the weakest suspension to absorb any disturbance exerted to the system. Active suspension with AFC strategy is proven not affected by the changing of the disturbances. .41 Body Displacement 5 4 3 Displacement (cm) 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4. Active suspension with PID controller can give good performance if we can tune the PID controller gain optimally.
1 Introduction This chapter presents about the experimental work that was done in this project. The quarter car rig was developed based on the modified Perodua Kelisa suspension system. The details of the experimental set-up will describe in this chapter. 5.CHAPTER 5 EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP 5. This project used existing rig that was developed by the Intelligent Active Force Control Research Group (IAFCRG). Experimental rig was developed using MATLAB.2 Simulink Model in Real-Time Workshop (RTW) Simulink model with Real-Time Workshop (RTW) developed in MATLAB Software. Simulink and Real-Time Workshop after which a number of experiments were carried out. This is the important element in the experiment because the RTW has an .
the control of software and hardware of the rig is made possible through the ‘hardware-in-the-loop’ concept.1: Simulink model with RTW related to PID and AFC-ILM control .2 shows the Simulink model with RTW for the physical active suspension system. Figure 5.1 shows the Simulink model with RTW that used in this experiment.5 PID disturbance time u-200 Active Suspension susp deflection force tyre acc body pos Iterative Learning-AFC Figure 5. Figure 5. A switch that is inserted into the middle of the model will switch the system from the pure PID controller to the AFC-ILM control scheme. body acc tyre deflection 6. This model can be used for PID only control and also PID and AFC with iterative learning method (AFC-ILM).43 ability to communicate with the outside world (suspension rig in this case) via an interface card such as data acquisition system (DAS). DAS 1602 card is used in this experiment as an interface card. With an aid of Simulink model in RTW and DAS 1602 card.
2: Active suspension Simulink model in RTW Figures 5.8 show the subsystem models of the pneumatic actuator.mat 4 susp deflc susp deflection laser lvdt f orce 5 force pressure1 force / pressure sensor -K|u| Abs AREA Figure 5. actuator 1 to actuator -K- f(u) |u| u Bad Link butter f(u) desired pressure1 U( : ) f(u) 1 desired press Figure 5. tyre accleration.3 to 5. disturbance model.3: Pneumatic actuator subsystem . body acceleration.44 body position 7 1 body pos body acceleration body acceleration body accelerometer ty re def lection 2 tyre deflection ty re acc 6 tyre accelerometer disturbance tyre acc 3 disturbance Out2 1 to actuator to actuator desired press disturbance lvdt pneumatic actuator bddispl Out1 U( : ) susp def lc u bddispl. suspension deflection and force tracking model respectively.
mat 1 s 1 s 1 tyre deflection tacc.mat 2 tyre acc Figure 5.mat Figure 5.45 butter 1 s butter 1 s bacc 1 body position bpos butter Bad Link @1 f(u) U( : ) u bacc.6: Disturbance subsystem .4: Body acceleration subsystem tdef acc butter Bad Link @3 tacc f(u) U( : ) u butter butter tdef.mat butter Bad Link @4 2 Out2 distubance -1 f(u) U( : ) f(u) 1 disturbance Figure 5.mat 2 body acceleration bpos.5: Tyre acceleration subsystem distr distr.
mat 2 pressure1 -KAREA force1 U( : ) u force 1 force force. That is active force control with iterative learning method (AFC-ILM) simulink model.7: Suspension deflection subsystem U( : ) butter Bad Link @8 1 f(u) pressure u press press.9 shows the most important element in the control system in the experiment.mat Figure 5. Figure 5.46 U( : ) 1 Out1 butter Bad Link @7 -1 f(u) sus deflc u 2 susp deflc susdef susdef. .mat Figure 5.8: Force tracking subsystem.
11.mat Figure 5.10 shows a photograph of an actual rig of active suspension system. A 100 Hz sampling frequency was used in conjunction with a data acquisition card (DAS 1602) that is fitted into one of the expansion slots of the personal computer (PC). Appropriate signals are processed using the analoque-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital-to-analoque converter (DCA) channels which are already embedded in the DAS card. implying that the simulation can be effectively converted to the equivalent practical scheme without much fuss. The schematic of the experimental set-up is shown in Figure 5.3 Experimental Set-up Figure 5. .mat 2 pressure1 -KAREA force1 U( : ) u force 1 force force. Physical sensors required for input/output (I/O) signal were connected to a PC-based data acquisition and control system using Matlab.9: AFC with ILM subsystem 5.47 U( : ) butter Bad Link @8 1 f(u) pressure u press press. Simulink and RealTime Workshop (RTW) that essentially constitute a hardware in the loop configuration.
11: The schematic of the experimental set-up.48 Figure 5. pressure sensor & accelerometers) Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Disturbances Figure 5. AFC and ILM.10: Photograph of the suspension system. PC-based control MATLAB/CST/ Simulink/RTW DAS1602 I/O card to pneumatic actuator Suspension Test Rig D/A PID. A/D from sensors (LVDTs. .
and computer control to make the rig function. iv.1 Mechanical System The mechanical system of the experimental set-up consists of the suspension system itself as shown in Figure 5. 5. The disturbances were used in this experiment was generated by a specially design pneumatic system control by a programmable logic control (PLC). accelerometer laser sensors linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) pressure sensor .10.3. A laser sensor was placed in the between of the sprung and unsprung mass to measure suspension deflection. It is because it involved an integration of the mechanical parts. electric/electronics devices.49 Accelerometers were installed at the sprung and unsprung mass of the vehicle suspension system to measure body acceleration and tyre deflection. i. Four types of sensors were used in the set-up. 5. A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) was used to measure the vertical displacement of the road profile or disturbance. The experimental set-up in this project is a mechatronics system. iii.2 Electrical/Electronic Device The electric/electronics devices were used in the experiment basically consist of the sensors. namely.3. ii.
50 The location or position where all the sensors were placed can be seen in Figures 5. Accelerometer Figure 5.15.13: Laser sensor to measure suspension deflection . Laser sensor Figure 5.12 to 5.12: Accelerometer to measure body acceleration.
Pressure sensor Figure 5. .15: Pressure sensor to measure actuator force.14: LVDT to measure disturbance.51 Accelerometer LVDT Figure 5.
16 shows the computer control system while Figure 5. Figure 5. The circuits will process the signals to produce suitable signals to the DAS Card. The DAS 1602 card is interfaced to the computer where the input and output devices (actuators and sensors) were connected to the controller.16: A Computer set as the main controller . 5.3.3 Computer Control The experimental set-up used a Pentium III computer as the main controller with the software MATLAB/Simulink and RTW facility constituting the PC based digital control.17 shows the DAS 1602 interface card used in this experiment. Figure 5.52 All the signals from the sensors will be sent to the signal conditioners and driver circuits.
5.1: Suspension and pneumatic actuator parameters.4 Parameters for Experiments Table 5.53 Figure 5. Parameters Sprung mass ( ms ) Unsprung mass ( mu ) Spring stiffness ( ks ) Damping coefficient ( bs ) Tyre stiffness ( kt ) Stroke length Diameter bore Ram area Value 170 kg 25 kg 10520 N/m 1130 Ns/m 86240 N/m 116 mm 40 mm 0.1 shows the suspension parameters and pneumatic actuator parameters that have been used in experiment.0076 mm2 .17: DAS 1602 interface card slotted in the CPU. Table 5.
The details of the model are explained and all the subsystem models were clearly shown in this chapter. Then. this Simulink model was integrated to the experimental rig constitutes a full experimental set-up. The results obtained will be discussed in the next chapter.5 Conclusion The Simulink model with RTW was successfully developed. .54 5. A number of experiments were carried out.
the response belongs to PID controller. By doing this. displayed in single graph. The result for different type of disturbances applied to the system also will presented.1 Introduction This chapter presents the results of the experiments that was carried out. for the next 200 seconds. Same with the simulation part.CHAPTER 6 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 6. Comparisons of the results between different type of control scheme. AFC-ILM control scheme take over. The results shown in this chapter are divided into two sections. The results that are discussed in this chapter were assume to give the best results obtained in the experiment using the chosen parameters. we can see directly the different responses (if any). Then. in this experiment the main concerned of the suspension system response result is the sprung mass or body displacement. Other results for different parameter setting were attached in the appendix. For the first 200 second. there are PID and AFC-ILM will be discussed in this section. .
2 and Kd = 350. Body Displacement 5 4 3 2 Displacement (cm) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 PID 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 AFC-ILM A=10 A=20 A=50 Figure 6. Kp = 35. The value of learning parameter A is set to vary. Learning parameter for the ILM are set as follows. B=15 and Initial Condition = 25 kg.56 6.2 System Response Without Disturbance Figure 6.2 shows the close-up of body displacement response of an active suspension system without disturbance.1: Graph for body displacement response without disturbance Figure 6. Ki = 1. suspension deflection and tyre deflection for the same conditions are shown in Appendix B. Results for the body acceleration. . PID gain were used in this experiment are.1 shows the body displacement response of an active suspension system without apply any disturbance into it.
The result looks almost similar.2 -0. However. .4 -0.3. Some tuning still has to be done to get the better result for the AFC scheme.4 Displacement (cm) 0. the results show that the learning parameter A=50 gives the best results. Figure 6. Figure 6. there is no significant difference in result between pure PID and AFC-ILM control schemes.57 Body Displacement A=10 A=20 A=50 0.6 -0. This means that AFC-ILM control scheme was reached at the minimum level.3 shows the body displacement response with the fixed value of A and varied value of B.4 shows the close-up of of the Figure 6.6 0.8 50 60 70 Time(s) 80 90 100 Figure 6. The rest of the results for the variation of learning parameter B can be found in Appendix B.2 0 -0.2: The close-up of body displacement response without disturbance For this conditions.
5 -2 B=15 B=20 B=50 40 50 60 70 Time(s) 80 90 100 Figure 6.3: Body displacement response without disturbance for B vary Body Displacement 2 1.58 Body Displacement 5 4 3 2 Displacement (cm) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 PID AFC-ILM B=15 B=20 B=50 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6.5 0 -0.5 1 Displacement (cm) 0.5 -1 -1.4: Close-up body displacement response without disturbance for B vary .
2 2. Figure 6.8 1.7 . Sinusoidal Disturbance 2.5 shows the disturbance model and Figure 6. Figures 6. suspension deflection and tyre deflection respectively to the sinusoidal disturbance.6 1.5: Disturbance model type sinusoidal .59 6.3 System Response with the Sinusoidal Disturbance Disturbances that applied to the active suspension system are step and sinusoidal.8 Hz ).5 50 Amplitude (cm) 55 60 65 70 75 Time(s) 80 85 90 95 100 Figure 6.9 show the response of the body acceleration.6 shows the body displacement response to the sinusoidal disturbance.3 2.9 1.6. The disturbance is generated by a specially design pneumatic system controlled by PLC.1 2 1. Sinusoidal signal that gives to the system is high amplitude with high speed ( ≈ 2.7 1.
6: Body displacement response with the sinusoidal disturbance Body Acceleration 5 0 Acceleration (m/s 2) -5 AFC-ILM -10 PID -15 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6.7: Body acceleration response with the sinusoidal disturbance .60 Body Displacement 5 4 3 2 Displacement (cm) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 PID AFC-ILM 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6.
9: Tyre deflection response with the sinusoidal disturbance .8: Suspension deflection response with the sinusoidal disturbance Tyre Deflection 2 1.61 Suspension Deflection 8 7 6 5 Deflection (cm) 4 3 2 1 AFC-ILM 0 -1 -2 PID 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6.5 -1 -1.5 0 -0.5 -2 PID Deflection (cm) AFC-ILM 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6.5 1 0.
10: Disturbance model type step . It caused the pneumatic system cannot hold the load for a period of time to form a good step.14. Step Disturbance 8 7 6 5 Step (cm) 4 3 2 1 0 10 20 30 40 Time(s) 50 60 70 Figure 6. Figure 6. All the results observed are shown in the Figures 6. The shape of step is not so good due to some leaking at the pneumatic system.11-6.4 System Response with the Step Disturbance The disturbance type step also generated by a specially design pneumatic system controlled by PLC. However the disturbance produce still can be used as long as we can put some interruption to the system and observe the response.62 6.10 shows the disturbance model of the step.
12: Body acceleration response with the step disturbance .11: Body displacement response with the step disturbance Body Acceleration 5 0 -5 Acceleration (m/s 2) -10 -15 -20 AFC-ILM -25 PID -30 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6.63 Body displacement 4 3 2 Displacemnt (cm) 1 0 -1 -2 AFC-ILM -3 -4 PID 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6.
5 -2 PID Deflection (cm) AFC-ILM 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6.5 -1 -1.5 0 -0.13: Suspension deflection response with the step disturbance Tyre Deflection 2 1.14: Tyre deflection response with the step disturbance .64 Suspension Deflection 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PID Deflection (cm) AFC-ILM 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6.5 1 0.
The result show that the active suspension system with pure PID controller gives almost similar response with the AFC-ILM control scheme. It means that AFC-ILM control scheme was reached at the minimum level. The system with the set learning parameter then was applied the disturbances. please refer to Appendix C. AFCILM suppose to give better response than pure PID. different values of Initial Condition and the different type of disturbance. i.5 Conclusion In order to get the best tune for the learning parameter. Some tuning still has to be done to get the better result for the AFC scheme but due to time constraint existing learning parameters are remained for this project. A and B. the experiments were carried out without apply any disturbance to the suspension system.e different value of parameter A and B. 6. .65 The results for other conditions.
It is because AFC can compensate any internal and external disturbances that presence in the suspension system. it should show the same result. In simulation study the result shows that the use of AFC make the system robust.1 Conclusion The implementation of the active force control (AFC) to the vehicle suspension system has been successfully done in simulation study and in experimental work. Crude approximation method is easier than iterative learning as we just have to directly change the value of initial mass. In estimating the initial mass the method use is crude approximation and iterative learning.CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 7. This method however will take long time to get the right value of initial mass. However due to highly skill needed to tune the learning parameter in the ILM to estimate initial mass for AFC. Iterative learning method is more intelligent to estimate the initial mass value as it will iterate . AFC will give a better performance. the result obtained is just same with the pure PID controller. The most important thing in AFC is to estimate the initial mass. In experimental work. The study in simulation demonstrate that AFC-CA and AFC-ILM give better performance compare to pure PID controller. If we get the accurate approximate initial mass.
Fine tune the learning parameter to the right value will change to the better result. 7. the performance of the system (active suspension in this case) will improve tremendously. those are PID and AFC-ILM and the results from both were compared. In experimental works.2 Recommendation for Future Works There are few number of future works could be considered as an extension to the present study. This condition was happen due to learning parameter tuning for ILM is still not satisfy. . the use of self tuning method to estimate the estimated mass in AFC. i) ii) iii) consider the use of the percentage AFC to the system. the results show that the performance of the suspension system for both control scheme almost similar. study the effects to the performance of suspension system by increase the sprung mass load. Simulation study shows that by using AFC control scheme. AFC able to compensate the presence of the known or unknown disturbances.67 repetitively by decrease the error until it get the right value. the experiment was run using the active suspension rig. They are as follows. Two type of control schemes were used. From the experimental work. But the problem in this method is to tune the learning parameter. The theory says that AFC is better than PID.
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5 0 kp=12 -0.kd=4) 3 2.5 0 2 4 time.0 10.5 -1 -1. ki=5.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 time (s) 6 7 8 9 10 b) Active suspension response for different value of proportional gain (kp) zs response with PID controller (various kp.5 Amplitude 1 0.71 APPENDIX A Simulation Result for Various Conditions a) Passive suspension response for different value of step input Response for different step input for passive suspension 18 16 14 step input value (cm) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1. t 6 8 kp=20 kp=30 10 .0 2.5 2 1.
body acceleration.8 50 60 70 Time(s) 80 90 100 .2 -0.6 0.6 -0.4 Displacement (cm) 0. Body Displacement 5 4 3 2 Displacement (cm) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 A=10 A=20 A=50 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Body Displacement A=10 A=20 A=50 0.72 APPENDIX B Experimental Results for Various Learning Parameter The graphs show the response and their close-up for body displacement.2 0 -0. suspension deflection and tyre deflection respectively.4 -0.
73 Body Acceleration 10 5 0 Acceleration (m/s 2) -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 A=10 A=20 A=50 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Body Acceleration 6 5 Acceleration (m/s ) 2 4 3 2 A=10 A=20 A=50 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time(s) 60 70 80 90 100 .
Suspension Deflection 8
4 Deflection (cm)
-2 A=10 A=20 A=50
Suspension Deflection 7
5 Deflection (cm)
2 A=10 A=20 A=50
Tyre Deflection 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 A=10 A=20 A=50
Tyre Deflection 1.5 A=10 A=20 A=50
Body Displacement 5 4 3 2 Displacement (cm) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 B=15 B=20 B=50
Body Displacement 2 1.5 1 Displacement (cm) 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 B=15 B=20 B=50
77 Body Acceleration 10 5 0 Acceleration (m/s2) -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 B=15 B=20 B=50 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Body Acceleration 6 5 4 3 Acceleration (m/s2) 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 0 10 20 30 40 Time(s) 50 60 B=15 B=20 B=50 70 80 .
78 Suspension Deflection 8 6 4 Deflection (cm) 2 0 -2 B=15 B=20 B=50 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 -4 -6 Suspension Deflection 7 6 5 4 Deflection (cm) 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 10 B=15 B=20 B=50 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time(s) 80 90 100 110 120 .
4 Deflection (cm) 0.5 1 0.5 0 -0.79 Tyre Deflection 2 1.6 -0.8 0.4 -0.8 -1 B=15 B=20 B=50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time(s) 60 70 80 90 100 .5 -1 -1.2 0 -0.5 -2 B=15 B=20 B=50 Deflection (cm) 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Tyre Deflection 1 0.2 -0.6 0.
B=200. IC=250 Data 2 : A=150. B=90.8Hz) Body displacement 5 4 3 2 Displacemnt (cm) 1 0 -1 -2 AFC-ILM -3 -4 -5 PID Data1 Data2 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 .80 APPENDIX C Experimental Results for Different Conditions Data 1 : A=100. IC=500 Disturbance type : High Sin and high speed ( ≈ 1.
81 Body Acceleration 5 4 3 2 Acceleration (m/s 2) 1 0 -1 -2 AFC-ILM -3 -4 -5 PID Data1 Data2 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 Suspension Deflection 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PID Data1 Data2 Deflection (cm) AFC-ILM 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 .
82 Tyre Deflection 5 4 3 2 Deflection (cm) 1 0 -1 -2 AFC-ILM -3 -4 -5 PID Data1 Data2 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 350 400 .
83 APPENDIX D The Sketch of the Experimental Rig Load Body Pneumatic actuator Tyre Motor Pneumatic to generate disturbance .
.84 APPENDIX E The LVDT The LVDT used in this project is AML/IEU+/-75mm-X-10.
.86 APPENDIX F The Pressure Sensor The pressure sensor used in this project is model DP2-22.
88 APPENDIX G The Data Acquisition System Card DAS 1602 .
.90 APPENDIX H The Accelerometer The accelerometer used in this project is ADXL-105EM-1.
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