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The

Robert E. Gross
Collection
A
Memorial
to the

Founder

of the

i
Business Administration Library

Kniverii/u

c/ ^aMor-tua

Los Angeles

TRAVELS
THROUGH THE

B

A

N

N
O F

A

T

TE MESWAR,
TRANSYLVANIA,

HUNGARY,
In
,p

AND
Year

the

1770.
IN

ESCRIBED
to

A
9

Series of

LETTERS
ON
and
thefe

PROF. FERBER,

'

THE

MINES
Of

MOUNTAINS
Countries,
in

different

By

BARON INIGO BORN,
Counfellor of the

Royal Mines,
is

Bohemia.

To which

added,

JOHN JAMES FERBER's
MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
of

BOHEMIA.

TRANSLATED
With fome
Art of Mining, and
its

from

the

G

E R

M A N,

explanatorj' Notes, and a Preface on

the Mechanical Arts, the

prefent State and future Improvement,

By

R.

E.

RASPE.

In nc-va fcrt animus mutatas dkcre format.

LONDON:
PRINTED BY
FOR
G.

No. 6, OLD BAILEY; J. MILLER, K EARS LEY, No. 46, FLEET-STREET. MDCCLXXVn.

*

(

iii

;

PREFACE.
JLTAV ING
Italy ^

mtrodticed

Mr.

Ferber's

etc counts

of

with fome gejwal views of thofe parts Mineralogy^ zvhich have of late been improved^ of

and may

be further by a nearer examination of the
•,

Volcanoes and their various produBions

it is

but

jufl that thefe accounts of the Hungarian

and Bohe-

mian mines ßould be accompanied with fimilar views
en the art of mining
metallic mountains
productions.
'This fcience
\

the nature of the different

and of their various

veins

and

has been the fcience of riches ever

ftnee the ufe of metals
difcovered.,

and of other fojfds have been
to

and turned

account

by

mankind.
the art
to us by

Though that
a

difcovery be a very old one^

and

of mining and of fmelting be handed down
long feries of ages^

and by
a

different nations^

fome
cf

IV

PREFACE.
its fcientifical

üf
lefs

parts are^ hozvever^ brought

to

a

certainty than
it^

we

might have expcufed.

Was

that

Mammon,
was

the leaft erected

fpirit,

that fell

From Heaven,
lefs

adored^

and

his worßoip lefs folloiüed
it

than

that of the fairer Mufes ? JVas

That

riches

grow

in Hell,

that
?

foil

which beft

Deferves the precious bane
Indeed
it

was

not

;

for gold andßher^ and riches
in

have been

in every age^

every clime^ adored and

purfued by all the nations^
ingenuity,

which had any claim

to

with fuch a zealous eagernefs as would
credit to any divinity.

have done

It is the

common

fate of the mofl ufeftd and practical arts, to have
been, in every age

and

in every nation, left in afiate

of infancy,

and

in the hands of

working people, or

of impoßng quacks.
the wife

Sovereigns have encouraged, and
zvith prefumptuous attempts,
lofty regions

and

learned,

piirfued hazardous flights into the

of

fcholaßic divijiity a7td metaphyfcks, beyond the reach

of human
in this

abilities,

and

ai'med at fuch ohjcuis,

which

world do not make us
richer or
better.

either wifer or hapis

pier, or

It

a very ßngular

phanomenon

in the hiflory

of mankind, that the arts
fidling,

cf fortune-telling, of rhiming, of finging,
rcafoning,

and fpeaking, ßjould have been reduced
into

PREFACE.
fcientifical forms
\

V

nay^ that they ßjoiild have been fo

highly improved^ before any friend of

men and good-

fenfe

thought of reducing the better arts of

huf

bandry,

of phyßc^ of navigation, and of mining into
-,

the forms of fciences

of fixing them for ever, and

cf eflablißing them upon the evident and confiant
principles of nature.

But fiich

is

the perverfenefs

of human nature!

Wants and

accidents

have
iifeful

co-

operated to invent ajid to introduce the
by the fidll

arts
the

and ingenuity of

forne men,

whom

Savages in the infant flate of fociety have jußly
revered as their great eß benefaäors, andas fuch have

ranked and forgot them
divinities.

in the croud

of their heroes a?id

Ceres and Triptolemus,

Pomona, Mi-

jierva and Efculapius, for being the inventors, im-

provers,

or introducers of hußandry,

gardening,

weaving, and phyßc, have been by the favage Greeks
i:'ufcans, or

Latins, confecratedto pofierity by the fame

fpirit of gratitude and veneration, which hasfanEfified

the Evangelifts, the Apoßles,

and the Saints amongß

the Chrißians
gruity,
glory,

:

but Poets, time, and
they

human

incon-

what have

made

in after-times of their

and of the arts and fciences which they tauo-ht ?

Let any one judge, who knows fomething of the hiftory of mankind, whether the well-deferved reputation of their

names has ever ßone
their popular

in its pur eß lußre,

and whether
fciefices

and falutary arts and

have ever been pra^ifed in that public^ ^
fpirited

vi

Preface.
had
left

fpirited lenevolent manner^ in which they

of

delivered them to mankind.
hifiory
.

'Their

names and their

have been involved

in clouds of darknefs

and

legends^

and

their arts
all,

and

fciences by their will,

the inheritance of
felfißo

have been engroffed by the

few.

This happened in a very natural manit

ner.

Whether
-,

happened

neceffarily^

1 will not

determine

obferving only, that making an exclufive

trade of fciences and of arts, has never anfwered,

and never will anfwer,
ter eft of mankind.

the great

and univerfal

in-

The

mnft ufeful arts areprecifely thofe which ft and

in an immediate connexion with the moft generaly

moft natural,
kind.

and moft
is

indifpenfable

wants of man-

Their objeB

food, drefs,

and

felf-prefer-

vation.

They muft of courfe have been invented or

pra£lifed by every family or fociety of

men

-,

and

be-

ing on this account coeval with the firft origin of

mankind, their invention falls into the remoteft antiquity

of the primitive world, when a
individuals,

wants of a few
families,

or of

few natural a few fcattered
in

could be fatisfied by co?nmon ingenuity,

making

ufe of the moft obvious gifts

and

effetJs

of

nature, fiich

as

every climate afforded.

In that

primitive ftate,

we

fee the arts of the Pecherais in
little

Terra del Fuego, and of many

wandering

tribes

of ?nen in almoft every part of the world ;

and even

the arts of civilized nations would be lowered again,

and

PREFACE.
and turned down
fudden revolution they ßould happen

vu

nearly to the fame fiat e^ if by fomet
to he at once de-

prived of the advantages of their

climates^

and

expofed to the hardßjips and luants of other climates.

Conrmodore Byron
Chili^

left

and preserved on

the coaft of
left^

and

the Ruffian failors for

many years

and

by

their ingenuity

and perfeverance preferved,

on the coafi of Spitsbergen^ will
tion
\

make good

the affer-

and prove moreover^ that wants and climate^

going handln hand^ are the natural and firfi teachers

of men^ who for their vigour^ ingenuity^ ayid perfeSiibility^

mufi

be

alloived

to

be

lords

of the

world,
'The felf4nvented arts of different nations^

(and
caufes

and why ßjould not a

fimilarity of

wants or

have produced a fimilarity of arts and remedies ?)
mufi for thefe reafons have been very ßmple^ rude^

and

local in the begimiing

;

that

is,

they mufi^ under
different

different

climates^
.

have appeared under

modifications

hollowed

trees^
\

The canoes offome Indians^ made of fpeak a climate which produces plenty
made of
together,

of timber
feal-ßins,

the canoes of the Greenlanders,

and

thofe of the

Eafier-Iflanders in the

South-Sea., being poorly

made up, and f own

of little

bits

of wood, fpeak a difmal vjant of wood.
the

The form of
ing in

fe buildings and columns, Chine

is

plainly that of the original tent of favages, wander-

warm

climates,

which produced
a
3

light

and

fiendev

viii

PREFACE.
'The

ßender hamhoo-trees.

form cf

the Egyptian
tell,

zvonders of architetlure feem plainly to

that the

ßrfl inhabitants of that fcorched climate,
rock- caverns to refort to for fhelter-,
their increafing

had

cool

and

that,

when

numbers attempted
little

to imitate

nature

by art,

they

had

or no wood, but -plenty of large

rock majfes.

The

old Indcos.

being nearly under

the fame climate, feem to have built their
cient

moß an-

Pagodas upon the fame principles.

The Greeks

and Romans

allow, that the Prototype of their

moß
made

magnificent marble palaces was the original hut,

of timber, and even yet ufed in the milder climates The drefs of the Turks, Perßans, Poles, of Afia.

and Hungarians,
with fur,

is

of a different cut, but trimmed
are offsprings of different

becaufe they

nations in the northern parts of Afia, where dr effing
in fur
is

the advice

and claim of

the climate.

The
in

fame

original locality or nationality

may be traced

the manipulations a,nd technical words of the various
arts of huffandry,

hunting, fifmng, fighting,

and

curing difeafes
tions

and as by fo doing the may be fill more afcertained, and
-,

origin of na-

the invention

fued of fome arts pur

to their fir ft beginning, it

will

likewife help us to feel, that
beeil to

many foreign

arts

have

our
;

ccft

introduced amongft us, infpite of the
chiefly to infifl

climate

and what here I am

upon,

that the arts in the beginning muft have been very

ßmpie and very

rude.

Wants

PREFACE.
ters

i:<

V/ants in that infant fiate of fociety of hun-

and ßßjertnen,

ix/cre

preßntly and

heft

removed hv

fhe ßmpleft application of thofe natural effects or pro-

duHions^ which men experienced and faw before them.

The

caiifes

of things^

their

inveftigation^

metho-

dißng their accidental inventions^ and ßxing them

for aftertimes^ 'were then ahfolutely out of the qiieftion i and fo they were even when the encreafing

numbers and wants of

thefe

mifettled

wanderers

made

the improvement of their original arts^ or the

inirodu^iion of
ceptable gift s^

new

ones

from abroad^

the ?noft ac-

which friends of mankind could beftow

upon them.

The Greeks were indeed but a very raw
people^

and ignorant

when

their gods

and heroes
So were

may
the

he fiippofed to

have

inftriiUed them.

the Britons

and Germans^ when

their conquerors,

Romans^ and

the ßirft Chriftian mißfionaries or

apoftles^

acquainted them with the arts of making

their life
'

more comfortable.

Each family
to their

held them

as a treafure^
in ci

and handed them

defcendants

mere traditional manner.
that
old tradition

It is no wonder^
hiftory

therefore.,

and

fpeak

of

Princeffes ßilful in

the arts of the loom., cf Sove-

reigns dr effing their dinners.^ guiding the plozv^

and

tending their herds.

Her Highneßs

Priucefs

Nan-

ßcaa went
linen
are^
•,

to the river

waßjing and fcowering her

nay^ even Reverend Abbots

and Holy

Priefls

celebrated in the firft ages oß Chriftianity amcngfl

a

4

tbs

X
the

PREFACE.
Northern European nations^ for having heen
carpe?iters,

ßilful and laborious plowmen^ gardeners^ vintners,

hußandmen^
phyficians.

joiners^

painters.^

and

This traditional fcience of the arts

was a

natural
life,

confequence of the fcattered, paßoral^ and rural

and

it

was attended with
them.

circumflances which proved

no advantage to
families^

Being confined

to ftngle

and

their

wants alone^

their pra^ice

would

but accidentally improve them^ and thefe improve-

ments %vere
drudgery

liable to be forgotten.

Moreover^ their
the fiaves^

muß

of courfe be

left to

who for

many
ployed
liberty

ages,
to

even in the politer nations,

were em-

carry on the

manual

arts.

"Deprived of
inclined to

and property, they were the more

drudge on in

ä

dull,

flubborn,

habitual tnanner,

without any mind for improvement.
'That neverthelefs, the

manual and mechanical arts
Egyptians, Greeks,

emongfl the Phenicians,
thas^inians,

Carto

and Romans,

have been brought

a

remarkable degree of perfeäion,
indeed to their f,av es,

was owing,

not

but to the fuperior good fenfe
;

cnda5iivity of their mafiers

to circumfiances

which

produced a nearer connection of mankind in general-,
to

wide extended navigation, commerce, and con',

oiiefis

and finally,

to

a mercantile fpirit and a culever been
the refults
fociety,

ture of fcience, which have

and

diftinguifhing

bleßngs

of

human

cr

govern^

PREFACE.
government
perfection.

XI
deg?'ee

brought

to

the

highefi

of

Some of

thefe reajons

have at

laß:

refcued the

ma-

mial and mechanical arts in Europe from the handi

of bungling ßav es, and brought them into the hands but that happy revolution has in meß offree people
-,

parts of Europe ferved the arts only by halves.
has' been a great

It

advantage

to

them

•,

but having

mads

more

or lefs excluftve trades of them^ they

have been^

and fome of them are fill kept as jobs and fecrets^ by ßort - ßghted and narrow-minded mercantile
felfßonefs.

This plainly appears by the ill-digeßed ßatutes and

cußoms of many profeßons and trades, which, if pcffible, would be independent patent companies, at
the expence of the whole
;

the very names of the art

and

my fiery

of apothecaries, of clothworkers,

of

barbers,

of cordwainers, and ether trades,

as ex-

preffed in the charters of their corporations at

Lon-

don, are ßr iking inßances to

what

lengths that tin\

patriotick felfßonefs has been carried informer times

and

even, if the

word myiiery

in thefe charters ßjould

be conßdered
blunder,

only as

an equivocal^

othographical
there are

inflead of meftier,

or metier,

thoufands of proofs that this old fpirit of felfißmefs
is

yet alive, ever willing to take advantage of the
to

knowledge of others, and never willing
it.

promote

Let

tis

add the abfurd i.ontempt

in

which the

proud

PREFACE.
felf-conceited
fcholars

proud Barons and the

have

held formerly^ and even yet hold,
the pretended fervile
nioe

the greater part of
arts, and^

and low mechanical

cannot 'wonder,

that the progrefs and improve-

ment has been
flill in

fo ßow, and

that

many of them are

a ftate of infancy.
in the wifeft

It is only

and moft enlightened

ages,

that

we

find foyne philofoph ers and wife men,ftepping
the giddy heights of their exalted ftation

down from
the vulgar

of learning, into which the barbarous ignorance of

and

their

own

conceit

had placed them, in
improve the arts.

order

to fix, to re5iify,

and

to

Such ages produced amongft the Greeks and RomanSy

what

Euclides, Hippocrates, Galen,

Vitruvius,

Co-

lumella, Cato, Pliny, Hheophrafttis,

and foine

others,

have left us on the arts
of
of
thofe glorious times,
fcholaftical dullnefs

;

and

it is

in the true fpirit

that after fo

many

loft

ages

and mercantile

felfifhnefs, the

Royal Academy at Paris, Mr. Chambers, Dr. Lewis,
the Authors of the French Encyclopedy,

and many

friends of mankind in fev er al parts of Europe, have

undertaken of lute

to fix the

various arts of mankind

for aft er-times, and
ciples

to eftablißo

them upon the prin-

of nature and mathematicks, better known at

prefent than they ever were before.

But various

is

their pre fent ft ate in different parts of Europe.
"The

Art of

War

is

in thefe

laft

two hundred

years reduced in France, and efpccially in Germany,

upon

PREFACE.
upon fo evident and
fc'ientifical theories^

Xlll

afcertained

by pra^ice^ that thefe powerful empires
moft happy of all^ if tremendous ar?nies^
methodically butchered^

muß be the now and then
them the
There

and the ambition of Sovedid
enfiire

reigns, flattered by conqueft,
blejfings

of peace, or any other Uejfing at

all.

has been in thofe countries too much occafion for the

improvement of this

neceffary

and

terrible art.

The Nautical Art
trary, is brought in

in all its branches, on the con-

England

perfeElion, becaufe it is the

of kingdom of the feas-, fo

to the highefl degree

are hußandry and numbers of mechanical arts and

manufaBories, becaufe
plentiful foil,

it enjoys

the advantages of a

any other.

and offreedom Sed

in

a higher degree than

Tu

regere Imperio populos Britanne
artes)

memento,

(HaeTibi erunt
Parcere fubjedis

pacique imponere morem,

& debellare fuperbos.
and
its

But

the

Art of Mining, and its many fub ordinate
dependent countries^

branches, are in Germany,

for various reafons, fo highly improved, that for
thefe laß ages

Germany has been jußly
and
befl

coyifidered

as

the

moß

ancient

fchool for miners.

Though

Tacitus,
the

in his romantic account of

Germany, told
a providential

Romans, that the Gods,

either by

care, or by their diflike of the nation,
left the

feemed

to

have

Germans unprovided with mines and metals,
or

XIV

PREFACE.
till

or rather to have kept them

then unacquainted

with
fince

their ufe

and

fcience

;

things have, however^

wondroußy

changed,

both

in

refpe5l

to

the

mines, and

in refpe^i of their fcience.

'The great efl

and

richefl chains

and

tracts of metallic

mountains^

•which jtiflly

may

he ranked

with

thofe in
in

Peru and

in

Hungary, have been difcovered there
mote antiquity,

a very re-

'when the other kingdoms of Europe
idea of that kind of inland riches
-,

had fcarce any and
there

have been ever ftnce, and there are more

mines and mountains yet a5lually working in Germany
(done^ than perhaps in all the other parts of

Europe

put

together.
in

Some mines on
Alface^

the

Rhine and Da-

nube,

Lorrain,

Brifgow, Suevia, and

the ancient Noricum, feem to have been

worked

al-

ready

in the decline

of the

ancient

Roman

empire.

Many
the

in the interior parts are reported to

have been
in

opened under the race of Charlemain.

The mines

Rammeißerg near

Gofslar,

and fome cf

the adto the

jacent ones in the Harz-mountains, belonging

Eleäorate

of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunf-

wick, are fairly proved to have been difcovered and

worked

to

advantage as early as the middle of the tenth

century (between A. C. 950.
difcovery of thofe in

and 1000.^

And

the

Haßa, Mifnia,
Tyrol,

Silefta,

Mo-

ravia,

Franconia,

Steyermark,

Carinthia,

and Carniola, cannot

he fuppofed to

have been much

poßerior in time to that of the former.

Tq

PREFACE.
^0 judge
miners,
hy the technical language of the

xt
German

waßjers, affayers, and melters, they do not

feem

to

have

learnt, or

had

their different
nations.

arts
It is

from

the

Romans, or other foreign
German.
It proves

downright

at leafl

'what

I

have ßortly hinted
old ftanding
in

before, thatthefe arts are
;

of very

Germany

and as

it is

very com-

pleat in every refpe^f,

and almoft

the fame in the mofi
it

dißant provinces of Germany,

proves, that for

a long feries of ages thefe various arts have never been difcontinued, and on that account they may be
confidered as national.

Being by their very objeEl
naturally recommended to de-

and remarkable fuccefs
fpotic Sovereigns,

they

have been very

early

fa-

voured and taken notice of by the many legißators of

Germany

-,

and

it

mufi be owned,

that the metallic

general and particular lazvs of Germany,

having
keep

been foon refined, have greatly contributed to
thefe

mining arts alive, by keeping the above mining
in

countries

uninterrupted fuccefsful employment.
it

And

happy has

proved fer Germany, as the inland

parts of that extenßve and pcpulous country, without
the working of thefe numerous mines, mufi

have

lofi

thoufands of unemployed hands, andflandworfe in the
balance of trade than
it

hitherto is found to do.

The

mathematicks, mechanicks,hydraulicks, and the principies of chemißry, have been pretty early applied in Ger-

many, to the traditional and empirical art of mining, as
every

XVI
every one

PREFACE.
may judge
by the valuable writings

of

Georg. Agricola, (born 14^4
lent author

^555) ^^^^ excel-

of immenfe and pra5iical erudition^ who for thefe laß 250 years has fiood unparalleled and
foremoft

amongß

the claffical authors on mining
left

\

and

as during thefe

300

years,

Germany has proKepler, Sturmins,

dnced a Copei-nlcus, Purbach,

Leibnitz, Wolf, Kaeftner, Meyer, Segner, Euler,

Lambert; Albertus Magnus,
Paracelfus Theophraftus,
nert,
C<^^r«

(born 1193

12^0)

1493

— 1541J SenModel,

Beccher, Kunckel, Stahl,

Glauber, Hof-

mann,

Juncker,

Vogel,

Marggraf,

Newmann,
ter.

Cartheufer, Ercker, Cramer, Schliit-

Geliert,

Lehmann, Poerner,
Spiel mann,

Pott, Gerhard,
befides

Jufti,

Waiz,
other

and Meyer,

many

unmonumented

but great names in the
;

hiftory

of mathematicks and of chemißry

it is

not

without fome jußice that foreign nations have confidered the Germans as their maßers in the art of
7nining,

and not ivithout fome good

reafon,

that the

Germa'ns have firß endeavoured in their writings and
academies to give this art that fcientifical form which
it is
lißj,

capable

of,

and

to keep pace in it

with tht Engof late

Swedes,

Italians,

and French, who

have begun fuccefsfully

to emulate their example.
is,

'The ohje^ of this art
I
.

The working and building of the mines
j

in

which

they are found

2.

Their

PREFACE.
2. T'heir extracfion

XVI)

and feparation from
are

the ores

mid fuhflances
mineralized
3.
-,

in

which they

involved

and

and
and
metallic fuh-

The

invefligatjon cf fofftl

fiances or ores.

Accordingly

it is

eftallißed upon different fciencesj,

and may
I.

he divided into different -parts.

The Art of working and

building the Mines

confifts

of a ßilful application of yiatural philofophy
•,

and

the mathematicks to this particular obje^

it is

therefore to be divided into the following fubordinate

parts
a.

b.

The art of furv eying and drawing mines. The art of breaking and blafiing the rocks
The art of timbering and building the works

and

veins.

c.

under ground.
d.

The art of

correcting the airy
is liable to

which under
be damp,

ground^ for many reafons,
unfit
e.
f.

and

for refpiration.

The art of hydraulicks. And, At lafiy the art of mechanicks, for draining
and for

the mines of the fubterraneous water,
clearing them

from

the rubbißj

or ore by the va-

rious forces of nature, or various engines.

The

old Egyptians,

Greeks,

and Romans, mufi

be

allovjed to

have not been

deficient in thefe

mathematical

parts cf the art of

jniniyig.

Many

of their fubterraneov,i

xviii

PREFACE.

raneous buildings yet extant^ and many of their great

works of archite£iure^ which ever will he ohje^Is of intelligent admiration, prove it beyond exception, and
give credit to the ingenuity of their engines, which
certainly

we know

but very imperfeäly by their
It

own
to

written accounts.

would be extremely unfair

fuppofe that they had no engines
cerned about

{and

that, uncon-

the wretchednefs of fentenced ßaves^

whom

they employed in the mines as

many Europeans
left

employ the unfentenced innocent blacks^ they

them

unaßfled by their ingenuity
ßjip,

to

every danger and hard-

which of

courfe

muß

befall the

workmen, if

they are led in the dark without intelligent guides,

und condemned
the

to

do the various hard bußnefs of

mines by

the flrength

of their

hands, which

ive fcarce are able to perform with the animated

powers of nature enßaved by
judiced mathematicians,
rarians,
it

art.

For unpre-

or for intelligent antiqiiatajk even yet to deter-

would be no hard

mine what degree of perfe5iion they had actually
attained in the above mathematical arts of mining.

The Cloaca Maxima

at

Rome

-,

the Emijfario of the
-,

Lago Albano
duäs and
in

at Caßel Gandolfo
;

their various aque-

cißerns

their colojfal granite Obelißs cut

Upper Egypt, and thence tranfported as far as
',

Rome fome mines in Tranfylvania fuppofed to be Roman works, and the watering engines, ever ßnce the moß dißant antiqiiity^ ufed in Egypt, would by
an

PREFACE.
an analytical examination^ do jußice

xix

to their ingenuity

and iinconquered fpirit.
inay appear to
lis

But however

aftonijhing they

in their

works, and in the accounts

o.nd writings of

Archimedes and Euclid^
that the wcdcrn

who would

ferioußy pretend

invention of the

magnetical needle has not made the art of furveying

under ground actually more certain and more eafy

than

it

was

before ?

Who

can deny, that the modern

invention of gunpowder,

and the art of hlafiing, has
'fhcfe

made us
which
ii;ith

their

maßers ?

powers of nature^

refpettively lead us

und:r ground, and arm us

the earthßjaking ßrcnth of Pluto
ahfolutely

and Neptune^

were

unknown

to

them.

So zvsre perhaps

ollr 'Various

drawing and pump-mills, and our ven-

tilators

\

fo

was

the fire-engine,

which

is

one of the

moß

glorious 'monuments of Engliß ingenuity^ as, in-

dependent of the

known powers of nature,
all the

it

goes by

a very a^ive principle, in
fo much as noticed.
II. l!he

former ages fearce

art

<?/

extra(5ling

and feparating the Mein

tals,

from

the various heterogeneous fubßances,

isihich they

are contained and mineralized,
or

is

carried

on hy water and fire,

by waßjers and fmelters.

It is therefore to be divided into the following fitb-

ordinate arts
a. I^he

art of pounding the ores in mills.

h.

The art of waßoing them.

b

c.

Tht

XX
c.

PRE
Tbe art
<?/

y

A C

E.

metallurgy, zvhid\ by the agents

cffire and acids ^ feparates^ purifi.es^ and refpeBivcIy
produces and deßroys thofe "various metallic and

mineral fubßances^ -which are contained
ores

in

the

and

fojjil bodies^

and are fubfervient and

necejfary to fo

many

ivanis of

human foci ety.
is

d.

The Art of allaying or docimafy,
and weight,
contents,

rather
nice

a part of metallurgy, teachings by fmall and
affays

of

acids, fire,

to

determine

the value,

mixture,

and

yiature cf the

raw

ores,

or of the metals

and mineral fubfiances,

produced by the greater operations of metallurgical
furnaces and manufaElcries.

If the Ancients,

efpecially the

Egyptians,

Greeks,

and Romans, mufi be allowed
good empyrical
appears by
metallurgifls

to

have been pretty
plainly
it

and fmelters, as

many of

their

works and accounts,

mufi,

however, be allowed on the other fide, that they have
not left us any other, but perhaps a few traditional

praäices and proceffes, which, in refpeä

to metallurgy

and chemiftry, are more vague and
upon,
arts
their

lefs to

be depended

than in other more determined and evident

and fciences.

We

can make but very
they

little

of

Hermes and Theophraftus, and
Euclid for chemiftry
;

had no
me-

Archimedes or

nor did they

make

ufe of it either in the preparation of their

dicines,

or in the examination of the elementary fub-

ftances of nature.

Their medicines were mixtures or
decoäions

PREFACE.
Vegetalle^

XXI

decoUions of grofsßmpks and fuhßances, fiich as the

animal^

and

mineral kingdoms

offered

them
to

j

and

their natural pbilofophy was,

in refpeä

the elementary parts,
in the dark,

hut an ingenious gueffing
as
it

and reafoning
miift he,

ever has been,

and

without the

ajfifiance

of chemißry, which

refolves nature into its elements,

and hy

aconaintinp-

us with

many

of their properties,

unohfervahle and
teaches

itnohferved in their former combination,
to

how

make

ufe

of them, either in their concentrated ßmor in their

plifiedflate,

new

modelled comhinaticns.

It is to the Arabiaiis that

we

are indebted for the

advantages which philofoph ers, phyficians, ccconomißs,

and tradefmen, have reaped,
this fcience,
miflry,

and may reap, from
that fcientißcal
pcff'effed

or

rather from

che-

which we are at prcfcnt

of,

and

have fo much improved.

Many

of

its

technical
it,

names audits ufual characters would prove

if the

writings of Geber, Rhazes, and many others, had
left

us

any doubt.

IVe mufi not,

hozvever,

de-

prive our anceßors in Germany or England of their
claim to the invention or ufe of more ancient metallurgical proceffes.
difcovery

I have mentioned

already,

that the

and working of the mines

at Gofslar falls

between the years 950 and loco, after the age of

Geber and Rhazes,
learning in Europe,

zvho lived in the feventh

and

tenth century, but before the introdu6lion of Arabian

which

coincides

with the cruifades,
andf
I

b

2

XXll

PREFACE.
to

and,

our hiowledge, has -produced no European
but in the beginning of the thirteenth cenor

chemifis
tury,

when Albertus Magnus,
14

Albert von

Bollilaedt, {horn

1193-- 1280J and Roger Bacon
appeared.

{born

1

2

— 1294J

The metallurgical

operations at Gofslar Jecm, therefore, in thcfe earlier
times, to
ceffes,

have been efiablißed upon traditional proeither

which were

Roman

or

German and
;

as,

on account of the mixed irony
ores,

and xincous refraäory

thefe operations,

though ever fo much improved

at prefent, are extremely various, compound, hard,

and

tedious,

there

is

good reafon

to fuppofe,

that

even the traditional and empyrical fcience of the an^
cient

German

metallurgifls

was

by no means incon-

fiderable.

IVe have fcarce

any credible

account

that

this traditional

art ßjould have

been properly

fixed for poßerity,
ciples,

eßablißjed upon fcientifical prinearlier

and remarkably improved by chemißry,

than the times of George Agrlcola, {\SSS) '^^0 for his valuable books De Natura FoiTilium and De

Re

Metallica, d.eferves
excellent

to be called the

father of thofe

many

chemical
countries

metallurgifls

whom

Ger-

many and

other

have produced ever fine e.

I

will not enlarge upon the dates and refpeäive merits

of Agricola,
Schlütter,
Jufti,
r,Gr

Encelius,

Erker,

Becker,

Stahl,

Cramer,

Geliert,

Lehman, Vogel,
others
;

Henckel,

Pott,

Marggraf, and
in

upon their many

excellent difciples

Sweden,
France^

PREFACE.
France,

XX HI

and England,

fiich as

Bacon, Rob. Boyle,

Barba, Hcllot, Macquer, Blake, Lewis, Woulfe,

Beau me,
ohferve,

Sage,

and

others

\

but

I

heg leave to

that metallurgy, being, upen the zvhole, and
ufes

for the praäical

of the fmelters,
is

reduced upon

pretty evident principles^

however very far from

having attained

its highcfl

degree of perfeclion in re-

fpecl to philofophical chemifiry.
fiances, ores,

Many

mineral fub-

and fofpds, are fill very problematical;
enq^iiiry

but the general fpirit of
bids fair to improve
it

fpread over Europe

in

a quite different ratio from

that in which

it

proceeded formerly.

Mr. Cramer's

new

metallurgy,

and Mr. Dehus's propofals for
Hungary, inferted in
this publica-^

copper-refining in

cation, prove, that

many metallurgical

operations are

capable of improvement by the principles of chemifiry
duly applied
\

and the very principles of chemifiry are and of being
a new

at the eve of being better ascertained,
confidered in
light.

At

leaf very promifing

profpeois

have opened within

thefe

few

years from

I)r. Prieftley's

late experiments

on air,

and from

the ingenuity

at Berlin,

and fagacity of Mcff. Pott and Marggraf and of Mr. Beau me and Mr. Sage at and new forts of air

Paris.

The former have feemingly acquainted us
qualities
•,

with new

but, properly

fpeaking, they have exhibited to us only the

phenomena

of a new, aSlivefuhtile,

elafiic, and poiverfulfolvent or
all,

menftnium hitherto not at

or but imperfe^ly, madeufe

b 3

XXIV

PREFACE.
and
ajfays.

ufe of in our chemical analyfes

Ho''jjever,

they
its

muß

of courfe continue to enrich chemiflry^

and

dependent arts^ fciences, and trades^ with

many

valuable difcoveries.

I

am
on

confident

the

fame muß
which

le the cafe zvith
theory and

Mr.

Sage's late arid very ingenious
jnineralization,

e^aperiments

being above the underßanding, or againß
ditional creed of

the tra-

many chemical

Virtuofi^

have opened

in France a new and ample field of abufe, and every where elfe an amp'le field of fpeculation^ and of dif-

coveries.

It is

with the new principles and difcoveries

in natural philofophy exa^ly as with the noßrums in

phyßc.

At firß

they are good for every thing

•,

foon

after old Method cries them

down

as good for nothing j

hut experience proves them at laß to be good for
fomethino;.
III.

The Art of invefligating, difcovering, and

purfuing the metallic and mineral fubilances un-

dec ground,
eßablifhing
it

is

uponfuch terms as allow feme hopes of

upon certain principles.
v.

Baron Pabfl

Ohain'j idea of a fubterranean
it
;

geography^ feems to imply that he thought of

and

the mineralogical accounts of Meff. Ferber,

Baron

Born, and

others^

prove

to

me^ that fuch an art
its

may
is

be invented^ and likewife that

invention

in

fome forwardnefs^

I ßoall

not fpeak of

Chance, that great difcoverer
-,

of mines, formerly worked and yet working

nor
ßoall

PREFACE.
ß?all

XXV
cr

I

enlarge upon

the

virgula divinatoria,

divining rod, tried by philofophers in England^ even
fo late as the times of Robert Boyle,

and net an

hundred years ago jcrioußy applied
difcovering

in

France for the
wells,

of

mines,

treafures,

rcbbers,

and murtherers.
the former,

We

do not knozv

how

to

methodize
latter

and we are fully convinced tha't the

has never anfwered any purpcfe but that of mak'ng
dupes.
I'hey

are,

therefore,

bcß

left

and recom-

meyided to ignorant people,
vifible.

who

delight in darknefs

'The only principles, upon

which

this very interefiing

art

may and muß

be eßablißjed,

are Mineralogy and.

Oryctoiogy.

Mineralogy, cr a
of the fcjfil bodies,
is

fußdent
of abflute

hißorical knozvkdge
necejfity to

the miner

and

to the learned.

It acquaints the former

with the
value,

name, form,

colour,

texture,

appearance,

and other properties of

the foffils,

and

it

makes

fcience intelligible by fcientifical, determined

names of

their chara5lerißic properties.
fcience,

quantities of rich

ores

For want of this and foffil fubftances

have been formerly thrown amongß the rubbiß of the
bingßcads
\

and there

is

fcarce a mining ccunt'ij in
their

which they have not fome time or other paved
highways with ßones and rocks of value.

I know,
zvcks

from

very refpeoiable authority, that that

for-

merly the cafe of the Cobalt-cres in Heffe, which at

b 4

prefent

XXVI

PREFACE.
'That the deficiency of languages.

prefent produce an annual revenue of about 14,000/.
clear of expences.

in that part of the art

of minmg, which treats of

fojils, has been hitherto a great obftruElion to its im-

provement^ will not be denied^ and has been feverely
felt by every one

who

wißoes to
metallurgy^

i?ifiru5t^

or to be in-

ßruBed,

in minings

chemißry^ and na-

tural hifiory.

Only a very

few foßlfubßances have
Such are the purer
fonie fiones.

determined names in common Ufe^ and in the lan-

guages of the

politefi nations.

and finer
infinite

metals^

fome

falts^

and

The

variety of their

mixtures,

different ft ate,
affinities

mineralization,

chemical properties and

of

their colour, form, hardnefs,

weight, fituation, na-

tive place

and

origin, if tinder ocd or noticed by the ft
tech-.

miners and metallurgifts, are exprejfed either by
7tical

or by provincial nameSy which, to the generality
to foreigners, are

cf men, or

what formerly

the Greek

was
thofe

to the

Monks.

I beg leave

to obferve, that they

have not been hitherto taken fufficient

notice

of in

numerous mineralogical fyftems, which have
laft fifty

appeared thefe

years.

Their authors con-,

fider mineralogy under too confined points cf view

and many of them have indulged themfelves in new and very often arbitrary names and idle claßfiications ;
fo that an egregious and nearly Babylonian confufton

has been added to the old

deficiency

of languages

-,

and
by

that fcience, upon the whole, has been

lefs benefitted

them

PREFACE.
them thanjufily might have been expelled.
he acknczvledged,
It

XXVll

muß
clajfi-

however, that the chemical
fojfils,

ßcation, and the iicmenclatiire of
into mineralogy

introduced

ever ftnce the firß appearance of

Pott's Lithogenefy,

and

the fyflems of

Wallerius

and Cronftedt,
fcience.

have

been

great

advantages to

Being eßahlißed upon their conßituent parts,
reality,

and upon

they may, under certain allowances^

prevent further ohfcurity and confußon,
fectly anfiver the

and per-

views of chemifls and metallurgifis.

But

as they fland at prefent, can they fully anfwer

the expeäation of miners, of natural philofophers,

and of friends
mineralogy
;

to fcience 7

They mufl be the

hafts

of

no competent judge,
it
;

and no man of fenfe,
they ßjould

will difpute

but to benefit the miner,

he explained in his

own

technical or provincial lan;

guage, which

is

generally negkuled

and

to fatisfy

the natural fhilofopher, they

ßould be eßablißed omy

upon evident principles of chemißry, and never pre-

fume

to

chßfy

foffil

fubßances^ which are not hi-

therto fußciently examined.
av^e

Moreover, many

foffils

fo compound

in

their mixtures,
-,

that a chemifi

may make any

thing of them

chemical char alters

and mofi part of their are fo far abßrufe and ohfcure,
fate than
fee
to that

as they relate rather to a future

raw and
them.

natural one, in which

we

and difcover
tell

A chemical miner alogifi

will at mofi

you

S^hat foffils are good for, or

what you may make of
themj

xxvlii

PREFACE.
He
will thence
operations
likewife by

them, or of what they are compofed.

make you guefs
they
in

what natural

may have received that raw and natural form

which we find them.

But

fire, crucibles,

retorts,

alembics, acids,

and

touchflones,

are infufiicient to

teach with certainty by what natural operations they
really

were produced.

'Thefe are fa5is,

which

che-

mical principles and good reafoning will and
explain
;

muß

their reality mufi be afcertained by hiftorical

evidence,

or

by

ocular

infpe£lion

and experiment,

for the fame mixture of foffils can be produced by fire and by water, by melting and by folution, by
fublimation, by precipitation, and by other operations,
1'his

we

plainly experience in our laboratories

•,

and

as thefe operations are really different from each other,
ü7id generally

produäive of particular forms and
it is

cir-

cumflances

;

but

juß

to fuppofe,

that the

fame

orfimilar, operations in the great laboratories of Nature, are

and mufi be productive offtrnilar forms and circumfiances, and that the particular forms and
circumßances in which the
foffils

are found, fhould

he nicely

noticed by mineralogifls,

who pretend

to

give full information and aAequate ideas.

'They

mufl henceforth examine, rank, and defcribe them not
only as individual fubfiances by their chemical properties,
ccnfider
colour,

texture,

and form, hit

they mufi

them

likezvife

under the more extenfive point
firatificationy

of view of their former natural ßtuation,

PREFACE.
tion^

XXIX
in

conneäion^

and

vicinity

with other foßls
veins
in

the native places^

heds^

and

which they

are found.
tude, of

By fo
it

doings mineralogy receives a lati;

which

hitherto has been deprived

foßls

appear in their only
is

and true natural

order.,

which

that of their chemical properties and of their na•,

turalfituation

thefoffil beds

and veins become monuof natural chemical
art of dif covering

ments of former
operations-, and,

revolutions.^ or

in

(hort,

the

or purfuing them under ground will be reduced into

probable rules. I do not indulge a chimerical fondnefs

for a favourite

idea.

I have

traced the outline of
j

a

mineralogical fyßem upon thefe principles
fay.y

that

is

to

a fyflem

iJohich

goes hand in

hand with

the

principles of chemißry

and of ßratification-, and
if,

I

muß
nefs

be falfe to truth,

for an

ill-placed

baßful-

and modcßy, I ßould not
its

publicly acknowledge

and recommend

advantages.

Hints of this new
account of the Ger-

mineralogy are thrown out in

my

man

volcanoes,

and

efpecially in

my

preface and in-

dex to Ferber'^s Letters on Italy, and to this publication.

I hope

they will

fußce for the

intelligent,

and make good the aßertion,

"

that the invention of

the art of difcovering mines is in
nefs."^

good forward^

Philofophers,

ancient

and modern, have

hitherto

confidered mountains in general from a point of

view

which was

too confined,

or entirely different

from
that

XXX

PREFACE.
For being unimand
by that extenlight of volcanoes,

that of mineralogy ajid mining.

proved by the

five knowledge which they might have reaped in the
deepefi mines

of the highefi mount ains^ and from the
they fluck only to

inßru5iion of unfcientific miners,
their
libraries,

and

to

the uppermofl cruft of
to

the

earth, which,

without any great trouble
a,n

them-

felves,
moß

they

had

opportunity of examining in the

pleafing

countries,

and

in the mofi fuperficial

(quarries

of fand-flone, limeflone,

and ßate.

We

are

not to wonder, therefore, that orology, or the fcience

ef mountains, is fo little underßood amongfi the learned; and that the defer ipticjis cf the higher
mountains in Peru, Teneriffa, Switzerland, and different parts of Europe are generally filled with me^
teorological obfervations, botany,

and other

accounts,

which leave

their very rtature in a minerological

and

orological refpe£l full as

unknown

as they

were

before.

The

confequence

was

plain, that general conclufions

have been

too raßoly

drawn from a ßngle kind of

mountains, and that the pretended fyfiems of the ori-

gin of the mountains in general are, for the greater
part, fo very romantic and fuperficial.

Experience and hißory prove the mountains and

ßrata of the earth to origin, and antiquity.
divided by

be of a

very different nature,

They have been accordingly
at Venice, into

Mr. Giovanni Arduino,

primitive, fecundary, modern, (Tertiarii) and volcanic

mountains.

Iß all not repeat from Mr. Ferbefs Fetters
what.

PREFACE.
tains
;

XXXI

*what characters he has given of thefe various mounhut

I mufl

netice^ that

primitive mountains,
early by

or fir at a ^

have been fpoken of very

other

philofophers^
to confift

and that

they are generally underfiood

of ßmple

rocks, lefs firatified than the in-

cumbent fir at a, and never containing in their pafte

and mixture any petrefaolions, of adventitious, organic
bodies

of ßells,

other animals

or plants.
is

That

there are fuch mountains and fir at a ^

unquefiionabky

hecaufe they are

found

either at the bottom of the

deeped mines, or hare appearing through a variety

of incumbent other firata at
higher mountains.
fumptuciis to
infifi

the

fummits of the

But

it

zuould be extremely pre-

upon their being true primitive

mountains.
be

The

only confequence

which fairly can

drawn from Mr. Ferber's and Mr. Arduini*s Obfervations in his Raccolta di Memorie Chimicomineralogiche
:

Venezia lyjs)
roffo

^^•>

^^'^^

the reddifh

granite (granito

d'Egitto) and the micaceous

and horn-ßate, for being every where found below a
variety of other incumbejit firata, muft, in refpeut to

time and origin, he anterior and different

from them^

and

that,

for

this reafon, they

may

jufily be called

the mofi antient rocks hitherto known.

The Iccundary

ftrata

and mountains,

chiefly con-

ßfiing of limefione and argillaceous ßate,

are

accu-

mulated on the former^ and the more modern ones
are incumbent on thefe.

They owi their origin

to

a

variety

XXXll

PREFACE.
and
accidents^ as

variety of canfes

may

he

proved

even hy
tains

hiftory.

Nor

are even the volcanic

moun-

and

flrata
,

produced by and under the fame
is

circiimßances

as fußciently

hinted by 7ne in the
in

preface

to Ferber''s Letters^

and

my account of the
variety

German

volcanoes.

Of courfe

they mufi all of them,

for chemical and
of

hifiorical reafons., offer a

circumfiances in the

form^ mixture^ and fuhfiance
in

cf their pafie and

rocks.,

the fituation

of their

ßratdj in the nature and direElion of their veins,

and

in the nature

and mixture of the paraßtical rocks,
and
caveiiis.

•which are produced in their veins
'The miners in

Germany, whofe ideas have been

generally confined to their

main

'objeSi,

and

to

tht

nature of the

mountains, in which

they

worked,

have, inßead of the above divißon of the mountains,
divided them into
flat

and

into

gang mountains,

(Flots, and gang-geburge.)

By

the

former they underßand ßratified modern

mountains, which generally furround the higher and

more ancient

ones,

and are worked not for

their veins,
lefs

hut for the contents of their ßr at a, which are
dipping,

and more

horizontal.,

than thofe in the higher

mountains. Such are the fiat e copper-works in
field, the coal ?nines in general,

Mans-

and ?nany iron mines.

By gang-mountains,
lic

they

underßand higher meta-

mountains, which are working for their veins or

ftocks,

and conßß

in

Germany, Bohemia, and Hungary,

PREFACE.
naturalifts

XXXUl

gary, ofgranite or micaceous and hornßate^ or of 'what

would

callprimitive

mountains.

By gang,
va-

or gang-geburge, they underßand
rious fubfianccs
tified rccks^

like-wife thofe

which

either do never appear in fira-

but in veins (or gaengen) only^ viz. the

whole tribe of parafitical fiones^ of quartz, fpar., fluor,
i^c. or thofe, which in particular cafes are

found

to fill

veins, joints,

and flocks, as granite, fiate, zinnopely

grit, clay,

In this

and other matrices of metals a7id minerals. fenfe^ it is ufed to dlfilnguiß them from the
vein or
abfolutely a relative denomination^

rocks of the mountain on both fides of the
ftock
;

and

it is

fince the fame fubfiance

may he
feme

in fome places particu-

lar to the vein,

and

In

others to the mountain.
Is

Father George Agricola
and,

undoubtedly the fir fi^

I dare fay,
and

till

of very

late, unparalleled in ref-

peä
run,

to fome fclentlfical

knowledge of the veins, their

their rules.

What
-,

he knew from the miners
fcarce been
confulted

knew and drew of it^ but as everßnce they have
he
all,

at

by phllofophers

who
and
It Is

attempted to create and to dream mountains
worlds, and fyfiems of mountains and worlds.

no wonder that hitherto the learned ßould have fo
little

added to that fiock off dene e^ which he has
general accounts, b ef.des his, are

left us»

The

beft

Lehman's
a-nd

two German Treatlfes on the Flat Mountains
the

Metallic Matrices, and fome general princi-

ples In thofe valuable elements

of the art of mining,

which

xxxlv

PREFACE.
eflablißed at

which have been publißjed by the academy for miners

ßnce ij6^^

Freiberg in Saxony.

But

we

are very far from being thoroughly acquainted

'with their nature.

We

kiio'u;

them

only by

a

few
and

good obfervations made
Hungary.
I.

in

Germany^

S-iveden^

By

thefe it appears

'That the veins of the fame mountain^ nay^ of
to the

very extenfive trails of land^ are fubjeä

fame
crofsccii-

rules in refpeci to their direBion^ dipping

and

joints^
tents.,

and
ores

of the fame nature in refpeSl to their

and fcffils.
in the

II.

That veins of the fame mountain., running
dire^ion.,

fame
rocks ^

and through and under

the

fame
and

are loaded iznth the fame ores andfvffds^

accordingly feem to have been produced

and loaded by

the fame natural revolution^
III.

That

thofe

which

crofs

them in contrary

direSfions^

feem very often to have been produced in

different

times^

and by

different revolutions,

when

they are loaded with different fuhflances.

IV. That the veins of the incumbent mountains^
for example., of calcareous or fate mountains, have
their particular rule of direElion, dipping, crofs-joints,

and

contents, very often unaffeäed by

the different

rule of thofe veins,

which are
whence
it

in the lower

rocks

of fate or granite

;

appears, that theß

latter were, in point of time, anterior to the former.

V. That

E F A C
V.
in the crojfings.

F.

XXXV
and richeß

*That the veins commonly turn quicker

VI. 'That ores and metals are produced in thi
crojfings^

which did not

af)pear before

either in the

main

vein^ or in the crofs-joints.

VII. That they are generally quick when running
or dipping along^ and between the limits of different
adjacent
limits

or incumbent rocks

•,

for exaraple^

in

the

of granite and incumbent ßate^ or in thofe of

ßate and incumbent limeßone.
VIII. That their contents or loads of rocks^ parafitical fiones^
ores,

and

metals^ generally
relation
to

have a
racks
in

natural

and chemical
they

the

and under which

are runtting'\ that

is to fay,

that veins in granite carry tin, wolfram-, pyrites,
black-lead, quartz,

and granite grit

;

that veins in

limeßone carry fpar and
metals
•,

fiuor, befides lead

and other

that veins in the Hungarian metallic rock

are. filled

with quartz,

fieldfpath, gold

and filver

\

that veins in hornßone produce gold, ßlver, and zinnopel ; that veins in ßate are loaded with argillaceous fubfiances, quartz, ßlver, lead, copper,

and

iron

;

and that thenaturalprodublions of limeßone, ßate, perphyry, trapp, and volcanic beds, if incumbent on deeper
veins, appear in them, or produce modifications offoffils,

which

their

own

matrix, rocks, or ßdes, would
C r

xxxvi

PREFACE.
'To verify thefe af-

net have produced by tkcmfelves.
ferticns^

I

refer the intelligent reader to a tabellary

übfiräB of fame mines defcribed in this publication^

und beg leave
all the
•uühich

to obferve^ that^ by fimilar abfira£ls

of

good mineralogical and
are come to

orological

accounts

my

hands.,

1

am

enabled to give in

a new edition of my Syfiern

of the Earthy fomething

more fatisfaäory about orology and the metallic mines
in general than
lic.

hitherto has been given to the

pub-

'They are the
•,

work of many years., and of great

labour

and with the various improvements of the
though

above Syßcm., not undeferving that generous fupport

and encouragement

which.,

a foreigner., I

make bold
fcience.,

to expe5i

from

unprejudiced friends of

and from
it

thofe gentlemen.,

whofe intereß and
clear under their

hifinefs

is

to fee

fomewhat

cwn
and

ground.,

and

to

prevent thofe ma.ny impqfiticns

difappointments., to

which adventurous., unprinci-

pled miners arefubjeci.
I.

This Syßetn of the Earth and Mountains
to contain

is to

appear in two volumes in 4to. and
II.

An

e>ca^ defcription of the furface of the earth
\

and

its fir at a

with an appendix of my

own.,

and vainto

rious of the beß crclcgical cbfervations reduced
tabellary forms.

III.

Hiß

PREFACE.
III.

xxxvii

Authenticated accounts cf the various revo-

hitions

which have produced^ changed^ and

affe£led

the mountains^ ßrata^

and

veins.
hefl orologi-

IV. Candid andliterary accounts of the

cal fyflems^ efpecially of that of the Greeks^ the late Robert, Hooke^
its

and of
it

who

did not live to give

due extent.

V.

A ßoort

explication of the phcenomena on the

furface of the

earth.,

by the above hifiorical accounts^
cheniifiry.

Jupported by the principles of

VI.

An
and

ampleßetch of a new fyft em of mineralogy

for miners, hid dozen upon the principles of metallurgy
ftratificaticn,

with a conftant reference

to the technical

and provincial language of the miners

and fm ehers.

W\.

Some

fcicntifical fe^ions,

plans ^ and maps,

leßde feme irfiruftive and ornamental drawings of
unnoticed
fcjfils

and petrifanions ^

will be added

\

and as I miift

be at the expence of foyne enquiries in

the mining countries
before

of Great Britain and Ireland
the

I can put the laß hand to

work^which will not

he wiihciiifome expence.,

I dßre the friends offcience to

take this

work under

their proteäion, to leave their
boookfel-

names and orders at Mr. George Kearßefs.,
Icr.,

in Flcet-ftrcet;
cor,i;nanJj

who
c
2

likezvife will take care

of

their

and

enquiries,

dirccled to me, in

whatever

XJtxviii

PREFACE.
ufeftd to them.

whatever I may he
lar

More

particu-

ah will be ptiblißjed as foon as the fubfcribed propof

or ordered copes amount to a certain number.

Mean-

while

Current

utillter

mei

NuUo cum
and I ßall

ftrepitu dies

continue the publication
orological

of other vatracts^

luable mineralogical and

which,

for the better convenience
next

of the furchafers^ will
this^

appear in the fame form as
Letters.

and as Ferber's
lay

In the

I

intend to

before

th&

Englifh public
1.

Supplements to the Mineralogical Letters

of

Baron Born, taken from an improved
which
lately

edition^

has appeared in Germany.

2. Ahflra5ls

from Gio. Arduino's Raccolta lyy^at

di

Memorie Chimico-mineralogiche, Metallurgiche
e Orittografiche, publißed in

Venice.

3.

Ferber's Accounts of the Mines in Derbyßire,

publißed in iyy6 in Germany.
4. Ferber's Accounts of the
tinate.
5.

Minos

in

the Pala-

Ah-

PREFACE.
5.

xxxix

Ahßrncfs from Mr. Col'mV s Adineralogical Travels in the Palatinate
;

referring for other fu-

ture publications the hefi rmneralcgical accounts

of the

inincs in the Ilarzforeß^ Saxonia, Hejfe,

Tyrol, Sweden,

and

Italy.

R.

E.

RASPE.

London, Sept. 1776.

P. S. The ounce fpoken of in this publication

is

equal to one half ounce Englißj, and the annexed orological tables are

given only as

effay,

not as

compkat

abflraols of the

accounts contained in this volume.
to obferve, that the fmallnefs

Moreover I beg
fize would not
ore,

of the

flllow to fpecify the different fpecies
details.

of

nor to give forne other minute

Sed

la-

pienti fat

APPENDIX
TO THE
P

R

E

F

A

C

E,

OROLOGICAL TABLES

MINES
OF SOME

DESCRIBED IN

FERBER's LETTERS

ITALY,
A N D
I

FROM

N

T H

I

S

PUBLICATION.
Thofc of the
'

MINES
to be

at

Bohemia,

compared with the

JOACMIMSTHAL, M A P»

in

Käme

of th Mountain, Place a/ia Sides

or
r.ß

V
Rock.

E
Ore.

I

N.
Dlpfwg,

Mine.

the Vein.

LtrcEii'jn.

Fatfl rix-, ncz

Limeftone
blue argillaceous
flate.

Pegaw,
Steyer-

in

and Spar quartz.

Lead^lnnce,

with

filvc

mark.
Ferber's
Ital.

Jdria,

ii'

Limeftnne
blue
Hate.
arg.

ilate.

innabar

Crain. Ferb. Ital
Lett.

and quickfilver.

Teltr'ino

.

Limeftone
Üate.

Cirickfilver.

Ferb.

Schio,

in

LimeOone
alternatinr

Spar.

Silver,

lead,

Moite
Tnfa.
Ferb.

copper,

with
canic
ta.

volftra-

mangancfe.

FaUe

.-n

Gor- Limeftone

Lead
blende.

and

no, in Bci-

and

lava.

ganiafco.

Ferb.

Montieri.

Feib.

Limcflone and lla-e.

Spnr and
quartz.

Silver,

lead

copper,
iron.

CROSS VEINS,
Improving.
Rock.
Ore.

er

CROSS JOINTS.
Cutting
of,
Ore.

or striking DEAf«
DheBlonX
Di-p^iitjf,

Dircaicn

Dlpp'irg.
\

Rock.

Moufta'w, cA

flace ana Mine.

Sides
the Vein.

cf^

Koch

Ore.

Direüicn.

Dij-fir

Red
iJuin.

clay,

Feldfpath

jold

fandfione, metallic
rock.

and

fat

ver mine;

quartz.

to South North. ralized All the auriferous quick
fil-

and

A'eft to Eafl.

antimony
arfenic
;

veins
rallel.

pa

cinnabar.

TojUtza. Born.

Clay
rock.

flate;

Q^aru-

metallic

Gold, red fi! ver ore,
lead.

South to North.

Fuezcs. Buin.

Clay
rock.

flate,

Quartz.

Gold.

metallic

South to Nofth,

Felfo

Eanya.

Born.
Borkul

Homftone.

Zinnppel.

Gold and
ver.

fil

mine.

Great Mine. Hornftone and metal
lie

Zinnopel.

Gold and
ver.

fil

rock.

Smoirt».

Born.

Micaceous Clay nnd quartz. and blue
flate.

,opper
riies,

py Eafx toWefijin 75desre: and in hour 6.

filver.

Three
quick
veins pa
rallel.

CROSS VEINS,
Improving.
JJof*.

er

CROSS JOINTS.
Cutting
of, or strikiko deaf.
Ore.
\

Ore.

Dnecikn

|

Dipftng.

Roc\.

1

DheS2ion.

Dlppng.

Quartz
iluor.

Sc

Sulphur,

In

the
hanc;-

III

antimony,

the hading,
cro'fing

manganefe.

the

mam

vein in an acute
angle.
F.afl:

to
I

In 75'

Weft

to

Weft to

Well.
•lading,

^rinj; the veins in ihr

and quicken

hem.

South in Eaft, hour 9, or or Co North. hour 2 I Bring the veins in the liauging, and fti'ikc
I

hem

deaf.

'Name of

th.

Mounra'i», or Sides
cf

N.
Rock.
Ore.
DircFiioit.

Flaci and Mine.

the f^ein.

Dijfwg.

Slemnix, Born.
'Spitaler

Clay
rock.

flate,

Vein.

metallic

VVefttoEall, Quartz and Gold, (ilver, North to lead. South, or between zmnopel. South to 30' and North, be70'. tween hour 12 and 4.
vVhite
in

S. John's.

Metallic
rock.

clay Silver.

and quartz
the

In the hanging of tht former

hanging
zinnopel
in

and
rallel.

pa-

the

hading
Beaverftoln Metallic
rock.

Quartz,

zii

Gold,
lead.

filver,

Nonh
South

t<

Weft
Eaft,

to

nopel, fpar

be-

above, be-

tween and 4.

tween 30' and 70'.

rherefia.

Metallic

Zinaopel.

Gold,
lead.

filver

N'orth

to

Eaft

to

rock.

South,

Weft;
then
tical
lart
;

verat

Well

to Eaft.

Cathar'inahergy
in

Gneiff.

GneifT
grit

or

Silver,

of

per

Bohemia.
Ferber.

granite.

cop- South to Between 60' miNorth, o and 90', neralized North t(
;

and native

South, hour 2.

in

Gneiff.

Gypfeous
Ipar.

Silver.

North

to
i

Ferb.

South,

Maria
K.irchbaw.

hour 12 and I.

CROSS VEINS, Improving
itccl.

er

CROSS JOINTS.
Cutting
Rock.
1

of, or striking deaf.
Ore.
I

Ore.

Dinclkn

Dipping

D'irerÜBn.X Dipping.

White
clay,
fpar,

Silver.

Iti

the

hansjins

quartz.

White
clay,

I

I

-aO to Welt,

roarfe
clay,
fpar

quart?,
fpar.

Quieten the veins

i^avie of ih

VEIN.
Sides
0,'

Place

anc.

Mine.

the V,hi.

Rod.

On

in Kohemiii
,

GoWrofe

)late,

grey micacüjus

lay

;

red

Silver,

lead,
a

hading

hornftone or lliut clay (late
;

ci.'balr,

feiiic

;

nt

ores,

f|)ar;

quartz.
,

Goldrofe

yixxa.

hanging.

•,

Fund- Ditto,
grub.

Ditto.

Ditto.

>

).,

Raker":

:^itto.

Ditto,

Ditto.

Vein.

5,

Gediieber.

Ditto.

Ditto.

c
;,

Rofc from
Jtrit'ho

Jitto.

"j,

S'.veit-

Oitto.

zer.

7,

You lit
Svveit-

"»itto.

Ditto.

zer.

CROSS VEINS,
I
iiock.

a-

CROSS JOINTS.
TTIN-G OF, OR STRIKIXC DEAF,
Reck.
Ore.

M

P R O V

INC.
Dipfmg

DireBion

hj'pm^.

Trapp.

Edft to

joiith

to

Weft.

North

Trapp.

Diito.

Ditto.

Trapp.

Ditto.

Ditto.

Povfihvry,
fat clav

Siuth to

North

All the above Nurllitrni veins are befiji-t co.illaatly improviJ bv ihc croffing-; of| liic E.iiVtru ones, which run from Eali
to vVcil.
Porph_^,

^outh to

Noah

Porphyry

•'outh

to

North

hiames of

tit

Mountain,
Siiies

o.

N.
Roth
Ore,
Dircclion.

Place

arii.

of

Mine,
jfcachimßhal,

the Vein

Dipping,

in

Bohemia
I,

Lawrence.

Slate

gray micaceous

-lay,

clay

Silver,

lead
ar:

•:afttoWeft, South
h. 5.

to

flate, fiiar,

coi-.alt,

i|

p,

and
quartz.

arfenic

North, hetwec«
60. 73'.

rich ores.

1,

Sufan- Ditto.

Ditto.

Ditto.

h, 6

h

Ditto.

3,

Vrfula

Ditto.

Ditto.

Ditto.

h. 6

6Jp,

Ditto.

\,

Andre- Ditto,
as,

Ditto.

Ditto.

h

7^1

Ditto;

^,

Cow
Vein

Ditto,

Ditto.

Ditto,
fjlver

anc
naglal:

h.

7.

Ditto,

tive
ore,

lead

glance.

6,

Rofe Vein

Ditto,

Ditto.

Ditto.

h. 6

Ditto,

7, Elias-

Ditto.

Ditto.

Ditto,

1^

7

Ir

Ditto,

8, George
.

3itto,

Ditto.

Ditto,

h. 6 3I p

Ditto.

ftoln.

N,B. Th
jres

and th
one;.

richer

jhiefly in th
croffes of the above Nor thern veins.

CROSS VEINS,
1

or

CROSS JOINTS.
Cutting
Ro
of, or stkiking deaf. Or DWcSiitn Dihtil ijtptn^.

M

P R

V
i

I

N G

.

R^ck.

Ore.

DireSion

D^ppwg.

EafttoW
I

ioiithtoN.

Porjihyrv
I'rapp.

S-)L!t'UoN

lEall Co
J'

SouthioN.]

W.

Tnpp.
t'^rphyvy

EailtoW
SsuthioN

>ut!itoN.

f'oruihvrv

^ouilaoK.

X, E.

The above Northern
and
imj-vov»; the

veins

crof

Eaftsrn ones.

[

I

]

TRAVELS
THROUGH THE BANNAT
OF

T E

M

E

S

W

A

R,

&"€.

LETTER
Y
make
caft.

I.

Temcfwar, June 14, journey from Shemniz to

1770.
has

this place

fcarce offered
this
letter
I,

me

any obje6t that might

agreeable to a naturalift of your
befides

Had

my
in

little

mineralogical

fcience,

fome knowledge

Botany,

my

three days
Segedin,

travelling over barren heaths

from Ofen to

and thence
cured

to I'emefwar^

might have perhaps proIcaft

me
I

an opportunity to entertain you at

with the names and defcriptions of fome plants. But
alas

am no Botaniil, tho' You well know how fond
!

that
I

is

not

my

fault.
hif-

am

of natural

tory.

But

I

never met with any proper oppor-

B

tunity

2

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
Except

tunity to improve in this part of fcience.
at Vienna^
ftates,

there

is

no academy
is

in all the Auflrian
^

in

which Botany
is

taught

nay, even at

Vienna^

there

no Profeffor of Natural Hiftory.

For

this

reafon
is

you need not be aftonifhed that
entirely unnoticed

natural hiflory

and negle6led

in Aufiria^ Vv'hile

the EngJißj^ French^ Swedes and

Ruffians^ for the fake of ufeful fcience, examine

their

own and
to

theremoteft countries of the world.
?

But

what purpofe thefe complaints

You may

guefs by

them

the difiatisfadion,

which will attend

me on

my journey through the mountains of Banand part of the Carpathian
hills.

nat^ Tranfyhania,

All the riches of Flora^ during the

fineft feafon

of the year, dilplayed
at
I
all

in thefe parts, will

be fcarce

enjoyed by me.
able to do, and
1

However,
repeat

I

do what

am

my

former pro-

mifes, that

you

fhall

have a fhare of the minerals

which

I

colleft,

and accounts of the nature of

the mountains,

and the working of the mines,
to you.

which perhaps may be new

From Shemniz
the fame

to Ofen the

mountains
is

confifl:

of

argillaceous

rock, which

mixed with

quarz, fherl

and mica, and compofes the whole

mafs of mountains about Kremniz and Shemniz.
In fome places, and efpecially at Beutfch-Pilfen^

they have likewife difcovered fome copper and
filver-veins,

drained fome old and drove fome

new

T E

MESWA
;

R, &c.

LETTER

I.

o

new
thefe

galleries

but to no great advantage.

All
flate

mountains are covered with argillaceous

and limeftone.

Near

JVrJzen^ a

handfome

little city

on the

Danube^ begins the plain, which uninterruptedly
ftretches thence to T'emefwar,

and to the

left

hand
In

to Debreczin, and the limits of TrafiJJylvama.
three hours
I

came
I

to

Peß, where

fpent a day.

This

city,

adorned
tafbe,
is

with magnificent fcruftures

in the

neweft

entirely built of petrifaftions.

The quarry, whence
dire(51:ly

they fetch the ftones,

is

near Ofeff, a city

oppofite on the other fide of the Danube.

I

ex-

amined thefe calcareous
befi:

hills,

produ6live of the

wine oiOfen.

They

confifl:

of a porous lime-

fbone,

which

is

filled

with innumerable quantities

ofchamites, turbinites and pedlinites. OurlVaicFs,
Schröders and Hupfches, with feveral other gentle-

men

of that kind,

who

are afFraid

of coal duft, and

the horrors of fmutty mines, and hunt after petrifadlions only
in
this

on the furface of the

earth,

might
pick

place

make

rich crops

•,

nay, they m.ight
fneils,

perhaps, from this immenfc

Hock of

up known undefcribed
and points
•,

fome chamites or pedtinites, \vith fome un.

ilripes, wrinkles, folds,

warts
!

and then, mercy upon our ears
in

how

they would indulge themielves

God knows what
far

analogy or fimilarity,

in

forming

fetched

B

2

names.

4

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

names, and finging forth the praifes of their important difcoveries
it is
!

To us fimple mineralogical

folks

fußcient to have found here marks of an an-

cient fea's covering this part of Europe.

The

hot baths at Ofen are fpoken of by

all

geo-

graphers.

Mr, Laurentius

Stocker defcribes

them

at large in his 1'hermographia Budenß.

Accord-

ing to his account, their conflituent parts are ful-

phur, lime, and iron.

Beyond Ofen begins the famous Ketßemite-heath.
It
is all

over covered with grit fand (glarea Linfea fliells.

naei)

mixed with broken
fand.

The Hones
are fer-

which now and then appear ftraggling,
ruminated by
this
I

travelled

often fix

hours and longer without meeting with any tree
or houfe, except the ftage houfes.
plain, fifty
tities

However

this

German miles fquare,

feeds vaft quan-

of

cattle.

Near

JOebreczin they dig out
this

of

fome fwampy grounds of
minerale nativum,

heath the Sal
clay.

alcali

mixed with fome

For

many

years

they have
foap,

made of
fells

it

the excellent the whole

Debreczine

which

over

kingdom.
as a

In former times they confidered this
faliter.

com.mon

Mr.

Stephen Wefzpremi, a

celebrated phyfician at Debreczin, and

Mr.
it.

Jufl

John Torkos^ were the
former fpoke of
it

firft

who examined

The

in his

I'entamine de inoculanda pefie, Londini, 1755.

and

TEMESWAR,
and the

^(.

LETTER

I,

ß

latter in his treatife

De fale minerali alcaltno nativo Pannonico.
1763.
I

Pofoniiy

heard lately from Vienna^ that a young phy-

fician,

Mr. Gabriel Pazmandi, from Comorra
treatife

in

Hungary^ has publillied a new
its

on

this fait,

native fituation, qualities and powers.
I

obferved on this heath fome flocks of large

eagles,

and fome birds
to

in the

fwamps, which were

unknown

me, and may be perhaps for want of

a proper defcription, or a fcentifical zoologifl to

obfcrve them,

uninferted and unnoticed in the

fyftematical catalogues of birds.

Beyond
left

the Theijfa (T'ibifcus) and as foon as I

Ttirkiß Canißa^

the

foil

appeared

richer

and more entertaining.
trees,

Here

are plantations

of

corn-fields,

and plenty of colonies, whofe

eftablilhment cods to our imperial queen immenfe

fums annually.

The

villages are built

upon

a regular plan

-,

the

houfcs, for

want of wood,

built of unbaked bricks,

and thatch'd with reed (arundo.)

They have

ge-

nerally a parfon, a fchool, a corn magazine,

and

an accountant or infpeftor.

Every

colonift re-

ceives at his arrival a fuitable houfe, the tools of

hufbandry, the houfhold implements, fome horfes,

and

a piece

of ground.

After fome years he

gives the tithe of his crop as a contribution, and

B

3

then

6

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

then he

may pay

every year what he can afford of

the whole property.

A
them

good hufbandman
it

is

fure

to profper here.

Perhaps

might have been made more eafy to

if the villages

had been planned

fmaller.

There are fome
every colonift

that contain 3 or

400

houfes.

As

is

polfefled of a large wafte ground,

which he

is

to cultivate,

many of them have an
it.

hour's ride before they can reach

LETTER

TEMESWAR,

CSV.

LETTER

II.

LETTER
YO U know
this

IL

^emefwar^ June ij, i770'
that
;

two years ago
befides
I

I

travelled in
in 'Tranfletter,

country

was born

fylvania.

I

have therefore materials for a

which may for the want of natural
pleafe, at lead entertain you.

hiitory, if not

The Bannat of
in

Temeßivar
in the

is

that tra6l of land
is

Hungary^ which
title

Homannian maps

found

under the
It
is

of the Cfanader or ^emefer county.
is

under the 45th degree northern latitude,

22

German
Its

miles in length, and 15 or 16 in breadth.

boundaries are to the north the river Maros, to

the weft the Theijfa^ to the fouth the Danube, and
to the eaft

tremendous chains of rocks, which

feparate

it

from

T'ranjfylvania
this fide
it

and the greater
joins to the confides
it is

JVallacbia.

But on

tinent
fula.

',

in refpeft
is

of the other

a penin-

It

divided into eleven diftri6bs or bailithat of

v/icks, viz.

Cfanad, of Czako'oa, of Szent Anäraßj, of Szent
Mikloßj, of Beczkerek, of

Uy

Palan.ka,

of Verßjez,

of Or[ova, of Caranfebez^ of Lugoß, and of Lippava.

Every

diftridl is

fubdivided into fmaller jurifdidions.

B 4

8

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
which are called
of the
bailiff,

rifdidions,

procefles.

A

baili-

wick

confifts

a comptroller, two or

three under bailiffs, a fcrivener,

fome advocates
of national

and npper-knefes, which
magiftrates.

are a fort

All thefe bailiwicks are immediately
this

under the country-adminiftration, and

under

the royal court chamber-deputation at Vienna.

The

Bannat being a domanial
is

eftate

of her majefty,
flates.
is

entirely

independent of the Hungarian

The

chief town and the center of the country
fine,

^emefwar^ a regular,

and flrong place, but
its

imwholefome on account of

fwampy

fituation.

Agues and inflammatory
uninterrupted bufmefs.

fevers of all kinds rage

here every feafon, and procure to the phyficians

Here

is

the

general governm>ent, the country

adminiflration, the provincial court, the chapter

of Cfanad, whofe bifhop

is

by

his

own

right pri-

mus

inter pares in this country,

and two patentee-

commercial companies for the Auflrian fea-ports
in Italy.
is

The whole

eaftern part

of the country
;

mountainous and beft inhabited
is flat

the

weflern

part

andfvvampy.

In this are large uncul-

tivated plains,

which government takes care to

plant with German colonies from the Szvabian and
Rhinißj circles.
try

On the

four corners of the coun-

are

fome flrong places,

fuch

as

Canißa.,
Semlin,

TEMESWAR,

&c.

LETTERII.
Maros

g

Semiin, Mebadia, and Lippa.

Szegedin and Arrady
(tndTheiJJaj

fituatedon the other fide of the
are

Hungarian dependencies.

None of

thefe four

places are remarkably ftrong.

However, they

are celebrated in the hiltory of the Turkifi) wars,
as are likewife Vanfoisja^

Uy-Palanka, and Orfowa»
as

The

rivers in the

Bannat are of no importance,
•,

running only through a fhort traft of land
the Temes and

but

Nera deferve

notice,

the former

being made navigable

down

to Peterwardein,

by

an expenfive canal, war.

drawn from

Ltigojh to 1'emef-

The foil is extremely many places excellent.
colour.

fertile.

The wine

is

in

It

is

generally of a red

Peach, cherry, and plum trees are very

common.
drink.

Large plantations of that kind

fkirt

the villages and provide the inhabitants with their

The

filk

plantations fpread almoft over
•,

the whole country

they might, like

many

other

manufaftories of the bannat, be in a more flourilhing ftate, if that great general

and politician
to fupport

Count Mercy
them.

d' Argenteaii^

had lived

Of late

there has been

railed in this

country a

national-militia,

which

in the imperial

and royal
Illyrian

military ftate goes

under the name of the

regiment.

It

is

commanded by

the lieutenant-

colonel

lO

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

colonel Baron de Sezugafi^
order^
a.

l^m^toi thtTherefian'

man who

has greatly ferved his country.

Not

fatisfied

to have correfted the rough beha-

our of
to-the

his

officers,

and

to

have habituated them
likewife to

German manners, he endeavours
his private

humanize

men.
foldier

He eftablifhes
is

fchools

and mafters, and the
children fent there.
litical faints,

obliged to have his
a calendar of poin
it,

If

we had

Baron Sezugafs would ihine
Illyrian

under

the

title

of the

Reformer.

The

Plajaßes are another fort of national troops,

polled on the limits of Tranjfyhania and the greater
IFallachiai

from Marga towards Orfowa^ to put a
and inland robbers.

flop to tranfmigrations, and to prevent the efcape

of the

'Turkißj

They

are un-

der the

command of captain

Peter Vanßa,

who
his

in the laft

Hurkiß war was Haran-hajfa^ or chief of
deferved

a numerous gang of robbers, and
fortune for having in
the laft

war

faved the late

emperor

at

Cornua from the imminent danger of
"Turks.

being taken prifoner by the

This nation

is

remarkable for having produced
defert.

many brave men of great
for examble, a

Captain Ducc&

man of eighty

years of age, has in

the late Turhiß war been of eminent fervice to
the court
;

however, he never has

folicited or re-

ceived any preferment, happy in the confcioufnefs

of

TEMESWAR,
of
his honeft fervices,
1 will in

i^c.

LETTER
my

II,

n

and of
one of

his mailer's grateful
letters

difpofition.

defcribe
reli-

at large the character, the

manners, and the
prefent
I

gion of the inhabitants.

At

add only an and bufi-

abftrad of
nefs.

my

yefterday's tranfaflions

Soon

in the

morning

I

was awakened by a
have

dif-

mal and

frig;htful rattlino-

of chains, which founded
I

all alone;

the ftreet where

lodo-ings.

It

was

occafioned by the malefadlors,
fortifications,

condemned

to the

who, by couples chained together,
I

went

to work.

did not fee in the ftreets any

but bleak, yellow-coloured, decayed faces, peeping and ilTuing forth from the
fineft

buildings.
bel-

The women,
lies,

even the

girls,

had thick fwoln
I

left

them by the

fevers.

fancied myfelf in

the realms of death, inhabited, inilead

of men,

by

carcafes in fine tombs.

At

dinner

all

the guefts,
fit

befides

me

and fome foreigners, had a

of their
;

fever

;

fome freezing, gnafned
could not
I

their teeth

fome

burning; for heat,

afTuaq-e their thirlt.

In

the afternoon
I

vifited

the

canal which

I

fpoke of before.

faw there fome hundreds of bee-

hives conveyed to the

meadows, and

to the heaths,

where the bees are

left for

pafture during the whole

fummer.

Each

fet

of fixty hives has a bee mafter

to take care of them.

The

hives are conflruded

of

12

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
deal, three inches thick,

of eleven thin pieces of

and

at

one end decreafing into a point.

They

are

joined by willow or birch branches into a hollow
cone, open at the bottom.

Two

or three inches

above the ground there
fufpend their work.

is

a fmall opening, and

within fome croffes of wood, on which the bees

But they behave

in

Hungary
infefts,

with ungrateful cruelty to thefe laborious

fince, to take out the honey, they pufh the hive

with violence
brings

againft: the

bottom of a tub, which
in horrid con-

down

bees,

wax and honey

fufion, the

whole to be

m allied

and crulhed into

a fweet but difguftful mixture.
In the evening
I vifited

the publick goal, where
laft

I faw a famous robber, who, during the

fum-

mer, had greatly annoyed the Turks, and by particular defire

of the Grand-Signor
till

is

kept here,

as they told

me,

the

end of the war.

young, well

drefs'd,

and handfome man.
in Servia,

He is a He was

formerly a rich merchant

and became a
to his family.

robber to revenge upon the Turks fome violences

which they had offered

to

him and

His determined,
rafh

bold,
in

phyfiognomy,

and

his

undertakings,
raifed
in

which he was very fucthe idea,
that perhaps he
if

cefsful,

me

might have proved an Alexander,

he had been

born to attempt^'ith greater forces, what he neither

TEMSLWAR,
ther dared, nor
is

Is'c.

LETTERII.
All

j^

any other perfon permitted to
this will eafily

attempt, with fmaller ones.

convince you that
agreeable to me.

my

flay in this place

cannot be

But the

bufinefs of

my comfome

panion layeth
days more.

me under
Therefore,

the neceflity to flay
if you

be happy, remem-

ber your friend in Pontus.

LETTER

14

TRAVELS THROUGH THE SANNAT OF

LETTER
THE
The
people, in
lachians,

III.

Temefwar^ June 20, 1770.
inhabitants of Bannat are Raizes^ Wal-

and a fourth part Germans.

Raizes are faid to be originally a Scythian

former times inhabiting Dacia, now

called Servia.

They

call

themfelves Srbi.

Their

language

is

a corrupt Sclavonics or lllyric dialeft.

The origin of the They call themfelves
their

Wallachians

is

lefs

certain.

Romtin, a word which in
fignifies
it

language equally

a

Roman and

a

remaining man, and

makes

doubtful whether
colonies, or

they be remaining parts of

Roman

of

a

people conquered by the Romans.

The Ro-

man medals, tombs, and
in the

other monuments, found

mountainous parts, and near the Danube, are

valuable evidences of their having been in former
times fubjefts to the Romans; either in the one or
in the other fenfe.

Even

their

language, which
is

in greater JVallachia (Zara more)

fpoken very

rudely,

but

in

l^ranJTyhania (Ardellia) has the
is

reputation to be fpoken very elegantly,

a cor-

rupt Latin.

However,

I

do not conceive how

fo

manv

TEMESV/AR,
many
gar
(eat)

&c.

LETTER

HI.

j^

Italian words, fuch as

rame (copper) manfimilarity

and many more, that have no

with the Latin, came to be ufed by them.
termination

The

of their words

in

general, and the

conjugations after the Italian manner, have been

mixed

into the language of this nation.
is

Their manner of living
favage.

extremely rough and

Tiiey want religion, arts and fciences.
firft

Their children are from their
every day in the open
air, in

infancy wafhed
water, and then

warm

fwathed in coarfe linnen or woollen cloth.
difference of the feafons

The

and the weather makes

herein

no

dilference.

From

the fifth to the

twelfth or fourteenth year of their age they are
left

with the herds and flocks to attend them
girls

;

however, the

are taught

in

the fame time

wafhing, baking, fpinning, making needle-work,

weaving, and

fo on.

From
in

the 14th year they are

brought up and employed
or maiz
is

hufbandry.

Kukuruz

their chief objedl of agriculture.

How-

ever, they
diftil

fow likewife
fruits

oats, barley

and corn. They

from the

of

trees,

which they plant
Their meat

in great plenty,

a

fort

of brandy, called rakie,
of.
is

which they are very fond
fimple as their drefs.

as

Bifquet of coarfe grinded
call malai,

maiz, baked under afhes, which they

fome
tables,

flefh,

milk, cheefe,
their

beans and other vegefood.

are

common

Their

drefs

is

various

l6

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
it

various; but generally
articles.
fers,
fi^in

confifts

of the following

The men wear

long white woollen trou•,

as the

Hungarians, but wider

foles

of raw
;

tied

about the feet inftead
;

of fhoes

a

Ihirt

open on the bread
around the

a woollen jacket or coai,

tight

waift, with

long fleeves, and a

fur cap or bonnet for the head.

The women have
•,

long

fnirts

down

to the ancles

a

brown variega-

ted ftriped petticoat open on both fides, and tied

with a girdle
cloth,

-,

a waiftcoat or

garment of coarfe
Ihirts,

fomewhat fhorter than the

and an

annular bolfter fluffed with hair or ftraw upon
their head,

which they cover with a woven

cloth.

The
fifl

girls

go bare headed.

Their ornaments con-

of ear-rings of white or yellow brafs, of co-

loured glafs, beads, pearls, glafs feathers, and pieces

of money faftened to a

firing

and

tied

around the

head and the neck. This ornament makes a ringing, fo that
girl,

a fine drefl'd Raize, or Wallachian

may

very often be heard fooner than feen. very young
-,

They marry
couples, the

and there are married

man

not above fourteen, the wife

even not twelve years of age. feem to be peculiar to them.

Some manual
a weaver
;

arts

Scarce any where

you

will

find a cartwright, or

every

Wallachian being a cartwright, and every
weaver.

woman a
fale

No woman
in hand.

is

feen going about without

fome work

What

they

bring to

thev

TEMESWAR,
nnrfe,
it is

yc'.

LETTER

lir.^

ij

they carry on their heads.
carried in the

If they have a child to

fame manner.

The fpin-

dle

is

flicking in their girdle, and all the

are fpinning.

All their neceflaries

way they are worked up

by themfelves.
beggars are feen
to you of their

Scarce any tradefmen nor any

among them. What can I fay religion ? They confefs the nonritiis

united Greek religion, Gr<£ci

non unitorum»

But

in faä: they

have fcarce more religion than
except repeated
fa:ftings,

their domeftic animals,

which almoil take up half the year, and are fo
extremely fevere,
that they
;

dare not

eat

any

meat, eggs, or milk

they fcarce have any idea

of other religious
even Ihould they

duties.

But

in thefe fadings

they

are fo fcrupulous, that they do not break them»
flight

every other divine or hu-

man

law.

'A robber will never indulge himfelf
lie

contrary to this abflinence, nor

with his

own

or another man's wife, for fear that
in this cafe

God might
his trade.

withdraw
!

his bleffing

from

"What barbarifm

what humiliating

ideas

of the

Supreme Being
Popes.

!

The

ignorance and fuperftition

of the Bonzes cannot pofTibly be above that of their

Some of them
•,

are fo ignorant as to

be

unable to read
ple
?

what can they teach the poor peotill

They plow and

their

ground, they attend

their herds like other peafants, deal in every trade as

Jews^ and get drunk

at the

expence of their
their fins,

llupid parifhioners,

who

fell

them

and

C

.fancy

l^

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
if

fancy to be happy and to be faved
their

they difcharge

price.

own and their deceafed relatiohs fins at a 2:ood The falutary ordonnances, which her maqueen has publiflied againft the
illicit

jefty the

tricks of thefe Popes, have

proved hitherto unef-

fedtual to refcue the people

from that

fpirit

of

fla-

very wherewith they are fubjedt to thefe fpiritual
mailers.

Her

majefty's

wifdom

is

equally emi-

nent in proteding and propagating true religion,
as in

checking and extirpating
religious rites

fuperftition."*

The

and ceremonies of this people

favour rather of Paganifm and Judaifm, than of
that religion which they profcfs.

For example

no woman
ever
it

will attempt to kill

any animal what-

be.

The

bride

is

on her wedding day,

and the day before, conftantly hid under a veil.

Whoever
Ihe defire

unveils her
it,

is

entitled to a kifs

;

and, if

obliged to

make

her a prefent.

The
corpfe
in.

women
men.
is

are

in the churches feparated

from the

Their funerals are fmgular.

The

with difmal fhrieks brought to the tomb,'

which
*

The above

inftance of her majefty's maternal care for

her much-beloved, faithful, and loyal Hungarian fubjefts,

who, in the beginning of her reign, unanimoufly declared,

Moriamur pro Rege
laurel

nofiro

Maria Thereßa
by

! is,

indeed, a new.

added

to the glory of Auftria,
;

by

fo

many

vidlories

over the Turks

and of
for the

late,

fo

many admirable

laws

and ellablifhments

improvement of commerce, trade,

and hufbandry,

fixed for the iateft pofterity.

TEMESWAR,
which
It
is

^c.

LETTER
as
this

III.
the

Ip

funk down as foon

Pope has

done with

his ritual.

At

moment
raife

the friends

and

relations

of the deceafed

horrid cries.

They remind
cattle,

the deceafed of his friends, parents

houfe

and houfhold,

and

aflc

for

what

reafon he left them.

As no anfwer
at

enfues, the

grave
large

is

filled

up, and a wooden crofs, with a
the

Hone placed

head,

to

avoid the

dead becoming a vampyr^ or a drolling notfturnal
bloodfucker.

Wine

is

thrown upon the grave, and
it,

franckincenfe burnt around
fpirits

to drive

away

evil
•,

and

Vv'itches.

This done they go home
flower,

bake bread of wheat

which to the expia-

tion of the deceafed they eat, plentifully drinking to be the better comforted themfelves.

The

fo-

lemn

fhrieks, libations

of wine and fumigations
nay-

about the tomb continue during fome days,

even fome weeks, repeated by the neareft

relations.

The

funeral of a

bridegroom

is is

ftill

more folemn.
his

A

pole,

fome fathoms long,
it

fixed to

tomb,

and the bride hangs on
a white handkerchief.

a garland, a quill,

and

They

avoid going into our

churches
rify

:

If by accident the get there, they pu-

themfelves afterwards by ablutions.

To

be

fprinkled in our churches, or to undergo any ce-

remonies with confecrated water,
the greated horror to them, becaufe

is

a matter

of

it is

iprinkled

about with an inftrument made of pork-briftles

C

2

(afpergillum)

20

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
This makes them, according to
highly impure
their
drefles
(f-pcrcat^

(afpergillum.)
their opinion,
call
it.)

as

they

Even

fiiffering

by fuch

an accident cannot be worn again without wafhing.
ter

Their Popes diflribute the confecrated wa-

by a branch or nofegay of hyfibp, according
Pßilm
I

to the

while

me hyjfopo.) For a long did not undenland what the tVallachians
:

{Afperges

meant by Frate
laft I

de cruce^ or
it.

Mangar

de cruce.

At

have learnt

If they engage themfelves
life

in

an indijOfoluble friendfliip in

and death,

they put the form of

a crofs in the veffel or the
;

cup

from which they
ing
fidelity.
is

eat or drink

fwearing everlaftis

This

ceremony

never to be

flighted.lt

generally a previous rite to robberies.
is

The fame ceremony
cacious bond
;

reforted to as the mofl:
if

effi-

for

example,

robbers releafe a

man, by
oblige
fait

whom

they apprehend to be indidled,they

him

to filence

by an oath by the
call

crofs, the crucey

and the bread, which they

Giurarpe
is

pe pita, pe füre.

Their canon law

very different

from ours.
as trifling

Stealing and adultery are confidered

crimes; but violating or dilhonouring

a girl are great ones.

No

murther can be

dif-

penfed with by their popes.
is referved to

That

difpenfation

God

alone.

However, robberies and

murthers are extremely
ple.

The

reafon

is

common among this peoobvious. They have no true
ideas

TEMESWAR,
ideas either

t^c

LETTE

P.

III.

21
fhoiikl

of

God

or of the foul

;

how

not they be wrong

in their ideas

of the

focial

and

man ? Any phsenome^ non, or effeft of unknown caufes, is confidered by them as a miracle. They look upon a folar
political obligations

of

eclipfe as a fi-ay

of the infernal dragon with the
during an eclipfe,
a great

fun

;

for that reafon,
is

firing

heard through the land, to frighten away

the dragon, which elfe might conquer and devour

the fun, and plunge the world into eternal darknefs.

The

infedls

which

in the fpring

creep forth
limits

from under

a rock near

Columhaczon the

of

the Turhßo dominions, and which greatly annoy
their hercis, are according to their opinion vomit-

ed by the devil.

The

holy knight,

St.

George^

is

faid

to have cut oft his head in a cavern under that rock.

KWallachian
his

will never cut a fpic

of beech to roafh
in the

meat on.

The
fap,

reafon

is,

beech yields

fpring a red
fionate tree

and the fentimental compaftears

weeps thefe bloody

according to

the learned and profound obfervations of the
lachiansy becaufe the

WaU

Turhß bloodhounds
punifhment
is

ufed to

cut the fpits for reading Chriftians from

beechab-

wood.
.

No
The
?

capital

in greater

horrence amongft
rope.

the Wallachians than that of the
it.

pale and wheel feem preferable to
ties

Butv/hy

A rope

the neck and forces the foul
call that a moil: difguilful

out downwards.

They

C

3

impure

22

TRAVELS THROUGH THE ßANNAT OF
foul,

impure defilement of the

and

I

call

their

fingular nicety on that account true pfychoiogical

materialifm.
Superftition being

the daughter of folly,
inftances

you
re-

may

eafily

guefs

by the above
Afl<.

how

markably ignorant they are. what age he
is ?

an old Wallachian

Fie

.will

anfwer at the fiege of

Belgrad OX 'Tem^fwar^ attheconclufionof the peace,
or when that prince died, or that metropolitan was
elected, I attended the fwine or the fheep, I

went

into the

field,

I

married, and fo on
his age.

;

and then

you may

caft

up

They

are not generally

acquainted with the value of the current money.

Even its denominations are not taken from their own language. A dollar, or thirty grofhes, is
called leu
\

a florin, florint

;

a half florin,
is

duU ;

five

grofhes, a piece of their currency,
be-,

called Strim-

half a dollar,

iri firimhi.

They have
liquids.

fcarce

any knowledge of the meafure of
contents of a vefltl
is

The

eflimated according to the
in
it.

weight of the liquid contained
is

Their weight

the occa^ a 'Turkißo weight, anfwering to our
half.

two

pounds and an
one
litra

One

occa contains four litre^

an hundred drams.

The

difference in the chara6ler of the Raizes
is

and Wallachians

nearly as follows

The Raize

is

fierce,

proud, bold, cunning, a
friend

TEMESWAR,
friend of trade,
lefs
fit

&c.

LETTER
foldier.

I I I.

22

to

be a

His Popes

ignorant than thofe of the JVallachians.

The
better

Wallachian has no idea of haiightinefs,

is

a

hufbandman, a friend of
life.

eafe,
in

and abhorbeing

ing military

They

agree

born

robbers and flaves to their popes and national
giftrates.

ma-

The

Greek alphabet

is

uied by both

thefe nations, but

they give to feveral letters a

different fignification.

However
do
I

imperfeft this

Iketch

may

be,

it

will

to give

you fome idea of
is

a nation, which, as far

know,

ftill

deftitute

of an

hiftorian, to acquaint the reft

of Europe of its
fet

origin, cuftonis

and manners.
I

To-morrow we
hope
to

out, and
letter,
tafte,

by the next poft

fend you a

which, containing
will

objccfls,

nearer to our

prove more entertaining.

C

4

LETTER

24

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

LETTER
is

IV.

Oravitza, June 23, 1770.
to tranfcribe to yeu, v/orth IT not friend, while IVdlachian names of my the the deareft

infigniPicant

villages,

v/hich

I

pafied

between

Temejwar and Oraviiza.
^emefwar

The

plain

which from

flretches to T'heijfa^ continued fix ftages

more, or for twelve German miles to Oravitzti.

Some
of

hours before

I

reached
hills,

this place,

1

faw

to the left of the road
fliivery,

fome

which confided

micaceous clay, and formed the proInfenfibly

montory.
reached
ated,

we afcended
you

thefe hills,
is

and
fitu-

at lafl the valley
I

wherein the place
thefe lines.

from which

write to

Here
face.

the argillaceous

flate

difappeared under

the limeftpne, which hereabouts covers the fur-

As

foon as
I

I

arrived

I

called

on Mr. Delius^

whom,
\{v^

till no'.y,

knew only by
But
1

the reputation of

foiid learning.

was difappointed, the
Bannat,

arrival

of Earon Hegengarthen^ commiffioned to exin the

amine and to improve the mines

did not leave him the requifite leafure to favour

me

with his remarks on the nature of thefe

mounvery

tains,

which

as

an

exacfi:

obferver he ought to be

TEMESWAR
very

i^c.

LETTER

IV.
I

25
have

well acquainted with.

However,

found another fkilful miner,
ing gave
sion

v/ho yefterday even-

me fome

particulars of the general divi-

and other circumftances of the Bannat-mines.

This has furnifhed
letter.

me

with the materials of this

A
parts
;

line

drawn from north

to

fouth through

Temefwar, divides the whole country into two
that to the eaft
is

generally mountainous,

and here you are only to fearch for mines.
often as
I

As
will

fpeak to you of their fituation,

it

conftantly be in relation to the chief place,
is

which
Ban-

Temeßvar.

The
;

mines

now working
which
is

in the

nat are

to the eaft, the ironworks Bogßoan, proclofe to

perly Paffioven
blifhed

the

new

efta-

iron-works Reßiza.

Thence fomewhac
Dognaßa,

more to the

fouth, are the copper mines

farther off, Oravitza,

Saßa, and entirely to the
In the plains

fouth, Bofniak, or

New-Moldava.

bounded by the mountains of Oravitza, Saßa^ Bof~
niak,

and thofe

which run
eafterly

along the Danube
they waili

and make the

limits,

Gold
In

from the Nera^ and Menifh-rivers, nay every where

from the ground which

is

adjacent to them.

former times private companies carried on thefe
walli- works in the Kara?ifebefe-Dißriä, at Konigfeg,

and

in other places

j

fome

are

ftill

gtjing on.

All

20

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
All thefe mines are divided into four mountain-

diftrifls,

which are called Berg-Aemter
Bogßan^
;

•,

fuch arc

that of

to

which Reßiza
which

is

to

belong

for the future

that ofOraviiza, that of Dognazka,
to
is

and that of Saßa,

incorporated the

market- town Moldova.

They
it

are under a direflion,

in which the prefident of the country generally

prefides. In

former times

was

at Temefwar-,

but

for the future the prefident, reports,

a counfellor of the
are the

and a fecretary of

this direftion,

only perfons ordered to refide there.

The

other

members, and whoever belongs to the chancery
and the accounts are to
mines
near
refide at Oravitza.

The

Grofs-Wardein,

and the bailiwick

Refzhania^ in Upper Hungary, are under the fame
di red ion.

LETTER

TEMESWAR,

i^c.

L E T

TE R

V.

2"/

LETTER
ORAVITZAy as
mines of
'Turks
as
its

V.
1770.
is

Oravitza, June 26,
I

have told yon, already

the

chief place of mines in the Bannat.

The

dependency were worked by the
it

long as
lefs profit

was under

their

dominion;

but with
ftoration,

than at prefent.

After the re-

the

old mines were drained at the ex-

pence of the imperial treafury, and fome new ones
fet at

work; but

allthefe mines, the royal galleries

(ftolln) excepted,

were

left

afterwards by grant to

feveral
tions

private

companies, under feveral condi-

and refervations, which being merely oecofuppofcs to be unenter-

nomical, the tranllator
taining,

and

ufelefs to the Englijh public.

LETTER

2^

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OE

LETTER
THE
valley wherein Oravitza
to the fouth

VI.

Oravitza, June 27, 1770.
Is

fituated,

is

bounded

by the Wadarna^

Cftk-

lovaz.nd.Temefe mountains-, buttothe north by thofe

of Coßowiz^

Dilfa, and Cormidilfa.

The mounbirch,

tains are here, as generally in

the Bannat, gently

afcending, and
iir,

grown over with beech,
mica,

afli

and oak.
fherl,

Their rocks are argillaceous,

mixed with
is

and feldfpath;

and

this

covered either with argillaceous micaceous

flate,

or with a fine arenaceous or lime-flone. Between
thefe laft forts of ftones occur the copper-fifTures

^Klüfte) which

really deferve

this

denomination
have neither

rather than that of veins,

fince they

a conflant dipping nor a conftant run. There has

not yet been difcovered at Oravitza

any

fifTure,

running or dipping above
1

fifty

fathom

{Klafter.)

have examined the Coßoiniz mountains, and
in

found
miiSy
'vefa,

them the following mines:
Maria, Maria

Rocchtis, Eraf-

Jacohus.,

Benedi^us, Gahiel, Paulus,

Geno-

PhilippuSy

'Therefia, or the

Goldßurf, Ladißai, Pyrite-mine, and the Kies-ßock,

where a hundred weight

(i. centner) yields

feventy

pounds

TEMESWAR,

^c.

LETTERVI.

29

pounds of ftone or lech. Thefe mines are for the mofl part drained by a gallery (erb-ftolln) which is
driven
in

the field above 229 fathoms,

and runs

19 fathoms below them.

Rocchus

is

the richeft;
is

and on
the

this

account the chief gallery
Several
drifts

driven to
galleries

fouth.

of fmaller

ferve to fearch and to

work out

the fmaller fiffures.

The hanging
flate.

fide is

limeftone, the hading lide

So

it is

likewife in the other mines, in thefe

and the IVadarna^ C/tklcva, and Temefe mountains,
with, the fingle difference,
different fituation

that according to the
is

of the mines, the limeflone
fide,

either

on the hanging or on the hading
is

and

that the fand-fhone

often in the place of the (late
fifilires.
fills

on the oppofite
(that
is

fide

of the

The

Gang-rock
is

to fay the rock

which

the fifiures)

for the greater part either calcareous or felenitic.

The
I

purer and the more fparry
it.

it is,

the richer the

ores contained in

was very glad

to

be

here

convinced by
Delius,
in

my own

experience of what

Mr.

a

Vienna Magazine^ has publifhed on the origin of
the metallic fifiures, and laid
rules for the

down
-,

as axiomatical

mines

in the

Bannat

that

is

to fay,

that the metallic fiffures are never to be found in

the rocks, but between two different forts of rocks.

Full of this opinion

I

examined the Cormidilfa
mine
I

mountains, where

in the Trinity

was affured

of the hanging

fides

being lime-flone, and of the

hading

JO
hading
with

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
fides

being horn-ftone.

However,
I I

I

took

me

fampies ofthefe {tones, as
fteel

ufed to do,

and trying them with
that they
are

and aquafortis,

found

common

grained lime-ftone, and

that the miners had denominated one fpecies hornftone, for
its

being finer grained and harder.

This
pro-

erroneous denomination of the miners

may

pabiy have led Mr. Delhis to the above erroneous
aflertion.

The fame
and
in

is

obferved

in the

other mines

of the Cornudilfa mountains which are entirely
calcareous-,

thofe of the D/'/y^ mountains,
finer lime-ftone

where generally the
falle

goes under the

denomination of horn-ftone.

The gang

or
is

vein rock, in thefe Cornudilfa and Dilfa mJnes,
cither granulated white or yellow
nitic fpar,

gypfum, or

fele-

which by a light warming gets a phof-

phorefcence in the dark.
nudilfa-mountdLins have a
in the others in thefe
;

The

fiflures

of the Cor-

more even diredion than
a

but in

S. Servatius,
all

mine working

mountains,

the fiflures are cut off by

a

brown argillaceous

vein.

The
and

JVadarna, Cßklova^ and Temefe mountains
agree in general with the
Coßoozviz

fiftiires

mountains defcribed before.
darna mines,

One of
ore.
I

the JVayields

called St. Paul's converfion,

fome
tire

fiiver

and arfenical-copper
lift

would not
in

you with the

of the

many mines which

all thefe

mountains are working.

The

TEMESWAR,
The common
Cronfledts^ §. 298.

^c.

LETTER
at

VI.

^I

ores

dug
-,

Oravitza are a pale,

yellow, copper pyrites

pyrites cupri pallide flavus

BlackiOi grey, copper pyrites

feus, ibid. pyrites cupri gri

The
with

laft is

often varie-

gated in the furface.
trated

A

fpecies

of pyrites, pene-

and
is

incruftated

a

brown
mountain.

copper

mulm,

called broth ore (Brüherz.)

It is

found This

in 'Trinity mine, in the Cornudilfa

ochraceous ore

is

probably owing to a decompofi-

tion of the copper pyrites.

The

white arlenical
§.

copper ore, defcribed by CronfledtSy

199,

is

com-

mon

in the
•,

IVadarna mine, called
lefs

St.

Paul's con-

'uerfion

but

white than that which breaks in

Herrn-grund, in Lower Hungary,
In the

fame IVadarna mountains they found,
in St.

twenty years ago,
malachit ore.
indurata,
I

Anthonfs

pit,

beautiful

Ochra,

veneris.,

calciformis,
j

impura^

could get no fpecimens of it

but they

brought
azure

me from Trinity mine copper. The cryftals are
But
to

a fine chryfialifed

oblong, quadrangreater fatisfac-

gular, truncated.
tion,
I

my

ftill

got here
Cyprii,

many

pieces of red copper
in

mulm
loofe

(Ochra,

Linn) either diflblved

dull, or indurated

and ftaining the

fingers.

Cronit

ßedts has not defcribed this fpecies, ,unlefs
that which
§.

be
as

196, or 194, n. 4. he notices
or

found

at Sunnerßog,

Oßanberg.

It is likewife

unnoticed by other mineralogifts.

Among feveral
piece

famples, a loofe cinnabar red ocher^ which girts a

$2

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF
is

piece of native copper,

highly remarkable.

Its

colour fo high, as to miflead even the moft intelligent connoiffeur. If Cronßedls afiertion be true,
that copper,

by the

lofs

of

its

phlogifton,

may be

changed into copper-glafs, one might guefs by
the richefb of this ocher, which
is

54 pounds per
lumps, that
this

hundred weight, that
glafs.

it is

a folution of copper-

But
is

it is

found

in fo large

opinion

fcarce admifTible.

The

famenefs of the
tile-ore,

colour has caufed this ocher to be called
'

The fellowing particulars

of the pay and labour

of

the miners are left out, as uninterefling to an

Englijh reader.

LETTER

T

E

M

E S

W A R,

Isc.

LETTER

VH.

LETTER.
OUR
fouth
Wallachians,
is
is

VII.

Saßa^ June, 30. 1770.
hours journey from Oraviiza to the

Saßß, where

I

arrived yefterday be-

fore night, under a

convoy of fome Kwzzcrs and
and
con-

The

country between thefe two places
extremely
fine,

in this feafon

oiTers a

tinual variety of orchards j cultivated fields,

meathis

dows, plains and

hills.

The

road runs

all

way over glimmery argillaceous flare, which is now and then interrupted by fome rocks of a grey
argillaceous flone,

mixed

either with

mica or

fljer),

with mica and feldfpath, or with rocks cf gneifs.

Saßa

is

fituated in a valley furrounded with cal-

careous hüls, fuperincumbent on Hate, whofe diffolved parts are carried by the rain water into the
valley,

and incrullate there the roots and mofles.
ßfliires,

The copper
tween
this

or veins hereabout, run be-

grey limellone, and a margaccous rock
bafalt grains, the

mixed with
rally
fide,

former being gene-

on the hanging and the latter on the hading
I

may be wrong perhaps, but
argillaceous grey ftone,
little

I

do imagine

the origin of this hading fide to have been as fol-

lows

:

The

mixed with

mica, bafalt and

quarz and feldfpath grainy

D

Vvfhich

34
which

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
I fiiall

call

henceforth metallic rock

(Saxum

metailiferum) becaufe the nobler veins in Lower-

Hungary conftantly

crofs

it,

and becaufe the Saxum

metailiferum Linnai has fo great an affinity with
it
J

this

rock
ftill,

I

fay

may

perhaps

have been
it

in-

coherent

or

lefs

indurated vv'hen

was co-

vered with limeftone, and by that accident have

been changed into

its

prefent margaceous nature.

Any

fubfequent alteration or commotion, chang-

ing their former horizontal pofition into a dipping

or oblique one,
fplit fiffures

may

eafily

have feparated, and

along their

fl<;irts,

which are now

fil-

led with metallic mafles

between the calcareous
fide.

hanging and the margaceous hading
mines were taken up again
the Bannat, about the year 1746.
firft

Thefe
of

after the refcoration

They worked
open
to the day.

on fome copper

veins, lying

Then

the VVallach'ians.

who had been
pits

fearchins; af^

ter mines, difcovered

fome old

and overgrown

large bings, which proved that in former times

miners had been working^ there.

I

have been fiiown

myfelf in the higher mountains a great

many pretty

pure copper and leadflags, which evidence old parting-furnaces, though thereabout there does not ap-

pear any water fufficient to work the requifite bellows.
their

Might not perhaps
bellows, or

the ancients luive trod
.''

worked them with engines
with hand-bellows, in

flight not they perhaps have fmelted their ores
in fmaller furnaces
tlie

fame

manner

T

E
as

M

E S

V/A R, bV.

LETTER

VII.

35
?

manner

the Finnlanders and Kujjian peafants

At
is

prefent the

number of thefeveral

pits

and

drifts

on fmall often inconfiderable copper or lead veins
aflonifhing.

The

chief are in the Promontory

now

Nicolas^

Therefia^

Nepomticemis and
I

Philip
It
is

Jacob mine.

This lad

have examined.
Saßa.

one of the
is

richeft

works

at

The gang-rock
fclenitic fpar,

as generally at

Saßa calcareous or

which very feldom

alternates with quarz.
is
6".

In the
in-

anterior middle motintains
fignificant

Mary^ and other

ftock v/orks, if fnall neils or

lumps

deferve that name.

In the upper middle mountains

are holes or quarries,

whence they dig out frcm
which yields from two
higher
three

between the vegetable mould and the lov/er limeftone a
to fix

brown irony

earth,

pounds of copper per hundred weight. The
pit

moft confiderable

of that kind
It

is

in the

mountains, called Maria fclfen.

may have

or four fathom diameter on an equal depth.

Mr.
copper

Deliiis^ in

the above quoted Treatife, gives

the followino- conieclures on

the origin of this

mulm
is

" Water

endowed with the quality of de-

" ftroying the form of metals, and reftoring them " to another form I mean only to fpeak of the " mixture and external form of their malTes, not " of their conllituent metallic particles, which are
;

"
••*

eternally permanent.

This happens very ccm-

monly

to the

copper ores, and generally tothofe

D

2

" which

36

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
-,

" which are pyritical they are fubjefb more than " any others to be diflfolved by water into vitriol. *' Such a transformation of ores nature has produ" ced in the mines of the Bannat near Saßo.^ where " a whole mountain has been fubjeft to it. The
*' *'

copper

is

not mineralized, but

it

appears as a

metallic dufl in a brownilh earth, if properly

" waflied. This earth did not exifl from the begin" ning in that. form but it was rather a copper" pyrite, which by the waters has been dilTolved. " The fulphurous acid went off wafhed av/ay by
-,

''

the water

•,

but ocher and the unmetallic earth,

" which

are the conftituent parts of the copper py-

"

rites,

remained, retaining the native copper par-

" tides as a filter. This formed the Saßa copper " mulm." Mr. Delius fupports this opinion by
the copper- pyrites yet unaftefled by
ftill

found

in the
-,

mulm, and
but however

the dilTolution

probable

it

be, he has negleded a circumftance

which
for.

I

confefs myfelf to be fcarce able to anfwer

The brown copper mulm under
is

confidera-

tion

immediately under the vegetable mould,

and

its

hading
that

fide

is

limeftone.

Is

there any

probability

thefe pyrites

have been before
or

their difiblution
fide
?

without any roof

hanging

If that be

the cafe, the Romans^ which,

according to Mr. DeliuSy have worked in thefe
parts under Trajan

and

his fuccefibrs,

might have

driven expcnfive fhafcs and galleries, whofe cop-

per

TEMESWAR,
per remains are
they had a
ftill

^c.

LETTER
in

VII.

'^'J

found

more

eafy

? But way of getting copper.

thefe mines

They wanted
and by the

only to get the ore imrnediatcly,
*
fif-

leaft trouble.

Might we not fures, when the

rather conjedure that thefe

ancients

worked

in

thefe parts,
fide to-

had then their own hanging and hading
gether, with a different pofition
a previous
;

and that

after

earthquake
fifflires

it

has been changed fo as

to deprive thefe

of their former roof and

hanging
tion
?

fide,

and

to expofe the ores to deftruc-

An

able miner, ufedto obferve nature,
I

might
fcarce
lei-

perhaps re6lify thefe conjeftures, which

am

bold enough to venture, as

having had no

fure for proper examination.

Bona
Vifitation

Spes,

Jtma

Rojina^

Maria Snow, Mar^s
higher mountains,
their

and Bonifacuis,

in the

are equally remarkable mines,

on account of

beautiful ores

;

and Saßa

is

perhaps that place,

which has fjpplied
crop of mineral

my

collediorv with the richefl:

curiofities. All the difierent fpecies
flate

of copper ores, that of the Mansfield copper
*

The

tranflator fees

not the

leaft

confequence in

this

whole argumentation, as thefe pyrites might have been with
other rubbifh wafhed and accumulated on the limeftone-ground,

and the ignorance or negleft of the Romans cannot be
alledged againft the hypothefis of
too

fairly

Mr.

Delius,

fmce

it

proves

much

or nothing.

D

3

excepted,

38

TRAVELS THROUGH TUE GANT-JAT OF

excepted, and
are
I

many more new and unknown
in great plenty.

ones,

dug hereabout

In

S.

Urban

found native copper with a

poliflied fplendent

furface, {licking to a

matrix of clayifh fandfione

and quarz

;

and

in

the

New-Elias

I

got native

branchy and dendritical copper
clay.

in v/hite indurated

Native copper

in

loofe

brown

copper

mulm from

the before defcribed pits in the high-

er mountains, and in

green and blueifh copper
I

ocher from Mary's Snow^ are not unfrcquent.

was prefented with
per,

a

fample of native woven cop-

by

its

texture greatly refembling the
in Saxcny.

woven
This

filver,

from Jchan George-Stadsis

jpecics

found

in

Bena

Spes, in

quartzous gang•

lock,

mixed with
glafs.

greenifh

lithomarga

grey

copper

Cuprum Sulphur miner alifatum [olidum
§.

text.ura indeterminata Cronfiedt^

197,

is

found

in Philippi Jacohi pit. It

is it

malleable, and of a

com-

pact texture.
in fcaly grey

They

call

here lech
yields

ore.

It

breaks

limedone

•,

from

fixty-three

to

feventy pounds of copper, and moulders by
a

diiToiution into
glafs

blackgrey duft.

Red copper
cal-

of an undetermined figure, Minera cupri

ciformis pttru
§.

&
m

indurata colore ruhro

Cronfiedt,

195, found

Maria Brunn,
In

in a

white

gypfum
it
it

tinged

by verdegreafe.
in

the fame place

breaks

a fibrous

verdegreafe, v/hich

makes

very beautiful to the eye.

Mr.

Belius prefented

me

with

fuch a cryftallized copper glafs, which
confifts

TEMESWAR,
confiRs of
triangular cryftals.

y^.

LETTER
red

VII.

39

many accumulated
in S.

tranfparent

Thefe, and a variety of o6l~

angular cryfcals, are found
vifitation flicking to
It is a

Urban and Marfst

an undefcribed copper ord.
grained jafperlike flone,
I

brown red
fire

fine
fteel.

ftriking

with

might by Mr. Cron-

ßedt's example,
jafpis martialis

who

calls

our Hungarian zinopcl
6c,.^

(Minerol.

§.

name

it

a cop-

per jafper.
cryftals,

It contains, feparated

from the richer

from thirteen to nineteen pounds of coppieces

per.

Some

mouldered

into a red copper

ocher, and coatainins; in the middle only a remain-

ing kernel of this red jafper, convinced
tile-ores^

me

that the

which are dug
have deicribed
their riches to

in
at

the fame mine, and

which
origin
its

I

Oravitza^ owe their

and

this jafperlike ore,

and

copper glafs

cryftals.

Among
I

a

variety of

verdegreafe, Ochra cupri

"viridis^

viride

montanum,
fine

which

is

here very

common,

received

fibrous gloffy copper green Aerugo Linna^.
fibres

The
flat cX

are for the

mofl part concentric, pointed
large and

below but
the top.
is

tv/o or three inches,
call
it falin-ore

They

(Atlas-ore.)

There
in

an

innumerable variety of malachites^
but knotty,
in

thin

flat

plates,

concentric coats, in
;

thin

undulated lamellse and fcales
lightefl to

its

colours

from the
fhade.

dark green

in

every fort of

The

Barmafler

in this place

improved
a.

my

colleclio.n

by a fample from Reczbania^

copper

D

4

work

40

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
in

work
nat.

Hungary^ under the direftion of the Banis

It

an

indurated

fibrous verdcgreafe

{^Mrugo Linn^ei) which after the tranfmutatiorj
into malachite
tric

has preferved

its

original concen-

fibres.

Indurated

copper azure
Cronfledt.
§.

(Carulcum
194.
)

montanum induratum.
cryflailized

and

azure, in gloITy femi-tranfparent po-

lyedrous cryftalsj offered to
ria Shtitz nnine.
I

me

in

Urban and

Magrey-

gathered here for
the

my

minera-

logical friend a

good flock of

brown and

copper mulm.
Philippi Jacobi,

Such an indurated mulm from and other mines, mixed with
gloffy

fome phlogifton, fmooth and
is

where broken,
pitch-ore.
It

on account of the likenefs called

feldom yields above feven or eight pounds of copper
;

but being commonly mixed with verdcazure, cryflailized
it is

greafe,

red copper glafs and

native copper,
richefl ores

generally ranked

among

the
ore,

of Saßa. Befides xht fallow copper
§.

pyrites ciipri grifeus, Cronfledt.
call here white-ore,

198. which they

any other fort of copper pyrites
In the upper middle
pits a light brown

are

found

in

thefe mines.
in

mountains they find
lead ocher,

fome lead

which

is

often

mixed with

v/hite irores are

regular fpar-chryflals.

The above ^//f^

commonly covered with
f nds.

blue columnar hexago-

nal or polycdrous gloffy cryflals, truncated on both

They never

contain any copper, and are

at \i\M blue jherl cry fiallif ions.

Mr. Demhjher,

a very-

intelligent

TEMESWAR,
intelligent aflayer at

l^c.

LETTER

VII.

41

Moldova^ has

afTiired

me, that
he had

for a long while he had, without any fuccefs, af-

faycd chele ores as copper ores,

till

at

lafi:

found
that

in

Lehman's preface to Marggrafs works,

now and then handfome blue chryftals had offered to him entirely deflitute of copper, but
containing plenty of iron.

The

only remarkable

ftones, which, befides the different rocks I

have

found

here, are a white tranfparent calcareous fpar

cryftallifation, confifting
cryftals,

of columnar hexagonal

with

three large

and three fmaller op;

pofite fides

and

a triangular point

a dodecaedrifaces,

cal cryftallifation,

compofed by pentagonal
torn.
I.

drdi^n'm Linneus^s Amocnitatibus.

fig.

25;

and a pyramidal, triangular, tranfparent
cryftallifation.

felenit-

As

foon as

I

return

I will

divide

my

coUeftion with you, knowing very well that

they have raifed your curiofity.

LETTER

42

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

LETTER
New

VIII.
i,

Moldova, July

^77^-

THE
to give

daily examples

of the

ill

ufe,

which
in thefe

travellers in the Bannat, efpecially

parts, are expofed to

from the numerous gangs of

robbers, had almoft brought

me
this

to the refolution
laft

up
is

my

journey to

boundary,

which

feparated from

the Turkiß dominions

by

the Danuhe.

But

I

heard

that

thefe

fine

gentlemen venC
their
fall in
is

tlieir ill

humour

rather againft

countrymen, which have the misfortune to
with them, than againft any German, which

faid to

happen but very feldom.

This circum-

ftance,

and

my

recoUefting the chiefs of the rob-

bers having fent

word

to the aulic commiffioner.

Baron de Hegengarthen,
in fafety,

that he

and

his

men might
this ex-

and without any convoy, travel where he
gave

pleafed,

me

refolution to

attempt

curfion towards the eaft.

Twelve

mine-officers

on horfeback, and fame common miners armed
with guns,

went with me.

As

foon as

we had
I

afcended the higher mountains of Saßa,
jerved that gneifs,

ob-

now and
and

then cap'd with com-

mon

clay-fchiftus

limeftone,

covered the

whole

T
whole

E

M

E

S

W A R,

&c.

LETTER

VIII.

43

country.

This continued to Moldova.

Somefmali copper veins bafTet out from the fchiftus. But the fkilful miners do not work them, becaufe they dip only fome feet in the flate and then flrike
dead or dilappear
entirely.

Perhaps

after a

long

feries of years they will difTolve into copper

mulm

as

at

Saßu,

and then be

got eafily by pofte-

rity.

After two hours ride we alighted at a copforell.

per furnace in the midft of a thick
mine- officers

The

from Moldova,

and about thirty

armed miners, had expefted me there and joined cur caravan, which now reffembled a little army. I
was agreeably furprized
college acquaintance,
to

meet here with

my

old

engineer at Moldova.

Mr. Dembßjer, afiayer and This young man, pofiefled

of all the theoretical and praftical fcience of miners, of much learning and good tafte, has for feveral years,

by our continual correfpondence, prepared
journey to the Eannat, and enabled

me for a me to make

and

to juftify in a fhort time all the obfervations
I

which

have given and

fhall

continue to give you.

His converfation, and the merry chearfulnefs of

my convoy,
of no dano;er
to

diverted
in the

me

fo

much,

that

I

thought

thick woods which

we crolTed
I

New

Moldova.

As

fcon as

we

arrived

vißted

the town Moldova^ at the foot of the mountains

on

the Danube, to fee fome robbers

who had been

taken by a party of along with them the

foldiers.

They had brought head of a young man, who
had

44

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

had bravely fought againft them, and preferred
death to chains.
In the evening
as they call
it,

I

returned to

New-Moldova^ or
views from

Bofniak.

The

fine
I

the hills were extremely pleafing.
traft
I

faw from thence a large
the Turkiß:) dominions
-,

of country far

in

but

did not fee without

concern the

hills,

which concealed from

my

eyes

the former rich
in Servia.

copper-works, near Alaidenbeck

To

day

I vifited

the mines hereabout.
tha.t

They

are divided into three diftrifts,
JFlorimund's

of Benedi^Sj
are S. Bar?iwd.

and Andreas.
in

In the

firft

bara, I'rinify^ Nepomucenus, God's hope,
teen

four-

Nothelfer

;

the

fecond, Jofeph, Therefia,
Pelagia,

Ar chdiitchefs Mariana,
and in the third,
ton from.

Maria good Rath

;

Andrews, Peter and Paul, An-

Padua, Hilarius, Thomas and Helen. They
fine

are

all

working, and yield

copper ores from

veins running in almoft every direftion.
l'hereßa y\t\^s
lead.

Maria
lime-

The hading
•,

fide

of thefe
is

veins is grey clay-fchiftus
flone
;

the hanging fide
gneifs.
in

both faperincumbent on

Thefe
;

mines feem to have been worked
fince the miners fcarce

times of old
till

have reached

now any

found or new
old man.

field,

and get

their ores only in the

The

ancients have indeed left fl:upen-

dous works

in the Befedine

mountains, which are

not worked at prefent.

with

chiiTels

They have formed works and hammers in rocks, which we
hardly

TEMSLWAR,
walls are fo
flat

yr.

LETTER

VII.

45
ra-

hardly conquer by blading.

In fome parts the

and even, that they refemble

ther

ftonecutters than miners

work

;

where they
tremendous

met with loofe crufhed rocks, they
caverns.
It
is

left

aftonißiing that the moil ancient
in the

works are generally driven
"Whether they

founded rock.

may be

afcribed to the

Romans

cannot pofTibly be afcertained.

The

conllrucflion

of thefe old galleries and
ticular
i

drifts has

nothing parin the

it

agrees with
Stolln

what you have feen
Shemniz.

'Trmity

Erb

at

The
figure

doors are

either cut in folid rock or lined

and faflened by
eiiptical.

uncemented

mafonry

•,

their

They work
give
the

here as at Saßa on

fiflfures,

which arc
this

inconfiderable.

The
this

ores

found

in

place

mod

malleable and tough
reafon,

copper in

the Bannat.

For

and to encourage

the working of the Moldova mountains, the imperial diredion pays for the
florins extraordinary.

Moldova copper four
every fort of cop-

Almod

per ore which

I

have mentioned, from Oravitza

and Saßa^ are found here.
in God's hope in

Native copper breaks
It

dificrent forms.

dicks com-

monly

to quartz.
it

If found on black grey copin

per pyrites,

moulders

open

air

into a calx
dill
it

refembling pulverized

tiles,

but whitening

more and more.

In this

date of diffjlution
all.

fcarce yields any copper at

The

native cop-

per from Jchan Nepomiicemis^ and Barbara ßoln^
are

4^

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
fame nature.

are of the
in

Red copper-calx

is

found

Archduchefs Mariana in a matrix of afbeftus,

which contains likewife now and then fome copper pyrites.
In Hilarius
I

got fome

fine red

cop-

per glafs cryftals, ahd from the old bings of the
Befedine mountains fuch cryftals,

and lead glance,

which contain fome

filver.

My

friend Dembßjer afllfted

me

to get here a

large ftock of pitch, broth and clay ores, or of

whatever other
ores.

fort

and denomination of richer
I

With
pay

this

booty

return

tomorrow

to

Ora-

vitza^ to
then,

my

laft refpecls to

Baron Hegengar-

and to purfue by the road of Dognazka
to Tranjfyhania.

my

way

LETTER

TE

M

E S

W A R,

ifjc.

LETTERIX.

47

LETTER.
1

IX.
5^

Dognazka^ July day Til EBaronbefore yefterdayandtook of
Hegengarthejt,
ride.

1770,
farewel

my

arrived here af-

ter

five

hours

Clay-fchiftus,

mixed with

mica, cap'd the lower granite, which

now and
way long

then peeped from under ground,

all

the

from Oravitza to which are working
tains,

this at

place.

The

mountains,

Dognazka^ are middle moun-

which

rife

from the plains near JVerßjez,
to

and run eaflward
gneifs, clay,

Tranjfyhania.
is

The

chief

ridge of thefe mountains

granite, covered

by

fand and lime.
in

The
is

only conftar.t

vein
Its

(gang)

the Bannat
is

here at Dognazka.

run and dipping

conftantfor a great while.

It is

fituated in Jolm's mountains,

and

confifts
it

of
al-

a lead

and
in its

filver vein.

They have

chafed

ready
It

run from weft to eaft-ifoo fathom.
Before the
laft 'Tur-

dips from fouth to north.

kißj

war they got here a good deal of

filver.

The
and

following different pits,

Mary

Chrißina^ John

George^ Snfaima, Nepcmtick, Barbara, Samuel,
cy,

Mer-

Sweti Theodor, and the Herhefilne floin are at
it.

prefent workino; u'ocn

This vein runnin,^ along
the

48

TRAVELS THROUGH THß BANN AT OF

foot of the higher incumbent lime and (latc-h.lls^

the mines are greatly expofed from water.

For
;

the greateft pare of the year they are under water

and

though

in

Maria

Chriflina

they have of late

built a horfe-engine, in hopes to drain this mine,
I

am

apprehenfive

it

will fall

Hiort of expec-

tation.

This very circumftance hindered
thefe mines myfelf,

me

to

examine

which
as 1

I

fhould have
be'lieve

been the more inclined to do,

cannot

that the hanging and hading fide of thefe veins
in

greater depth,

but

confiding of lime
(late.

and

flate,

orof hornftone and argillaceous
is

HowI

ever, that

the affertion of the mine-officers.
thefe mines,

have examined the rubbifh of
true
it is,

and

that

it

confided of indurated fhivery
;

clay and limeftone

but

as this

may

be fuppofed
drifts,

to have been
I

drawn only from the upper
in a greater

am

Hill

of opinion, that

depth

gneifs or Iherl-mixed argillaceous rock,

Saxum

metalliferum might be found.

It is

highly im-

probable that

a

condant quick vein fhould have
in

fuch an uninterrupted run
as thefe
hills
•,

rocks fo accidental
flate

fuperincumbent clay,
I

and limedone

and

have found

in an old

account of the
in the
it

Bannat mines, from the year 1748, that
then new imperial doln or gallery, after
driven through the
flate,

was

they

reached a very

hard rock, which made the work go on very flowly;

and that

in the old

J ofephi- gallery

they

met with a
rough

TEMESWAR,
rouo-h hard rock,
tors

49 which determined the proprie-

^c.

LETTER

IX.

to

drop

it

entirely.

Every enquiry was unin

fuccefsfuJ,

fmce the mine-officers

thefe parts
flate,

do not know any rocks but limeflone and
and
fince

accuftomed to fearch

after

and to find

their ores

between thefe rocks, they negleft to ob-

ferve any other fort.

They have

this fault in

com-

mon

with the mine-officers

in the

imperial ftates

in general.

Aflc

them the nature of their mountains

?

and

1

am fure
tion,

they will give you fo indifferent a defcrip-

that

you cannot make any thing of

it,

but that they

never troubled their heads with

fuch obfervations.
a rational
this

However, the

fureft rules

of

working of mines

entirely

depend on
their ftra-

negleded fcience of the mountains,
their varieties.

ta

and
I

might alledge to you many examples of the
confequences of this
in
neglecfl.
I

ill

examined a

mine

Hungary,

which

in

former times had

yielded a rich overplus from a pyritical vein, containing g-old, and croffin^ an aro;illaceous rock

adjacent to granite.
granite,

This vein was cut off by the
feems to have
hap»,
it

and

as

the fame

pened to a great depth the ancients gave

up.

Of late

they refülved to take

it

up

again.

They
through
;

followed the line of the compafs in which the vein

was known

to run,

and drove along

drift

the granite to

meet again with the

loft

vein

but

E

without

ßO

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OP

without any fuccefs.
if they
its

The fame would happen
it

fhould fearch after

in the direftion

of

dipping;

and

all

thefe
if

pains

and expences

would have been faved
fulted

previoufly thev had con-

and confidered the nature of the rocks.
1

After this occafional digrefTion
naxka,

return to

Dog-

Befides the before mentioned mines in
are feveral lead

John'p ynoimtains^ there

and cop-

per

fifiures

working
;

in

the

Wolf gang Dilfa and
Gkckauf, Erafmus in
in

Morawiz mountains
the former
'Dilfa

fuch as Mary vi^ory^ Chrißoph,

Traugot, Pancratius^
;

New

Rochus^ Fahianus and 'Thereßa
•,

the

mountains

and Francifais^ Peter and Paul^
'Trinity^

Johanna^ John Baptlfi^

Maria Litchtmafs

Paul and Simon Judas
Simon Judas
is

in the

Mcraiziz mountains.

perhaps the mofl confiderable
in

copper mine ever difcovered

Europe.

After

many
in

infignificant fearches

on the furface, a comin the

pany of adventurers united
hopes of fome

year

1

740, and

filver ores,

purfuing the upper

gallery in a dead fiffure, drove
field
;

many
it

drifts in the

but the adventurers gave

up, and a fingle

remaining tenant, after being ruined, and having

attempted a

drift

to

the eaft, difcovered a rich
at laft they

copper

filTure,

on which

funk a

fhaft.

The

copper fiffures croffing

and uniting here from
it

every fide form a ftockwork, as they call
thoucrh o
it

here,

be

different

from

the

ftockworks
entirely

after the Saxonian principles,

which are

independant

T

fe

M

E

S

V;

A R , &c.

LETTER
fide.

IX,

51

of the

reft

of the mountain, and are

faid never to

have any hanging or hading
avarice prevailed

An

unhappy-

then on the affociates, to en-

courage the finding of copper by prizes.
barmafter was allowed
three
five,

The
caufed.

and the furnace mafter

grofhes per hundred weight.

This

the bannafters to

work

as farmers,

and to confider

only their prcfent advantage, without any regard

what was
this

to

become of

the mine in future times.

Accordingly immenfe quantities were taken from
ftock of rich ores, and tremendous caverns

produced, which, unfupported, threatened inevitable ruin. But

Count

Gotlieb Stampher^ at Shemniz,

was
vent

at

lad commiffioned to examine and to pre-

this

bad pradiice

;

and Mr. Delias^

then

barmafter at Dognazka, ordained, that from the

bottom of the ftock upwards to the ninth
gallery, the

level or

whole cavern

ftiould

be

filled

up with
pits>

deaf rocks,
left

except fome fmall doors and
in

open for procuring the ore remaining

the

depth.

By

this

means the danger was prevented,
This remarkable work
I

or rather

lefiTer.ed.

ext

amined yefterday.
are

The

recks which furround

Saxum metalliferum mixed with fome
gallery
it.

lime.

The

at

the

ninth level has been driven
itfelf,

through

The

ftock

at leaft that part

which
fide

is

above
fcaly

this

ninth level, has a hano-ing

of a
flate
;

white limeftone,
ftock,

and a hading
or
rather
all

of

but the whole
veins,
are

thefe

united

incumbent
2

on

gneifs.

E

This

52

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

This gneils-ground has been explored for copper
fifllires

by

fliafts

and

drifts-,

but finding that there

was no chance of
ilock has been
this hindered

fuccefs,

the inferior part of the

filled

up,

as I told
it

you before, and
does not confift
this variety

me

to fee

whether

of Saxum metalliferum, and whether

of rock has not produced the irregular dipping of
the vein, which at prefent
Francifci vein
crolTing
in
is

afcribed to the large
fide.

from the hanging
I

At my

entrance in the Itockwork,

was greatly

furprized by a magnificent view, which however,
^t fecond thought, I

found equally tremendous.
illu-

The whole and
mined with

wide cavity of the mine was

a vaft

number of

tapers,

and the

workmen

flood or appeared hanging on the pro-

jefting ftripes, or foles of rich various coloured

copper-ore.
its

The form
firft
•,

of

this (lockv/ork

is

oval
tliree

uppermoft or

level has a breadth
it

of

or four fathom
the ninth level

but

increafcs fo

much,

that

on

it

has twenty-fix fathom length and

twenty fathom width.
in the

From

this level

it

decreafes
part.
I

fame proportion towards the under

Jiave told

you already that
is

this

copper ftock, or

copper

belly,

meerly produced by the coinit

cidence of feveral veins, on which account

can-

not be compared to other ftockworks, as that
for

example

at

GeUr

in Saxony

-,

but

it

has like-

wife a vifible run from eaft to weft, and a dipping,

which from the

firfl

level to the ninth goes

from
fouth

T

E

M

E

S

WAR

,

^V.

L E T T E R

IX.

^^

fouth to north, and thence to thefixteenth level, in

an oppofite direction, that
fouth.

is

to fay,

from north to
is

The depth of the whole
is

flock

forty fait.

thom, and the Jofeph-Shaft
rubbifli

funk into

The
So are

and ores are drawn out by

horfes.

the waters, which from the deepeft fole are

pumped
work
is

up

to the ninth level,

where they are carried of by
this

a gallery.

The
in

annual dividend of

at prefect greatly decreafing,

fo are the ores;

and

probably
will

ten or tvv^elve years time the vvorks

be at an end, fince the

many

croffing veins,

by

their oppofice dire(5lions, ftrike

dead the rich

fiiTures,

concentrated

in this foot

of ground.

The
7

fcarching drifts on thofe crofs veins give no hopes.

Neverthelefs they get

ftill

every
ores

month
are

tons

and a half of copper.
clofe a
is

The

lying in fo

mafs

together, that fcarce any deaf rock

to be leen or

dug

our.

For

this reafon the

fupfe-

ports of the roof, and the

ftairs to

the

firft,

cond, third and ninth level,

v.'hich are ftill

found,

are cut in the fineit variegated

copper

pyrites.

The gang

or vein rocks, which

now and

then of-

fer, are a fine whi-te

and

fcaly limellone, calcareous

fpar, white achate with red

and black

fpots,

and

yellow or black granulated garnet. (Cranatusftgiirae inccrtae partkulis granulatis. Crcnftedt. §.69.^
It
is

remarkable

that,

about an hundred fathom
fide

dillant

from the hading

of this ilockwork, the

Paur^ lead mine, and in about a fimilar diftance

E

3

from

54
from

TRAVELS THFvOUGH THE
its

BAT.^NAT OF
is

hanging

fide,
is

an iron mine
lent to

working.

The

ore of the latter

Bogßoam.

As pro-

babl)^

Ibme

fifTures

of thefe veins are croffing over

to the adjacent flock work, there occurs not only
in

the hading fide
ore,

of Simon Judas lead glance in

copper
in

and yellow cryftaliized garnets, which PaiiVs lead mine »re extremely frequent in and
its

next to
ores are

lead ores, but in the hanging fide the

ftriped

and penetrated with ferruginous
in

ocher.

Mary Viäorfs mine
metallic rock,

the

wolfgang

mountains has been but of
It is in
tlie

late beo-un

workinc.

Saxwn
call

metalliferum^

which
veia

miners hereabout
is

fandftone.

The

or gangrock

a fine diflblved white
ftone,
is

mica or glim-

mer, mixed

with

and blended with copfuccefs.

per pyrites.

There

hope of good
the

In

John

Baptifis mine, in

Moraviza mountains,

breaks white alabafter, girt with limeflone and
flate,

and containing copper
acid of the pyrites

pyrites.

The

vi-;

triolic

might perhaps have

changed the former alcaline gangrock into a gypfous
fubftance.

The

Ifidore

mine has been dropt fome
It

years ago, for not anfwering the expeflation.

leemed

to

me however

very remarkable, as being

for a long vv^Y

covered with a brownifh-yellow

aibeftus, containing

ironglimmer and black iron
itfelf into

garnets.

This afbeflus introduces
fiflure,
I

the

copper
pyrites.

and
at

is

the matrix of the copper
a large colledlion

made

Dognazka

of

TEAfESWAR, ^c
of fcarce ores
(pecies
I
;

LETTER

IX.

45

and among the before defcribed

got the following famplcs
in

Native lamellated gold

a

brown
it is

iron clay

from Fabianus.
in

In this
in the

mine

often found

lumps included

copper vein.
in large

Native copper from the fame place,
heavy lumps, which might be confidered

as fmelt-

ed, if the red copper glafs cryftals, thatfurround

them on every
duced by nature.

fide,

did not prove

it

to be pro-

Native copper

in

brown

iron ocher

from Simon

and Judas ftockwork
.

Grey

cryllallized

copper

glafs ore.

The

cry-

flals

polyedrous

flicking

on quarz,

from the

fame place

Grey variegated
Jiidas^

copper pyrites
glafs,

from Simon
its

called copper

on account of

con-

tent of fixty to feventy

pounds of copper, glolTy
from other copper py-

on the
rites
ficial

fra(ftures
its

-,

differing

by

red and blue colours not being fuperits

but penetrating
cryftallized

whole fubftance.
glafs..

Red

copper

The

cryftals

oblong prifms, truncated on
Paul's mine.
ocher.

both ends.
in

From

Scarce

;

found

brown copper

Red copper mulm

(tile

orej girt with a coat

'of verdegreafe, which feems to be produced by

an acid folution of the copper mulm.
Lichtmafs at Dognazka.

From Mary
^''^y

E

4

C)6

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
Grey copper-pyrites)
Cronfiedt.
§..

198.) cryllal-

lifed.

The

cryftals

have ten

faces.

From Simon
;

Judas.

Grey and yellow mixed
however
different

fcaly

copper pyrites

greatly reffembling our fcaly cobalt (fherben-cobolt)

on account of

its

yellow

colour, from the fame place.

Yellow and black undeterminate garnets,
large pieces,

in

from PaiiV% mine.

They

call

them

vellow or black hornftone.

Yellow garnets of eighteen and

thirty fix points;

often of the bignefs of a pigeon egg.
call

The

miners

them yellow blend.

From

the fame place.

LETTER,

TEMESWARj

bV.

L E T T E R X.

5/

LETTER.
FOR of
four in
this letter

X.

Lugos, July 7th, 1770

you

are indebted to the negleft
I

the poftmafler.
;

ordered the horfes at

the morning
ten.

but he cannot procure
I

me

any before

For fome hours
vifiting
in

have been

in this

market town,

fome of

my

acquaintances,

who commonly
healthier climate,

this

feafon flock hither to a
at

from the raging fevers
ftill

TV-

mefwar.
in

I

owe you
\

a

remark on the fmelting
it
:

the

Bannat

and here you have

The
is

fmelting and refining of the copper at Oravitza
nearly the fame which you have feen in the

Lower
Mercjy

Hungarian works, and
fmelting places,
l'hereßa^

is

done
the

in four different

called

Francifcus
is

and

Saiger-hutte,

Great care

taken

in reje<fling the refra(ftory ores.

Two tons of ore, twenty-four of pyrites and twelve
carts
in

of copper-ilags are commonly put together
firft

the

fmelting.

If the ores be remarkably
is

fulphurous the quantity of pyrites
the quantity of flags
if

lefTened

j

fo

they be mild.
is

In twenty

four hours time the bufinefs

done.

The whole

j5
gives

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
about three or four hundred weight of

copper.

Seven tons and hnXf of raw-ßo7te (Robßein) pro-

duced by the

firfl

operation,

make
by

a roaft.
is

The
ties

black copper, procured

roafling,

re-

fined on a fmaller hearth, and in fmaller quanti-

of about four or

five

hundreds.

All expences caft up, a hundred weight cofts
the proprietors from nine to eleven florins.

The

parting furnaces (Sayger-hutte) are dropt

at prefent, fince the proprietors of the

mines have

found that
can be

their,

copper

ores, containing filver,
at

v/ith lefs

expence carried to and parted
.

^hajola in

Lower-Hungary
is

The whole

annual

produce of Oravitza
fifty

about one hundred and

of copper.
furnaces,
called Charles, Jo-

Saßa has four
has but one.

feph, Maximilian^ and Radimer-Hutte.

Moldova
is

The
it

procefs^ in both places
•,

the

fame

as at

Oravitza

but the vicinity of large
expenfive
;

forefts

makes

lefs

and the great

plenty

of copper

there very eafy.

mulm found The Saßa and
afl!ays

at

Saßa makes

it

Moldova fmelters

boafl of their fmelting the ore with an increafe

of copper,

its

common
;

giving only three

or four pounds.

This for a long while feemed
but
I

a riddle to

me

fancy with fome reafon,

T E

M

E

S

W

A R bV.

L E T T E R
is

I

X.

ßg

Ibn, that this additional

produce

owing

to their

additional pyrites.
I

have told you already that Moldova produces
tougheft and mofi: malleable copper.

the

This

feems owing rather to the fulphurous nature of
the ore, than to any particular advantage in the
fmelting.

Moldova gives per year about 50
about 150 or 200 tons of copper.

tons,

and Saßa

The Bognazka
their fmelting

ores being greatly fulphurous,
is lefs

and refining

expeniive than

at Oravitza^

though the

procefs

be

entirely

the

fame.

There

are

three
ores,
as
at

fmelting places,

with ten furnaces.

cuoudy, and

in

The common

fmelted promif-

Oraviiza^

yield

every year about 200 tons of copper.
containing
lefs

Thefeores,

than nine ounces of
-,

filver,

cannot

be parted

in

our inland furnaces
tried

* for this reafon

the proprietors have

many experiments of
Even
the
at

other

more

fuccefsful

proceedings.

prefent the

furveyor,

Mr.

Flitk^

has

propofed
fmelted

a plan to precipitate
*

the filver in

This does not give any credit to

theflcill

of the Hungarian

fniekers.

The

copper and lead ores of the famous Ramelfierg

near Goßar in the Louver Hartz, do contain but about one

ounce of

filver ;

and are

befides greatly refraftory.

How-

ever, they are with great advantage parted in

the furnaces

iselonging to

tiiefe

mines.

copper.

6o

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
it.

copper, and by this means to fave

It

would

prove a great advantage to the proprietors.
Delius has
alterations

Mr.

likewile
in

propofed and advifed fome

the fmelting, to deprive the Dogbrittlencfs,

nazka copper of the
foiiths

which the copper-

complain

of.

Some

days ago Baron Hegengarthen received an
in the Almafu^'

account of the goldwafhings
\

and

orders of the court to examine them.

Counfellor
1

Koczian
it

is

author of
foon

thia

account, and

will fend

to

you

as

I fhall

hear of the refult of their

examination

The
had

evening before

I ^tt

out from Oravitza
I

we
to

a terrible

thunder ftorm.
to
fee

happened

fland at the

door, and

under a violent

lightning a flame rifing behind an oppofite houfe,

which keeping
at laft

itfelf
its

fome time

at its

top ruflied

down on

forefide,

and then returned to This phenomenon

the place whence

it firft

arofe.

was repeated

feveral times.

We

examined the
hid under

place whence this ele6lrical evaporation came from,

and found that pyriticous
the vcQ-etable mould.

filTures lay

My
made

journey from Bognazka to Bogßoam, and
is

thence to Lugos,
in

one of the

mod

Angular

I

ever

my

life.

The
I

danger of the roads caufed

Baron Hegengarthen^ whofe humanity you know,
and whofe kindnefs
never can praife too much,
to

TEMESWAR,
to fend
pafs.

&c.

LETTERVI.
wherever
I

6l

orders for

my
I

fafety
in

had to

Accordingly

found

every village forty
firelocks,

or

fifty PFallachians,

armed

v/ith

under the condu6l of their chiefs efcorted
the
next,

who me to

and

in

rough or ftony roads did bear
it

my
ders.

coach rather than fupport

with their fhoul-

The fame day
This

there

was

a general chace in the

country to furround the forefts and to fearch after
the robbers.
is

done once every year, but
fuccefs, fince the requifite

commonly without any

orders cannot be kept a fecret from the robbers,

who

for that reafon flay quietly at

home

that day,

or even dare, in corrpliance to the orders, to fol-

low the general chace.
is

Bogfiam, where

I

dined,

but four hours journey from Bognazka.
is

This

place

fituated in a fine valley, furrounded with

clay flate and limeftone hills, fuperincumbent

on

our metallic rock (Saxum metalliferunh )
Berfova runs through
it,

The river

but the adjacent fens

and fwamps make

its

fituation very

unwholefome.

As

Servia continued underthe imperial jurifdidion,

this place

had many

fine buildings

and iron ham(lopt.

mers

;

but

now

the

iron trade

is

Never-

thelefs

there
;

are

ftill

fome

iron

hammers, and
of bullets
imperial

furnaces
fhells
lery.

and vaft
caft

quantities
for

and
artil-

are

here

the

The

iron ore

comes from Dognazka.

It is

either red ore, (?fi6r^/^m indurata rubra; or black,
ferritm

refra£}orium trltura atra texttira chalyhea

;

and

6i

thavels through the bannat o^
iron.

and gives a good
reous
hill

Near
called

Bogjloam

is

a calca-

at

a place

Valga
of

baja^

which
oyfter
is

contains
fhells

immenfe

quantities

broken
to

and mytulites.

From Bogßoam
hills,

Lugos

a

continual

ridge of granite
clay.

below Ihivery

micaceous

From Lugos

they run to the

eaft towards the high mountains,

which feparate

'Tranßylvania

from the Turkißo dominions.
prefent to your health

The
j.

calcareous

hills

about Lugos produce good wine

and

I tafte it at

A

P P E N-

TEMESWAR,

i^c.

L E T T E R X.

63

APPENDIX
FROM
Afleflbr in the Diredlion of the

I.

Mr. Christoph. Travgotts Delius,
Mines
in the

Bannat

A Propofal to foften the Copper, prefented to
the Imperial and Royal
at

Chamber Court

Vienna, July i6y 1768.
copper ores, whether mineralized with

TH E
by
its

fulphur or arfenic, or with both together,

contain, befides the copper and the unmetallic earth,

a part of iron

;

and they are diftinguifhed only

greater or fmaller proportion.

The

yellow

pyriticous ores for example, the rainbow coloured,

the fallow,
in

the copper and the glafs ores, and

general thofe that are remarkably mineralized

with fulphur, contain more iron than the green

and blue ores
ores

;

but the copper ochres and liver
it

contain

more of

than any other fpecies.
fmeiting and refining
is

This iron mixture,
it

if in the

be not entirely removed,

the proper and real
;

caufe of the brittlenefs of copper

and though

it

be likswife produced by arfenic, this however hap-

pens

64

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
if this

pens only
fince
is

half metal be united with iron,
v/ith

by

itfelf,

and unconnefted
refifl:

iron,

it

too volatile to

the intenfe and repeated
if the roaftinp^s

heat of the

copper preparation,

and fmeltings be properly direded.
the great principle to get a
foft
fine,

Therefore

malleable and

copper
;

confiits in its careful reparation

from the
at

iron
it,

and the ufual pradlices are chiefly aimed
fall

though by the following reafons they
Icfs

more

or

fhort of their intention.

It
fafl

is

a

known

faci, that

nothing deftroys iron fo

and efficacioufly

as fulphur.

Though comgood deal of fulby
itfelf to

monly the copper
phur
in their

ores contain a
it is

mixture,

infufficient

deftroy the admixed iion.

Therefore a certain
is

quantity of fulphur pyrites

added to every
its

firft

fmelting of copper ore, to get

fulphur mixed
fulphur
in the

with the iron, to have

it

by

this

enfuing roaRinor of the lech or raw ftone calcined o o
as in

a cementation

;

and

laftly,

to

have the

re-

maining fulphur and iron

fcorified either in the
in its final re-

fmelting of the black copper, or
fining.

This method of fmelting, invented by
is

our anceftors,

in the
all

main

fo

well adapted to

nature, that with
lofs to

our refinements
It

we
if

are at
cer-

invent a fimilaror a better.

would

tainly

and

perfeiflly

anfwer

all its

ends,

there

was not
and
is,
is

a circumllance

which caufes

difficulties,
;

proved by metallurgic chemillry

and that

that all fulphur-py rites contain a

good deal of
iron.

T
iton.

E

M

E

S

W AR,

y^.
is

L E T T E R

I

X.

6^
fide
is

Accordingly what

procured by one

in a certain refpeft loft again

on another.

Its ful-

phur may very well be fuppofed
particles

to deftroy the iron

of the copper ores
its

;

but

as it contains
its

a good deal of iron in
is

own

mixture,

fulphur

infufficient entirely to

deftroy the iron in the

compound
by
it

mafs, a part of svhich unites unaffected

with the kcb or raivßone.

In the enfuing
in the

roafting the fulphur,
ftone,

which remained

rawis

together

with a part of the iron,
;

de-

ftroyed by cementation

the former evaporating,
drofs,
is

and the

latter

changing into

which

in the

following black copper fmelting
the flags.
in the

taken off v/ith

On

this

account a part of iron remains
in

black copper, which

the
as

laft refining

cannot be entirely deftroyed,
fulphur
is

then fcarce any
to pafs, that

remaining.

Hence

it

comes

provided there be no want of good intelligent
fmelters,

thofe places

produce the beft copper,

where the ores contain but a fmall quantity of
arfenic

and

iron,

and where they have plenty of
pyrites.

good fulphurous

If any pyrites was to
iron,
it

be found entirely deftitute of

would un-

doubtedly produce the moft excellent and duftile
copper.

But

as that

is

not to be expeäied, and

nature has not favoured our wiihes,

we

are to look

about us for other means to foften the copper
for

which reafon, and the encouragements granted
Imperiftl

by her

and Royal Apoftolic Majefty,

F

I ven-

66
I

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

venture to propofe feme of

my

ideas, eftabliflied

on many aßays and experiments.
fore
I

However, behighly

come
lay

to

my manner

of refining the copper,

I fhall

down fome

rules,

which

are

fubfervient to the purpofe, and fhould never be

neglefted by thofe

who

are at the

head of any great

metallurgical works.

As I have fhown already that pyrites, containing much fulphur and a fmaller quantity
Primo.

of

iron, proves

an advantage in the
is

firft

or raw

fmelting, care

to be taken

that fuch pyrites,

and not indifcriminately any other, be chofen for
the raw-work.

No

pyrites

is

to be

made

ufe of
arfe-

which

is

both arfenieal and fulphurous, fmce

ric unites v/ith the iron, and caufes a great brittlenefs.

For

that reafon the furnace infpedors
their pyrites

ought

to

examine

and
is

their conftitu-

ent parts,

which commonly

negledled-,

fmce

for the mofl: part being unfkilled in the operations

of metallurgic chemiftry, they are unable to make
fuch analyfcs.

However

they affay them with pro-

per fluors for lech and ftone.
lech or ftone-grain being a

But the produced

compound of fulphur

and
affay

iron,

it

is

impofiible to

how much

fulphur

know by this ufelefs and how much iron is

contained in the pyrites,
is

and whether any arfenic

united to them.

Sublimations in clofed vefTels
•,

are preferable in every refped:
aflayers

and fmelters and

ought

to chufe this

method, fmce in the
aflays

T
afiays

EMESWAR,
fort

iffc.

L E TT E R

1

X.

6J

of every

of ores and minerals

it

certain-

ly

is

more
be

inftrucbive

and precife than the comIf

mon

empirical aflaying.

by

thefe

means good
be added

pyrites

procured, proper

care ought to be
it is

taken of the proportion, in which
to the
firft

to

fmelting.

This
if

is

to be determined

by

the quality of the ore-,

irony and refraftory the

addition of pyrites ought to be in a larger quantity.

But many faults
fmce many

are

committed on

this

account;

furnace infpedlors, by a mifapplied
to fave

ceconomy and

fome

pyrites, or to

have the

rawftone rich, and to fave the trouble and expence

of roafting, grudge the addition of

pyrites,

and
is

by that
fmce

fpoil the nature

of the copper.
in the riches

There

never any real advantage
it

of rav/ftone,

impoverilhes the mafs of fulphur, which
is

in the enfuing roafting

infufficient to deftroy

the greater proportion of iron.

A

good lech or

rawilone fhould, to produce duftile or good copper,

never contain above feventeen or eighteen
in an

pounds of copper
Secundo.

hundred weight.
which, v/ithout any
oi^es,-

If a copper mine produce pyritical
ore,

and fulphurous copper

addition of other unfulphurous

are fmelted
it is

with fulphur-pyrites as ufual at Smolniz,

greatly produdive of du6lile copper to have both
ores

and pyrites gently roafted before the

firft

fmelting.

The

reafon

is

as

follows

:

Sulphur
does

F

2

68

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
deftroy the
fince
iron,

does not

by

its

combufliblc
acid and
a

matter

-,

confifting
latter

of

vitriolic

phlogifton,
roafting.

the

evaporates

by

gentle

But the
it

vitriolic acid penetrates into the

iron, diflblves

into a crocus

and deftroys

it,

which caufes

it

in the

enfuing fmelting to go eafily

off with the flags, and to leave the copper regulus or the rawftone in a

more depurated

ftate.

Though this
metallurgy,

be an undoubted principle of rational
I

fear

it

will be objefted to

by fome

fmelte^,

who know

only ancient pradtices.

Would
it is

they pleafe fairly to try fome experiments they

might be convinced of its

utility.

However,
is

to be obferved ßrß, that this
ral,

rule

not gene-

becaufe, if refradtory or unfulphurous ores

are to be fmelted together with the

more

fulplui-

rous ones, the roafting
vitriolic
fite to

is

impradlicable, fmce the

acid and the fulphur of the latter, requi-

the fufion of the former, might be incon-

fiderately deftroyed

by

it.

Secondly^ I

have faid

for very

good

reafons, that the roafting

ought to

be

o;cntle.

A violent
it is

roaftino; mig-ht fmelt the ores

and unite the fulphur
per
;

to the iron and to the cop-

and

a

known fad,

that fulphur, deftroyfire,

ing iron in a gentle cementation, by a ftrong
is

brought into fufion with

it.

Befides an intenfer

roafting
after the
rify the

would deftroy too much fulphur, which,
raw fmelting,
is

likewife intended to fco-

deaf fubftances of the ores.
'Thirdly,

TEMESWAR,
Thirdly.
laid

is'c.

L E T T E R
tliere

I

X.

69

On

thefe

principles

might be

down many improvements of the common

roafting of lech or rawllone.

Any

roafting in-

tended to be

ufefiil

ought to be gentle.
is

The obarfe-

ject of roafting rawftone

partly the evaporating

of the combuftile fulphur and of the volatile
nic, fo as to bring the

mafs of ore clofer together,

and

to facilitate

its

fubfequent fufion into black

copper; and partly the producing ofthefulphuroiis acid

and

its

calcining and deftroying the iron

of the rawftone.
tained
fire

This double objeft
fire.

is

better

ob-

by gentle than by violent

In a ftrong
;

the ores coagulate and fmelt together
is

the

arfenic uniting with iron

fixed,

and both make

with the fluid fulphur and copper a
mafs, which
is

compound
be con-

hard to part again.

To

vinced of

it,

melt iron, fulpiuir and arfenic into
it

a regulus, pulverize

and expofe the powder to
evapore-

a gentle

fire

;

you

will find thefe minerals

rated in a fliort time,

and the deftroyed iron

maining

in the crucible.
fire,

But put the fame

i.n

a

fmeking
hours
in

you

will find the

whole for many

fufion, without

any remakabie decay or

deftru6lion.

To
I.

obtain the ends of gentle roafting the fol:

lowing rules are to be obferved

The roaft ought never to be in open air, but to
flieltered,

be included by walls and to be

to Hint
rain

out the irregular blowing of the wind and

and

F

3

fnoWj

70

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
producing by intenie
fire

fnov/, as either

a partial

coagulating and fmelting of the mafs, or by interrupted
fire

an unequal and imperfe6t roafting,

which

in either

of thefe cafes puts a flop to the in-

tended evaporation of noxious minerals, and the
deilruction of the iron.

The mafies ought not to be toolarge. The common pradice at prefent is to roaft one hun2.

dred and eighty or about two hundred hundred

weight of lech or rawftone together
furnace infpeftors, to
fave a
trifle

;

nay, fome

of charcoals
;

and wood, go

ilill

above that quantity

but

this

grudging oeconomy
greater the heap

fpoils the copper, fince
fire,

the
is

the greater the

which

produced by the greater quantity of fulphur, and
caufes a fmelting

and coagulating

in the mafs,

whofe obnoxious
before.

effedls

have been touched upon
maffes, each of one

More and fm aller
Vv^eight,

hundred,

or at moft one hundred and twenty

hundred

might be preferable

;

fo

it

will

prove equally conducive to fpread the ere
layers over the alternate
in the
fite
firfl:

in thin

wood, and only
fuel as

to

employ

fire

as

much

might be requiin the

to a gentle roafting,
is

which

following

fires 3.

conftantly to be kept gentle and equal.

In fome cafes the double rawfmeltingis to
as

be confidered

a

great advantage to produce
it

dudile copper.

Innoxious to any ore,
forts
j

might
highly
ufeful

be fuperfluous with fome

but

it is

T E
ufeful

MESWA

R, i^c.

LETTER

IX.

yt

and neceflary for thofe that are arfenical and irony, or refradory on account of brittle and
deaf minerals or half metals.
the
firft

It

is

inipoffible

by

fmclting to remove the greater part of

thefe noxious minerals,
in

and

it is

equally difficult

the fubfequent roafting and black fmelting to

deliver the
fore

metal from

their influence.

There-

two or three gentle roaltings of the lech or
firft

ftone of the

rawfmelring, and

its

fubfequent

fecond fmelting with a proportionable quantity

of pyrites into a double kch^ are to be greatly com-

mended,
in the
rals,

fince

the

fulphur of the pyrites unites

fecond fmelting with the deftroyed minecalcined by the preceding roaflings,

and
then

carries

them

off in flags.

This double

lech

is

to be brought to a regular roafting, and afterwards

fmelted into black copper.

But

in this
is

procefs
care-

the rule of an equal gentle roafting
fully to

more
;

be obferved than

in

any other

elfe

the

whole

will

run together, and the wild and deaf
to the

minerals fo clofely unite
will

copper, that

it

prove almoft

impoffible to feparate

them

again.

As
black

it is

an acknowledged rule, that only good

copper

produces a good fine copper^
in

I

do not

dwell any longer

recommending the preceding
the careful roafting, which
is

general rules, and

too

much

negledled.

By what

I

have
will

faid

it

clearly appears, that the fine

copper

be

brittie

F 4

72
tie

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
and irony,
in the

fame proportion

as the pre-

vious

works have been neglected.
be taken there will
in

However,
flill

whatever care

remain

fome
reaibn

iron,
is

even
:

the

refined

copper.

The

this

A

hundred weight of good black

copper contains commonly about ninety pounds
of
fine

copper, and about ten pounds of iron, or
iron.
it

fometimes arfenic united with
quantity of fulphur
ftili

The

trifling

exifting in

deftroys du-

ring the refining a part of this iron, and even the
fire

fcorifies

a part of

it

j

but
equal

as generally
in v>?eight if

the

iron in the black copper

is

not

fuperior tg

its

fulphur
it

;

this little

fulphur

is

cer-

tainly unfit to fcorify

entirely.

Therefore

I

have fuppofed,

that during the

refining fomething might with great advantage be

added

to the copper, to purify

and

to foften

it

entirely.

Two

mineral fubftances

deflroy

and

fcorify

iron, litharge

and fulphur.
is

The former

unfit for
fince the

the refining

on the

hearth {Gar-herd)

glowing coals which
it

cover the copper might reduce
this uniting

into lead,

and
;

with the copper caufeit to be leadifh

but

in a parting furnace^

where the copper
it
it,

is

kept

in fufion

by the flame,
lead,

might do, fmce wood
facilitating
it

flames do not reduce
calcination of

rather the
li-

and leaving

floating as

tharge on the furface of the copper.

Being under
thefe

TEMESWAR,
fiirface

^c.

LETTERIX.
copper,
it

y^

thefe circnmftances in a continual

motion on the
will attra\5t

of the boiling
iron

fluid

the remaining

particles, fcorify
in
its

with them,

and leave the copper
quantity of litharge
leffer
is

highefl purity.

The
Six

to be determined by the

or greater quantity of black copper.

or eight pounds per hundred weight might do.

Concerning the refining on
effeft is to

the hearth^ the beft

be expedled from

common

officinal

fulphur.
it

The

iron

has no greater enemy, and
it

does not affeft any other metal as long as

has

iron to

work upon and

to adhere to.
is

Accordingly,

as foon as the black

copper

brought to fmelting

fufion

and boiling fulphur
its

in pieces

ought

to

be

put on
centrate

furface,

and covered with coals

to con-

the boiling.
;

This may be repeated two

or three times
iron
flags

but the compound fulphur and
carefully to

are

be

taken

away,
is

and no more fulphur to be added, than what
requiflte

to defl;roy the iron

;

elfe

the fuperfluous

fulphur uniting with the copper caufes unnecefi^ry

expences

and lengthens the
is

refining.

For

this

reaf)n the black copper

previoufly to be ex-

amined.

In proportion to the iron contained in

the black copper, three, four or five pounds of

fulphur will be fufiicient to

its

defi:ruä:ion,

and

to the copper's highefl: refining and foftening.

This fulphur-renning will equally do
ing furnace.

in the part-

Thefe

74

TRAVELS THROUGH TH£ EANNAT OF
are, for

Theid propofals

what

I
•,

know,

entirely

new and never
and

praftiled before

however, they

are fo adequate to the natural rules of metallurgy
fo cheap, that I dare
trial

hope they

will not only

ftand the

of impartial

intelligent

fmelters,

but prove likewife highly conducive to the produftion of
fine, foft

and malleable copper.

POSTSCRIPT.
It
•will

has been demonftrated before, that the copper

be

lefs

irony in the fame proportion as the pyin

rites

added

the

firfl

rawfmelting are deftitute

of

iron.

But

as the pyrites are

commonly

to be
fort

ufed as they

may

be had, and generally any

of them contains a good deal of iron, the following procefs
the
firfl
is

recommended
the pyrites
its

as

an improvement of

rawfmelting.
is

At

prefent

added to the raw;

fmelting of the ores in

natural form
it

but

it

would be
bring
it

better

to fnielt

feparately,

and to

previoufly into a fulphurous regulus, fince
its

the greater part of

iron will be
its

by fuch a fmeltlech or regulus

ing brought off in drofs, and
confifl for the greater part

of a pure fulphurous
I

mafs.

This fulphurous regulus

propofe to mix
;

with the copper ore

in the firfl rav;fmelting

and

half the quantity of the ufual natural pyrites will

TEMESWAR,
be
fufiicient to

feV.

L E T

T

E R

I

X.

75

produce

a lefs irony

copper regu-

lus,

which according

to

my

rules,

and properly

roafled, will

undoubtedly give a very malleable

copper.

The

objedion, that

this feparate

and prepara-

tory fmelting of the pyrites will caufe a confiderable expence is of no great weight
fince the pyrite regulus being a milder fluor

with

me

•,

and

eafier

than the unprepared
requifite to

raw

pyrites, the fire

and time
will

prepare the pyrite regulus

for a

great part be faved again in the eafier

and fhorter rawfmelting.

A

P P E N*

76

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF

APPENDIX

II.

Obfervations on the Goldwafliings in the Bannat,

BY COUNSELLOR KOCZIAN,
|With the
refill t

of the enquiries made after them

BY MR. DEMBSHER.

AMONG
known
this objedl

the feveral natural

advantages of
its

the '^emefwar Bannat
to yield gold-duft.

feme of
I

rivers are

could not negleft

when

lately I travelled in thefe parts.
in the

The goldwafhing
bufinefs

Bannat

is

properly the
left as
it

of the gipfies {Zigeuner) and
this

were to

poor people

as

an exclufive trade.

This

laid

me under
Nera

the neceflity to apply to

them

for inilrudion.

The

river to

in

Almaß
for

carries gold-duft,

and feemed
cordingly
I

me
to
;

the

fitted:

my

purpofe

^

ac-

caufed fome gipfies, reputed to be

very
called

fl<ilful,

make
and

a wafhing near a village
I

Boßowiz

faw

v;ith pleafure, that

with

much

dexterity in a few minutes time, they
trouojh the value of

cleared in the

fome ^rolhes
of

TEMSLWAR,
of gold
;

^c.

LETTER
likewife

IX.

77
their

they

fhowed

me

among

gold-dud fome pieces of a remakable bignefs.
After having fufiiciently obferved and examined
their fimple maniputations,

which

i fhall

fpeak of

more
of

in

the fequel, I wanted to

know

the origin

this river gold.

A
fands

particular

circumftance favoured

my

cu-

riofity.

I faw that the gipfies

wafhed

it

from the

not only
its

taken in the river, but likewife

from

borders, nay even from

fome

pits in the

adjacent ground.
foot and

Thefe

pits are

commonly

four

more deep, and
itfelf.

yield richer fands than

the river

They

told
in

me

likewife, that the

river fand

grows richer
;

the fame proportion
it is

as the waters are high

and that
in

poorer in

dry v/eather.

Such

it

was

1769, and confe-

quently they were forced to open the goldfand
pits in the adjacent grounds.
I

examined

thefe pits

and the country around
in the an-

the Nera, which has

been delineated

nexed plan.

The
firft
is

fcrata

on

its

borders are as follows

:

The
;

common
;

vegetable mould, nearly of one
the fecond loam, two feet

foot thicknefs
third

the

pebbles and calcareous earth, hard to be
pickaxes, one foot and a half; the fourth
is

dug with

or the goldfand bed

three feet, confiding

of

a mixture of pebbles, rockdones and fine irony
fand.

This lad dratum

is

the

fame which the
gipfies

yS

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT O?
fathoms diftance from the
river^

gipfies, at thirty

dig out for v/alhing.
fee in the pits this

According
bed has a

to

what

I

could
;

flate

bottom

and

fomewhat lower down the river a large coal-ftratum bafiets out. 1 might therefore fay with fome
probability, that after the flate follows clay, then

marie, and afterwards the coal bed.

From

all

this follows, i.

that the gold-duft
in

is

not generated by the water, but brought
river beds
it

the

by accident, becaufe

in the

former cafe

ought to be found in conftant and equal quanwhether the
to
v/ater

tities,

be high or low.

2.

It

ought
eafily

be had from fuch beds which
-,

may be
is

diffolved by water
to

accordingly

it

not

owing
rents

found veins, fince rain water and torin

cannot pofTibly be fuppofed,

their fhort

and intermittent flowing,

to carry off even that part

of gold v;hich they commonly

leave

behind

;

and befides they would have long
the veins
in

fince difcovered
is

the

many

countries where gold

wafhing,

and where no fuch veins have been
3.

found out.

Therefore the gold-dufl

is

proba-

bly ov/ing only to clay and earth beds, diffolved

and carried off by water.

The bed which
a difToluble

the gipfies dig out
;

is

of fuch

nature
fee

it is

gently dipping, and by

what
ping

I

could

afcending or rifing from the weft
in this

to the eafl.

Being
it

hanging or gently dip-

fituation,

may

pollibly be laid bare in fe-

veral

T

2

iM

E

S

W A R,

i5r.

f'r'.

LETTERIX.

yg

veral parts of the river borders, and waflicd off

by high water, which very well explains the greater
fuccefs of the wafhings after

heavy

rains.
I

On my

further journey in the Bannat

obferved
left

many marks of
by the Romans.
gold

old

wadiings,

probably
likewife

They puriued
in

the

impregnated beds, which
fix

many
river

places

muft be

fathoms

above the

borders.

Near IVerßerova, Pohaßoniza, Pwlava, Tumul
in the

Karanfibex^ and

in

the valley JValle-mare^

towards the limits of Tranjj'ylvaniay from OhavaPiflra
till

Marga^

it

is

plain that they

dug

for

gold

in

fuch elevations, which

never could be

reached by the river water.

In Tranßyhania, near

Olah Pian,

at

the foot of the Rudel mountain,
are

many
v/hich

old gold-pits
is

found

in a

dry country,

entirely defliture

of brooks and rivulets.

This clearly iho \vs that the geld impregnated beds
are

not

tobe confidered

as

river fediments de-

pofitedon the borders. § If

tlicy

were fucceflively

accumulated and v/afhed off from the adjacent
hills,

there

is

no reafon why the gold fhculd be

§

This may be and certainly ought to be granted,

in re-

fpeft to the prefent viilble brooks

and

rivulets

;

but

may be

with equal

jullice

denied in refpeft to thofe of former times,

fince the furface

of the earth has undergone fo
feas,

many

fucceffive

revolutions,

and ancient

lakes

and
by

rivers are every

where traced
(Tranfl.j

in the prefent continent

their former effedls.

only

8o

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

only contained in a fingle bed, and never to be

found

in the

upper vegetable mould

?

The
bed,
is

folid

compad: ilratum of dragged pebbles
is

and rocks, which
a further

fuperincumbent on the gold
its

argument for
;

not having been

produced

fucceffively

fmce no reafon appears

why

the gold-duft might have been carried and
|1

depofited under this compaft ftratum.

Therefore we have thegreateil reafon to believe,
that

the gold impregnated bed
it is

is

owing

to the

deluge, and that accordingly

wide, ftretching
In this
:

through confiderable

tracts

of land. *

fuppofition remains bur

a fingle queftion

whe-

ther this bed

be throuo;hout impregnated with
this

gold

?

Though
reafons,
I

might be affirmed

for very
it,

good

will

however, to corroborate

take notice
•wafhings

that the Romans,
river,

beginning their

near the

continued them a hun-

dred fathoms length
long
as they

in the adjacent lands, eafily lay

and

as

could reach and

open the gold

II

Thefe two induftlons are extremely precarious.
(Tranll.)

Might

not fucceffive revolutions, whatever they were, produce different ftrata of a different nature
?

*

The

latter

is

fa6l

;

and the diluvian fuppofition a bad

confequence drawn from precarious indudlions as well as from
too narrow principles.
(Tranfl.)

bed

TEMESWAR,
bed without driving
co

^c.

LETTER

X.

^1

galleries,

which feem to have

them. J been unknov/n By fimilar circumftances the gipfies have no

chance to make any greater progreis, being confined to the gold which
is

carried by the rivers, or

contained in the

lefs

incumbered and buried gold-

bed near

their borders.

However, the objed: being of importance, and
defervin'T nearer examination, I lliould advife to

drive a gallery in the gold impregnated bed, and
to

examine how
it

far

it

runs into the

field,

and

whether
quality
?

conflantiy keeps the gold impregnated
it

If

Hiould be found to extend a conin

fiderable

way

the mountains, and to continue
it

gold impregnated,

would be worth while
reo;ular hearths.

to

have

laro-e v/afliino-s

on

The
fathom

prefent

manipulation of the gipfies

is

as follows:

They

ufe a board of lime tree one

leno;th,

and one inch and a half thick.
end
is

At

the upper

a

fmall

trough,

and a

crofs the

board are ten or twelve fmall cuts or

furrows.

This board

they raife

at

one end,

under an angle of nearly forty- five degrees.
fand
is

The
and

put

in

the trough at the upper end,

X

Mr. Koczian

is

very unhappy in fuppofitions.
?

Had he
they but

never heard of tlie cuniculi of the ancients
galleries
?

What are

G

whence

82

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

thence by plenty of water wafhed

down

the Hoping

of the board.

This caufes the lighter fands to be
in the fur-

wafhed off, and the heavier ones to remain

rows and on the furface of the board, whence they
are fcraped or brulhed off, to be feparated

from the
trough.

gold by the operation of the

common
by
it-,

Their whole proceeding
that a
is ftill

is

fo

extremely carelefs,

good
more
that

deal of gold

is loft

and what
pure gold-

to be pitied they get but the

du.ft,

which

is ftill

fticking to the fands
as I

and

ftones being thrown away,

am

convinced by
in-

the microfcope, nay
ipeclion.

even by fimple ocular

This circumftance deferves nearer examination
bear the expence of pounding

:

whether thefe fands and ftones be rich enough to
?

A

fmall

trial

might be
bear
it,

fufficient.

If they

Ihould appear to

regular mining and pounding

would be

advifeable.
I

cannot conclude without adding a particular
I

obfervation, which

had an opportunity

to

make
places

near the

many

old and

new gold-wafhing
I

in the Bannat,
tion.

and which

confider worth atten-

I found that the higher promontories

on

the gold impregnated rivers do not confift of folid

rocks, but

of

foft

earth-beds,

which give
ores.
its

good

indications of coals

and alum
is

Near
gold-

Boßöwiz on
£o:::
.

the Nera, which

known by

waftiings

T

E

M
I

E

S

W A R,

&c.

L E T T E R X.

83

wadiino-s,
at a fmall

favv a large

coal bed baffetting out
;

diftance

from the gold fand bed
which
I

and

almoft

in

every

place,

have fpoken of
of the ground

before, the exterior appearance

countenances the conclufion, that coal beds are

below the gold impregnated ftratum, and that
thefe in
its

a certain

reiped: are to be confidered as
lliare

fole.

They had perhaps fome
;

even

in

the generation of the gold

at leaft,
it is

they have a

great relation with gold, fince
to extra(5l

not impofTible
is

from them a hepar fulphuris, which

the ftrono-eft difiblvent of c-old.

However
found
in

this

be,

it is

faft that coals are to

be

every gold walhing-ground.

The Danube
nay

and

E72S

may

ftand an evidence, fince on the bor-

ders of the
flill

Danube from Vienna
up,
coal

to Pajfau,

higher
I

beds offer every where.
that the

Therefore

do not doubt,

fame gold im-

pregnated ftratum

may

be traced out on the bor-

ders of thefe rivers, and regularly

worked

to ad-

vantage.

According

to thefe obfervations

and accounts of
I

Counfellor Koczian, and the orders which
received,
I

had

proceeded to

my

enquiries in the fol-

lowing manner

As
his

foon

as

1

arrived at
in
•,

Boßowiz
found

I

enquired

af-

ter the place,

which Baron Koczian had made?
and
I it as

obfervations

laid

down

in

G

2
\

plate

84
plate

TRAVELS THROUGH THE ßANNAT OF
to

which

this

explanation

is

belonging.

A. Meniß ; a brook. B. Boßowiz i a village.
C.

The ground, where Baron
It rifes gently

Koczian caufed

his walhings.
tains
;

towards the moun-

and
a gallery of one

D.
into

fathom length was drove

it.

E. The coals
F.

in different beds.
it

Mouth

of the Meniß^ where

runs into the

Nera.

Near
confifls,

K
as

and

L

the ground

is

very

fiat

•,

and

appears in fome higher borders, of

different ftratified earth

and (lone beds.
I

After a general furvey

caufed the works at

D

to be

cleared, to

get acquainted

with Baron
its

Koczian's gold impregnated ilratum and
dation.
I

foun-

found

it

agreeing with his defcription,

and confiding of a mixture of brown loam, pebbles, rocks,

mica, garnets and iron
jQate,

fand.

But
of

the under bed was no

confifting rather

a

brown fandftone, extremely mouldering and
and hardening
in the

friable in the pit,

open

air.

Acquainted with the objedl of
advanced 27 fathom nearer orderd a fhaft to be funk
one fathom and a half
nated ftratum.
I

my

enquiries, I

to the mountains,
in

and

G.

In a depth of

reached the gold impreg-

A

walhing convinced

me

of

its

containino-

a

TEMESWAR,
containing gold
;

Iffc.

LETTER

X.

S^

and

I

ordered thirty carts load

to be laid afide for a great
1

wadiing on the hearth.

advanced then

Hill

twenty eight fathom more,
;

almoft to the foot of the mountains

and to be
1

convinced of the extenfivenefs of
caufed a fhaft to be funk
in
it,

this ftratum,

twenty-two fa-

thom

to the fouth.

Here

I

found the beds entirely
immediately under
a

different.

The

grey

loam

the turf was very

tough, and

fathom thick.
,

Then

followed brown loam five foot

afterwards

the compatft pebble bed

four 4 foot, and then

the gold impregnated ftratum.
trial in

After

a

little

the trough,

I

ordered as

much

to be laid

afide as
large.

might be

full fufficient

for a wafliing at

Then

I

proceeded to thefe wafhings on a
as

hearth, exaftly conftru6ted

thofe at Sbe^nniz,

The
ed

refult

was

as follows

:

Firßp'oof. Thirty carts from the fhafc
tv/o grains
.

G yield-

of gold.
fliaft

Second proof Thirty carts from the

H yield-

ed fcarce half a grain of gold.

The greateft

care was taken, and

I

was too well

convinced, that fuch profits could not bear the ex-

pences of mining, which, as here to be under-

taken immediately under the
a

turf,

would require

good deal of timber, of which the whole adjais

cent country

entirely deftitute.

Therefore

I

dropt

my works
is

in this place,

and

examined the bed which

gently rinng on the
coal

G

3

86

TPvAVELS

THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
con•,

coal ftratum along the Menijh^ and in feveral places
is

three

fathom above the water

level.

I

flantly
in

found fome gold

flakes in the

trough

but

fo fmall quantities, that I

faw no encourageI

ment for a wafhing hearth, and
hope of mining.
and Telpoßjiz

gave up every
gold-wafliers

The common

having for the moft part retired to Banya^ Ruderia
;

I

followed them to thefe places to

examine the ground and earth which they were
wafliing there.

At

Telpoßjiz I
•,

found

it

as in the

before dtfcribed places
deria
ters
I

but at Banya and Ruin the

faw the gipfies feeking for gold

gut-

and furrows of the mountain-brooks.
for the hiftory of

So much
fliall

my

enquiries.

I

add fome obfervations produced by them,

and explanatory to thofe of Counßllor Koczian.
1.

As

foon as a fhaft or drift reaches the gold

impregnated bed you reach water.
general that
I

This

is

fo

have found

it

fo in the fhaft

H

and

E, three fathoms above the water
Me-fiißj.
2.

level

of the

The

gold v/afhed hereabout
It

is

entirely native,

free

from any matrix.

appears in fine dull. Tho*

the exterior appearance of this mixed ftratum con-

vinced me, that
fifilires,

it is

not owing to gold veins and
its

and that accordingly

rocks and flones
I

cannot polübly contain any gold,
ever for

caufed how\yaj[hed fands

my

fuller

convidion the

and

TEMESWAR,
gold appeared.
I

^c.

L E T T E R X.

87

and Hones to be ftampt and wallied again.
then had them roailed by

No
fire,

but without any better fuccefs.
3.

The

deeper

this

bed under ground the

richer.

It
it

grows poorer

in the

fame proportion
;

in v»'hich

afcends to the mountains
to be explained

which

in a certain

manner is
4.

by

thefiril obfervation.

This gold impregnated bed yields every

where a pure black fplendent fand, which might
be called perhaps native iron, fince
it is

drawn

by the loadftone.*

In the gutters and furrows at
infignificant quantity
;

Banya and Ruderia but an
of
this

iron

fand

is

found

they give a greater

quantity of pyriticous fand, which, together with
the ores and gang-rocks,
for copper mines.
is

a ftrong prefumption
fituation

The

line

of thefe

mountains, water, wood and timber being plenty,

might give a zealous miner a mind
them.
It
is

to explore

very difficult to determine the origin of

gold-duft contained in this ftratum.

Though

the

difcovered beds, the cxtenfive coal fcratum,

and
evi-

now and
*

then

fome petrifadions, be flrong

The

tranflator has verified this obfervation in the goldHeJJe.

wafhings on the Eder in

He might

perhaps give a nais

tural reafon for this iron fand, v.'hich conftantly

found con-

comitant with the gold-dull.

/

G

4

dences

8S

TRAVELS THP.OUGH THE BANNAT OF

dences of great inundations; there appears nofuffcient reafon

why

the gold duft fhould be only

mixed

in the fubftance

of a fingle bed
I

?

As

I

am

no
of

friend
this

of conjediires,
to

leave the explication
greater

phenomenon

men of

genius,

enabled by their extenfive knowledge and experience in Natural Philofophy, to miake difcoveries

beyond
I

my

capacity.

am

to anfwer here to an objeftion
is,

which feems

to be a juft one, and

that notwithilanding the

poornefs of thefe fands, the value of Ibme thou-

fand

florins
this

of gold

is

produced every year.

Though
itfelf,

be fact, and a confiderable fum in

it is

a very inconfiderable one in refpect

of
the

the

great

number of people employed
There were
for

in

wafhings.

example

in the year

1770,

in the

neighbourhood of Uy Palanka, Orfowa

and Caranjehez^ above 80 families of goldwafhers,

men,

women and
;

children,

employed

in

that

bufmefs

and neverthelefs they have not made

good above the value of fix or feven hundred ducats. Hence it appears to me fhat thefe wafhings are no
objecfls for

miners, and
•,

lefs fo for

Germans.

The

gipfies

go half naked

whole families

live at the

daily expence of a groat; nay cheaper.

Satisfied
at

with
their

this petty

allowance,

and unconcerned

nudity, they wafh gold in

and during the winter they

fummer time, cut wooden troughs^
fpoons

TEMESWAR,
fpoons

Is'c

L E T T E R X.

89

and

the like, which

they ramble about

with felling and begging.
fuch a
life
is
•,

A

miner would fcorn
better,

and

if

you would keep them
the
profit

whence
which
thing,

to

arife

of the fovereign,
is

in the

common way
it

of the gipfies
?

fome-

though

be inconfiderable
manipulaiion

Concerning
at
firft

their

it

feems to be
•,

fight

very rude and bungling
itfelf.

but

it is

very jufc in
experience,

Praftice has given

deftitute

them an of which one might conI

fider their procefs as very deficient.

am

cor>-

vinced of
they

it

by

its

following examination.
a wafliing

When
twenty
is

had finifhed

of

fifteen or

troughs of flind on their ufual board, which

fcven

foot in length, rifled with fifty or fixty tranfverfe

furrows, and erefted under an angle of eighteen

or twenty degrees,

I

caufed the fands, which re-

mained
parts.

in

the furrows, to be divided into three
greater part of gold ftuck conftantly

The

in the ten

or fifteen

uppermoft furrows

-,

m

the

enfuing

divifion I fcarce
;

met

vv'ith

the

eighth

part of the former

and

in the

lad fifteen

or

twenty furrows fcarce two or three flakes of gold
v/ere to be found.
I

have likewife carefully exv/aflied already,

amined the fands, which they had
and
was
it

was but very feidom that any mark of gold
them.

left in

Such

^O

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
refult

Such was the
contrary to

of

my firfl: journey,

which,

my
1

cxpeflation, produced a fecond.
clearly

Unluckily

had not
-,

enough explained

my

third obfervation

and Baron Hegengarthen was

hence inclined to believe, that the gold impregnated

bed might prove richer

in a greater

depth.

Therefore he propofed to fink
or ten fathoms depth,
till

in

K

a fhaft of nine

a folid found and bar;

ren rock might be reached

and

I

was accord-

ingly ordered to return with two able
in

workmen
fo.

the Ahnaß, and to
It

try the experiment.

was June 13th

in

1771 when

I

did

The

point

K

is

about three feet above the water level
in

of the Menißj^ v/hich having
part of
its

E

torn off a fteep

borders, and by that accident laid open

the coals and the other ftrata,! could with certainty
foretel that the fole

of the gold impregnated fands

would prove
ing marie

to be either the coal or the alternat-

beds.

"With the fame probability
flrata.

I

might
the

have foretold the bignefs of thefe
I

After I fathom of veo;etable mould
firft

reached

fand and pebble bed and water, which

increafed, arifing

from the
deeper.

fole,

in the

fame pro-

portion as
bifh were

we funk

Two

troughs of rub-

had with

five or fix

troughs of water.
rains filled

This circumflance and the conflant
unflieltered

my

works with
I

fo

much

water, that by

twelve hours labour
foot depth.

could

not get but three
I

After one 4

fathom

reached the

gold

TEMESWAR

&c.

LETTER
I

X.

91

gold impregnated bed, which

very often ex-

amined on the trough, but conflantly found fo DOor that a large mine trough contained often
but a fingle flake, and often nothing at
lad
all.

At

we

fell

in

with the coals, and having funk
in

my work i

fathom

them

to

no purpofe, and
as thofe

found that the beds were the fame
cident laid open
this

by ac-

in

E.

I

gave up

my

works in

place, and examined rather thefe difcovered

flrata.

The
many

refult

was the fame

as

that of

my

former enquiries.

My
me
to

fmall wafliings did not encourage
;

further experiments

and thus

I

dropt

my repeated enquiries. To prevent all further
vation,

doubts

I

add an obfer-

which proves with nearly mathematical
tl.is

evidence that

fide the

Menißo only coals and

marie, and on the other fide towards the
tains only flate

moun-

and fand flone

will

be found by dig-

ing deeper.

The

gold

impregnated ftratum

is

conftantly
It

parallel to the turf

and vegetable mould.

does

not anfwer at
beds.

all to

the dipping of the lower (lone
clearly
in

This appears

E, where marie

and

coals, alternating

with regularity, are never

parted by earth beds but covered by the gold

impregnated ftratum,
turf.

which

is

parallel
it

to

the

The

feflion plate explains

to the eyes.

Here

92

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

Here
I

the qiieftion arifes again:
in this

why

this

gold

was produced

ftratum
it
;

?

I freely
I

confefs that

am

at a lofs to

anfwer

but

cannot entirelv

abilain

from propofing fome conjeftures, v/hich

perhaps

may

afTift

others to difcover the fecret.

The

hypothefis of thofe,
forefts,

who

explain the origin

of coals by

buried and fwallowed

up by

earthquakes, gains fome credit by the exterior ap-

pearance of the Almaßd^ whofe
interfefted
deflitute
larity
in

foil is

every where
is

by

hills

and

rivers,

and

entirely

of wood.
the

But the remarkable reguand parallel coal and
with the idea of fuch
dif-

alternating
ao-ree

marie beds does not

mal and
eafily to

violent deftruc^ions.
foil

The

ftru6lure of
is

the uppermofb loofe

in

thefe parts

more
is

be explained by

inundations.

It

a

known

fa6l that
in

gold and iron are generated and

many flat countries, and that thefe dug in many places befides the common veins and fifTures. The Dutch fea fand and the iron, which in different places is found conproduced
metals are

comitant with the gold
dences.§

dull,

are

ftrong evi-

Suppofing

this native

gold to have been

contained in the uppermoft and loofer beds of the

%

beds

Of what ? That the gold or Iron is generated in thefe ? No that they are commonly found together, and that
;

iaving perhaps had a

common

origin, they have been waflied

and depofited there by the fame revolution or natural
whatever
this be.)

caufe,

(Tranil.
hills,

T
hills, it

E

M

E

S

WA

R, ^f.

L E T T E R X.

93

could be thence carried by inundations into

lower grounds, and as inundations do not retreat

but fucceffively, gold,

iron,

garnets

and

(lierl

X)ught of courfe, and according to their fpecific
gravity, to have taken the

lowed place, and to
which
rivers.

be depofited

in

thofe

flats,

as the

lowed

have been interfefled by the This opinion

agrees exacftly with experience,
reafon

and

explains

the

why

the

gipfies

get

greater quantities of gold in high water that in

dry weather.
rivers

By heavy

rains the borders
•,

of the

and brooks are worn away
This

nay, under luch

circumftances, the rivulets take often a quite different
courfe.
gipfies,
faciliates the

manipulation

of the

becaufe the water diflblving and
particles,

carrying

away the argillaceous

and

leaving only the heavier fands and the gold-dud
behind, they get by a fingle trough of fand as

much

gold

as

they might have wafhed from

two or

three troughs of the undifTolved natural fands.

But

is

this
?

an explication of the orgin of this
Certainly no.

gold duft

However,
I

I

have

done what

mod

naturalids do,

have advanced

my

opinion.

Francis Dembsher.

LETTER

94

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OP

LETTER.
THE
Dobra
I

XL

N^gy^g-» y^^b 12, 1770,
plains,

which

I

reached neap Lz<t^^j, con-

tinued half ways to Dohra^

where
flate.

I

found

an afcending ground of argillaceous

Beyond

met again with our Saxum
Deva,

metalliferum.

It continued to

The

roads are impaflable.
river Af^r^^

Between tremendous precipices and the on one
fide,

and fteep fliaggy rocks on the other,

Iwas dragged along, by eight oxen, added to the
four horles of

my
;

carriage.

I

arrived late in the

night at

Deva
for

but the fafety of the roads made

amends

their roug-hnefs.

As
I

foon as

I

came
at

to the limits of Tranffyhania^ between Bohra and

Deva, the two huzzars, which
Lugos,
left

had taken

me.

'The

'Tranjfylvania WallachtanSy

more humanized than
the
national frontier
feverity

thofe

in

the Bannat,

and
the

troops, together with

of government againft the robbers, conIt is

tribute greatly to the fafety of the country.

but of

late

that

three robbers

have

been

at

Deva impaled
murders
in

alive, for

having committed fome
of Hazeg,

the

valley

This

cruel

and

95 and almoft inhuman punifhment, tho' ufed in Slavonia and the Bannat, has made fuch an impreflion
all

TEMESWAR,

'd

LETTER

XI.

on the inhabitants, that you may travel
with fafety.

the night

The day

after

my ar-

rival I vifited the

copper-mines, which fome years
in a

ago have been opened

mountain to the weft,

three quarters of an hour's journey

from Deva.

The mountain
flate,

conlifts, at the foot,

of a micaceous

covered with indurated marie rocks gently
In thefe rocks are the
fifTures,

fifing.

which comI defire

pofe the copper ftockwork at Deva.

you
the

would underftand the word ftockwork fame fenfe in which 1 explained it to you
letter

in
in

my

from Dognazka,

However,

there

is.

a great

difierence between
places.

the flockworks of thefe two

That

at

Dognazka

confifts

of large and
in

very rich

veins, converging
:

and uniting
of fome

the
uni-

fame point

here

it

confifts

fiflfures,

ting in a middle of ten fathom diameter,

and
the

mixed with dead rocks.
run of the
fiflfures,

They have purfued
in
it

and funk

a fhaft

of fome
in

fathoms depth, but without any fuccefs either
the drift or depth.

and

loofe

clay,

The vein {gang-art) is now and then fprinkled

grey

with

quartz and fpath, and containing various coloured

and yellow copper
fort,

pyrites, which, if of the richeft

contain

feventeen pounds

of copper per
this

hundred weight.

A hundred

weight of

cop-

per contains one dram and two denarii of

filver

and

gS

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
this filver

and a mark of
gold.

two and a half denarii of

They cannot

yet part either the filver or
it

the gold, but they hope to do
ter fmelting procefs.

by a future betin the

The works

mine are

crippled.

Wherever they found fome ore they
took
it

eagerly

out, but left the

asthey broke
that the

off.

Hence

arofe

fo

work as foon many holes,

work refembled rather than of miners. They have not
furnaces

thofe of rabbits

yet any fmelting

of

their

own
I

;

accordingly they fend

their ores to the filver furnaces at Cfertes.

In the afternoon

continued
fide

my way

to

Nag-

yag

\

and paffed the other

of the Maros over

high mountains, confifting of argillaceous rocks,

mixed with mica and
argillaceous
flate.

flierl,

and covered with
I

After three hours ride
It

reach-

ed the village Nagyag.
to the town, which
is

has given

its

name

one hour and a
fince
it

half's jour-

ney higher up
place

in the hill?,

was the nearcft
I

when

thefe gold-mines

were difcovered.

got here oxen to

my
fit

carriage, becaufe the

little

Hungarian

horfes,

for plain countries,

would

not have anfwered thefe deep and high mountains.

Towards night I arrived at Sekeremb, the proper name of the place commonly known under that
of Nagyag.
in

All around you

fee

but

forefts,

and

a

valley

fome hundred houfes,
bing- places,

flamp-mills

(Pochwerke)

feme large wafhing
houfes

TEMESWAR,
houfes, the
fituation of

^c.

LETTERXI.

97

council-houfe, and a church.
this place,

The

and the coldnefs of the

weather, are

unfit for hulbandry.
is

The

trade of

the inhabitants
it.

mining, and what belongs to

The

timbering of the mines, and the conlump-

tion of the inhabitants,

have cleared the

forefts lo
is

much

that

the timber for the mines

to

be

fetched from abroad floated on the Maros^ which
paffes at the foot of the mountains.

The
;

noble-

men,

as

lords of the ground, have

no objection
nay, they

i^gainft this
^

clearing of their forefts

keep great

herds

of goats,

to

prevent their

growing up again.
his

Every nobleman keeps on
;

ground an

inn, to fell vi^ine to the m.iners

and

as the proprietors

of the mines have engaged to
their

difcharge every

month what

workmen may
it

owe

for wine, they have allowed for

the liberty
vir'ant-

to cut

down

in the forefts

whatever m.ay be

ine: for their

mines and

buildino-s.

The mountains

are here entirely

compofed of

our metallic rocks (Saxum metallifcrum) which
are covered with red argillaceous clay.

The

gold

mine owes

its

difcovery to accident.

A Wallachian^
came
mine
to

whofe name was Armenian John, of
a rich filver

my

father, then pofTeifed

at CferleSy telling

him, that

as

he conftantly

obferved a flame iffuing from and playing upon
a
fiffure in

theiV^^j^^

foreft,

he v/as of. opinion,
that

H

98

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

that rich ores muft be hid under ground.

My father
liften

was fortunately adventurous enough to
this

to

poor man's

tale

;

and accordingly he drove
the JVallachian

a eallerv in

the ground, which

had pointed out.

The work went on fome

years

without any fuccefs, and
give
it

my

father refolved to
a
laft drift to-

up.

However, he made
fifTure,

wards the

and there he
ores,

hit the rich
firft

black

and lameliated gold

which

were looked
really

upon

as iron

glimmer, but appeared what
fire.

they are as foon as aflayed by
accident caufed

This happy

my

father to purfue the

work

to

the utmoft of his power; accordingly he dillri-

buted fome

fliares

among

his

friends,

and had

the works carried on with regularity.

Soon
hading

after

they difcovered, befides the Ergezehaw and the

white fijftirei three other

fiflures in the

fide,

and a foaring

fifiiure,

which, moftly parallel

among
Thefe
flate

themfelves, run in the direftion of the valley from

fouth to north, dipping from weft to
veins break
ofi^ as

eaft.

foon as they reach the red
valleys.

which covers the
to you,

The

caufe

is

obvious

and gives

me good

hopes, that whenever

we

fhall

chace thefe veins under the plane, on
flate is

which the

fuperincumbent, their run will
fince then

be uninterrupted,
to intercept
it.

no caufe remains

In the oppofite mountain

we have

difcovered
It

another

fifilire,

called

John Nepomuck.

has a

conftant

TEMESWAR,
conftant run to the

t^c.

LETTER

XI.
in

gg
whicli
to-

fame point north,

probably
gether.

all

thefe veins will crofs

and meet

The John
therto
;

Nepomtick vein has proved dead hinefts

however fome fmall

of ore have
us to hope

been hit already, and
that
tain.
it

thofe permit
in the afcent

will

prove richer

of the moun-

All thefe veins

fall,

and have been worked

al-

ready to fixty fathoms. It has been obferved that
thofe,

which towards the day or the turf were
filver

poor of

and rich of gold, proved
in filver

in

the

depth richer

and poorer

in gold.

The

reverfe happens with thofe that in the uppermoft
galleries yielded

more

filver

and

lefs

gold.

Hitherto we have the advantage to run our
ores

by the

galleries

immediately
;

to

the bing

places and llamp mills

and many years ago we
draining gallery, which
the prefent

begun
goes

(

erb flollen )

a

thirty
;

fathoms depth under

deepeft fole

nay, the nature of the ground alItill
is

lows us to think of a

deeper gallery.
driven twelve fathoms

Our
in

draining gallery

a bed
clay.

of coarfe blunt pebbles

mixed with
it

fome

Had
a

it

been more indurated
Breccia.

would

have proved
the red

fine

Then

followed

fiiivery

clay,

through which we have
2

H

forced

ICO

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF

forced our way 370 fathoms length.

At

prefent
as

we work

in fandflone,

which grows harder
that
it

we

go on, and gives good hopes
fathoms
drift the veins

we
it.

fhall

reach

the micaceous clay rock, and in

after a

twenty

which

crofs

.The mouldering and foul quality of
ferent ftrata has
difficult.

thefe dif-

made our

galleries expenfive

and

To

have

at all events

proper

air

condudlors, and
it

the requifite

room

for the water channel,
;

was

to be twelve foot high

and the

fides

and roof

were to be faftened by oak door Hocks, each a
foot thick, and fet clofe together.

At

the entrance of the gallery

is

a fan ventiin

lator brifkly turning

by a water-wheel

a clofe

room, whence wooden air-pipes and condudlors
convey the
its

air at

the bottom of the drift, and caule

requifite circulation.

The

condudlors (ivelter-

Ictten) confift

of four boards nailed together, and

made
dull,

tight in the joints

by a cement of

clay, tile-

and tallow.
are extremely
fee in

The workings
would
rejoice to

regular.

You
nay

many
and

places four,

€ven five platforms one above another continually
yielding the richefl ores
pleafe
;

it

would

certainly

you to

find in

many long

drifts a

roof of

three or four foot large veins,

which enfures to

the proprietors rich dividends in future.

The
miners

TEMESWAR,

i^c.

LETTER

XT.

lOI

miners are not allowed to work

in the richer veins,

Being nicely but near them in the hanging fide. laid open that way, the Ible is wiped clean, cloths
are

fpread upon
in

it,

and then the vein

is

taken

down
at the

the prefence of an officer.

This they do

end of any working day, or
;

at the

end of the
the ore

week

and prevents not only
it

fpilling too.

amono; dead rocks but Healing

By

the Daniel-fljaft the air

is

conduced

into the

deepeft drifts, and the conveying of the ores in
the galleries promoted.

The

vein rocks

confift

of red feld-fpath and

white faponaceous quartz, (fetter quartz.)

The richer
black-grey
-,

ores are lamellous,

fplendent and

the lamellcE

to

be feparated from

each other by a needle as thofe of mica.

They

may

be cut and bent.
rich fpecies
is

Another

finely

woven

into the

fubftance of a bleak

reddifh feld-fpath,

refem;

bling the arfenical white ore from
the
fire

Saxony

but

proves

it

to be native filver,
its

of ayellowifh

colour, on account of

mixture with gold.

Among the
Another
ton ore.
It

rich lamellous ores

now and thenoccot-

curs native filver

mixed with gold.
is

rich fpecies
confifts

called

by the miners

of

little

native filvery gold
{ticking in an ar-

grains, in a black gold

mulm,

gillaceous matrix.

H

2

The

102

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
other ores are
likewife

The

lamellated, but
into
their

thefe larr.eliai are but thinly fprinkled

fubftance.

Some

are entirely finiilar to the fcaly

antimony and

(lain

the

fingers

-,

others have a
in

mixture of black lead lamellae, which
veffels are unafFe6led

clofed

by

fire,

but under the mufle
In the midft of this

yield a fmall corn of gold.

ce

is

very often found a radiated cryftallized, but
a

commonly

fcaly

and plumofe grey antimony.

Antimonhim plumoftim.

Red
§.

folid

and cryftallized

arfenic, calx or orpiment,
7nixta,

calx arfenici^ fulphtire

rubra.

Cronßedt.

241.

n.

2.

and

fine

grained cinnabar, are not

uncommon.

All thefe

femi-metals brought to the couppelle leave figns,

nay now a^idthen fmall grains of gold.

The
to the

richer ores are in

wooden troughs
under oath.

carried

feparating rooms, and there as nicely as

poflible feparated

by

officers

The

richeft fpecies contains
in a

from ninety

to

340

ouncesof filver
filver yields

hundred vveight; and each mark
is

200, to 210 denari gold, that

to fay,

twelve or thirteen ounces gold, or two parts gold

and one part
this ore, yields

filver.

The rock

feparated

from
filver,

from
and

fifteen to

twenty ounces

and

this

from 160 to 170 denari gold per mark.
ofTal

The

fplittings

of

this ore

gives

from

twenty-five to thirty ounces filver, and. this from

180 to 190 denarii gold.

The

TEMESWAR,
The
by iron
fievcs.
firll

<^c.

LETTER
pieces,

XI.

IO3

poorer ores are feparated in the wafh-works

The
fieve,

greater

which do
firft

not pafs the

and thofe that pafs the

and lecond, are with hammers feparated from the
dead rocks.

Thofe that

pafs

through the third

and fourth are taken care of by the fieve-mafters, and the duft running through the remaining
is

fieves

waflied on the

common

hearths.

Thefe pyri-

tous ores give two or three ounces filver, and this
in

the

mark from

feventy to

112 denarii gold.

The

feparated dead rocks of this ore are ftampr,

and with the

common

ores pulverized and wafiied.
this

They yield one or one 4- ounce of filver, and per mark from loo to 130 denari gold.
Whatever
care

you may take with fcamping
richeft

and wailiing the

Nagyag

ores, the

belt

microfcope will not difcover any flake of native
gold.

Counlellor Scopoli has chemically analyfed
in his

them

Anno

iv. Uijlorico-'Naturuli.

P'rofeflbr
treatife in

Schreber

has

given a trandation of his

his coUeflion

of Finance Trafts,
will

You

have read

them, and you
to

have perhaps an opportunity

examine theconftituent parts of this unique gold-

ore and

Mr.

Scopolis' Efiays.

The
in iron

ores are afiayed every

month, and accordare

ingly feparated.

The

richer ones

pounded

mortars, fprinkled with water, put into

H

4

facks.

IC4
facks,

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF
and together wich the fprinkled ores and

wafnings carried by horfes over the mountains to
the royal market at Zalathna, there to be afiayed

again by a royal aflay-maller,

and to be paid

accordingly to the proprietors.

The
three
are

ores being watered they count at Zalathna

pound per hundred weight lefs. 2. They charged Imelting expences two florins a hun3.

dred weight.
for

And
well

five

per hundred
filver.

fire lofs

the

gold

as

as for the

After
is

thefe previous deductions the
to

mark gold
-,

payed
fil-

the proprietors

300

florins

and the mark

ver nineteen florins thirty cruizers.
Victuals being extremely dear at Nagyag^ as

being carried there by

men

or horfes, the wages
in

of the workm.en are higher here than
other places.

many

Thefe and the
fix to

common mining exflorins a

pences amount from
Neverthelefs a

10,000

month.

dividend of eight, ten, nay of
is
;

20,000
the

florins

diftributed every
fo

month among
filver

proprietors

that

in

twenty years time

above four millions of florins gold and
been produced
in this

have

Angle place.

The
majefcy

proprietors
the

have transferred upon her
the principality or

Emprefs-queen

the right of regulating the mining works.

Her

majefty was

pofi^efl^ed

of fixteen

fliares

or adions.

However,

the proprietors are in cafes of impor-

tance

TEMESWAR,
tance
ftill

l^c.

LETTER
At

XI.

I05
the

afk'd

their opinion.

prefent

works are under the diredion of Mr. Daniel CaHe is a miner ßeilano, her majefties barmafter.
of great experience, well acquainted with the nature

of thefe mountains and fucefsful

in his

un-

dertakings.
built

He

is

the

firft

in TranJJylvania

who

regular flamp-mills, and demonflrated the

advantage of the Hungarian ftamp and wafhingmills to thofe that objeded,

by clearing

in afingle

day 300 weight flampt ores with feven ftamp and
wafli-mills

built

at

Nagyag.

The

fcarcity

of

water has
to

very often in dry weather put a ftop
therefore the proprietors
are building

them

;

at prefent a great water refervoir in a higher

ground,

in order to fupply the mills durino; dry weather.

LETTER

IC6

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OP

LETTER.
rr'RANSSTLVANIA
defervcs

XII.

Zalathna^ July 15, 1770.
to

be exami-

^

ned by a naturalift endowed with a proper
All the mountains of this

knowledge of minery.
metals.

beautiful country are full of figns of undifcovered

Had
I

I

not had a time prefcribed, within
to Sbeimnz,
is

which
have

was

to return

I

fliould not

left fo

fcon a country which

fo interefting

to m.e, not only for being

my

native country but
It

for being fo rich in natural curiofities. certainly have

would

made me

rich

amends

for the pains

of

my enquiries. The beft and

only reputable book on the
is,

Na-

tural

Hillory of 'Tranffylvania
Keres-eer Auraria

Samuel Kcleferi

from

Romano Dacica. Printed at
author, a learned phy-

Hermanfladt 17 17.
fician,

The

and

afterwards infped:or- general of the
in this

Tranjjyhaninn mines, has

valuable book

rather defcribed the antiquity and florifliing ftate

of the Dacian mines during the reign of Trajan,
than their produftions and natural circumitances.

With

greater

prefumption but

lefs

learning

a,

certain jeluit, P.

Fridwahky, attempted of

late

the

TEMESWAR,

l3c.

LETTER
bur the

XII,

107

the Mineral Hiftory of T'ra^ijj'ylvania.

His book
title,

has nothing to tempt you
rdlogia 'Tranjjylvani^,

Aline-

The

materials of this dull
falfe ac-

performance are a variety of good and

counts compiled from able but generally ignorant
miners, which the good-natured pried was unable
to

make

ufe of; falfe denominations of minerals

arifing

from want of knowledge-,
fit

half a dozen

pious
fips
;

tales,

for the entertainment of old gof-

fome

authorities taken

from Kokfer-, abfurd

indudions, confequences and conjeflures, arifing

from a thorough ignorance of chemical and mineralogical principles
;

and a good deal of
gentlemen,

civility

and compliments

to thofe

who

enter-

tained P. Fridwalzky with hofpitality in his excurfions of mineralogical knight-errantry.

Even

the

language, in which
fcribed,
is

all

thefe fine rareties

are dev/ith

fuch bad Latin,

and

fo

overdone

flourifhes, that

one

is

in

want of the
.

fenfe

of

CEdipus to guefs that of P. Fridwalzky

I fliall

have perhaps an opportunity to converfe with
this

highly celebrated T'ra'njj'ylvaman mineralogifl
;

at Claufenburg

then

I

will
in

tell

you v/ho he

is,

and whether perhaps
expe(5l

future times

we may
fhow

fome amends

for the fingular raree

cf
of

his

former performance.
noble country forces

my

The me

mineral hiftory
often to a dein

fire to

make

here a

fl"ay

of fome years,
it

order to

fatisfy

my

curiofity,

and to hunt

over in the
remoteil

Io8

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF

remoteft corners.

At

prefent

I

can only ufcfuUy
is

employ
therefore

the
I

fhort

flay

which

allowed

mt-,

went the 13th from Nagyag to Za-

lathna here to examine the neighbouring mines.

Our

metallic rock

(Saxum metaUiferum) compofes
Thefe

the mountains, over which the roughnefs of the

roads

allows no ride but on horfeback.

arorillaceous

rocks are two hours journey beyond

Nagyag,
reddifli

either entirely

bare

or covered with a

indurated

fhivcry clay.
rifes

Near Barzcha,

a IVallachian village,

a

ftill

higher calcareous

mountain, fuperincumbent
tioned ground.
It (liews

on the before-men-

every where indications

of copper
ed for
it

ore,

and fome adventurers have work-

without fuccefs. Near the village Glut the

mountains flope into the plains and the limeftone
difappears, inftead of which the red fliivery clay
is

feen again.

Being difTolved
all

in its furface into

a red mould,
Jfeems

the

country about

Zalathna

to

be red coloured.
place,

After a five hours

ride I

reached this
it

which

is

at prefent, feat

what

was

in

'Trajan's

time, the

of the

upper court of mines.
tions

The many

old infcrip-

offering

hereabout,

and mentioning the

Procuratores Aurariarum Daciae and the Collegia

Aurariorum^

eftablifhed

in

thefe

parts,

make

Zalathna extremely interefting for antiquarians.
Zamofci, Laziws^
Kolefer

and

Fridwalzky have

compiled

TEMESWAR,
place
is

^c.

L E TT E R X

1

1.

109
1 his

compiled and publillied thefe
fituated
in

infcriptlons.

a pleafant valley, interfedied

by the river Ampoi.

The
pair to

IVallachians confider this

town

as the

mere-

tropolis of their nation in TranJJylvania^
it in

and

the market days.

The

greater pare

of the buildings are inhabited by
cers.

mining

offi-

The
here

adminiftration

of the mines eftablifhed
in

differs

from

that

the

Bannat

in

this

circiimftance, that every fociety of actionifts
as

may

they

pleafe

work

their

mines

independant

of the royal

officers,

under the condition how-

ever to deliver their gold
office

and

filvcr in the royal
florins

at

a fixed tarif
florins

of 300

a

gold, and of 19
filver,
lofs.

30 cruziers the

mark mark

with

a dedu(5lion of five per 100 for fire

Societies, that

have not got any dividends,

have now and then allowed them a higher price.

The upper
but

diredion

is

fubordinate
at

to

the
\

^ranjfyhanian chamber offinances
this in refpeft to the

Hermanftadt

mines to the court cham-

ber of the mines at Vienna.

The
ferent

juftice

of the mines

is

independant of

this
difis

direction,

and decides the variances of the

focieties

and the miners.

Befides there

a royal gold office, where at certain days the wafli-

^oldof the PFallacbidJ/s and

gipfies

is

bought

at afet-

tied

no

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
two
florins thirty cruizers

tied price at

per pifeth;

three pifeth three denarii being equivalent to one

ounce of gold. by mercury,
This
oflice
it is is

If the gold be already purified

bought
a

fifteen cruizers dearer.

great advantage for the poor
it

Wallachians^ fince they are enabled by

to

fell

every week without impofition whatever be their
fmall
provifion.

As commonly

the gold-grains

fold to this office are fcarce three or four denarii

weight,

it

is

impofTible to alTay each feparately,
their

and to pay them according to
real value.

proof and
of an equal
in-

Hence

arifes the neceffity

price, without

any refpefl to their different

teriour value,

and confequently an opportunity and heighten the
filver filing,

for the Wallachians to adulterate

weight of
as foon
rity.

their gold

by a mixture of
its

as

they are convinced of
fcarce

fuperior pu-

You
trifiino;

would imagine

that thefe fmall

and

grains

of the Wallachians^ amount

every year

in the

whole country from feven hun-

dred to a thoufand weight of fine gold.

Not

to lofe any time

I

haflened after dinner to

the rich

Maria Lcretto gold-mine on the Facehay
After
reached the foot
argillaceous

mountains, near Zalathna to the north.
half an hour's journey
I

of the
fu-

mountains, covered with

flate,

perincumbent on grey
tains
rife

horn-flate.

The mounhigh

o;entlv;

however, at ßrfl fmht of their

TEMESWAR,
high elevation they
ceffible.

if^c.

LETTER

XII.

Ill

feem to be deep and inac-

At

an elevation of 150 fathoms the an-

cients

have driven the Sigifmund gallery.
traditional faying
it

Acin

cording to a

was begun

the fifteenth century, under king Sigifmund^ and

yielded then
its

amazing

treafures

;

but confidering

having been cut through a

folid hard horn-

ftone, above 300 fathoms
hio-h, its fides beino- fair

in length

and

fix

htl

and even

as ftone-cutters

work

;

and the length of time requifite to work
is

out fuch a long way without blading, one
inclined
flaves
to

rather

look upon
to

it

as a

work of Roman
Perhaps the
Si~

condemned
It is

the mines.

works were only taken up again under king
gifimmd.

remarkable that

this gallery

is

dri;

ven

in a ftraight line
it

and direflion to the

fiffure

and hence

appears to demonftration, * that the
to apply

Romans knew
* If
it

geometry

to fubcerraneous

was proved to demonftration that the Sigifmund galis

lery really

a

Roman work

:

however, we need not be anx-

ious about their fubterraneous geometry.

The

Grctta diPatt-

filippo, the fubterraneous aquedufts from Lago Albano near

Caflel Gandolfo, the ftupendous Cloaca

maxima

at

Rome, and

many

other of their buildings, are unqueftionable evidences
ficill

of their

under-ground

;

and they might,

as well as

our

common

miners in Derbyfbire, with a fimple board, or rude

tabula pratoriana, take up the fubterraneous angles, and

by

that means, without any magnetical needle, hit under-ground

whatever point they pleafed.

(Tranll.)

v/orks

112

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF
In the roof of this gallery

works of this nature.
are

fome

indications of former
to

air-condudors,
its
is

and thefefeem

have been confideredin

height. croiTed

The
by

vein runs from fouth to north, and

the above gallery, which runs in weft.

^artz and
ferous pyrites.

Hornßone

(Petrofilex Cronßedt,

§.

62.) are the vein-rocks, in

which

offer the auri-

Thefe contain from two upwards

to ten, twenty, forty, nay fometimes

more ounces
grey clay,

of gold,

ßefides

an auriferous pyrites of four

ounces value,

they find a

common

which yields fome gold by waüiing.
This mine
is

not at prefent

under the moll
it

fortunate circumftances.
is

Superincumbent on
flate,

grey clay and argillaceous
to be the rocks

which probably

feem

of the Maria mine, fituated

fomewhat higher
fmce
I

to the

w eft.

I

could not fee

it

j

was to examine the famous Loretto mine
fathoms above SigifimirJ mine

and then the return.

About met with

fifty

I

the fandftone,

which
is

is

the

rock of

Loretto^ and

accordingly
flate.

fuperincumbent on

argillaceous
finer

The

gallery was driving in a

yellowifli fandftone.

Cos particidis diflinäis.
is

Then

followed a fpecies of ftone, which

called

backßone

and
by

confifts

of blunted
clay.

rocks ferruarenacea,

minated
Cronßt.
§.

common

Breccia

275.

Afterwards came grey hornftone,
Petrofilex,

T

2

M

E S

WAR

,

^c.

LETTER

XII.

I I

3

Pilrojikx, in
diltant
nino;.

which two

veins, fourteen

fathoms

from and

parallel to each oilier, are run-

One

is

called the filver

the

other the

gold vein.
fications.

Both have fmaller concomitant rami-

The

filver vein contains auriferous falfilver

low ore, yielding up to eight ounces of
hundred, and
its

per

filver
;

twenty and more denarii

of gold

in

the
ill

mark
it
is

however, according to a

conimon

opinion againft the filver mines in

Tranßylvaniat

not working.

They
is

are

the

more

afTiduous in the s:old vein.
a

In the midfl of the grey hornftone

round

cone or wedge of fandftone,
the turf
It
is

as

forced in from
iti&x.

from two
in
it

to three

diameter.

They

have funk

a fhaft eight fathoms deep.

This fandftone

confifts

of a variety of luccefilve

coarfe and fine grained, grey and yellow horizontal

compact fandftone beds, of a
•,

different thick-

nefs

fome being not above one

inch,
a

fome above
particular

a foot in thicknefs.

Every bed has
arifes

gold mixture, which
pyrites
ftrata.

from the auriierous
in thefe fandftone

fprinkled

more or

iefs

One

of the

inferior

beds for example

yields four

ounces, the fuperincumbent one loo
fifty,

ounces, another two ounces, another
nother
ftill

and

a-

fuperior to

thofe

200 ounces

o-old

per hundred weight.
the famples which
I

As

far as I

may judge by
it

have taken with me,
I

feemed
to

I

14

TRAVELS THPvOUGH THE BANNAT OF
that the finer grained fandftones are the

to

me

richeft.

However, the

infpeiTtor

and chief prothis obfer-

prietor,

Mr.

IVeiJfe, allured

me, that

vanonis not general.

Another
the grey

circumftance

in

this
I

problematic
obferved in

mountain puzzled

me

ilill

more.

hornilone a great

number of round
Ax. firft I

holes, three or four inches deep.

con
\

fidered

them

as the

remains of blafting-holes

but enquiring

after the reafon
I

of thefe

fo

nume-

rous mifcarried blallings,

was affured that thefe
that each of

holes are natural to the rock, and

them
I

naturally contains a blunted pebble.
in the greater part

Really

found
filex,

of them blunted pieces

of

or

of indurated clay,

which feem to

have been hardened and blunted by rolling before
they

were inclofed

in

this

hornilone.
It
is

1

here

frankly confefs

my ignorance.

impoffible for

me

to explain the origin of this paradoxical

mounfancy

tain, or

with the utmoft ftretchings of

my

to create a tolerable hypothefis.

See whether you
in

can

afiift

me,

or whether your obfervations

other parts of Europe enable you to explain this

pha^nomenon.
This mine
I fear will

not be long working
riches,
it

-,

be-

caufe, whatever

be

its

feems to be in

a diminilliing ftate, as the veins in the hornftone

begin to break off; and after the draining of the
little

TEMES_WAR,
little

&c.

LETTER

XII.

II5

flockwork of auriferous fandftone no great
left,

hopes feein to be
to

nor any probable chance

make new valuable
This
is

difcoveries within the fmall
is

compafs of a ground which
mountain.
as,

at the

top of the

the

more

to be

apprehended,

by an unaccountable ncglefl, they have not thought in fo rich a mine of a deep gallery or
drift,

which

being

driven

a-crofs

the whple

mountain, would moil certainly have laid open,

whether or no there are ether veins and riches
under-ground.

They have but of late begun
v/ill

to

drive a gallery under the pit, which

enable

them

to

fmk

it

ten fathoms deeper.

The

ores of the Fr.ce bay

mountain are remark-

able phrenomena for mineralogifts.

Common pyrites
fome
;

of no promifing appearance contain from two to
600, nay to 900 ounces gold.

On
form

pyrites the
it is

gold appears

in a metallic

on others

fprinkled as Spanißo

(nu^ {BrunrJcFs new

edition of
is

Cronfiedfs Mineralogy ) on
to be difcovercd

many

others

no gold

by the ftrongeft microfcopes.
finefl

This fpecies may be ftampt to the

powder,

and no waHiing will produce the kaft fufpicion of
any gold- dull.

The workmen know
fight,

their

inner value at

firft

and they are

fo

very ß^ilful in feparating

the ores according to their value, that the afiay-

mafter of the proprietors makes no other forting,
I

2

but

Il6

,

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
fort a general

but takes of each
they are delivered

proof; whereupon
furnaces
to

to

the

royal

be

aflayed again by a royal officer, and to be
their thus

paid

dated value.

Any
mufle,

bit

of thefe pyrites
other
fire,

brought under the
the

or to any

gold appears
little

prefently fweating out on the furface in

glo-

bular grains.
ores

The fame happens
to

with the gold-

from Nagyag.

This circumftance has caufed
fuppofe,
that the confti-

fome mineralogifts

tuent parts of the gold, hid in the fubflance of
the ore, unite by the
parts,
fire,

and that the wanting

probably the requifite phlogifton, being
heat, facilitate the operation.

added by the

The

ftamp-ores, confifting

commonly of

fine

pyrites, fprinkled in

the hornftone, and digging

next to the veins, are roafted to
tle.

make them
lofs to

brit-

But

that caufes a fenfible
fire

the pro-

prietors, fince the

expelling the gold from

the fweating hornflone in the form of a fine duft,
this precious

powder
of the

is

too eafily carried

away by

the

waters
is

flamp trough.

This bad

pradice

entirely

owing

to

the nature of their

Itainp- mills.
peftels

Their

pound-rammers or grindbeing armed
inftead

(pochßempel)

of

iron

{poch-eifen)

with black or grey hornftones,
form,
the
roafting
to

cut

into

the

requifite
is

of

their hornftones

necefTary

in order

make
them

TEMESWAR,
them
brittle.

^f.

LETTER

XII.

II7

In general, thefe

ftamp-mills are
•,

extremely imperfed:.
cordingly every
rain

They

are uncovered
carries

ac-

and flood

away a

good deal of

their pulverized ores.

Their water
great lofs of

wheels are too fmall; hence
water.

arifes a

The

dull channels are of the fame width,
at all
-,

and have no inclination
as a feparating the
I

hence no fuch thing
dull.

richer

from the poorer

have fliown

all

thefe deficiencies to

the mill-

mafter, and to convince

him of
I

the

bad confe-

quences of his

flam ping,
laft

caufed fome fands

from the

firft

and

channel, and even from the

flood or the brook that runs by, to be waflied in
his prefence,

which

clearly fliewed
rich,

that

all

thefe

fands are equally

and that the gold
lofs

in the

brook-fand

is

downright

to the proprietors.

But

for

fuch

people old cufliomary pradices are

above reafon and convicHon.

Four hours journey from Zalathna
is

to the eaft

Abrud-hanya^ the formier feat of the upper mine-

council.

Red, and now and then grey
our metallic rocks,

fchiftous

clay, covering
all

appeared in

the mountains about Abrud-banya.
Igrie^

The

mofl;

remarkable ones are

Cfetate^ Baylor^
It
is

Koma,

Orla, Kirnizel, ajid Kirnik.

impofTible for

you

to

form an idea of
is

their

workings.

The
fide

whole Kirnik mountain
perforated with

from every part and
galleries,

many hundred
I

which

3

do

Il8

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
into
its in«,

do not penetrate above Ibme fathoms
ner parts.

Though
its

this

feems to be extremely
it is lefs

bungling
the

and aukward,

fo in refpeft to
Its

nature of

fiffures

and vtins.

nume-

rous gold-v^eins are thin and fhcrt.
turers have

The adven-

allowed a
as

field

of three fathoms in
in

the

hanging and

much

the hading fide.
vertical

They commonly
fifiure,

begin

working on a

(feiger kluft.)

which they work
it

for fix or

feven fathoms;

then

begins
it

to

dip and to
fiat
;

be
is,

inclined,

and infenfibly
the nature
yields

turns
this

that

according to
turns
rich

of

mountain,

it

and

native

gold.
flat

But

it

continues fcarce above two fathoms
ble
;

and noofi\
is

fince fuddenly

it

turns again and breaks

The

miner knows by experience, that
fiflTure
;

now

he

at

the end of his hopes oh this

therefore he

drops
till

it

for another, or fearches in the old drifts,

he meets with fome v/orthy remains of the old

man.
ries

Hence

that innumerable quantity

of galle-

or holes.

A
is

Roman

infcription, decorated

with miner-

inilruments like ours, and found near this place,

an evidence that the B.cmai2s worked here.

Nov/ and then extremely
are
at

rich

and

fhovv-y ores

found

•,

however, the proprietors, being often
feveral

work during

weeks

Vv'ithout

any fuccefs,

are generally "poor,

and think themfelves happy by
;;etting

TE ME
p-ettin»

SV/

AR, ^c.

LETTER

XII.

II9
or

a

week the fcanty revenue of

three

one

i-

florin.

The
in his

greater part of the nihabitans

have no trade but

this

mining.
•,

The

father

is

com-

monly buried

mine

the fon carries the ores

tothemill-, and
ing.

thewomcntakecare of theirftamp-

The

chikiren gather the fands and the
is it

mud,
it

which by rains
the mills, and

carried in the valley, bring

to

generally yields fome gold.

To
is
it

have

this

fmgular Kimik mountain the

better examined, a gallery

gco fathoms

in

length
;

driven under

it

at

her m^jefty's expence

but

has

crolfed only

fome deaf veins, has freed

the workers from
prefent to
their

the

day

v/aters,

and

is

hh
i:

at

further difpofition.

The

valley
called

in which the ftamp-ores are preparing

Voros Patak,
that there are in

I

do not cxagerate
it

in telling

you

above 300 ftamp-miils, wliich
an

kt

at

work

miake a noife ^0 as to be heard at

hour's didance.

But they

are

as

tlic

common

flamp and wafn- works of the

gipfies,

without any

covering, and with aüngle fand-channel, Infteadof
the ftamp-iron they ufe here a grey hornflone from
Korofbanya, which P. Fridzvalzky
is

pleafed to call

calcedony.

I

cannot be convinced of the affertion

of the mine

officers, that tliey
lofs
tell
•,

ftamp and v/afn here
with

without any

and you

will rather agree

me, v/hen

I

you, that the inhabitants of a
live entire-

neighbouring village, called Kerfcnes,
I

4

ly

I20
ly

TRAVELS TMRCUGH THE BANNAT OF
thofe
at

upon the neglefl of

Ahrud-banya,

They
brook

dig holes, in which they

convey the fame

which runs through Voros-Patak valley,
v.-hich drives the

and another
at Bucfum.

ftamp and v^afh mills

The

fands carried in thefe ciilerns

are auriferous, and pay richly the pains of a

new
this

wafhing

at Kerpenes.

There
and

arc

fcveral
as

other gold-mines

in

neighbourhood
in

near Bucfum near Ahrud-Zeller

mount

VolJici.

They

confift generally

of

auriferous quartz veins, left by the ancients, and

now worked over
Near Zalathna^
tains, are Feter

again by the Wallachians.
in the

Barfa and Rufina mounKwgs, the
Saints,

Pauk

the ^hree

and

foi:ie others.
;

A

great

many more have been
to

abandoned

and

feveral

of them yield auriferous

lead-ore, nay,

fomc native gold, but

no great

advantage.
I

cannot pafs

filently

over the two mercurial
fiiil
is

mines

at Zalathna.
at

The

to the north

of

this place,

an hour's journey from Bumbrava,
(cinaharisfolida^ texturafquammofa,
in a vein,

The cinnabar ore

SqammisminirAis) breaks here
trix

and in a ma-

of quartz and
flate

fparr, inclofed in argillaceous

black

and fandftone.
is

The

vein runs from
a

north to fouth, but

leaping, often

fathom
is
is

thick, often comprefied and deaf.

The

fecond
ore

to the fouth in the Baboja mountain.

Its

granulated

TEMESWAR,
oranulated
runs
in limeflone.

^'c.

LETTER

XII.

121

cinnabar, digging in

a vein,

which

Probably the ancients dug

here great quantities of cinnabar.

At

prefent the

JVällachians feek here after the remains of the old

man.
late

Some

focieties

however have united of
workings
at Baboja.

to undertake

regular

The
at

mercurial ores are delivered to the furnaces

Zalathna^
is

but

the annual

amount of

clear

quickfilver
jt

not above three

tons.

They

clear

by common

dillillation in retorts

and alembics
truth, there
is

filled

with water.

If they told

me

of

late built

at Kisfalu^

near Claufenburg, a fub-

Jimating furnace for preparing fublimat-mercury

LETTER

122

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

LETTER
r'l^HE
-a.
firft

XIIL

mining place, which

I

met with
mines
father

the

i6th on

my

excurfion

to the

weft from Nagyag, was Cfertes.
here thirty years ago a
Trinity,

My

had

rich filver-mine,

called

which yielded a good revenue.
impofTible, and

But the

fituation

of the ground making a deeper drainthe

ing gallery
cient

want of

fuffi-

water for the pumping-engines forced us
it

to give

The mountains to Cfertes confift of metallic-rock, covered with common argillaceous
up.
flate.

But the Bogaja mountain,
which

in

which the

above mine was working, conGfcs of found compa£t hornftone
;

the

veins,

crofs

it,

are

very

rich,

and yield auriferous glafs-ore, clofely

woven

in the fubftance of the hornftone.

The

rocks are fo remarkably

hard,

that even with
little.

blafting the v/orks advance

but

P. Frid-

wahky
fet

advifed therefore in hisMineralogy to foften

thefe refraftory rocks

by bacon fufpended and
/

on

fire

before the drifts.

San^afmplici-

tas !

TEMESWAR,

^c.

LETTER

XIII.

123
un-

A
But

new
as
it

fociety

of adventurers has

at prefent

dertaken to drain this mine by a
is

to

be driven

a

new gallery. long way under

o-round, and neverthelefs cannot go any confide-

rable depth,

I

am

apprehenfive that, though the
fliould confifl

drained

part of the vein

of the

richeft ores, the

expences will hardly be cleared.
hills

In

the
in

adjacent

are

fome gold-works,

which
but

former times have given confiderable

dividends.

Thefe

are not in hornftone {petrofilex)

in metallic rock.

The

furnaces near Cfertes are employed with

the fmekings of the neighbouring focieties.

Want
have

of water makes them, often

inaftive.

The
had
in

Foiirage

mountains

near

Cfertes

former times

many

mines.

For the greater

part they are given up.

The

inhabitants of thofe

parts affured me, that pieces of native gold, not

lamellous but found as glafs-ore, had been found
there.
I

went from thence

to Topliza.

The mountains

confill there likewife ofthat grey argillaceous rock,

mixed with mica,
I

fherl or
call

quarz grains, which

have prefumed to

metallic rock

(Saxum

metalUferum.)

ceous

(late.*

They are covered with argillaThe veins are commonly a quartzous
and conftantly running from

auriferous

(lone,

fouth to

north.

Such

is

the vein of the Nepo-

mucky

124

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
S.

muck, Martmus, Rochus, Archduke Peter,

Jofeph^

Mary's Annunciation, Florian, Francis de Paula,

and the Holy Crofs
told that in

in the ^Magura

mountains.

I

was

Nepomuck native gold had been found
turf.

immediately under the

Some of thefe
fine

fif-

fures yield, befides their native gold,

auri-

ferous red filver ore.

In the Matßire mountains they drive at prefent a gallery, in order to drain

fome old works

and
are

in

the

Fißer and other adjacent mountains

fome gold-works, which now and then yield

confiderable pieces of native gold, but very often
are dead and deaf.

In thefe Toplitza mountains the gold

is

often
in the

found

in

lead-veins.

The fame happens
at Fuezes,

more

wefterly

mines

whofe rocks

in

the Malula

hills

are entirely correfpondent with

thofe at Topliza.
loofe marie
flate,

Near Fuezes
inftead of the

I

found a grey

common

argil-

laceous fhiftus, fuperincumbent on the metallic

rock.

Being diffolved by the

air,

and confider-

ed
line

as

common

clay,

it

had been employed to

the

inclofure of a water refervoir.
lining,

The

water diffolved the
waflied
its

and the refervoir

enclofure away.

Without enquiring

the reafon, the fame marie was

made

ufe of again

of

late,

and

laft
laft

fpring the fame

accident, hap-

pened.

At

they were fenfible of the blunder.

The

TEMESWAR,
The
five

t^c.

LETTER

XIII.

1

25

confequence of
accident

this

double unhappy expenif

would prove very happy,

peo-

ple

would learn thence

to conclude, that a

min-

ing officer fhould at leaft be
the

acquainted with

common

foffils

and

their qualities.
is

In Clemens near Fuezes there

native gold in

felenite, or gypfo fpatofo albo pellucido.

On

the oppofite fide of the Malula hills

is

"Trfztyan, a

place greatly

lenowned for

its

rich

gold veins,

and the magnificent fhowy pieces of

native gold which are found here every day.

As

they have received in Trcinjfyhania
native gold
is

a.

prin-

ciple, that

to

be found only im-

mediately under the furface of the horizon, I

was highly defirous to examine
to find perhaps

this

mine, hoping

fome arguments

againfl: that opi-

nion, fmce for a very long time

it

has been work-

ed to great advantage, and has produced an un-

common
horizon.

quantity of gold
if the

;

vvhich feems to

me

unaccountable,

vein did not dip under the

But the proprietor,
allows
-,

Count

Stephan

Gyulai^ fcarce

any imperial mine-officer
all

to vifit his

mine

and

the works, being fu-

perintended by a Wallachian^ are fo barbaroufiy
bunglino;, that a

man mull be

a JVallachian to

liazard his life for his curiofity,
in the fhafts

and to

flip

down
v/ith.

wherein no fuch thing as a ladder
is

or other proper affifcance

to

be met

Therefore

120

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
I

Therefore

was conlined to examine the nature
v.'hich
hills.

of the

mountain,

confifts

of the

fame

rocks as the Fuezes
Better

management would improve

this

noble

gold-mine

to a greater benefit for the proprietor.

Being worked only by Wallachians^ who never
neglect any opportunity to pilfer, a good deal of

the finer gold- ores the

workmen.

may pofiibly be concealed by Some years ago I faw myfelf in
Deva
a

the market place at

miner from Trfztyan

publicly felling fine famples of gold-ore.

Though
felling,

of

late

fome
this

fevere ordonnances are publifhed a-

gainft

illicit

thievery and

fample

fmce
it

it

lowers the benefits of the royal gold office,

will
lofs

however be very
an

difficult

to

prevent

the

of the proprietors, becaule any miner
opportunity to
feil his

may
about

eafily find

ftolen

goods to the Corfars.
in

This

fort

of people ramble

the

remoter mines, buying from the
little

proprietors their
ores,

provifions of ftampt gold-

which by themfelves would not bear the

carriage to Zalathna.
load, they deliver and

Having gathered
fell

their full

them

to the royal office.

This trade feems
but

to be an

advantage to the royal

office, as well as to the

poorer adventurers and pro-

prietors,

it

degenerates too eafily into a

com-

merce which proves pernicious
as the Corfars

to the richer works,

have certainly no objeftion to pur-

chafe the ftolen ores at a cheap price, and fufficient
fldll

TEMESWAR^f. LETTER
fkill to

XIII.

1

27

pound and
I

to

ores,

which they are
iii9;ht

mix them with the ftampt allowed to buy and to fell.

At

reached Boicza.

The mountains
which
at

hereabout connei5l
rival in
fides

with thofe,
I

my

ar-

^ranjfyhania

found ftretching on both
In gi;neral they
confifl:

of the Maros
this place to

river.

from

with limeftone. Hate or fand.

Deva of metallic rock, covered Some hills near
by an argillaceous cement

Boicza are deflitute of veins, confiding of blunted
rocks,

ferruminated

and refembling

Breccia.

The
by large

royal

mine

is

working

in

a variety of metallic rock, differing
fpecies
feldfpa!:h pieces

from the common
fprinked in
its

fubftance.

The uppermoil
in limeftone,

or
is

Anna

gallery

was driven

which

fuperincumbent on the metallic rock, and covers
large valleys
;

but the deeper gallery runs

in fand-

ftone

till

it

reaches the argillaceous rocks.
are

The
con-

veins and fißlires
taining

blendifh-leadglance,
filver.
I

fome gold and

have fome fim-

ples with gold immediately fticking on the blende

and the lead glance.
deeper gallery
vertical,
I

At

the tenth fathom of the
fifTufe

found an argillaceous
it

nearly

and

in

a great

number of blunted oval
opaque

tranfparent calcareous fparr-buUets v/ith

milkwhlte

ftripes,

refembling thofe of onyx.

Limeftone
minirnis)
is

(calcarius albus particulis gi^anulatis

hereabout a detefted ftone

among

the

miners,

128

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OP
filTures.

miners, finceit cuts their veins or

This

however fhould not difrecommend the calcareous
flones
;

fince,

according to the theory of luperinit is

cumbent mountains,
and depofited
in

of a more modern origin^

the valleys in which in former
fiflures bafletted out.

times the veins and

The
three

blcndifh lead ores contain here

commonly

ounces of

filver,

and the

filver fixteen denarii

of

gold per mark.
to be prepared in

The

flamp-ores are henceforth

three ftamp mills,

which are
at

at prefent building after the

model of thofe
ores

Shemniz.

They
;

ftand on a (loping ground, one

above the other
in a great

pulverized

to

be waflied

wafhing-houfe at the foot of the mounwill be fet

tain, in

which ten plane hearths

a^

work.

A

hundred weight of (lamp ore gives
fort

eight pounds of metallic powder, the upper
vieldino; fix the

lower two ounces of

filver.

The

mark of
It

filver

contains fixteen denarii or one

ounce of gold.

was impofiible for
;

me
but

to vifit the
I

many

other mines at Boicza

have got fome of
fi:ill

their ores as well as thofe of feveral

worl<.ing

mines

in

Tranjfyhania^ and thefe you will pleafe to
:

take notice of by this following catalogue

Auriferous pyrites
miini

in blueidi clay

;

argilla com-

plafika carulefcentß^

from

llcrzigan

near

Boicza,

They do

not work here but on the old

man.

TEMESWAR,
Auriferous
Ginel near Boicza.
in the

<^c.

LETTER
black

XIIT.

129

pyrites in

hornftone

from

Nativ^e gold to be found here

fame matrix.
hair-filver

Native
place.

on lead-glance from the fame
this

The

rock flicking to
Ginel

fample proves

to

me

that the

mountains are metallic

rock.

Auriferous quartz from the old works

neai- Ruda

and Kriezur.
Native gold
in calcareous fpar

from Staniza.

Native gold
the fame place.

in ftarry radiate

antimony.

From

Native
kohoU).
left
I

gold

in

grey

fcaly cobalt

(fcherben

aflayed this cobalt, and had a gold o-rain
capell.

on the

The works
in

at Staniza are in

the Jeftiina and Dimbul mountains.

Auriferous
•clay

pyrites

indurated lliivery black

from the

crofs gallery at Cajonel.

Auriferous pyrites on quartz from G^/y^^^gallery
at Cojöncl.

Auriferous blende from the fame place.
Auriferous lead-glance
in

hardened white clay
a

from Kißanya, where

at prefent

company has

united for working the lead-veins ofthat place.

Auriferous red filver ore on quartz from Trajka
near Trfztyan.

The
in.

vein runs in metallic rock.

Lead-glance
Zalathna.

quartz from Offen hanya near
a

Of late

company has united

to

work
there

the large lead-veins which have

been difcovered

K

J3O
there.

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

The
for

old works are of the fame kind,

it is

noc

known
lous.

what reafon they were given up many
Fridwalzky^s pretended reafon
nature of the rocks, that
is

years ago.

is

fabu-

The

to fay, ar-

gillaceous clay, fuperincumbent on our metailic

rock; the width of the veins
old bing-places
-,

;

the great

number of

and the marks of

thirty furnaces

hereabout, have co-operated to
into high fpirits,

raife the

company

and

to

undertake the works

with adivity
I

got neither famples nor creditable accounts

from the other Tranjfyhanian mines. However, to make my accounts of the known gold-works
as

compleat

as

pofTible, I will

give you

their

names, taken from P. Fridwalzky's Mineralogy. At 'Nagy-Almas^ to the weft from Zalathna^
in the Rudile
is

Bah a and Petrafack mountains, gold
antimony, and in a fpecies of ftone
to

found
is

in

which

unknown

me, and which P. Fridfame

walzky cd\h fpathor pyrites.

At Pojana
traft

in the Vertes mountains, in the

of land, the Wallachians hunt after ftampleft

ores

in the old

works.

In the year 1742 a

blueilh grey quartz vein with native gold was dif-

covered by rain in the Dimhul Kupiatra mountain.
It

had

its

direction

from

eall;

to weft

but
are

as

in general

the Tranjfyhanian

gold veins

very

inconftant

and

Iliort,

fo

proved

this

likewife.

TEMESWAR,
iikewife.

^c.

i^

E
it

TTE R

XIII.

I3I

After a

Iliort
off.

run
I

fliifted its direflioni

turned

and broke
obfcure

guefs from
that
it

P. Frid-

walzkfs
hornflone.

defcription

was

ia

At

Porkiire in the Cfetras

mountains the
;

Wdafter-

lachians

hunt

after ftamp-ores

which they

wards llamp and wafh
appeared Iikewife.

at their account.

In the

Vallkurcthe mountains marlcs of gold-mines have

At

Kiroßanya^ a mining place

in the

bailli-

wick of

Wi(fe7jhurg and the Mayiira mountains, a
is

vein two fathoms thick
fmall auriferous
I referve

laid to be interrupted

by

fifilires,

the Tranjjyhanian gold-wafliings for

the defcriptiijn of

my

journey to Upper Hungary

;

and

defire

you

to

return with

me

to

Nagyag

for

the fake of fome iron and lead-mines on the other
fide

of the Maros.

The moft
is

remark;ible miningr
three hours joureaft,

place in the

Hunyad Comitat

ney from Vat da Hunyad to the
called Gyalter.
It

near a village
iron.

produces a good deal of
in

The iron
thoms

ores are

found here, as

many other //«»fix

garian iron mines in nefts, er ftocks
large,

or eight fa-

which have but an irregular and
I'he Kropilela mounores, confift of

uncertain direction to the fouth, and do not fink
into any confiderable depth.
tains,

which

ccp.tain

thefe

grey

and brown argillaceous

flate.

The

ores confift

K

2

of

1^2

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
in

of red and brown iron ochcr,
button-ore
is

which Ibmetirncs

wrapt up, covered with feather- like

iron cryfials, as the button-ore in the hidf-gottes

mine
this

at

Plauen
wifer

in

Bohemia.

The workmen
P. Fridwcilzky

call
is

button- ore iron-flowers.
-,

a

good deal

he

calls

it

antimony.

The
done
iron
in
is

fmeltinss have nothinq- pardcular, beinsr
a fort of fmall high furnaces
•,

and the

beaten into bars in feveral hammer-works

along the Cferna.

The

Wallachians and gipfies

are in general blackfmiths and iron manufa<5lurers.

They
fire

ufc fmall

and low furnaces, and blow the
bellows
is

by portable
conftrutflion

made of bucks
;

fkin.

Their

very fimple

conlilling
air

of

a fmiple fewing of the fkin of an iron
fixed in the ntck,
fixed to the
fl^in

pipe

and of two wooden handles,

that covered the f^et.

The

an-

tiquity of thcfe iron-works appears
tion

by an

infcripColle-

found near Oßrow and fpeaking of a

gium fahrornm.
of the Porta
Turkey
jefture
is is

Perhaps even the denomination
or the pafs on the limits of

ferrea.,

hence derived.
entirely

This remark and con-

P. Fridwalzkfs.

Nearer towards the Maros^ and a village called
Kifmiines^y

have been found fome lead-veins
flate,

in ar-

gillaceous

which of

late

have been underthe road
1

taken by a private company.
calcareous
hills,

On

found
of

filled

with a great

variety

turbinites

TEMESWAR,
turbinites

Cffr.

LETTER
fliells.

XIII.

133
hills

and other marine

Thcfe

on the Maros are to be confidered as the foot of
the high mountains, vv'hich
valley, uniting

run by the Hacxeka
t\\(t

afterwards with

high Granite-

mountains, between

^ranjjylvania

and the Mol-

daw.

There
riofity

is

hereabout but a fingle natural cu1

remaining which
the door
I

cannot leave unnoticed.

Near

of

the deep Jofephi gallery at

No.gyag

have

found

an

iiill

about thirteen

fathoms high, con filling of an innumerable quantity
flat,

of regular pieces of metallic rock.

They
hill

are

and about a foot

in thicknefs.

This

can-

not pofTibly have been heaped together

by hu-

man
are

hands, nor

is

there any old

mine

to counte-

nance

this opinion.
fitted

Befides, thefe ßiivcrv (tones

exaftly

and joined one to another; are
vvith

not mixed

at all

any

otlier fpecies

of ilone,

and fpeak

at ßrd: figlit that

by fome accidental

caufe they are fplit and cracked into fo miany re-

gular
caufe

fifliires
?

and frag-ments.

But

v;hat accidental
to

A

concuiTion

fubfequent

the exfica;

tion of the rock feems to be a very probable one

but
as

I

have better rcafons to confider thefe flones

volcanic produdlions.

They

are

cfacoa.ier

texture than the

and are fonorous.
ftart

common metallic rock at Nar^a?. I know that mineralogifts will
opinion, as in
a grcai:

many

obje6lions againil this

K

3

134

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
are to be

a great diftance no exftinft vokanos

met

you would examine fpecies from the this Ihivery ilone, and a fimilar Samples of volcanic Euganean hills near Padua.
with.

Therefore

I defire

them you
which
I

will find

among the TratjJJyhaman foflTils,

have collefted for you.

LETTER

TEMESWAR,

^V.

LETTER

XIV.

1

35

LETTER.
FATIGUED
no accomodation
gers.

XIV.
24, 1770.

Near Foldwinz^ June
by the heat of the

clay I arrived

here, where, except fomegrafs for the horfes,
is

to

be had for the paffen-

Unable

to
I

fwallovv the four wine of
glafs

my

poor landlord,

drank a

of water.

I

think

of you, and write to you an abftrad of my journey

from Nagyag.
I

1 left

that place yefterday.

When
which

had paffed

the metallic rock-mountains,

are covered

with

flate, I got into a plain,

now
the

and then interrupted by argillaceous
then
left
I

llate-hills

reached

the

Marcs

to the right.

To

near Bobolna

ted clay and pebbles, as thofe near Boicza.

we had mountains of ferruminaThey
their

fcem to have been heaped and wafhed together

by the Maros, ßnce
lefs

Hoping to the river
tile

is

indurated, and a piece of
I

ferruminated

with other pebbles, which
is

found near the road,
and modern

a

good evidence of
.

their fuccelTive

origin.

The

hills

of the fame nature, which are

more

to

the north,

and thofe

at

Boicza^ which

are likewile

on

this fide

of die Maros^ had pro-

K

4

bably

136

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
this river

bably the fame origin, and accordingly feems to have fhifted
its

bed from fouth to north

and

to fnift

it

ever more fince the plains on the
it

other ßde do not confine

v/ithin conftant

bounds.
are

Hereabout, but on the other

fide

of the

river,

the Olapian plains, times imm.emoria] famous for
their gold-wafliings.

The furface
pebbles.

of thefe plains confifts of fands and

After the removal of the turf and of the

vegetable mould, thisfandy ftratum, two fathoms
thick, appears.

Times out of
by

m.ind

it

has been
It
is is

dug

out, and yielded gold

wailiing.
flate,

fuperincumbent
deftitute

on argillaceous

which
it is

of gold.
hills,

To

the

eafl:

and weft

fur-

rounded by
with thofe

which

in

the fouth

connefb

x\\'MCkY-^\diS.lVallachia
it is

from Tranjfyhania.
It

To
to

the north

adjacent to the Maros.
to

feems

owe

its

origin

fome inundation, perhaps
gold cannot polTibly be
;

even to the Maros.

The

confidered as produced in this plain

it is

pro-

bably wafhed by the rains from the adjacent goldfiffures

and depofited with the fands.

This con-

jedlure gains fome credit, becaufe gold has been

of

late

wafhed with fuccefs
years ago had been

in

luch places, Vv'hich

many

worked and wafhed out

already.

In the night
It
is

I

reached Carlßwg^ a fine fortrefs.

my

birth place,

and

I

had here

my

education
till

T
till

E

ME
in

S \V

A R,

^c,'

LETTER
age.
It
is

XIV.

I

3

the eighth year of

my

pleafantly

fituated
flate

a plain, lurrounded
hills.

by argillaceous

and limefcone

I

met here with an
well ac-

Hungarian

nobleman, who was very

quainted v/ith the gold-wafhings, efpecially thofe
in Tra7tjfyhan:a.

He
I

gave

me

the following acto

counts,
Ihall

which

communicate

you,

fmce

I

have no opportunity to examine thefe wafhAll
the Tranjjyhanian the fudden
rivers

ings myfelf.

and

brooks,
ry rain

nay

even

and momentaare

and mountain
river
is

brooks

auriferous.

But the Aranyos
in

by

far the nobleil

of

all

that refpeft,

and

is

compared therefore by the
Wallachiam or gipfies.

Tranjjylvanian Hillorians X.oiht'Tagus ^nd Pa^olus.

The gold-wafhers
Thefe
idle

are either

gipfies are not in the lead refembling thofe
in

and lazy ones

Hungary.

They

are a labo-

rious people, and honeftly active for their liveli-

hood.

Some
;

are ftrolling fiddlers
;

and muficians
cattle

;

fome
horfes

blackfmiths

others

deal in

and

and the greater part has the gold-wafhing

bufmefs.

They pay

their poll-tax every year with

fome hundred
to

pifeths of gold-,

and

fell

a

good deal
il^ill

the

royal offices.

They have

great

in

finding and tracing out thofe places where gold-

wafning
confift

is

attended with fuccefs.

Their tools

of a board

tv/o or three feet wide,

and four
fides
v/ith

or five feet long,

commonly edged en both

138

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
Woollen
cloths are fpread
it,

with a wooden brim.

on

it,

and the fands, poured with water upon

leave the finer and heavier fediments in thefe cloths,

which afterwards are wafhed

in a great

water calk,

and then by the
from the gold.

common

fevering trough feparated

If the fands be

mixed with coarfer
crofs-furrows,
in

gravel, the board

has deeper

order to flop thefe coarfer fcones, and to examine

them

for

gold, which
in

often

is

found
is

vifibly

fprinkled

their fubflance.

Such

their

ma^

nipulation
all

at lopanfalva^

near

Ahruhanya, and

along the Aranyos.

Another pradice common

in "Tranjfyhania is to

dig pits, and to catch and flop in them the fand

and gravel carriage of the brooks,
fever

in

order to
I

them from the goid-dufl or
\

ores.
it is

have

obferved the fame at Kerpenes
at Zßlathna

and

praftifed

on the Ardpoi

river, near the old

mer-

curial mines,

whofe crrriages contain a good deal
ore.

of mercurial

The

third

method

is

to fetch

the auriferous

vein rocks from the old mjnes, and to clear

them

from the gold both by pounding and wafhing.
This method
This
is

generally praclifed where plenty
it.

of water allows

morning

I

travelled over

a fine

culti-

vated plain to Enged.

Here

is

a Calviniß acade-

my, and fome fchools of

that religion.

The

ad-

jacent

TEMESWAR,
jacent
hilis

^c.
;

LETTER

XIV.

I.

39

calcareous

the whole place built of

pale yellow

fandflone ferruminated

with lime.

The fandflone, filled with plenty of petrified (hells, and dug in the hills, which continued behind
Enged to Foldwinz^ and to the very place wheace
I

write

you

thefc lines.

LETTER

140

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

LETTER.
UNDER
life,

XV.
1770

Claufenburg, July 28,

the mofl tremendous thunder and
I

rain-ftorm, which
I

ever

beheld
at

in

my

arrived

the 24th

at
I

midnight

T^orda.

Behind the place whence

wrote you

my

lad the
the top,
I dif-

mountains are ever afcending.

From

whence
on

I

had

a fight

of the bafon oiTorda^
hillocks,

covered a great
this

many

fuperincumbent

high elevated ground.

Though

I

could

not examine their nature, they confift probably

of the
valley,

lame grey limeftone which
and ftretches to the Aranyos.

covers
'Torda
;

the
is

on

the other fide of this auriferous river

the fait

works half an hour's
an argillaceous (late
a great

diftance

from the town on
is

hill,

which

furrounded by

many

little

hillocks, faid to be calcareous,

and proving

at firft fight that
fait

they

owe their

origin,
fcas.

together with the

rock-mines, to former

The whole

plain on this high

ground contains

fo-

lid tranfparent fal-gemma:^

probably fuperirxumit

bent on fchiflus.

I

could not examine

myfelf,

and the miners were too unconcerned

to

know

whether

TEMESWAR,
whether their

l^c.

LETTER

XV.

141

falt-rocks

have a bafis of clay
all.

or of limeflone, or of any thing at
turf and

The

vegetable

mould which covers them

fhews commonly white efflorefcences of kitchen
fait,

which expofed to the fun tinge the whole
white.

furface with
either to

They

are to

be afcribed

the

evaporations of the

ground,

or

to the rain water running over the falt-bing places.

There

are

feveral

mines or

fliafts

funk

in

the fame falt-rock
is

ftratum.

Their conflruftion
is

particular.
in

As

foon as a fhaft

fjnk and
is

timbered

the upper earth bed, which
to fix

comthey

monly from three
cal pit, fo that

fathoms thicknefs,

reach the falt-rock, and
all

work down
the

in

it

a coni-

the miners are

employed on

the fame
[

fole.

The number of
firft

workmen
as

is

increafed

in

the

fame proportion
fight

the

cone

widens.

At

one
its

might believe the
thicknefs of thirty
;

whole

fait

ftock through

or forty fathoms confiding but of a fingle ftratum

but on nearer examination

it

appears to confift of

many accumulated
foot thicknefs,

parallel beds,

of one or two
horizontal or

which are

either

undulating and feparated from each other by a
thin layer of clay fcarce
line.

the thicknefs of half a
facilitates

This

natural

fepararion
is

the

breaking of the falt-rock, and
vantage
for to the

'the

more an adpaid only

workmen,

as they are

thofe pieces

which are eighty pounds, the

fm aller

142
fmaller

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
ones being thrown on the bing places
the rubbifh.

among

For

a piece of the requifite
•,

weight they are paid half a groat
has the requifite bignefs
is

and whatever

carried to Carlßurg^
I

whence

it

goes by the Maros Hungary.

defcended
all

with five gentlemen into the Therefia mine. Put
together in a wide fack of rope net-work, and

let

down

in the drawing-fhaft
fo

\

the fack contradled

by

our weight

much that only our heads peep'd
let

out.

A

miner was above our heads clinging to the
us down,
to avoid our

rope which

clalhing

asainft the fides of the narrow fhaft.
is

This fhafc

funk ten fathoms through the hardened clay,
fait-

fuperincumbent on the
gallery
is

(lock

\

and a fmall
fait

driven on the furface of the

beds to

bring away the waters foaking through the earth

and clay

roof, in order

to prevent their falling
is

down

into the works.

Befides, there

a fmaller

fnaft for defcending

and afcending of the workmen

but the works below being of a conical form, the
ladders

cannot pofiibly be

fixed

to

the fides

accordingly ihey are faftened by iron cramps or
ropes one to another, and hang free and fwinging
in the

midll of the deep and wide cavern below.
care,

However, the v/orkmen do not
ufed
t J it,

and being

afcend and descend thefe thirty or forty
as

fathoms

on fwinging ladders

unconcernedly

and

TEMESWAR,
and nimbly
Ihafts.

^'t.

LETTER

XV.

143

as other

miners in the moft regular
falt-

When we
we hung

reached the opening of the
in

ftock

free

our fack, and

I

faw with

pleafure below m.e, in the depth of thirty -three

fathoms, the

many lamps of

the

workmen.

I

found

in

the mine the director of thefe the politenefs
to fliew
I

fait- works,

who had

and

to explain

whatever was worth

feeing.

was agreeably

fur-

prized by a burning bundle of ftraw, dropt
the fhaft.
It

down

illumined the whole cavern, fhewed

me

its

conical form, unfupported by any timber,
diftinguifii

and made me
the falt-beds.

the undulating form of

The

light

was from every

fide

refleded by the whitenefs and brightnefs of the
falt-rocks.
I

have examined the clayifh earth,
their ftrata.
It has a fourifh tafte,

which feparates

but an offenfive difagreeable fmell, like that of
rotten cheefe.
fent fole
It
is

tough like
is

clay.

The

pre-

of this work

fourteen fathoms diameter.
is

The
fixty

Colofer mine,

of the lame nature and form,
fifty

fathoms depth, and

fathoms diameter.
long ago. Thefe

Many old falt-pits are given up
are entirely filled with water,

which they ufe here-

about for bathing.

I

was prefented here with
got

fome tranfparent pieces offalt-rock with inclofed
water drops
;

another piece contains mofs.

J

here likewife a great quantity of the lapis rdimifmalis

144

TPvAVELS

THROUGH THE BANNAT GF

maus Tranßyhani^, defcribed if I am not wrong by Bruckmann. Gyps and alabafrer is very common hereabout. Pray tell me what is the reafon
that thefe ftones are for ever to be found in the
fait-

works

?

Might not
vitriolic
I

the faline acid perhaps be
acid,

changed into
produced
?

and thus gyps be
in

have gyps from the falt-mines

Upper-Aufiria^
it is

and

from the Marmaros, where
falt-beds.

found between the
fatisfied

After having
I favv the

my curiofity under ground,
of rejected falt-rocks which
fize.

immenfe

piles

are under the prefcribed

They

are kept for

no

ufe

;

and fevere penal laws forbid even the

poor
gave
of

to

make ufe of them. The
were

reafons which they

me

for this unaccountable fquandering
as follows
:

away
to

fo ufeful a fubftance,

That

prevent fmuggling pieces of the fame weight were
given to the carriers, and that the abundance of the

TraiiJfyhaniahXz-m'mtsdid notfeem to require any

grudging, or fending the fmaller falt-pieces in
facks or
caflcs.

This might do,

if the

world was
;

only to

laft

but a thoufand years more

but good

public ceconomy takes care of the

lateft pofcerity,

and difapproves any arbitrary

and unneceffary

deftruftion of an ufeful mineral as

inhuman ex-

travagance.
rejefted
fait
-,

Many hundred
are

millions weight of

thus expofed to diflblving rain

and fnows

and what vafl quantities are fpent
in

TEMESWAR,
In a fimilar

^c.

LETTER
in the

XV.

I45

way near and

Vizakna, Kolofer^
?

Szekes,

Deefe and Paraite falt-mines

Though

P. Fridwalzky confiders the '^ranjfyhanian faltmines as inexhauftible flocks, he could not digeft
this cruel

wafting of ufeful materials, and he had
p. 171, the fantaftical

in this

Mineralogia Bacia^

idea,

to

mix

thcfe

immenfe

falt-mafles with tarnitre,

tarus,

and thus to change them into

in

order to

make

fublimate.

However, there mio;ht

be fome chemical ufeof this wafting- fait.
not faline
fubftances,

Might

acid be

properly joined with urinous

every

where to be had,
?

and thus
of the
fal-

fal-ammoniac be produced

You know

ammoniac-manufa(5lüry of Mrs. Gravenhorfi at
Bronfwic.

Might we not

poflibly expedl a greater

advantage from our fuperfluous falt-rock pieces,
than thefe gentlemen can get by their fcanty and

aqueous brine

?

Claufenburg^ two hours ride diftantfrom Torda,
is

divided from this

laft

place by a high mountain,

confifting of argillaceous flate,

and offering from
globular ftones,

the middle to the top a great
three, four,

many

and

five

foot thick.

They
found

confift
fil-

of yellow fandftone, cemented with lime and
led with petrifa(5lions, fuch as
I

ftratified

near Foldwinz.
clofely fticking

Some of
together
j

thcfe ftone-bullets are

which fuppofes
in

their
ftate.

having been

connefted

when

a

foft

L

This

14^

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
infulated,

~

This mountain ftands completely
there
is

and

no higher mountain round about, from
thefe bullets

whence
this.

might have been

rolled to

Accordingly they feem to have been car-

ried thither

by the floods of the

fea,

whilil:

it

covered

this country.

At

the foot of this
fineft

moun-

tain lies Claufenhurg^

one of the

and

mod

populous

cities

of Tranjfylvania.

The Roman
it

monuments, quoted by P- Fridwalzky^ and found
hereabout, prove that in former times

was a

Roman
which
tions.

colony.

The
filled

houfes and even the walls,

inclofe this place, are built of grey or yel-

low limedone,
however,

with fand

and

petrifac;

In general the country abounds in them
I

have not found any fcarce
converfe

fpecies.

The

delire to

with a mineralogift, or
to vifit P. Fridjefuits.

rather

my

curiofity,

prompted me

walzky^ living here in the college of the

His rooms
nerals

are filled with

ill

chofen ftones, mi-

and petrifaflions confufedly piled up. They

bear the

mark of
fcience.

their pofTefibr's confined

and

«nconnefled

He is

really a very induftrious

laborious man, but he has got together fuch confufed ideas of natural-hiflory, that
I

am

appre-

henfive he never will be able to bring them into

any tolerable order, or
the
falfe ones.

to diftinguifh the true
is

from

This

rather

owing

to

want of

proper inftrudion and ufeful books, than to a
deficiency

T

E

M

E

S

W A R, ^C
led

LETTER
to

XV.

147

deficiency of his application or capacity.
defire to

The

be

iifeful

him
-,

compile a Mineral

Hißory of Transylvania

ignorant what fcience
to fuch a
his
taflc.

and experience

is

requifite

He

fuppofed to have difcharged

duty by giving

the names of the mines j the length of the drifts, the depth of the pits, by compiling fome accounts

of mine-officers, a couple of charters and other and then, after all, telling his monuments
•,

countrymen that
fylvania.

this

is

a Mineralogia

Tranf-

No

fuch thing as proper defcriptions

or denominations of the rocks,

and

their local

connexion
material.

and variety, which would have been

At

prefent there

is

fcarce

any hope

of his improvement.

The

good-natured Tranfas

fylvanian noblemen look

upon him by

a great na-

tural philofopher, praife his deep

knowledge of

nature, confult him, and

all

thofe feducing un-

deferved diftinftions hinder
better inftruflions

him from getting the
of fci-

by

his mafters in that part

ence. Accordingly his future publications on
ral

Natu-

Hiflory will be but too much refembling the forones.

mer

He

feems to be fenfible that

his indi-

gefted

accounts cannot recommend him to the

elleem of true connoifieurs.
is

His chief attention
objects.

therefore bent of late
to

on other
aßjeflus^

He

intends

make

tiles

from
2

paper from
ftalaclites«

different vegetables,

and borax from

L

With

148

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
them

"With fuch propofals he endears himfelf to fome

of the T'ranjjyhanian noblemen,
nerous Mecanas's
in

calls

his geis

proper humility, and
ftates

to

have from the provincial
of 30®
florins,

an annual penfion
his

in

order to

realife

projefls

and
It
is

to continue his difcoveries in

Natural Hiftory.

a great advantage for P. Fridwalzky, in iß a
venijfe uhi aliquid fapere

loca

videatur.

I defired

him

to

fhow me the ftone from Gyalupopi from
to
extracft

which he propofes

borax.

It

was a

common calcareous ftalaftites. Then he brought me his fianmim ficulum which he mentions p.
104 of
his

Natural Hiftory.

It

was a black cry-

ftallized blende (black

Jack) from Kapnik, which

never will yield

any

tin.

At As
I

laft

he procured

me

a fight of the cryftal, with inclofed gold, which

he defcribes p. 177.

did not confider this
I
little

phasnomenon to be very extraordinary,
fancied
that

even

in this

he fhould have been
cryftal

miftaken.

But the pretended
containing within
as
its

was comex-

mon

glafs,

fubftance a paint-

ed gold garland, fuch

at

a few cruicers

pence you might buy by thoufands
Bohemia.

at 'Turnau in

All

this

proved to

me

that the gold

grains in grapes, the liquid fluid gold, and

many

other fantaftical Angularities which he pretends to

have

feen, to

have examined, or to have heard
at
all.

of, deferve

no credit

LETTER

TEMESV/AR,

is'c.

LETTER

XVI.

I49

LETTER.
SPENT
two days
;

XVI.
2,

Nagy-Banya, Aug.
in
I

1770.

going from Claufcnhtirg

I

to

this

place

and

had no

leifure cither to

fee the iron-works at Toroczko^

nor the lead-mines

of Runda

near Bißriz.

I

had likewife no time to
I

fpare for the falt-works at Dees^ becaufc

am

to

make

great hafte, in order to return to Shemniz
I

within the fpaceoftime which

am

allowed to

be abfent.
that thcfe
*Torda^

But

I

know by
fait

very good authority,

falt-mines

entirely

refembh
is

thofe

at

and that the

produced
all

exported to

Hungary,
I

AH

the roads, and

the hills,

which

pafTed,

were covered by a pale yellowifh lime-

ftone,

containing

many marks of broken
flate,

fhells.
it is

In fonie parts the micaceous

on which

fuperincumbent, appeared naked above ground.
'Nagy Eanya
is

fituated in a valley, furrounded

by

a traft of mountains,
to the eaft.
It
is

which runs from the north
and royal mining town,
its

a free

and was

in

former times, with

dependant

mines, the conftant domain and allowance of the

queens of Ilmgary.

In the ancient records

it

is

L

3

often

150

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
con-

often called Rivulus Dojninartfm, on account of a

brook ^which runs, along the northern

hills,

nefted with the Carpathian mountains. fuch records
it

From
year

appears, that

its

mines have been
in the

worked already under King Lewis I. King Matthias Corvinus left 1347.
in 1468, the
leafe

to the city,

mint and the mines for an annual
gold
florins.

of 13000

In xht Hunga-rian
re-

laws,

from 15 19, two chamber^ of the royal
in

venues from mines are mentioned, one at Kremniz

and the other
the very

Rivulo Dominanim.
is

This and
the great

name of Nagy Banya^ which
its

mine, proves the antiquity of

fuccefsful works.

The ancients feem to have been very fkilful in fmelting and parting their ores. One hundred weight of
of clear ore
have contained from 79 to 112 ounces auriferO'us filver. The poorer and
is

faid to

mixed

ores were in thofe times
;

ground

in

com-

mon
flags

mills

and one hundred weight of the old
a

yields fcarce

drachm of

filver.

From
till

the year 1526 thefe mines decayed by a fucceflive
variety of accidents,

war and

rebellions,

in the

midft of the
tirely.

laft

century they were given up entheir

Such was

abandoned

ftate

till

Baron

de

Gerfdcrf,

one of the

mod

intelligent

mining-

officers of the imperial {lates, propofed the renewal

of the

works

in the Kreuzberg.

Count

Gotlieb

Stampfer, whofe character and mineral fcience

you
are

TEMESWAR,

iyc.

LETTER

XVI.

15^!

are acquainted with, ventured himfelf

by a fmall

gaping of an old gallery down into the mine,

which he found drowned by water.
danger he fhipped
to the fides
in a fort

With

great

of ikiffover the depth

of the vein, and gathering there feme

rich ores, he greatly

encouraged a fubfcription for

draining thefe works.

To

this

purpofe a deeper gallery was refolved

and the fuccefs being unqueftionable,
fituation
as

and the

favourable for fmelting furnaces and
as the

flamp

mills,

account of the ancients, the

proprietors purfue the undertaking with unwearied
zeal,

and have been

thefe laft feven years feriouily

engaged
It

with their gallery.
at firft driving for eighty
-,

was

fathoms

in

grey

marleftone
clay,

then followed

dark grey hardened
rock.
at

and

at laft the metallic at

This

is

the

only

mine

prelent
fifllircs

working

Nagy-Banya.
are

Several

other

however

workinoo

by poor adventurers, but
cefs.

at prcfcnt

without fuc-

In the year 1748 a board of furveyorfhip of

mines over feveral works, formerly belonging to
the

chamber of

ICißjazü,

was

eftabliflied here

;

and

ever fmce,

the

neighbouring mines at Kapnik^

Felfo-Banya^ Fekete-Banya^ Lapos-Banya^ and lAis-

Banya^ have been conllantly
ftate.
I

in a

more

thrivinsj

Ihall exai=iine

all

thefj mines,

and

fee

out to-morrow for Kapnik, v.hich will procure
materials for a longer letter.

me

L4

LETTER

152

TRAVELS THROUGH THE ßANNAT OF

LETTER
AVING
patriae.
I

XVII.
6,

Nagy-Banya^ Aug
the choice of
all

1770.

the places belongZ'icit

ing to the Nngy-Banya infpedion,

amor

went to Kapnik,

a royal mine, in a

rough country furrounded with mountains, and
fituated

on the furtheft
tlie

limits

of J'ranjfyhania^

form.erly belonging to

'Tranjjyhanian chamber,

but of
It
is

late

fubjeded to the diredlion of Nagy Banya.

four hours journey from this place, and the

cliffs,

which

I

met

v/ith

going there,

confift of

large naked granite-rocks and argillaceous glim-

mery

flate.

Kapmk

lies

in a valley.

According

to an old tradition the 'Tranjfylvanian princes are
faid to

have opened the

firft

mine towards the end
Its

of the fixteenth century.
gallery

name

the Princestradition.

(Furflen-Stolln)

fupports

that

The

annual produce confided then of four or 500
filver,

marks of
which

containing;

fome

o-old.

But the

prevailing ground-waters put a Hop to the works,
at

kfl ceafed entirely.

In 174S they were

refumed, which was occafioned by the Jofephi
mine, as having been fold to the chamber by the

impo-

TEMESWAR,
800
over
florins.

^c.

LETTER

XVII.

15^

impoverifhed proprietors for the

trifling

fum of

Kapnik has at prefent the advantage
other mining places,
in

many

on account of
which cf
late

many nnattempted mountains, have been difcovered the Maria
*Therefia^

Hulf, Barbara or

Jofeph^ Jofephina, Kapnik or Ungarßoln^ Erzbach^
Clemens^ Peter Paul^

and

Chriftopher's,

veins,

each working by different companies.
veins run

All

thefe

from north to fouth, dipping

from weft to
mountains
is

eaft.

The rock

of thefe metallic

a white argillaceous

compaft

ftone,

refembling our Saxum metalliferum^ except that
it

contains

fome

fpots

of white

ftone-

marrow

(lithomarga).

The rock of
fire

the deaf and barren

mountains hereabout
ftriking

confifts
fteel.

of a

blueifli trap,

fome

with

In fome places both

thefe rocks are
flate.

covered with micaceous "clayifh
is

The

princes-gallery vein

purfued already
it

a length of 427 fathoms.
is

In the prefent drift
fkirting
is

narrowed a
Its
It

little

by the

rocks grown

harder.

common
confifts

breadth

four or five fafeld-fpatli
fal-

thoms.
fprinkled

of rofy-coloured
filver ore.
-,

with fallow
is

The pure

low ore

melted feparately

and the feld-fpath

goes to the ftamp-mills.
this vein runs a lead

In the hading fide of

and blende- vein. Fourteen fa-

thoms deeper
but the
reft
is

are

fome fmaller
in

drifts

working

drowned

water, which the ancients

154
cients

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

worked out by pumps,
by the deeped
all

and henceforth
gallery, wliich
toffether.

will be carried off
is

to

crofs

and to drain

the veins

Petri Pauli

vein produces

an auriferous white

quartz, fprinkled with fallow filver-ore, and

now

and then fome

nefts

of a pale yellowifh pure fcarce

coherent auriferous calcareous earth.

The

quartz

contains grey plumofe and pale yellow antimony,

which

is

likewife

found next with the vein
in coarfer cryflals.
I

in

white clay, but then

was

told that the vein grows richer in gold wherever

antimony happens to be found

in

it.

I

obferved

here on the hading fide of the vein a cryftallifation,

whofe furface was
cubes.

all

over covered with fmall

You
it

know
I

how

curious

1

am

of
to
this

cryftallifations.

endeavoured

therefore

feparate

from the vein, but found that

whole mals of cubes confided of a calcareous unpetrified earth.
I

obferved the fame phaenomenon
I fet

fome weeks before
found

out on the old Anthony

of Padua- St olln at Shemniz^ where in the deepeft
fole I

a large cube,

which

at

firft

fight I
1

believed to be a hollow fpar-cube, fuch as

have
this

many

in

my

cabinet.

When

I

touched

cryftallifation

the fmaller cubes, which covered

the greater one, were found incoherent, nay liquid,

and the greater cube yielded under the preflure of
the finger, and the water contained within run
off.

TEMESWAR,
ofF.

^c.

LETTER
in

XVII.

Ißß

Thefe

fatts

prove that
the

cryflallifations are

continually producing

humid way
cryflals,

;

and

accordingly the

many hollow

which you

have leen

in

my

cabinet at Shemniz^ have been in

the beginning liquid lumps, whofe furface cryilallifing in

forms convenient to

their

faline nature,
cryllallifa-

fucceflively

hardened and

left

an empty

tion after the water was evaporated.

The Maria Hulf vein
mills.

is

a hardened auriferous

clay, Iprinkled with pyrites, wallied in thewalhing-

The

other

veins

confift

of a pale reddifh
fprinkled
is

auriferous

feld-fpath,

commonly
redder,
that

with fallow-ore.
the

The
it

to

fay

more irony

is,

the

more
are

auriferous too,

Moft part of

thefe

fiffures

feparated from

the deaf rocks by a foft argillaceous fkirt (faalband.)

The

deepeil gallery at

Kapnik has

been driven

already

700 fathoms
It

in

length into the above white

metallic rock.

The
their

was begun by Baron de Gerfdorf. veins crofTed by it are large and fine ; but
auriferous quality diminifhes in the depth.
is

This gallery
then
vein.
it

to be lengthened

500 fathoms, and
Furßen
Stolln-

will

drain the remoteft

An hour's
tain, is

ride

from Kapnik
which

in the
I

Rota mounlike-

a private mine,

examined

wife.

The

vein

runs between a 2:reen indurated

fomewhat

Jß6

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OP
is

fomewhat calcareous rock, which
and the white metallic
hanging
fide.

on the hading,
is

rock, which

on the

It confifls

of white quartz, mixed
It
is

with blende and lead-glance.

auriferous,

nav the gold appears often

in vifible native

lumps.

The

flamp-mills are
as thofe in

in

general of the fame con-

ftrucflion

Lozver Hungary.

However,
gutters.

the prefent
built one

upper
fix

infpedlor,
peftels

Baron Smidlin^ has

with

and double go very

This

really
•,

does a good deal of work in very

Ihort time
as

but

as the peftels
is

brifkly,

and

more water
I

fpent and to be given in the
this conllrudlion to

trough,

do not conceive

be

any great advantage, fince the impetuofity of the
brifl^ly

running water does not permit the

fine

gold-duft to precipitate in the canals, and confe-

quently a good deal

is

carried away.

They have
private mines

here

three fmelting places with

eight furnaces, both for
-,

the royal

and for the

the private reguli to be fold in

the royal purchafe office, and the whole produce

of gold and
at

filver to

be coined in the royal mint
is

Nagy-Banya.
in

Their method of fmelting

hardly

any thing different from that ufed
Gerfdorf tried

at

Shemniz.

ment,

Baron which deferves your

here an experi-

notice.

He
at

ordered

a quantity of the rejedled falt-rocks to be fetched

from the neighbouring bing-places

Marmoros,

and

TE ME
and when

SV/ AR,

'<^c.

LETTER
furnaces
to be

XVII.

1

^"j

the

fmelting

were

going,

fome troughs
and
the

full

of

it

thrown upon the

works, according to the practice of the aflayers,
in

order to prevent the filver flying away in

fire.

However, the
•,

effeft did

not anfwer the

expectation

rather the filver

was leflened one half
was owing perhaps

per hundred weight.
eithej- to

But

this

the negleft or the malice of the

common

Imelters

who

are natural enemies to any novelty.

LETTER

158

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANN AT Ol

LETTER

XVIIL
'^11'^'

Nägy-Banya, Aug. ii^

MY
mon

long filence

is

the confequence of an un-

happy

accident,

which was very near put-

ting an end to
firing

my

life.

To

examine the comeffefts
I

at Felfo-Banya,
fo

and the great

produced by
vifited the

fmall an expence of wood,

great mine

when

the

fire

was hardly
flill

burnt down, and when the mine was

filled

with fmoke.

An
in

accident

made me
fenfes,

tarry

fome-

what longer
went
hours
off.

the fnaft,
loil

by which the fmoke

In

fiiort I

my

and

fifteen
blifters

after I

was reftored to myfelf by

and

other applications.
eyes run with blood,

My
and

lips

were fwoln,
limbs
in

my

my

ge-

neral lamed.

Without the

affiftance

of a

fliilful

young

phyfician at Nagy-Banya, and the great

care of the upper adminiilration's infpe(5tor.

Baron

G erham
ftill

J

in

whofe houfe

I

lodge, you
;

would have
is

been deprived of your friend

and the queftion

whether he

is

to be faved.

A violent
more than

cough-

ing and acute pains in the loins, which alternately

put

me on

the rack, are

I fear

fufficient

to

TEMESWAR
to deilroy this thinly

59 framed machine. If that fhoiiid

^c.

LETTER

XVIII.

1

be the

cafe, then

my

friend

I defire

you

to

have
of

my name

at leafl inferted in the JMartyrology

NaturaHfls. Fclfo-Banya
is

one of the eldeft mining places.
;

Formerly the inhabitants had no trade but mining
and
in that

refped they got from King Lewis

II.

a grant
troubles,
ins;

of freedom, dated 1523.

The

public

which put a flop to

all

the neighbour-

works, did not afiect thefe, which continued

uninterrupted to the year 1689. In 1690 the em-

peror Leopold bought the works at Felfo-Banya for

25,420 florins, granting by public charter eternal freedom from any taxes to the inhabitants the
:

mines have been ever fince
prefentthe Borkul^nd
\.\\t

in a thriving ftate.

At

great mine are the richeft.

Times immemorial
hornftone
in the

the rock, confifting of grey
is

(petroßlex)
foles

worked by

firing,

which

upper

has caufed tremendous caverns

threatning ruin, and
timber.

not to be faftened by any

In thele ruins, or rather in this eld man,
lives in

feveral private adventurers hazard their

fearching after remaining ramifications of ftampores.
I

got from fuch an old cavern a fort of

ftalaftites,

which feems
It
is

to

me

extremely problein

matical.

very light, refembling

colour a

red yellow amber, vitreous and glolTy where broken,
refills

acids

and the

fire

without giving any fmell.

The

l6o

TRAVELS THPV.OUGH THE EANNAT OF
Borkul mine has
its

The
ing

hading;

and hans-

fides
is

of the above hornftone.

The The

vein-

rock

zinnopel, different from that in Lozver
lefs

Hungary only by

hardnefs.
lefs,

vein

is

one fathom more or
ore,

and contains ftampfilver, the

which yields but two ounces
great mine

mark

of

filver yielding

twenty denarii gold.
has likewife a vein like that
at

The
it is fix

of the pacher-floln

Shemniz.
I

In fome places

fathoms wide.

went with horror over

the ruins and the large rocks detached
floor, till I

from the
is

reached the third
the

fole,

which

lefs

ruinous.

On

fourth fole a
crofling the
deaf.

fiffure

coming
in

from the hading
of

fide,
it

main vein

an

acute angle, ftrikes
this vein contains

The ftamp
filver,

zinnopel

two ounces of

and the

mark of

filver forty denarii

or two ounces

and

a half of gold.

Some

times they meet here with

ore of fixteen ounces filver.

In a hanging

fifiiire

of this vein

is

found

fine red,

found or

cryftallifed-

fulphur, (fandaraca) [on white milky cryftallifed

quartz

•,

the fame fort of native fulphur on yellow
;

orpiment

white coarfe cubic pellucid fluor with

inclofed fulphur-, grey plumofe antimony; the fame

on quartz-cryllals pointed on both ends, and
flicking together
;

clofely
;

red and grafs green antimony

grey coarfe radiated antimony on

white pellucid
ih

rhomboidal prifms of

fluor

two or three inches

length.

t

E

M

E S

WA

ft,

^c.

LETTER

XVIII.

l6l

length, which

by the antimony, and prove that thefe minerals, however different cryftallifed at the fame time. in themfelves,
are perforated

I

got likewife from the fame vein red fine cryftal-

lifed

magnefia.

I

have told you already that the mine

is

worked

by

firing.

But
at

this firing

is

different

from that

prad:ifed

Goßar, and at Schlackenwalde in Bolarge ruinous caverns

hemia.
it

The

produced by
foles at

in thofe places, as well as

on the upper

Felfo-Banya^ caufed the proprietors to think of a

more

profitable and lefs ruinous fink their
ifjaft

method o^

firing.

They

by

chiffels,

hammers, boring

and blaftingjto

fix,

nine, twelve, fifteen fathoms.

To

contrive then a drift, a cut one foot high and deep
is

made
it

to

that fide

which they want to work.
of

In

they place an iron grate, which they call the
it is

pragel cat, and
fmall

to be covered with a layer

pieces of

wood, about an inch thick and
to be fet

one foot in

length, and then

on

fire.

This
levers

foftens
is

and loofens the rock, which by iron

taken off from the fides and the roof*
the further firing,
fo far that

and

facilitates
is

no

fide-cut

requifite.

The

drift

being widened

by

this

method, and the vein over head to be
it

obtained, they begin firing at its fole, covering

by

a bed of two or three feet of deaf rock or ftampore,

and lining the hading and hanging

fides

with

M

a wall

102

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

a wall of the fame rocks, in order to prevent the

flames fpreading that way, and caufing unneceffary taverns.

Then

they proceed to

fet

heaps of

wood

as noticed before.

Such

a

heap

confills

of

about twenty-one or forty-two pieces of wood,
three and three in layers a-crofs
till

they reach

the roof.

Twenty-four heaps requifitefor a length
;

of four fathoms
breaking

and for
the

thefe, together

with the

down

loofened rocks, are paid to

the miner twelve one- half cruicer and eight ounces

of lamp tallow.
the

By

this

method only the top of

flame works on
flvilful

the rock.

They have an
it it

hundred

manipulations to dired:
fide,

to the

hanging or hading

where they want

mofl.

The loofened ores are left on the foles, new foles made of them, new firings fet, and thus continued
till

the

whole vein between two

foles

be bro-

ken down. The vein being extremely
ding

large, they

begin firing in the hanging, going on to the hafide

on the fame

level a-crofs the

whole vein.
the

The
as a

ftamp-ores thus loofened are

left in

mine

magazine

till

they are in want of them,

when 'they
at a

are carried under the (hafts, and thence

to the (tamp- works.

Thus
florins,

the ore
drift

is

procured

cheap

rate,

a

fathom of a

by

firing coil-

ing not above fifteen

and requiring only

two

or three florins value of wood.
is

The

folidity

'and hardnefs of the rock

an advantage to this

mannei

TEMESWAR,

^c,

LETTER

XVIII.

163

manner of working; cracked and broken mountain or vein rocks would be lefs aded upon by fire.

The

vein rock of this large

mine

is

zinnopel,

a jafper-like flone, extremely hard, fcarce to be

conquered by the
to be blafted.

chiffel

and hammer, and hard
I

However,

cannot be convinced
this

of the great advantages of

apparently cheap
will

and

efficacious

firing.

Perhaps you

agree

with me.
1.
it
is

Whatever care be taken
impofilble
to

in lining the fides

prevent the

flames

from

loofening the rcck-fkirts of the vein, which,* un-

fupported by timber, of courfe break down, and

produce thofe unavoidable and dangerous
verns.
2.

ca-^

rites

pyand the femi-metallic part of the ore, makes

The

fire

volatihfing

and

difll)lving the

the air of this mine extremely unwholefome, and
afi^'cls

the health of the poor miners,

who feldom
fire

arrive to any

advanced age.

,3.

The

miners cannot, on account of the
in a

and fmoke, work more than three days
4.

week.
carries

too

The much

ores

being pyritical,

the

fire

fuiphur away, which of courfe lefiens

the lech-ftone and the fcorification of the
tallic parts.
5.

unme-

It

produces likewiie an unequal flamping,
fire

fince

the

afFeds the ore in a very different

M

2

manner»

164

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

manner, calcining fome and leaving many more
found and unhurt
at all.

In Ihort, a well directbe, according

ed
to

crofs or oblique

working would

my

opinion, preferable in

many

refpeds to this

firing.

The
deep.

great mine
Its

is

at prefent

funk 70 fathoms
;

vein runs in a metallic rock

and

I

am

inclined to believe that the upper drifts arc

driven in fuperincumbent hornllone.

The many

among the rubbifh of the bing-places make me believe fo. The whole mountain of Felfo-Banya is underfragments
driven or underworked by a deep gallery 454 fathoms length. The ground waters drained by

two pole-pump-engines

(flangen-kunfle.)

The

royal ftamp-mills at Felfo-Banya are of a
conflruftion.

good and regular
the

Thofe of the

pri-

vate companies are 'but too

much

refembling to

common

bungling llamp-works of the Tranf-

fylvanian gipfies

The
royal
;

fmeiting places are, one of fix furnaces,
the other of

two furnaces, the property of
filver

the city.

The

gold and

produce

to

be de-

livered into the royal mint.

Companies who work
have for a mark of their
cers
;

flill

for

hope of a dividend

filver
4-

21 florins 20 cruiducats-, but thofe

and for their gold 77

who get

a dividend, or for other rcafons are de-

prived

TEMESWAR,
rins

^c.

LETTER
and
"^c^

XVIII.
1

165
7 flo-

prived of the higher

tarif,

are paid only

per

mark

filver,

ducats per

mark

gold.

The unhappy accident which befell me here deprived me of the pleafure to examine the other
works and the falt-mines
at
:

Marmoros.

What

I

know of them is as follows The falt-mines at Marmoros
micaceous
clayifli
flate,

are furrounded with
to the
It

which continues

granite-rocks of the Carpathian mountains.

contains thofe fine pellucid oftangular alum-form-

ed quartz
the

cryflals,

which,

carried

by the
fold

rains

into the brooks, are gathered there

and

under
a con-

name of Marmaros
hardnefs
is

(tones.

They have
polifh.
fine

fiderable
fait

and natural

In the
Itriped

found

pellucid,

white,

gypfum.
Fekete-Banya
is

a hamlet belonging to the city

of Nagy-Banya.

In

1645 above two hundred

miners are faid to have been employed here for

gold and
place.

filver

-,

but at prefent
in

it is

a deferted

However,

1752 the
this

city

o{ Nagy-Banya
is

opened a mine, which to
fuccefsful.

moment

not very

Lapos-Banya
ing to

Is

a metallic
is

mountain, belong-

Count Karoliy and

divided into the M:z-

Banya and Sargo-Banya mines.

Theie

laft

have

large flamp-ore veins, running in

metallic rock,

M

3

and

I

66

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT Of
Si

and richer
there
is

in

gold than in
lead-ore.

filver.

Now

and then

fome

Miz-Banya
and
filver at

has likewife copper.

The

gold

produce to be delivered into the royal

mint

Nagy-Banya.

In Olalapos have been of late difcovered fome
rich veins.
I

have from them a fample of zin-

nopel, fprinkled with native gold.

Near
glance.

Illoba

is

native copper (licking to lead

In

the Szamos river herrings are faid to
as

be fifhed now and then,

has been afTured to

me by

eye witnefTes.

'^t^x Nagy-Banya\s dimi"

neral well, frequently ufed

by the inhabitants.
I

If you
this

knew how much

have fufFeredto
it

finifh

letter,

you would confider

as the greateft

proof which you might expedt of my friendfhip.

LETTER

TEMESWAR, ^c

LETTER

XIX.

167

LETTER
IT ed
IS

XIX.
1770.
fuffer-

ShemniZy Sept. 5,
impofTible to
in

tell

you what

I

have

my

ten days journey from Nagy-Banya
I

to this place.

was commonly carried into the

coach and out again.

Any

ftone in the road, any

jumping of
mit

the coach doubled
I

my

pains.
of,

The dry
is
;

coughing, which

cannot get rid

does not per-

me

any

reft.

Under fuch circumftances
to

was

impofiible for

me

examine the mountains

and and

commonly
the
'Theijfa

the road went over plains in which I
to the right,

had the Carpathian mountains
river to the left.
is

Schmolniz
hills. I

on the promontory of the Carpathian

fliould

have ftrayed too
there.

much from

the

road

if

I

had gone

Befides the recovery of

my

health, if any

to be hoped, did

make my

hafte

home

neceftary.
in the fields

Near Tockay^

and the vineyards, are
blueifti lava,

found pieces of vitreous black and
Ptimex vitreus himuei^
lux-fapphires.
tain,
I

commonly

called hereabout

did not fee hereabout any

moun-

which might be fuppofed

a volcano in former

times.

The

hill,

which

is
4-

fo

famous

for pro-

M

ducino;

l68

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF
'Tockay wine, confifts

ducing the noble
laceous
flate,

of

argil-

and does not manifeft any other

volcanic marks.
thefe

This makes
been

me

believe that

lava

pieces have

rolled
hills,

down and
which fuch

wafhed from the Carpathian

in

lavas and native fulphur are very

common.
hills,

A
Here
I

days journey from Altfohl begin the
flretch in t\i^

which to the right

Luptan

diftricl,

and thence join with the Carpathian mountains.
I

could not bear the jolting of
to

my

carriage

,

was forced
I

ftep out

and to creep on very

ilowly. pieces.
fift

obferved vaft quantities of loofe granite

Probably fome of thefe mountains con;

of granite

but

as far as I

might obferve

in

paffing by they

are in general covered with argil-

laceous
here
too.
j

flate.

Some

lead-mines

are

working

and

as they

told

me

fom.e copper-mines

When
matters,
arrival

I

reached Shemniz the account of
;

my

accident arrived likewife
I

and

as report heightens
it.

was

faid to

have not fuivived

My
to

was therefore a welcome confolation

my

family.

Among
firft
:

a

great

many

letters,

yours

were opened
into

I rejoice
I

on your happy return
fatisfied

your country.

have partly

your

demands by the accounts of what T have feen and but I do not know whether I ihall be obferved
;

able to give

you

a

compleat theory of the nature'
of

TEMESWAR,
deavour
fent

^c.

LETTER

XIX.
I

169

of the Hungarian mountains.

However,

will en-

my

beft in

one of my

next, and for the preat S'mol-

I fhall

entertain

you with the works

mz,
I
tafli,

as defcribed

by me fome years ago, when
thought that fuch obferan advantage to Natural

wanted principles and experience for fuch a

and when

I little

vations might prove

Hiflory.

Smolniz

is

a celebrated mining place, belong-

ing to the royal domain, fituated in the didridl

of Zips on the foot of the Carpathian
has very

hills.

It

noble

copper-works,

known

in

the

times of Count ZapoHa and Bathori under the The Zips county and emperor Ferdinand III.

Smolniz devolved to the Counts Cfaky^
neral lett the mines
tenants.

who

in ge-

and the copper trade to foreign

About

the year 1671 Francis and Stephen^
their

Counts Cfück)\ divided
engaged
count

county and the
;

Sinol-

niz mines in two equal parts
in
'Tokely^s

but Francis having
his part

rebellion,

was

forfeited to the crown.

But the imperial chamber
private tenants, and in

had no proper idea of this mine, and accordingly
left

this

part to feveral

1684
at

to the

comproprietor count Stephen Cfaky,
rent of

a yearly

after the

4000 florins. Three years chamber worked this mine at a common
Stephe?i,

expence with count

and

its

fnare of the

annual dividend was i483i^florins.

This opened
the

170

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANN AT OF

the eyes to the chamber, and

made

it

think of the

acquifition of the other part, which

was obtained

by an exchange
iifcated part

in the year

1690, when the con-

of the county was returned to Count

Stephen^ and he prevailed upon to renounce his part of the mine, and the hamlets Smolniz and
Stoofs^

into thepofieffion of the imperial chamber.

Since this tranfadion the chief mines at Smolniz

were royal

eftates,

under the direflion of the
\

chamber

at

Kaßoaw
they

however, by want of proper

principles,

could not be brought to any
Therefore,
in

remarkable

dividend.

1748,

a

formal general direction was

eflablifhed
to a

here,

and the works were entrufled
rience.

man

of expe-

The mines belonging under

the general

direction of Smolniz^ are Smolniz^ St oofs , Swadler^

Einßedler, GoUniZy Kru7nbach^ Borathßod or IVagendrujfel, in the

county of Zips, Under and Upper

Mezenjeiffen and Jojfaiv^ in the Ahavira diftrid:

Tohßaw, Rojenaw,
tion.

in the

Gomorha

diftrifl

;

Iglo

or T^ewdorf and Wallendorf under

Pö///Z> jurifdic-

The mountains

at Smolniz confift
flatc,

of a blueifh

glimmery argillaceous

in

which the three

veins at Smolniz^ called the middle, the exterior
lying, and the exterior hanging vein are running
in

hour

^\yi

in the

morning, dipping to the hori-

zon

in nearly feventy-five degrees.

Hence

it

ap-

pears

TEMESWAR,
pears
that they are

^c.

LETTER
They

XIX.
are
;

I71

parallel.

about

twenty fathoms

difiiant

from each other
nearer.

in their

bendings they are

ftill

The

fifTures

be-

tween thefe veins are of no remarkable
value.

metallic

The

veins are fubjed; to leaping, running

fometimes deaf a great length, and are affefted
in

their

run

even

by

the

lead

change

in

the

fituation or nature
in

of

the fkirting rocks.

Thefe changes

the fituation

of the rocks are

owing

to fmall

fifTures,

which cut the run of the

vein in a different hour or angle, and are called
here
kleins.

By long

obfervation of thefe crofs-

fiffures,

and

their effedl

on

the

main
:

veins, the

following rules have been laid
If the crofs-fifTure be
it

down

coming from
;

the eafl,

drives

the vein into the hading

if

from the

•wefl, it

pufhes the vein into the hanging fide, where
it is

accordingly

to be found.

FifTures in

hour nine or twenty-one, and dipping

to the eafl or the north, are called here irregular

and refraäory ones
are thofe that

;

regular fifTures in the contrary

keep the above run and dipping

of the main veins.

Regular
it

fifTures,

falling in with the vein,

pufh

into the

hading

;

but irregular ones into the

hanging

fide.

Though

thefe crofs-fifTures or kkins very often

interrupt the run of the vein, they are

however
requifite

172

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

requfite to enable them, as generally they are deaf

where

thefe crofs-veins are wanting.

The middle
in

vein
is

is

the richeft.
j

The
and

fecond

rank and value

the hanging

in refpeft

to thofe the lying vein, as running beyond the

mountain

in the valley,

is

poor.
is

The
with

rock of thefe veins

a dark grey clay,

commonly mixed with
fparr.

quartz, but very feldom

Generally the quartz begins and ends

the ores.

The
pyrites.

argillaceous flate between the veins con-

tains frequently
I

confiderable nefts or lumps of

have met with fuch a lump, improa pyrite-ftock, in a depth of

perly called here

fifty-feven fathoms,

between the middle and the
are rich of fulphur,
in a

lying vein.
tain

They

and con-

two pounds of copper
ores

hundred weight.
and found
Befides

The

are generally yellow copper-pyrites,

either fuperficially variegated, or yellow

or fprinkled in glimmery dark-grey
thefe ores,

flate.

whofe

richeft

fpecies

contains about

twelve pounds of copper, the mines at Smolniz

produce

annually about

an hundred

thoufand

pounds of cemented or precipitated copper.

The
veins
is

water v/hich foaks through the

fifTures

and
difit

impregnated with copper-particles,

folved by the vitriolic acid.
ftill

To

impregnate
fhafcs,

more,

it

is

led into

fome old

thence
raifed

TEMESWAR,
ralfed

^f«

LETTER

XIX.

173

by pump-works, conducted through feveral bing-places, and then poured in canals, which
are

dug near
by

the fhafts and filled with old iron.

The

vitriolic acid nearer related
it,

with the iron,

is

attrafted

and accordingly precipitates the
foft

copper under the form of a

powder. If the

cement waters be ftrong,
is

this

powder or fediment
which
is

every third day feparated from the iron, to preits

vent

being incruftated with copper,
its

would hinder
ferved fooner
vitriolic

further difTolution.

It

ob-

that

the

copper precipitation
in

fucceeds

and better
water
falls

thofe

canals,

where the

with fome impetuofity on the
are

iron.

Every month the copper fediments
be entirely diflblved.
is

gathered in the canals, the iron cleared and put
again in the water,
till it

Another equally profitable work

the picking
confifting

up and wafhing of the
either
thofe,

bing-rubbifh,

of the negleded ores of the ancients, or of

which having been thought

unfit for fepa-

ration in the mines, are carried to the bing-places.

Thefe places are examined, the found ores feparated

from the deaf rocks, and

th.e

copper fprinkas

led flate pieces waflied
7iiz.

and fieved

at

Shem-

The remaining
This bufmefs

unfhining pieces go to the
is

mills.

carried

on by children,

fervant maids, and old

maimed

miners, and pro-

duces every year about 60,000 pounds of copper.

The

174

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF
ftainp-mills are of the

The

fame conAruflion
^

as thofe in

Lower Hungary.

Thofe

ores that are too fulphurous are

by

roaft-

ing feparated from the fulphur.

Several fulphur

furnaces are built for that purpofe.
three to fix fathoms in length
j

They

are

from

from one

to

two

fathoms deep, and two fathoms high.
they have thirteen windows
leveral
;

Commonly

and each window
accord-

openings, by which the fmelted fulphur

runs out.
ino-

The bottom of
j

thefe furnaces

is

to their bio;nefs filled with three or four fathefe

thorns of wood

wood layers
;

are covered with

fome

carts

of charcoal

then comes

a layer of
this is

found fulphurous ore one foot thick, and
covered with alternating wafh-ore-beds
nace be a
filled.
till

the furfire

The wood below
fet

is fet

on

by

wood

canal vertically

a-crofs the ore-beds.

Such a fulphur-furnace contains about 500,000
pounds of
ore,

which continues burning twelve
If the fulphur ceafes runin

or fourteen months.

ning from the openings, canals are dug

the
flat

upper covering of the furnace and paved with
ftones.

Thefe canals, and wooden
are led

conductors
j

laid in tliem, as the
rifing

to a ftone refervoir
is

and
con-

fulphur fl;eam
in

catched

in the

duftors,

and cooled
is

the refervoir, a greater

quantity of fulphur
the former.

got by this method than by
it

The

depuration and fublimation of

into

TEMESWAR,

^c.

LETTER
known

XIX.

175

into flores fulphuris are

pradices.
is

The
about

annual produce or faving of fulphur

200,000 pounds.

The
put
in

uflulated pyrites ferve here likewife in a

vitriol manufacftory.

When

flill

warm
in

they are

tubs with water, elixiviated into a brine,

and

this boiled

and evaporated

lead

pans,

which produces a blue-greenilh

vitriol,

but the
confi-

want of

fale

makes
it

this

manufaftory

lefs

derable than

might be under more favourable
copper-ores require ten different
raw,

circumftances.

The common
roailings,
after

one

and

one black-fmelting

which they

are refined with

fome

lead, as
filver

not bearing the expence to part the

little

which they may contain.

The
as in

richer fiiver-mixed copper-ores are parted
yield
at

Lower Hungary, and
in

a

medium

from twelve to 1400 marks of
StoofSy

filver
is

every year.
a dependant

the

di(tri(5l

of Zips,

place

of

Smolniz,

and furniihes yearly about
iron,

500,000 pounds of
is

which for a great part
at Smolniz.
{latej

confumed by the cementation works
iron-veins
confift

The
ores

are

here running

in

the

of brown or red iron-ocher,

in

a

greater

depth

hardened into

an iron-coloured
It

found-ore,

Hccmatites

carukjcens.

contains

now and

then fome nefts of yellow copper-ore.
Swadlcvy

176

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
and a great advantage to the royal cham-

Swadler, a market-place, is furrounded with large
forefts,

ber.

The
and

furnaces in the midft of thefe forefts
refine

fmelt

every

year about 200,000.

pounds of rofe-copper.
adventurers

The company of private
(late,

work

here in rich copper veins, in-

clofed in glimmery argillaceous

whichever/

year produce above 400,000 pounds of fine copper.

EinftdeU
in

a place belonging to Count Cfaky^

the diftrid
in

of Zifs, has rich copper-veins,

which

former times produced confiderable divi-

dends, but for want of
inor

wood

are

but flowly workfell

at prefent.

However,

they yield and

every year to the royal purchafing office abouc

200,000 pounds of copper.
Golniz^ in the fame diftrid, iikewife belonging to

QowniCfaky^
tv/o

is

in

time anterior to Smclniz.
let

It

has

rich

copper veins,

to feveral companies.

The

royal

chamber has large

Ihares in them,

and

fome confiderable independant mines.

The
for a

veins run to the eaft

between horn-flate

length of

900 fathoms.

They

dip into a

confiderable depth.

The vein rock is

grey quartz

mixed now and then with fpar. They yield yellov^ copper-pyrites, and grey copper ore, called
hereabouts

white

ore,

which

contain

fifteen

pounds of copper per hundred weight, and from
five

TEMESWAR,
live to twelve

^c.

LETTER

XIX.

lyj
annual

ounces of filver.
place
is

The whole

produce of
of copper.
Krumbach,

this

about 600,000 pounds

in

the fame diflrid, belonging to
iron veins
in

the fame mafter, has
Hate-rock.

argillaceous

In fundry places of this

manor

are

rich copper veins,

which annually produce about
dependencies

200,000 pounds of copper.
Bcratßdod or Wagendnijj'd and
its

produce about 300,000 pounds.
Under-Mezen-Seiffen, Jojfa'w
Seifen, in

and Upper-Mezen-

the Ahavira county, are three mining

places belonging to the convent of Premonfiratefriars at
Jojfaix),

This county
•,

is

contiguous to the

Carpathian mountains

the ground, confiding of

arg;illaceous flatc, rather working- for iron than for

copper-veins.
T'opßaijj,
in the

county of Gcmcr, on the river
in argil-

of Gollniz, has two capital copper- veins
laceous
fiate,

worked by

private companies.

The

different mines, belonging to this bailiwick, deli-

ver aunually about 100,000 pounds of copper to
the royal office at S^nolniz,

Rofenaw belongs to the Archbidiop of Gran,
and
is

fituated in the county of Gcrnor.

]n the

territory

of

this place are

copper, gold, and an-

timony veins.

The

large old bing-placcs at Zinga-

kanyn, near Rofenüix)^ fpcak rich old copper-mines.

N

Some

178

TRAVELS THROUGH THE ßANNAT OF
years ago they have been taken
<:^ood

Some
iilver

up

again,

and yielded
;

copper-ores, containing fome

but the adventurers being unable to afrbrd

the expences of pump-engines theworks are dropt.

The
'

gold- veins difcovered fome years ago are

dropt likewife.
in

The four antimonial-vcins run The ore is commonly found hornftone-flate.
•,

granulated and grey antimony

it

fcarce

ever

appears

in cryrtalline

or plumofe forms.
is

Near
a rich

Krafznahorka^ in the county of Gomor^
quickfilver-mine, which yields
Jgto
Cti
'fine

cinnabar-ore.
is

or Neivdorf^ in the county of Zips,

one

the thirteen towns which the Emperor Sigifmund
to the

pawned

crown of Poland.

It

has rich cop-

per-works.

Walkndorf likewife pawned
mines belonging to
this place

to the Polijh.

The
hopes

work

ftill

in

of a dividend.

The buying
places
is

of the copper produced

in all thefe

a royal prerogative, according to

which
fell

the different private companies are obliged to
their

copper

in the royal office at

Smolmz

at dif-

ferent prices,

fettled

according to

the different

circumftances and the different goodnefs of the

copper.

Thefe prices vary from twenty-nine to
-,

thirty-one florins

but the

Iglo

and

Newdarf co^Three
in

per

fells

thirty-two florins thirty cruicers.
after delivery the

months

companies are paid

ready

TEMESWAR,
ready

^f.

LETTER

XIX.

1

79

money

;

which regular and conftant

fale

has brought

thele

Upper Hungarian copper-mines

into their prefent flourifliing ftate.

The produce
every year in
royal mines

of the private companies
1,400,000;

confifts

but

that

of the

of

^00,000

J

in all

of 2,100,000 pounds of copper.

N

2

LETTER

löO

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

LETTER.
OU
the
that

XX.

Shemniz, Sept. 7, 1770.

win not expeft a compleat

hiftory of

Lower Hungarian mines,
a

their

origin,

works, engines, furnaces, oeconomy and produce;

would be

volumes.

work of fome years and of fome Befides, you have been here and feen
yourfelf.

and examined
Severini's

You have
;

read

Mr.

treatife

of the ancient inhabitants and

the origin of the mines at Shemniz
expecfl an

and you may

account of the Lower Hungarian en-

gines from
it

Mr. Poda^ who

is

refolved to give

to the prefs.

Perhaps a defcription of our

fubterraneous and metallurgical- works might ap-

pear likewife,
into execution.

if

the imperial order be brought
It
is,

that the profefibrs of our

miner-academy are obliged to penn down proper

hand books
to

for the difciples, which are intended
at

be publiflied

her majefcy's

expence.

I

want only to remind
fervations
fliort

you of the nature of our

i

rocks, of the rule of our veins, and of fome ob-

thence arillng, in order to fupport a

theory

of

all

the Hungarian

mountains,
whicli

TEMESWAR,
which
to

^r.

LETTER
I

XX.

l8l

comply with you,
of the

have refolved to

Iketch out.

The

promontories

hills,

in

which the
on the

noble veins at She7nmz are running,

raife

borders of the G7'an river, where they
Hate,

conx^iit

of

which afterwards unites with a harder,

ar-

gillaceous grey rock,

mixed

either wich fherl,

or

quartz, or calcareous fpar-grains.

This rock, which hitherto
called

I

condantly have

metallic rock,

is

the

common mountain-

rock, in which the veins at She^niiiz and Kremniz
are

running.

They

unite with the Carpathian

mountains.
In the valleys behind Shemniz, near the glafs

manufactory, and in feveral other places of the

Lower Hungarian mines,
are

hills

of grey limeftone

accumulated on the Hoping, nay even on the
this argillaceous

fummits uf

rock.

The

metallic rock near Shemniz contains three

capital veins, parallel in their run with the direction of the river Gran, nay even v/ith the bendings

of

its

channel, as clearly appears by the minera-

logical

map

of the Shemniz veins, which has been

publiflied

by Mr. Zipfer.
is

The

largeft

the

Spitaler

vein.

It

runs

from north

to fouth

between twelve and four,
eaft-

and dips from weft
degrees.

to

from

thirty to feventy

In the remoteft northern field this vein,

N

3

belonging

lS2

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF
and found deaf
depth.

belonging to the Nicolai mine, was crofied by a
drift,

in

the

Here

it

confifts

of grey loofe and

foft clay,

mixed with

fpar.

But the old rubbifh feems
towards the day.

to indicate that

there were iikewife rich and metallic veins in the

upper

level

Somewhat more
the vein
•,

to the fouth, in the fields oi Michels and PacherStolln, it furnifhes

good ftamp-ores. Kere

confifts

of quartz, leadglance, and zinnopel

and

the wallied metallic powder contains a good deal of
gold.

In the field of the Packer Stolln
elfe.

it is

larger

than any where
parallel

On
aft,

the twentieth drift or

for example, at a
ill

depth of 127
it
is

fatl;ioms

from the Elizabeth
wide,

fourteen fathoms

and

the

deaf rocks

included eighteen.

This remarkable thicknefs of the vein has caufed
the crofs-works to be introduced.

The comhas
drift,

pany of the Three Kings and
here
that
in the
is

PacberßcUn

depth of the thirteenth level or

to fay, in
rich

the depth of eighty-fcven faores,

thoms very
change
in

which

in |a greater

depth

zinnopel ftamp-ores.

Further to the fouth, near the limits of the
Winäßoaft
field,

an argillaceous white vein unites,
it

and thence conftantly runs with

in the

hanging.

The vein is from that place found to contain filver. The v/hite clay of this hanging nlTure offers now and then nodules of fpar and quartz pieces.
Containing;

TEMESWAR,
dred
laft

Ü'r.

LETTER

XX.

1

83

Containing four or ßve ounces of filver per hunweight
;

they are carefully gathered.
is

At

the

form of the vein
;

entirely altered in the
it

royal wind-ßjafts field

and

confiits

of broken

quartz, which,
ores

if

mixed with

fpar, yields richer

of diflblved pyrites and of an irony ocher,
to contribute to
its

which feems
ferous quality.

increafing auri-

This irony ocher decreafes
tion as the vein
is

in the

fame propor-

advancing to the fouth.

The

remoteft

field to the fouth, diilant

from the north-

ern about

3000 fathoms,

is

entirely deaf.

The Jö-6;w vein runs in a diilance of looo fathoms
in the

hanging of the m.ain
ZifpT^r's
1

Spitaler vein.
this vein

Ac-

cording to Mr.
the fame which
iffuing

map,

feems to be
as

mentioned before,
vein.

unitingor

from the chief

The

vein-rocks or

fubftance of this

fifilirs is

white clay, containing

fometimes ore,

fometimes metalHc quartz, and
flakes.

Ibmetimes fprinkled metal

In

its

midft

occur now and then feparated and deaf zinnopel
fragments, or dilfolved zinnopel.
the

To

the fouth,
its
it

on

fourth and

fifth

drift or level,
;

fubftance
has conficirt

turns
flantly

harder and richer
in

however,

the

hanging an argillaceous

or
in

feparation of

two or three inches thick, and

the hading
thicknefs.

a fkirt of zinnopel

about one foot

N

4

The

184

TP.AVELS THP.OUGH THE

BANNAT OF

The mines working on

the Spitakr vein are

the IVindßjafi^ Pacber-Stolln,
the Gl.mzenhurg^ Michels- StoUn^

Three Kings-StoUn^

and the remoteft
I

northern

Ijillner

deep gallery-works.

am
in

to

take notice
is

here of a fingular curiofity, which
drill:

that in

a

driv^'en

on

this vein,

and

a

perpendicular depth of eighty-nine fathoms from
the Elizabeth
fliaft,

I

have found included
petrified

in the

found zinnopel a fpecies of
I

porpites. *

am

pofieffed of a

fragment of zinnopel
of
this

with

feveral impreffions

marine body, and a
;

porpites

belonging to one of thele impreffions

both offered to
vein,

me

in a

bing-place of the Spitakr

among

the rubbilli

and ilamp-ores, which

then were carried out.

The day
afls;ing

after

I

went

myfeif into
officers

the mine,
this

the

workmen and
?

whether
to

fort

of imprellions and flones

had offered

them

in

working out flamp-ores

They anfwered me

in the affirmative,

but uncon-

cerned at their Angularity had conftantly rejed:ed

them under the ftamp-ores. However, my endeavours to find fome other fpecimens for

my

mineralogical friends have been to no purpofe.

*

It is

properly a petrified Madrcpora ßmplcx, fnbtiis platta,

annulis

co?icentricis,

fupra con^exa,

iimhilico imprejfo,

lamellis

approximatis in fupcrficie granuloßs.
hitherto undefcribed,
viiindcn in
is

The fame

fpecies, tho'

common

near the falt-works at Ge-

Upper- Außria.

Now,

TEME3WAR,
Now, my
petrifaftions

^c.

LETTER
tell

XX.

1S5
thefe
a vein

deareft friend,

me how
into

may have been brought

of a mountain, which cannot be ranked amongr
the accidental

mountains, and whofe very rocks

prove

it

to

be of the primitive or original kind.

If there were any higher fuperincumbent calca-

reous

hills,

this

phenomenon might prove
hills

lefs

fingular.

But our calcareous

are

on the

floping of the mountain towards the glafs
faÄories, and theie petrifaflions

manu-

cannot poflibly

be carried thence to

this

high elevation, as none
in the

ofthat kind are to be found

calcareous and

lower

ilrata.

Hov/ever, a

fingle

circum (lance

fcems to give fome explication.
a
hill to

You remember
which of
late is

the north of Shemniz,
as

decorated

micaceous

mount Caharia. It confifts of clay ßiiilus, mixed with detached
which greatly refembles the
and chamites
;

pieces of red jafper,

deaf zinnopel.

Petrified turbinites

have been very often found about
famples of thefe petrifaftions are

this hill
in

and

my

cabinet.
v/as

Might

not,

when

this

accidental

hill
ftill

profea-

duced, and the whole country was

under

water, fome of thefe cruftaceous animals have been
carried

by water

in the ftill p;aping filTure

of

this

large vein? and by that accident have been brought
into the mafs of zinnopel
?

§

The

detached j.ifper
pieces

§ If thefe petrifaftlons

were of the fame kind

as thofe in

the before-mentioned

hill,

which

is

not, or

the fpecies of
turbinites

lS6
pieces,

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
mentioned
before,

leem to have been
in the Johns' filTure

brought by fimilar accidents
in the hangino-

of the vein.
the

The

fecond or the Beaver Stollner capital vein
in
it

runs in a diftance of loo and 150 fathoms,
hadin"- of the Spit alc" \ tin, parallel with
in
its

both
is

run and

in

its

dipping.

The

vein-rock

quartz mixed with pale yellow and reddifli fpar,
zinnopel, and richer ores.
the

In the hanging towards

Sptakr vein
•,

it

contains

zinnopel and lead
is

ftamp-ores

but

in the

hading

a fkirtof clay,

from one
ore,

to four foot thick, with nodules of leadfive

which yields from two' to

ounces of filver.

This vein has not been worked, nor found metallic fo

far to the north as the Spitakr vein.
filTure,

Near
from

the Amelia fhaft the Daniel

ftraying

the 'Therefta vein, unites with the Beaver Stollner
vein, and

makes

it

richer.

More

to the fouth in

the Chrifiina field this vein has undoubtedly yielded
the greater quantity of ore.

Hereabout

feveral

regular and irregular

fijfTures,

fuch as the Althandlc-

turbinites

and chamites, which are common

in that hill,

were

iikewife fo in the zinnopel vein, which Baron

Born would

certainly have taken notice of,

then the flate-hill and vein-

rock of the Spitaler \t\n might be confidered as produced in
the fame time.

However, the vein rock may have been procircumftances, but in times anterior to the
(Tranfl.)

duced by fimilar

©rigin of that flate-tiill.

Roßka,

TEMESWAR,

t5c.

LETTER

XX.

187

Roßka, and fome other hanging and hading ones, fometimes unite and iometimes feparate from it
efpecially

the

Wolf-gang vein parts from
tire Spitaler

it

and
fa-

runs towards

y tin.

An

hundred

thoms more
this vein

to the fouth, in the Siegelßerger field,
its

has
five

greateft width,

which
it

is

from

four

to

fathoms.
fifi^ires.

However,

is

croffed

by two fmall

They worked

the

firft

by

galleries,

and found on the ninth
till

drift

a

vertical vein,
fince

then unknown, which has ever

yielded the richeft ores.
fiffures,

The

three hangparallel

ing

flraying

from and running

with the main vein, yield likewife great quantities

of rich

ore.

Beyond the Kcnigfegger
is

Ihaft to the

fouth the vein

deaf at prefent.
is

But the fouth-

ern part of the mountain
ber, in order to

rcferved for the

cham-

examine the vein and

to lengthen

the works.

The

'Thereßa vein runs
in

in

a diftance of

150

fathoms further

the

hading, in a dire6lion

parallel to that of the

two before dcfcribed.

On
the

the

higheft part of the
is

mountain

it

balilts out,

and

lefs
it

examined than any

other.

To
to

north

dips from eaft to weft,

that
•,

is

to fay, in

a contrary and irregular diredlon fouth
it

more

th6

turns perpendicular
it

,

and

t

urther beyond
the other

the "Thereßa fhaft
capital veins at

dips

parallel to
is

Sbemmz, that

to iav,

from weft
to

I

83

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANN AT OF

to eaft.

The
;

vein-rock
in

is

lead-ore, inixed with
filTures,

zinnopel
S.

however,
it

Ibme

efpecially
Its

Daniel,
is

has yielded richer ores.

found-

nefs

the

caufe that the works on this vein
is

are not

funk above 150 fathoms, that
fole

to fay,

to

the

of

tlie

^'rinity

nopel veins being richer

The zinof gold make amends
gallery.

for their being poor of filver.
in this

That

is

the cafe

and the
is,

Spitaler vein.
in a

On

the eleventh

level, that

depth of 116 fathoms,

they

have found
rock,
drift,

in the

mid ft of the found mountain
from one to

when
a

cutting a crofs door, or an oblique

great

number of

bullets

two inches

thick, confifting likewife of metallic

rock, and being either loofe or fticking to the
other rocks.
I

am

at

a lofs to guefs

how

thefe

globular ftones came into the m.ountain, or

why

they came to be produced

in this

form rather

than

in that

of the other comprefled rocks.

On
fliafts

the Klingerflolln^ belonging to the Tkereßa
field,
I

obferved the remains and marks of old

works, done before the invention of gun-powder,

which the ancients called
arbeit)

•pocket

works

{taßjen

and produced by ftrong and dry wood
forced in the hanging fide of the doors

wedges,

or galleries.

Thefe wedges being wetted
effect

after-

wards broke the rock by an
panfion.

of

their ex-

I

T
I

E

M
I

E S

W A R,

^c.

LETTER

XX.

1

89

remember

that in the defcription of the Spifre-

täler vein

mentioned deaf wedges, which
greater veins
at

quently offer in the

Shemniz.
differ-

They

confift

of an argillaceous grey rock,

ing from the metallic rock in a fmgle circumftance, that inftead

of mica

it

contains fpots of

white lithomarga.

The width and
lifations

thicknefs of thefe veins

has

probably occafioned the great quantity of

cryftal-

which are

fo

common

in

thefe mines.

Being

filled

with metalliferous fubftances there
their drying

might have remained, or by

have been

produced thofe holes
are depofited.

in

which the

cryftallifations

They

are generally filled, or at

leafl incruftated Vv'ithin

by calcareous,
as

felenitical,

or quartz cryftallifations.
rco-ular

Suppofing that
falts,

their
is

forms
tlic

"are

owino; to

commonly

fuppofed,

variety of metals and femi-metals
at

of the large veins
rally

Shemmz feems

to have natu-

produced

that great variety of fine cryin m.y cabinet.

ftallifations

which you have feen

Thus
I

I

have communicated to you

my

obfer-

vations on the chief veins at Shemniz.

However,

add that they are worked with fuccefs to the

greateft depth, fince the auriferous zinnopel con-

tinues in vaft quantities.

Though

this

depth be

about 200 fathoms,
in

it is

of no great importance
if

refped to the inner ftrudure of the globe,

wc

190

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
confider that, according, to
obfervations,

we
the

Mr. Pcdas baunder
ground,
fa-

rometrical

made

feventh fole

in Sargozi

thoms
above

below the

mine being 158 Charles lliaft, and 286
fhaft,
is
ftill

fa-

thoms below the
the level

'Thereßa

much

of the city of Vienna.
geographers

Accordhave no

ingly our

fubterraneous

reafon to be proud of their diicoveries of the inner
ilru(5ture

of the earth

•,

even our deepeft fhafts
its

have

at

mod but fcratched
in

exterior furface,

and

Ovid's

Itum eß

vifcera terrae will be a poetical ex"*
till

travagance,
propofal of a
earth to the
tion

Manpertuis^s

unphilofbphical

fliaft

funk through the centre of the
brought into execu-

Antipodes be

All the royal mines at Shemniz are drained and
uncJ^erworked by the

Emperor
is

Francifcus'^ gallery.

Its door or entrance

five

Engliß miles from
It

Skemniz,
in

in the

Hodrizer ground.
finiflied

Was begun

1748, and

happily

in

1765.

Conbe
imin

tinually driven in

found and hard metallic rock,
height and widtli,
it is

and

in a confiderable

to

wondered
menfe and

at

even by connoifTeurs

how

this

difficult

work could be atchieved
lengthened
ftill

fo faort a time.

It is

further.

The
veins,

private mines, working in other metallic

and belonging to the metallic court

at

Sbemniz,

TEMESWAR,
Shemniz, are to the

^c.
v/eft

LETTER

XX.

ipi

or to the north in the

Rofs ground near Eifenbach, or to the fouth in the
Hodriz.
Stolln,

The New
the moft

Hope-Stolln^ the

Hofer Erb-

WinäßAeuten^ and the Old Antony de Padua
confiderable mines
in

StoUn, are

the

Rofs ground.

The mountains
lic

confift here generally

of metal-

rock

;

the veins, like thofe at Shemniz^ run-

ning from north to fouth.
In the fouthern valley
royal mine, which
rich ores,
in
is

Old All Sabits

Stolln^

a

former times yielded very
ftill

whofe remains are

working.

The

co-incidence of fome large

veins has

produced

here vaft caverns, fupported by the fparings of

deaf rocks.

Here

I

found
I

in a pit the year

777

cut in the rock.

Might

hence draw a confethis

quence for the high antiquity of
with this difference however, that

mine

}

The

rocks are here likewife our argillaceous grey rock,
it

is

as in all the

other Hodrizer mines mixed hithomarga.

Next

to this

mine follows

Fhifier

Ort and

Breii-

ner-Stolln,

whofe vein-rock

confifts

of large aulight,

riferous

and lamellared quartz, extremely
it

very often as

were cut with a knife, but com-

monly
its

in

a ftate of corrofion, ?nd containing in

holes rich auriferous red

and

brittle glafs filver

ore.

The Nezu

Antoni dc Padua Stolln has a

fimilar quartz vein.

More

592

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
to the weft our metallic rock
is

More
v.'ith

covered

argillaceous flate, crofTed by iron and lead-

veins.

The lame
where the

appears in the Rofs ground
begins near the Eifenbacb

valley,

flate

bath,

and yields iron-ore,
fine load-ftones.
filent

and now and then
fmaller private mines
Dulln, a minino-

Ibme

I pafs

over

many

to fpeak

now of Belo-Banya or
north of Shemniz.

place to the

The mountains
way diftant.
but

the fame as at Sbemniz, but an hour's

The mines do
portance
in

not feem to have been of great im•,

former times

and nothing
tiie

is left

the names of fome mines and

ftill

working

deeper Didlner Erb
fhafc
is

SioUn.

The

Dullner Nicolai

funk on the

Spitaler vein,

and belongs for
I

the greater part to the royal chamber.

faw here
field

on the
drift,

Sez'en

Wornen vein,
old

in

the

northern

feveral

blafting-holes,

one marked

with the year 1637. Rofsler §
the blafting

relates, that in

1627

of the mines
in

was
the

brought from

Hungary and introduced

German mines.
it

But Bayer

fays,

that

in

161 3

was invented
afifertion

by Martin Freygold
is

at Freiberg^

an

which

repeated

of

late in the

account of mines and

their workings, publiflied
at Freiberg.

by the miner-academy

§ Berg-Spiegel.

TEMESWAR,
The Maria
of auriferous
fouth.

l^c.

LETTER
It

XX.

193
a vein
to

Htilf
pyrites.

company works on

runs from north

To
awer

the fouth, on the other fide of the Reichwater-refervoir,
is

a

private

mine, called

the Moderßolln, on
It has

a vein of auriferous quartz.

given good dividends.
is

Further to the fouth
a mining town.

Baka-Banya or BugganZy
to the eaft.

The

mountains, like thofe at

Shemniz

;

fome veins running
late

Sun-

dry companies have of

taken up different

old mines, in auriferous quartz and fpar veins.

The
form.

Ladißai company produces already a good

deal of gold, which often appears in a granulated

Behind Bugganz the Hoping of the mountain
is

argillaceous

flate,

dipping under the plain

which by Tyrnaw continues to Preßurg.
Carpathian mountains,

On

the

northern fide of Preßurg appear the roots of the

which near Modern are

working
running
1

for lead veins,
in horn-flate.

mixed with

afoeit

and

have noticed already in my laft
eafl

letter the Schißous

mountains to the

of Shemniz.

To

the north,

on the floping of the mountains,
hills

are calcareous

of white fine-grained limeftone.

They

ex-

tend to the Glafs-huttner bath, which con fids of a
hot
well, ufed for

many

infirmities.

The water
depofits

O

194

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF
mixed with
it is

depofits tophus

iron ocher, and the

canals in which
are incruftated

conveyed to the bathing-houfe
it.

by

Many

tophaceous

hills

of

the fame kind are ihen hereabout, and probably

have been accumulated on the furface before the
water was collefled into canals.

Between Creuz and Lehotka
plain.

is

a fine cultivated
here,

Marks of coals have been found
by P. Kircher

and

mentioned already
Subterraneus,
I

in his

Mundus
highway
refem-

Near Lehotka and

the

found

\vhite fhivery hornftone, petrofilex,

bling chalcedony and containing fome petrifactions of plants or corals.

Probably thefe detached

loofe flones have been carried hither

irom Leßowixy

beyond Cremniz.

A
i

rivulet,

which flows here,

comes
a great

that

way

and found beds of fuch milk-

white hornftone are found near that place, befides

number of detached
are

jafpers
in

and achates,
fields

which

very

common

the

there-

about, and near Deutjh-L.it taw.

The mountains at Kremniz are our common metallic-rock. The works are on a large and rich gold-vein and on fome of its ramifications. The
rock
is

white

folid

quartz,

mixed with

fine

auriferous red and white filver-ore, and with auriferous pyrites.

This

pyrites, properly

ftampt

and walhed, contains from two
of gold per hundred.
to north,

to three

drachms

The

vein runs from fouth

and

is

auriferous above a length of

3000

fathoms

TEME3WAR,
fathoms.
It

^c.

LETTER
fearched
is

XVIII.

195
to

has

been

already

a

depth of 150 fathoms, and
riferous.

conftantly found au-

The fame
at Kremniz.
in the
tallic,

vein

is,

befides the

royal

mines,
citizens

worked by the Rothißj company and the
Fine
flriated

grey antimony found
vein being

king's fhaft.
a great

The whole

medi-

number of ftamp and

wafli-mills

are eftablifhed here,

and to great advantage

rected by your countryman Baron Watram.

Further to the north, near T'ßoavoja^ fome leadveins are

working

in

blue micaceous clayifh

(late,

probably fuperincumbent on metallic rock.

To
by

the eafl Kremniz

is

feparated from Nezvfol

a fteep mountain, confifting of metallic rock
flate.

and covered with
Skalka
,

At

its

top, called the

red

native fulphur has been found in a

grey fuperincumbent fand- bed.

On

the other fide

of the

hill is T'ajova,

known by
Near

the royal copper-

and parting-furnaces.
orpiment,
polyedris^
is

this place cryllalline
cryflallis
flate.

Auripigmenttim cryfiallifatum^

dug from

a blue

clay vein in

The

hills

thence to Nezvfol, an hour's

way

diilant,

are calcareous.

This

city

is

in a pleafant plain

on the Gran.
rifes

To
flate,

the north, near

the village Jaaib,
confiiling

the mountain Baran,

of argillaceous

accumulated on limeilone and containing
copper-fifl\ires.

fome

Nearer to Herrn Grund ap-

O

2

pears

196

TxlAVELS

THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
grey micaceous clay fhiftus, in

ptars again the

which the mines are working.
chief veins,

There

are three

running from north to fouth, and
fifty

dipping from forty to
weft.
"jein
'vein
',

degrees from eafl to
is

The vein
and the

in the

hading

called the Copper-

the fecond to the hanging the Herrngrtwdcrthird,

;

more

in the

hanging, goes
•,

under the name of the Pipe-Stolh-vein

to

which

may- be added a fourth, fu'-ther in the hanging,

and

called

the Rat-gröund-vein.

All thefe veins

are cut off to

the fouth by an oblique croiTing
(late,

vein of red irony argillaceous

which

is

many

fathoms thick.

Beyond
in

thi^

red vein they have

begun

a gallery,

unfuccefsfuUy driven already

278 fathoms length
found continuing
red vein.
different

black limeftone,

in

hopes

to reach again the copper-veins, if they fhould be

on
is

the

other

fide

of

this

The- vein

common
is

fliivery

clay,

from the mountain by
Often the ore

a fmall

mixture

of mica.

fticking to quartz and

gypfum.
ed here
eight
I'here

The

ore

commonly

copper-pyrites, callfilver,

gilf-ore^

containing no

but from

to ten
is

pounds of copper
grey

in

a

hundred.
con*

likewife

copper pyrites,

raining fixteen or feventeen pounds

of copper,
Acci-

and from three to ten ounces of

filver.

dentally they meet fometimes with fine famples of

white ore, Cronßedt.
glafs,

§.

199, cryftalline grey coppercryflallifatum cryßallis deca-

Cuprum vitratum

dris

T

E

M

E

S

W A R,

BV.

LETTER

XX.

1

97

drisiß -planis tetraedris^ noble famples of verdegreafe

and copper azur, malachites, and white hair or capillaire vitriol,

Haloirichum

Scopoli,

fweating from

or (licking to the fides of the works.

This

vitriol,
is

which

in

undeterminate blue and green cryftals

likewife

produced on the timber,
to
its

contributes

greatly
rial

prcfervation, fince times

no repair of timber has

immemobeen wanting. The
For

copper-ores at Herrngrund are auriferous.

this reafon they ieparate the gold-duf!; in the wadi-

mills.

It

would be impoflible

to feparate

it

to

advantage by

fmelting and parting.
fix fields,

1 he whole

mine

is

divided into

three to the fouth

and three

to the north.

In the northern fields the
-g^vt

Ktigler, the

Pipe StoUn^ and
;

of x.\\q Herrnorund

veins are

working

in

the

fouthen they work
This
the
vein
is

only on the Herrngrunder vein.

twelve fathoms wide.
direflion

However,
it

different
affetfl it
it

of the rocks, which
interrupting
its

croiles,

fenfibly, either

run or forcing

into an other line of the compafs.

The fame
years

hap-

pens to the other veins.

It

has been conftantly
to

working

thefe

laft

five

hundred

a

depth of 15© fathoms.
is

The

Pipe-Stollner vein
is

fome fathoms thick
feet.

;

but the Kugler vein
water
is

only

four

The cementing
wood
and

conduced by

floping

wood-canals, and

many angulated windIn the corners of

ings in large
thefe canals,

refervoirs.

in

the refervoirs, they put old

O

3

iron,

198
iron,

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
which precipitates the copper
fo fuccefsfully,

that the fediments contain near feventy

pounds of

copper per hundred.
this

The
There

annual

produce of

cementation

does not

however amount to
is

above 5000 pounds.
eftablifhment in
the

another profitable

Herrngrund copper-works,

a manufaftory of verdegreafe or mountain-green,
Viride

montanum nativum.

To

this

purpofe the

mine-waters are conducted on old bing-places,

which impregnate them with vitriol by the folution
of the copper
flakes fprinkled in the

deaf rocks.

Thence they

are led in

feveral

wood' rcfervoirs,

where running againft obliquely erefled planks
the green precipitates as a fediment.

An

hun-

dred weight of

this

green

fells

for

100

florins,

and

is

to that rate delivered to the mineral ware-

and

fale-houfe at Vienna.

The

negligence

of the ancients

in feparating

the ores has likewife in this place caufed
bing-wafliings.

many

Tho'

there

is

a great

number of

them, they do not produce annually but about

300,000 pounds of
Travelling from

clear copper.
this place to

Moditßa towards
above

Liptaw^ you

fee

on both

fides

of the way a chain
thirty fa-

of calcareous

flalaflite-like hills,

thoms high.

Probably

this

(lalaftite

has

been

carried hither by rain-water,

from the limeflone,

fuperincumbent

on

the Carpathian ^mountains.
I

am

TEMESWAR,
I

&c.

LETTER
which

XX.

I99

am however

at a lofs

how

to explain the fio-ure
exacflly
in

of this cryftalline limeftone,
bles that
lar

refem-

of fcalaftites, and appears often

globu-

and columnar forms of one or two
is

feet thick.

Beyond Moditßa
worked without

a lead vein in limeftone,

fuccefs.
'Thaifolz be-

The

iron

works near Rhoniz and
at

long likewife to the chamber

Newfol.

At
have

Rhoniz the iron-veins run on the
Sirk,

in flate.

The
fpar.

richeft is
I

and produces fome iron

not feen Thaifolz.

The
to

hills

about Newfol are
argillaceous

calcareous and fuperincumbent on
flate.

But nearer

Shemniz the

common

rock

is

again metallic rock.

^
way
to Shemniz,

On

the midft of the
to

where the
I

highway

Kremniz and Newfol feparates,
confifting of argillaceous

ob-

ferved near the bridge over the Gran fome rocks

of breccia,

and mica-

ceous blunted ftones, and reddifh granite pebbles
ferruminated by lime.
carried hither

Probably they have been

from the Carpathian mountains and

depofited by the river in the before- mentioned
rocks.

Near

Poinik, an iron

work under

the

chamber
and pro-

of Newfol, the iron vein runs
duces thefe
diftilled

in flate,

fine iron ores, incrufliated

with blueifli

chalcedony, which you have taken noin

tice

of when you were

Hungary,

O

4

Konigß^erg

200

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
in the Borfier diftrid,
is

Komgfherg (Ui-Banya)
in

rank the feventh of the free Hungarian mining
It
is

towns.
Shemniz.
fifts

fome miles

to the north-weft
it

from

The
fide

valley wherein

is

fituated con-

on one

towards Shemniz of metallic-rock,
granite-hills, run-

and on the other to the north of

ning hither from the Carpathian mountains.
the royal mine, at prefent working again,

In
the

vein runs between the red granite

its

hading, and
fide.

between the metallic rock
call
this

its

hanging
;

They
many
pur-

granite

mill-ftone

fince its

feld-fpath
left

particles

being difiblved, and having
it

holes,
p/)-fe it

make
is
is

a

good

mill-ftone.

To

this

exported to

many

parts of Hungary.

The
the

vein

grey quartz, mixed with auriferous
is

pyrites.
firft

This place
fteam or

remarkable on account of

fire-engine eflablifhed in the
built here 1721

Lower-Hungarian mines,

by Ifaac

Porter^ an Engliß engineer in the imperial fervice.
Its objecfl

was the draining of the Althandler fhaft

but, the works being given

up nine

years after, the

engine has difappeared of courfe.

Thefe
to

are the notices
in

which
the

I

have been able

take

refpeä:

of

Lower Hungarian
If
I

mountains, veins and mines.

fhould recover

my
and

health next
Scopoli'^

fummer,

I

intend, in

Mr. Poda's

company,
;

to

make
to

a trip in the

Carpathian

mountains

Scopcli

gather plants

and

TEMESWAR,
and infers
-,

^f.

LETTER
I

XX.

201

Poda

to
j

make
and

phyfical and mathefor

matical experiments

my

part to have

an eye to the nature
folTils.

of the mountains and the

The

defcriptions of the metallic-mountains in

the diftrifl of Liptaw, given

by

Bel^ in his Notitia

Hungarice^ and feveral curiofities which

fome

flu-

dents

have

brought

me from

the Carpathian

mountains, prove to conviiflion thatfuch an excurfion will be an advantage for Natural Hiftory.

Were this
gary^
this

part of fcience better cultivated in

Hun-

kingdom might,
in the

I

am

confident, fur-

nifh more remarkable obfervations, than perhaps

any other

World.

But, alas

!

fcarce the

I

name of that fcience is known hereabout, and fear we may for a long while repeat with old Seneca to the lazy Hungarians : " Sicut harbari pienimqtie inclufi

"
'* *'

&

ignari machinarum

fegms

la-

hores olfidentium fpeSiant^ nee

quo

ilia

pertineant^

qua ex lonquinquo firuuntur,
evenit.

intellignnt^

idem vohis

*'

Marc et is

in rebus z^eßris^ neccogitatis

"
!

LETTER

202

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

L E T T E

P..

XXI.
1770
which

Shemniz, Sept. 13,

YOU
fandftone.

have feen by the
I

feries

of

letters,

hitherto

have written to you, that the

mountains

in

the Bannai, Hungary and ^^ranjjylclay,

vania confifl of granites,

lime, horn-and

But which
?

are

the
in

moft

ancient

?

which

are the riched

which

each of them
?

is

the rule of the veins and filTures

how have
?

the

different rocks fucceeded each other
ries

Thefe que-

properly anfwered might furnilh a compleat

theory of the Hungarian mountains.

The moft

ancient mountains in Hungary and

its

dependencies can only be obferved in the
\

higheft mountains

and even
illufion

there care

is

to

be

taken againft the
outfide.
pie,

of the fuperincumbent
for

7 he Carpathian mountains,
at
firft

exam-

might be confidered

fight as calca-

reous mountains, if examined only in fuch places

where mines are working
but that would prove
fancy that
hills

in flate

and limeftone

-,

as

wrong

as if a

man was

to

covered with vegetable mould are
it.

thoroughly compofed of
caution
i\\t

Examining with

this

Carpathian

hills as far as

the MarmaroSy
"Tranjfyl-

and thofe which feparate the Moldaw from

vania.

TEMESWAR,
vama, and
rife

^c.

LETTER

XX.

20^

near JVerßocz in the Eannat,

we con-

ftantly find that their

undermoft

ftrata,

or rather

their main-bulk and nucleus,
I

confifts

of granite.

had ordered a young man, ufed to gather
in

foflils

the Carpathian

mountains, to obferve

every rock appearing above the fuperincumbent

mountains, and to bring

me

famples from thofe

rocks
mits.

as well as
I

from

tlie
it

highell Carpathian fum-

had them, and

was grey

granites.

You
I

remember
ferved

the granite- chain running towards KoI

nigßerg^ which

mentioned

in
is

my
in

laft.

ob-

there, that the

granites

the hading,

and
it

argillaceous rock in the hano-jno; fide.
is

Hence

appears that the argillaceous rock

accumu-

lated

and fuperincumbent on the granites.
granite rocks in the mountains behind yf//-

The
Sol,

running to Upper-Hungary^ the fame rocks
I

which

mentioned

at Felfo-banya

and Kapnik, and
flira-

run there underneath feveral fuperincumbent
ta

to

the Carpathian

mountains, prove to con-

viflion that

they confift of granite.

my

letters

again from the Bannat.

Look You will

over
find

noticed feveral places, in which the

granite ap-

pears peeping from under the flate and limeflone.

Mr.

Deiius, in his Treatife

on the Mountains, has
;

likewife mentioned
granites,
rates the

fome fuch rock

and thefe are

which includes the Ha zegvaWey^ and fepa-

Moldow from

l^ranjjylvania.

It

appears

there eidier entirely naked, or covered with a flate

or

204

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
All thefe fads together are
hills

or limeftone roof.
fair

evidence of the higher Hungarian

con-

fifting

of granites.
is

It is material to

add, that

there

no place

in

Hungary

in

which the gra-

nite appears to be naturally

incumbent on other

rocks

i

that wherever

it

appears above ground,

the fuperincumbent more
are eafily to

modern
;

flone flrata

be

diftinguilhed
in

and that graalter-

nites has never

been found

any mine to
I

nate ftratified with other
mineral-hiftory

rocks.

know by
I

the

of other countries that the fame

has been obferved in general.

However,

would

not be underftood as did

I

fuppofe the inner part
It is rather

of the globe to confiil
probable that granite
hitherto
fhall,

of granite.
in

fuch

depths,

which

we have

not reached, and perhaps never

are accumulated on rocks of afimpler mix-

ture.

Neverthelefs

granite
•,

is

the moft ancient
is

rock hitherto obferved
confirmed
in

and that opinion

greatly

Hungary.
hitherto

To my

knowledge there have not been
in the

found any metallic veins
mountains.
runs in

Hungarian granite-

The

Althandler vein at Konigficrg

the feparation

between the granites and
will lay

the metallic-rock.

Perhaps after-times

open

thefe hidden treafures.

That

veins are runis

nino- in other
fa<ft

countries throup-h the granite

a

too obvious to want here to

be evidenced by

me.

The

TEMESWAR,
The
ceous,

l^c.

LETTER

XXI.

205

fecond fpecies of rock, which feems to
after the granites
is

have been produced
fuch
as

argilla-

hornflate or

argillaceous
2.

mica,

thoroughly mixed with quartz.
fifting

Kneifs, con3.

of quartz, mica and lithomarga.
rock,

The

metallic

being

a hardened

clay,

mixed

either with quartz or fherl

and fpar or lithomarga.

And

laftly,

4.
is

trap and fliivery clay.
to

Hornflate

my

knowledge very

fcarce in

Hungary, but you have feen by
the
lead-veins

my
the

letters,

that

near Modern in

county

of

Preßurg, on the foot of the Carpathian mountains,

run

in hornflate

:

and

at

Rußowa in

another
like-

lead-vein, under

the

chamber of Sbemniz,
But

wife on the foot of the Carpathian mountains, the

common
Kneifs

rock

is

of the fame kind

:

thefe

veins are leaping, thin and inconfiderable.
is

on the
Bannat.

fole

of Simon Judas, at Bog-

nazha

in the

Between Saßa and Moldova
it,

whole mountains confid of
contain any
Kaiferßolln
in

but unobferved to

copper-vein

Hodriz

is

and near Sbemniz the driven in Kneifs for an
;

auriferous quartz vein.

The moft common and
thefe argillaceous rocks in

the moft remarkable of

Hungary

is

the metallic

reck, which

I

have defcribed before.
it

Near Ko-

nigßerg

we have found

immediately incumbent

on

granites.

The

large

and conftant gold and
filver

206

TRAVELS THROUGH THE EANNAT OF
Kremniz,
as

veins at Sbemniz and

likewife the

many

rich

veins

at

Felfo-Banya, Kapnik, Nagyin
it.

Banya, Nagyrg, Fufes, Boitza run

In the

Bannat the conftant copper-veins, nay even the
richefl:

mine

at

Dognazka

are

found

in the

fame

rock.

Our

trap,
at

which

I

have (ttn only

in a finglc

mountain

Kapnik, contains but fmall veins.
is

The
in the

argillaceous ßate

the

common

rock at

Schmolniz,

Newfohl,

T'ßavoja

behind Krefnmz,
atTorda,

Bannat, and in the

fait- works

Marfhort,

7}mros

and Sovar.

It

contains

commonly

thin and leaping copper-veins, running either acrofs

or along this rock under incumbent lime-

ftone.

Limeßone

is

the third, and if

we do
it is

not take

notice of the accidental beds, the
fpecies

moll modern
conftantly

of rock.

In the Bannat

accumulated or depofited on

clay. In the

Oravitza

mountains fome pretty conftant copper- veins, and
at

Saßa and Moldova fome
in
it.

lliort

copper- veins are

working

In Tranjfylvania behind Nagyag,
I

from Darßoa

to Glut,

found calcareous

hills in-

cumbent on
working.

argillaceous

rocks, in which

fome

poor copper- veins baffetting out to the day were
I

do not remember
in the

to

have heard of
calcareous

any metallic veins
hills,

many high

which are fuperincumbent on the granitehills

TEMESWAR,
hills

^c.

LETTER
From
flate
all

XXI.

lOJ

in

the Carpath

or thofe which feparate the
thefe fafts

Moldaw from
it

'Tran£yhania.

follows, that veins between flate

and limeftone
and a hanging
this opinion,
it,

have conftantly a hading of
fide

of limeftone.
I

I

am

really

of

though

have had many

objec^lions againft

when

in

the Bannat I found

fome mines with a
;

hanging of flate and a hading of limeftone

but

on nearer examination
of

thefe

my

fcruples difapI will

peared for very good reafons, which
in
I

fpeak

the

defcription

of the accidental rocks.
is

Here
very

am

obliged to take notice, that lime

often

immediately incumbent on granite.

Thus I have been told, at leaft by many people who have feen the Carpathian hills, and maybe very well accounted for by fuppoflng granite
rocks uncovered by argillaceous rocks when the
limeftone beds were produced.

Thus far of the three ancient fpecies of recks, known in Hungary. Though it be impofiible to
determine
within a

whether they have

been

produced

fliort

fpace of time, or whether they have
in

been accumulated
ages, I
1

a long fuccefiion of
firft

many
it

am

rather inclined to the

opinion.

have feen granite, whcfe furface, v^here

was

in

immediate conta6l with the incumbent clay,
entirely

was

changed into clay

;

nay

I

keep

in

my

cabinet fome pieces of granite, with inclofed

ffagments

208

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
of
flate.

fragments

I

have feen
in

argillaceous
letters

mountains, and noticed them

my

from

the Bannat, which by the fuperincumbent iime

were penetrated and changed into marie.
not thefe fafts incline us to believe,
granite and clay-beds were
ftill

Might
that the
ftate

in

a

of

a wet

pafle,

when

the fuperior beds were accu?

mulated and depofited upon them

and that ac-

cordingly the origin of thefe different rocks can-

not be greatly diftant in refped: to time

?

But

I

go

aftray in hypothefes
It
is

which

in this

place are to

no purpofe.

a great fatisfaflion to me, that

my

obfervations

on the origin of the rocks agree
naturalifls.
faä:s,

with thofe of the beft
lifhed

Being eftab-

on experiments and
ipyfelf, I

which

I

have

feen

am

under no apprehenfion, that

my fyftem
hatched
in

can poflibly be confidered as an adoptor what
ftudy.
is
ftill

ed opinion,

worfe, as a fancy

my

Baron Haller has

given

in the preface to his Defcription

of the Helvetia^

a fine account of the

Alps in Switzerland.

He is

very explicit that the higheft tops of the Alps confift

of a rock, which

is

compofed of glimmer,
probably feldfpath,
in
is

i

quartz and a loofer

ftuff,

of a granite- fpecies, and goes
der the

Switzerland un-

name of

Gießergerftein.
;

The common
and the lower

Alpine rocks are a fpecies of flate
hills

are covered with limeftone,

fome

forts

of

marble.

TE
marble,

M E S W A R,

^c.

LETTER
his

XXI.

20g
is

and other hard rocks.

The fame

confirmed by Mr. Grüner, in
ice-mountains of Switzerland.

account of the

Lord Bute has
to

noticed the fame rule in the Pyrenean mountains,

and

communicated

that obfervation

Baron
granite

Haller.

The

'TyroUan

mountains

are

covered with

(late, as I fee

by acoUecflionof foflilsj

which Baron Adolph Meyer has brought
that country.

me from

The fame

is

obferved in the Bohemian

mountains.
Altzedliz,

When
the

I

lived at

my

country feat

on the high mountains which feparate

Bohemia

from

Upper

Palatinate.,

I

exa-

mined

thefe

hills

with attention.

The whole
feveral

chain of mountains, which from Bavaria runs to
the circle of Eger.,
is

granite, in

places

covered by hornflatc and other argillaceous rocks.

Near Eger and Mautdcrf^ towards
on the Doping of
ftone-hills

the Palatinate,
firfl

thefe
to

mountains the

lime-

occur

the oblcrver.

Baron Pabß
Charpe?itier

von Ohain

at Freyberg,

and Mcfirs

and

Lommer,
berg,

profeflbrs in the

miner-academy

at Frey-

have made feveral excurfions and obferva-

tions to the

fame purpofe
;

in the

Harz and Saxomanna~-

mountains
ture

and the Swediß are of the fame
to your
It
is

according

obfervations
to be

and thofe

of Baron Linnens.
lifts,

hoped

that natura-

fkilled in
this

mineralogy, will henceforth ex-

amine

opinion wherever they Iliould happen

P

to

2IÖ
to

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
have an opportunity to do
it'

it

j

in

order to

bring

to fyftematical evidence, as highly inte-

refting to philofophers
.

and miners.

But

let

us return to the Hungarian mountains,
their accidental

and examine
in

rocks.

Such are

my

opinion fome limeflone
flate-ftrata.

hills,

the fandflones

and ibme
It is a
is

hard tafk to determine, which limeftone

more

ancient,

and which accidental.

The great-

eft

mineralogifts afcribe the origin

of lime-ftone

to a deftrufcion of marine
poflible that thole

fliell-fifhes. But is it immenfe mafles of lime-ftone

ftiouid be ov/ing to the animal

kingdom

?

A great

part of the Carpathian mountains, the bordering
hills

of the Moldaw and Tro.njjyhania^ the moun-

tains in Steyermarcky

and a great many more to
covered and
quanti-

my
ties

knovv?ledge are almoft entirely

buried under limeftone.

What immenfe
?

of

ftiells

v/ould not be requifite to the origin

of thefe limeftone-hills

Cronßedt has obferved

already, that the granulated and fcaly limeftone
is

deftitute

of petrifactions.

Are we by

that in-

titled to

rank thefe fpecies under the ancient calto

careous rocks, and thofe with petrifaftions
the accidental ones, produced

by more modern

inundations

?

I

ftiall

leave that entirely to the

determination

of thofe learned men,

who have
I

more
^

principles

and obfervations than

have acquired

TEMESWAR,
quired myfelf.

i^c.
it
is

LETTER
fadl,

XXI.

211

But

that in Hungary
in

hitherto no metallic veins have been difcovered

rocks

filled

with petrifaftions.

I

rank however

the ftaladite-like limeftone beyond Altgehnrg and

Newfohl under the accidental limeftone.
fanie clafs I

In the

rank the fandftone, which

in

Hungary

furrounds the nobler metallic mountains, as near

Nagyag and Facebay

in

Tranjfyhania,
hills
;

SomeIn

times they appear in infulated

and often

they are accumulated on calcareous ground.
thefe fandrocks there has not

been hitherto found

any conftant or metallic vein.
flate is

The

accidental

often accumulated on this fandftone, on lime
It is

and other ground.
iike

produced

as the flaladite-

limeftone by

rain

or other water,

which
partiit

waflied
cles

and carried together the diffolved

of the more ancient mountains.
for example,

Thus

covers,

the

coal-beds

betv/een

Kremniz and Shenmi-z^ near Roniz and near JVaizen.

By
in

the fame realbn

it

appears as the hanging fide
I

fome mines of the Bannat oi 'Temefwar.

faw

at

Saßa

a

mine whofe hading was limeftone, and
flate.

whofe hanging was
in the limeftone.

The

copper- vein was
fide, if there

The

old hanging

was any before, feems to have been carried away by accident-, and then the diffolved parts of the
higher argillaceous
hills,

which
to

I

mentioned

in

my

journey from

Saßa

Aloldova, have been
carried

P

2

212

TR.AVELS

THROUGH THE ßANNAT OF
compofed the prefent hanging.
feems to have had a

carried there and

The

red

(late at

Nagyag^ near Boicza, and near

Zalathna

in 'Tranjfylvania,

fimilar origin.

As

indurated clay

is

not fo eafily diflblved by

water as limeftone,

this flate

never occurs in lar^e

beds or

in confiderable hills.

The
in

mixture of

dilTolved limeftone and argillaceous parts has pro-

bably produced the marie, which
its

refpe(5l to

cEconomical ufes

is

entirely neglected in Huti'

gary.
It is certainly

matter of furprize to you, that
:

hitherto
trofilex
:

I

have not mentioned the hornftone

Pe-

But
it,

I

freely confefs

I

am

at a lofs

where

to rank

whether among the old or the accidenIn

tal rocks.

my

letter

from Zalathna

I defcri-

bed the mountains
rd'//ö-mine.

at Facehay^ efpecially the
is

Loin

This rich gold-mine

working

hornftone,

incumbent

on

argillaceous

beds

but

it

clearly appears to be

produced by modern
letter

inundations, as you will
to which
I

remember from the

referr you.

The

petrifadions in the
this fpeI

white hornftone near Lehotka prove that
cies

of rock belongs to the accidental ones.

cannot confider the horn and

flint-ftones as proinfedls
;

duced by the gelatinous fubftance of marine
a
in

fancy

which

once a good

naturalift
I

has
it

confidence

entrufted

me

with, but

rank

next

TEMESWAR,
ing the

^c.

LETTER

XXI.

21^

next to the current hypothefis, of limeftone be-

remaining fubftance of deftroyed and

diflblved fea-flicUs.

The veins
flate

in

thefehornflone-mountains are more

conftant and richer than thofe between argillaceous

and limeftone.

Thofe

at

leaft,

which

I

defcribed to you in
filver-ore.

my

letters,

contain gold and

If this

rock fhould belong to the

more ancient
nation,
it

ones, which I leave to your determiat

muft have been produced

the fame
I

time
find
clay.

as the calcareous ftrata
it

were produced, fmce

never incumbent on lime but conftantly on

Perhaps future obfervations
of hornftone,
like

will

prove fome
of clay,

fpecies
(late

fome

fpecies

and lime belong either to the ancient or to
the accidental rocks.

All thefe primogenial and accidental
tains

mounand

and rocks owe

their

origin to water-,

have been produced, either when the world was
raifed
neus'^s

from the chaos, or according
opinion,

to

Mr. IJn-

when
fo

the whole earth was covered

with water, and the precipitation, cryftallifation

and difiblution of
fubftanccs
lions
1
i

many animal and brought forth fo many new
from

vegetable
ftratifica-

or finally they arofe

later inundations.

fhould here

mention thofe mountains

that

are

produced by fire. There arc aftuaily fome marks of fuch mountains in Hungary. The vitre-

P

3

0U3

214

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
viireiis Linn<^t, at

ous black lava, pumex
in

'^okay

Hungary^ and feveral

forts

of lavas from the

Carpathian mountains, give conjedures and evi-

dences ofthat kind.
account, I want to
the Carpathian
hills,

But

to be particular

on that

examine the whole chain of

which

I

have a mind to do

next year
thefe

if

my

impaired health puts no ftop to

my intentions.

LETTER

TJEMESWAR,

5.T Of.

LETTER

XXII.

215

LETTER
Y
the laft pofl
I

XXIL

Sbemm'z, Sept. 28, 1770.

received an order from the

court, to

accept of the vacant commifTion
in

of Count
Prague.
at
it

Colloredo

the

board of mines

at

I

do not know whether
It
is

I fnall rejoice
vifit

or not.

out of
;

my power to
I

the Car-

pathian mountains
deftiny calls
I

however

am

to follow

where

me

to

no unprofitable

fituation,

and

am

preparing for

my journey Mo Prague. Though
I

I

have buu a few moments to fpare,

give, ac-

cording to your dcfire, an account of the different
ores

found

in the
is

how er

Hungarian mines.

Native gold

very fcarce in the royal mines at

Shemniz^ though in general the ores are auriferous,

being for that very reafon pulverifed and waflied.
In the beginning hov/ever of January
lafl,

they

have found

in

Emperor Francifci

Stoln^ in the field

of Siegeißerg, and

in a foaring fifTure,

which runs

towards the great BieberfloUner vein, a lump of

found red

filver ore,

mixed

witft

glafs ore,

and

P 4

covered

2l6

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

covered with fome native gold.

A hundred weight
filver.
is

of

this ore

contained about 1270 ounces of

In the private mines the native gold
vious
•,

more ob-

it

appears in a capillary form on quartz,
brittle glafs ore

in foft

and

on the Hofer and Jn~ found likewife on

tony de

Padua mine.

So

it is

red filver ore.
flill

At Kremniz and Konigßerg it is more common. At Kremniz it is often found
I

in lamelloe.

have likewife a fragment of irony

quartz with native gold from Ladißai-StoUn at

Bugganz.
neral

The Lower Hungarian
cleared from
is

gold

is

in ge-

to be

auriferous
a

wafli-ores

or from zinnopel, which
containJing gold,
It
is

mixed red
and

jafper,
pyrites.

filver,

lead, zinc,

the
in

common rock
fire

of the fpital vein,
with
fleel,

and

general ftrikes

though

there are fome loofer

fpecies

of

this

zinnopel,

which

taint the fingers
its

and look

like

red bole.
it

Perhaps

conftituent parts will prove

to be

of the bolus kind-, the loofer fpecies appears often in a globular fcaly form like button ore ftriking on harder zinnopel
wafh-ores,
confifting
it
:

If found ftratified in
lead,

of blende,

and a

blueiih clay,
zinnopel,

goes under the nam.e of firing

(fchnur zinnopel).

Mr.

Scspoli

is

at

prefent about a laborious chemical analyfis of the

zinnopel,

TEMESWAR,
zinnopel,

^V.

LETTER

XXII.
in

21
his

which

he intends to

publifli

Anni
I

hifiorico-naturales.

can form no idea of the yellow zinnopel, men-

tioned by
that
cafe,

Mr.

Cronßedt, unlefs he means to give
If that fhould be the

name

to irony jafper.
as well

we might

give the fame denominais

tion to the red jafper,

which

fo

common

in the
it is

Calvariberg and the Pacherßolner vein where
rejected as rubbifh.

The denomination of

zin-

nopel implies an auriferous quality.

Another fpecies of auriferous ftamp orwalh-ores
is

the irony quartz found at Bugganz^ and in the Ä"«/-

ferfloln at

Hodriz.

You remember perhaps a pafTage
at Frei-

in the

account of mining works publifhed

herg, in
is

which

is

conjeftured, that irony quartz
j

generally auriferous
it.

our ftamp ores feem to

confirm

The
blende

pyrites,

feparated

from the lead and
wafhing,
contains

by

pounding

and

likewife a great deal of gold.

A

hundred weight

of

this pyrites yields fifty-

four pounds of ftone or
filver,

lech,

and three denarii of

which per mark
at Konigf-

contains fifty denarii of gold.
berg and

The pyrites
richer.

Kremniz are

ftill

Pyrites conGelft.
in the

taining filver, go here under the

name of
I

Native

filver is ftill
-,

more uncommon
all

Lo'wer Hungarian mines
here
I

the while

have been

have got but two famples, one from Old
Anthony

2l8

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

Anthony de Padua Stoln and the other from There-

ßa- Shaft.

On
The

the

firft

the native filver appears in long

and

thin threads, like

human

hair, flicking

on quartz. from

fecond

is

a pale

yellowilh
;

pyrites,
this is the

which the

fiiver

feems tobe grown
as Henkel^ if I

more

precious for

me

am

not miftaken,

denies native filver to be ever found on pyrites.

We

are the

better furnifhed with other

fcarce

filver ore.

Glafs

ore cryfialHzed extremely
call
it

fcarce.

The

miners

here IVeich-Gewaechs or foft ore, in
it

order to diftinguifh

from the

brittle glafs ore.

You

have feen

in

my

cabinet glafs ore in cubical

forms from Siegelßerg^ and another knotty fpecies

from Moderßoln.
Glafs ore^
is

brittle,

called here Roeß-Gewaechs^

filver mineralized

with more fulphur.
five
its

It

confilver

tains

from four
;

to

hundred ounces of
value
is

per hundred

often

but feventy or
Jußi^s chemical
Scopoli

eighty ounces.

Its defcription in

works
will

is

exaggerated

and extravagant.
its

probably give a better account of

conflitu-

tnt parts.

Red filver
either

ore

is

found

at

Shemniz and Kremniz

found or
is

cryftalized.

Kremniz

auriferous.

That found at On Old Anthony de Padua
red

Stoln near Shemniz^ I

have met with dendritical

TEMESWAR,
Anna
found
Stoln^
it

^c.

LETTER
;

XXII,

219

red filver ore on white quartz

and on Rudaina
I

between Konigflerg and Sbemniz,

light coloured

and flicking

in pyrites.

Dr. Moiler, at Newfohl, has in his cabinet dark
red filver ore in globular forms.
wife analyzing this fort of ore.
Scopoli
is

like-

IVhile filver
It
is

ore

is

very

common
as
it

at

Kremniz,
in-

auriferous, and

commonly

were an
miners
-,

cruftation

of

white quartz.
this

The

at

Kremniz

call

incruilation

Blachman

but

thofe at Shemniz give this

name

to the pyritical

incruftations of glafs ores or rocks,
ftantly obferved near the richer ores.

and

it is

con-

Grey plumofe filver

ore,

from Old Anthony de
fpecies

Padua
by
its

Stoln, different

from the Saxonian

being caft in white quartz, not in capillary

cryftals

but in ftar-like fpots.
It
its

There

is

a large

vein of this ore.
pretty well fets off

takes a good polifh, which
ftar-like

form, and the filver

fprinkled in antimony.

White plumofe filver
that this fpecies
years ago
it

ore.

I

am
in

of opinion,

is

no where elfe

to be found.

Some

was very plenty
Its

Old

Allerheiligen

mine

at

Hodriz.

white

cryftals

refemble

the white cryftalline pin-like horn ore,
in a matrix

and

ftick

of irony quarts.
ore,

Goofe
fcribed

dung

of

the
Spec.

fame form
301,

as
I.

de-

by Wallerius,

No.

of a

yellowifh.

220

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
green,

yellowifh,
in

and

reddifli

colour, was

dug

confiderable quantity at Winäiß-Leuten near
;

Shemniz

one hundred weight yielding only Soo

ounces of filver.
Silver ocher,

of a brownilli, yellow, and white
•,

colour found in the fame place
three, fix, to fifty,
filver
;

containing from

and one hundred ounces of
it.

the native filver often vifible in
;

Field-fpath, containing filver

of a yellow, red or

white colour and hard contexture.
fire its

Roafted in
;

colour changes to brown and black

but

then
fio-ht

the fprinkled

quartz particles appear to
their

unchanged

in

colour.
•,

It contains
is

from four to eight ounces of filver
and other private mines.

found con-

comitant with richer-ores on Siegelßerg, Chrißinaßaft.,

Brunnich, in his
§.

fupplements to Cronßedl's Mineralogy,

^5. has

noticed already the blue colour, which appears on

fome fpecies of fpar in New Anthony de Padua
and conftantly indicate
Blende,

Stolln,

a richer filver value.
I

containing

filver.

do not know the
§.

globular ore, which Cronfledd mentions,

175.

However, fuch
found
in

a fpecies of blend

may

have been

former times, which were remarkably

negligent
is

of fuch
that

curiofities.

Neverrhclcfs

it

faft,

our blende

conftantly
;

contains

fome

filver

though
it

in a fcanty quantity
is

and for

this very

reafon,

never thrown away

among
the

TEMESWAR,
the
rubbifli,

^c.

LETTER
and of a

XXII.
ores.

221
It is

but ftampt like other
folid

commonly brown,
ture
•,

fcaly contex-

however,

I

have found here knotty, black,

yellow, green, femipellucid, whitifh
cryftalline fpecies

and feveral

of blende.

Lead

ore, contains filver,

and

is

commonly of
However,

a granulated or lamellous contexture.

there are likewife feveral forts of cryftalline ore.

White and grey
ten

lead-fpar

is

found

at IVindiß- Leu-

in

the
in the

above

filver-ocher.

Blue lead fpar

found

fame place.
is

Copper-ore
Spitßler-vein^

found with other
the

metal's in the
in

but

greateft plenty
It

Herrn-

grund near NewfohL
grey
green. copper-pyrites,

confifts

of yellow and

fallow-ore,

and copper-

Iron-ore
Libeten.

is

digging near Ronizy Thaifolz, and
it
is

Commonly
§.

yellow and blue hae-

matites (Cronßedt,

203.)

Black button-ore

is

confidered as fomething rare.

Such

is

the dripped

ore from Boinik^ in the furface covered with points

or pins two inches long, each of them incruftated

with blue chalcedony.

Quickfilver never occurs in a native ftate
cinnabar-ores appear

;

but
in

now and

then,

though

no fuch plenty

as to

deferve parting.

If found

concomitant to richer ores, they contain fome denarii

of gold.

During

my

ftay in this place they

have

1
222

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

have been found on Siegeißerg, on the Wmdjhaft

and on John's
clay.

Kluft,

commonly

in white

loofe

Antimony was fo.undlafl- year in Three-KingsStolln
on white quartz, formed
the Rothiß -mine,
like liars.
It
is

however

fcarce in the Shemniz-mines.

But

at

Kremniz, in

noble famples of cryftallized

antimony are dug out.

Sound antimony with
at

native gold, though fcarce, found

Magurka.
in

Red antimony

faid to

have been found

former

times on Althandle at Konigßerg.

The
of,

fcarce an-

timony famples,
Konigßerg.

I

am

polTeffed

are

found

at

One

confills

of fiftulous antimony
•,

covered with a red incrultation
fifts

the other con-

of accumulated antimony-cryftals, each coCron-

vered by an incruftation of white quartz.

ßedt mentions a fimilar

fpecies.
in

Arfenic never offers

the

Low er- Hungarian
form
:

mines

in its

fcmi-metallic or calcareous
lefs

For

this

reafon our miners are

fubjeft to dif-

eafes than thofe in Bohemia, Saxony,

and the Up^

fer-Harz. There has been however found between

Kremniz and Newßhl,
red arfenic

in a

bed of grey fandflone,

of a fibrous texture.
is

Sulphur
different

found mineralized

as pyrites in

many

forms, as capillary,
cryftalline.

globular, undulaI

ted, dripped and

have mentioned
the

TEMESWAR,
ters.

^c.

LETTER
my

XXII.

223
let-

the orpimeiit of I'hajova in one of

former

Vitriol drips

into ftalaiftite-like forms in
is

the

Pacherßoln.

There

plenty of

it

every where in
Its

the Old-man, the roof and the drifts.
white, green, yellow and brown.

colour

At Herrngrund
blue and rofy-

near Newfohl

it

appears often
-,

in

coloured

ftalaftites

the

laft fpecies

now and

then

mixed light blue. It generally contains within fome moveable water-drops.
Halotrichum
to
Scopoli,
vitriol.

or
1

the

hair- fait,
fee
It

feems
it

me

to

be

do not

that

is

materially different from vitriol.

blofToms on

the fides of the galleries at Sbemniz, Kremniz and

Newfohl.
I

have no time tofpare for a defcription of the
different

many

ftones
I

and earths, which
poffeffed

I

have

colledled here.

am

of an innumerable
;

variety of quartz and fpar-cryRallifations

which

you

fhall

find

defcribed in the catalogue of
I ihall

my
fet-

foffils,

intended for print as foon as

be

tled at Prcizue.

My

next from Vienna will
is left

tell

you what hope

of recoverv

me, and what
I

curiofities deferv-

ing your attention

have met with.

LETTER

224

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF

LETTER
YOU
in

XXIII.

Vienna, 051. 19, 1770.
are

acquainted with the diverfions, ad-

vantages and difadvantages of this city, and
the flate of learning in this capital univerfity has

not efcaped your obfervation.

You

complained
fo

one of your

letters,

that,

among

manyex-

penfive eftablilliments for the fciences, a profeffion

and a

colletflion

of Natural-Hiftory has been moft
If

unaccountably forgotten.

among

thofe,

who

are intrufted with the reformation and improve-

ment of the
had hinted
k6ted
it,

fciences, a fingle friend or connoifleur
it,

her majefty would not have negroyal care and munificence has

as her

amply exerted
Swieten

itfelf in

improvements of the
is

many ornaments and univerfity. Unluckily Van
fo

neither a remarkable friend nor con-

noifleur of Natural to be

Hiflory

;

a deficiency eafily
is

pardoned

in

a

man, who

fo

eminent in

many other parts of learning. With your obfervations in hand I examined the imperial cabinet of foflils. You have fcarce left me any new difcovery. However, you have
over-

TEMESWAR,
over-looked
a

Sffr.

LETTER
It
is

XXIII.

225
vitrein

great

fragment cf black

ous lava found in Hungary.
corner,
are as

thrown

a

deferving no great attention.

They
their

the more particular and forward with
in raifins,

pretended gold- grains inclofed

with their

gold incircied vines, and the gold threads, fup-

pofed to have grown as plants.
rarities

But

all

thefe
refi-

are downright impoftures.
is

Yellow

nous fap

looked upon

as gold-grains,

and the

pretended vegetable gold threads appear to an unprejudiced eye, what really they are,
wires.
I

artificial

goldtwill-

will allow that they
•,

have been found

ed around the vines

but might not thefe remains

of ancient Hungarian drefs and magnificence have

been hid
torn

in

the ground, by accident have been
the vines, and by error have
?

up with

been
is

confidered as vegetable produdlions

This

the

more forcible, becaufe thefe vegetable gold rari
ties

are

generally found near l^okay and Altfohl^
refi-

places renowned in hiftory for having been

dencies
ly

o'i

Hungarian princes and kings, and equalfor

known

bourhood.

many battles fought in Even the Hungarians of

that neigh-

the prefent

age delight in faddles, harneffes, fwords, and weapons, ornamented with mafiy gold thread.

The
really

colledion of fine and precious Hones
admirable.
I

is

was remarkably pleafed by

Ci

the

,226

TRAVELS THROUGH THE BANNAT OF
or half

the diamonds, half white and half red,

yellow and white.

Though it
the whole

is

impofiible to form an exacft idea of

by

a fight

of a couple of hours,

I

did not

however
of

find here either the

compleat

varieties

of

minerals, nor the infenfible gradations of varieties
different ftones, nor

any of thofe mineralogical
at firft fight

fingularities

which diftinguilh even

the cabinets of a connoiflfeur from thole of mere
coileflors.

So

I

mifl^ed likewife the greater part

of the fcarce minerals of the imperial ftates. Mr. Jaquin has gathered in Hungary a
cabinet of
in
fofllls.

fine

Have you

feen his native gold

molybdasna fromRhima'zombalhttween Newfohl
^

and Schmolniz
infpeftion
rope.
is

The

botanical garden under his

likely to

be very foon the

firft in

Eu-

The coWt^ionoi xhtMinories refembles rather to
a raree
I

fhow than

to a cabinet of natural curiofities.

go very often to Baroct Moll.
of minerals, which
is

His chofen

col-

lection

fo

remarkably rich

in fine petrifaftions,

and

his explication?, give

me

both inilru6lion and entertainment.
if this

Pity

it

were

fine

coiledion fhould be feparated fome
;

fome day or other
fince his fons
.fcience.

but

this

feems to be the

fate,

have no inclination for

this part

of

The

TEMESWAR,
The
have afforded
their rarities,

^<:.

LETTER

XXIII.

22;

colleftions in the academies for

noblemen
by

me

great

delight, not indeed

but by their infpiring young noblerelifh

men with fome
blemen

of

this fcience.

Every noin his apart-

in the 'There/tan college

has a fmall cabi-

net of minerals, fhells

and infers

ment

;

and P.

Shiffermuller fpreads his

tafte for

Natural Hiftory among thefe young people with
great fuccefs, and very

good hopes for

aftertimes.

This learned
Aiifiria,

man is to publilh the butterflies of The Piarifls in the academy of Savoys
late eftablilhed ProfelTors

and Lcewenburg have of

of Mineralogy, and they think
fing their colleftions.

ferioufly

of encrea-

At

Prague^

I fhall

be almolt entirely deflitute
is

of literay company. Mr. Peithner

the only man,

by whofe fcience
It
is

I

unhappy

that

may improve my knowledge. we are doomed to live in fo
If I were fo free as you,

diftant countries.

my

impaired health Ihould put no flop to a
Carlfcrona.

trip to

THE END.

Q.2

A

B S

T R A C
O
F
J.

Mr.
I

J.

F E
I

Pv

B E

Pv'

s

M NERALOG

CAL
F

HISTORY

O

BOHEMIA.
Publifhecl in

German

at

Berlin,

1774.

ABSTRACT
O F

[

231

]

Mr.

J.

J.

F E R B E R's

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY OF BOHEMIA.
Publifhed
in

German

at

Berlin, 1774.

Catharinaberg, in the Circle of Saaz.

THE
of
clay
as
its

mountains about Catharinaherg
gneifs, v^^hich
is

confift

a mixture of quartz,

mica, and white or reddifii half petrified clay. This
has been by fome mineralogifls confidered
\

lithomarga

but

it is

commonly
clay.

deftitute

of

qualities as defcribed in Cronfiedfs Mineralogy^

§.

78.

It is

rather

common
78. 2.

Terra pcrcel-

lana phlogißo

aliifque heterogeneis
§.

minima portione

mixta. Cronfledt,

Between Catharinaberg and Grunthal detached

columnar

bafaltes,

.

common on
hills, in

the

highway,
it

tumbled from the adjacent

which

fecms

to be incumbent on gneifs. * o
*

Between Loivoßz and Topliz the mountains
feldfpath
is

confift ge-

nerally of granites, in which red
It is ftriped

predominant.

and undulated with blackifn glimmer.

ColumI

nar bafaltes ftands on fome of thefe granite-hills.

have

feen thereabout bafalt-rock, deftitute of regular prifms, but
confifting in a large mafs, cracked

and

fplit in

many

pieces,

more or
cryftals.

lefs

angulated, and containing plenty of black fherl

Q

4

.

The

232

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
gncifs-mountains at
Catharinaberg
arc

The
in Saxony^

continuations of the metallic mountains at Freiberg

which

confifl:

of the fame rock.

They run
flate,

towards the Saxonian upper metallic-mountains,

and
as

infenfibly

degenerate into argillaceous

may

be {ttn even at Marienbtirg.

On

the Bois

hemian fide the fame degeneration of gneifs

to

be
•,

obferved in the further run of the mountains

but

it

continues here longer in an unaltered flate
wliere the veins are

as far as Joachimfihal, in

found

argillaceous flate,
it

and even that extremely
bafiets out.
in refpeft

micaceous wherever

For

thefe reafons,
is
;

and

of

its

fituation

and extent, gneifs
argillaceous flate
it

to be confidered as a variety of

and

in

refpeft of

its

mixture

might, with as
a
variety

much

probability, be confidered
inftead of feldfpath

as

of

granites,

mixed with

clay.
will dlfapprove

No

body

of

tliefe afl!ertions,

as

chemical

and other obfervations have proved
is

that mica (glimmer)
folves again

produced by

clay,
;

and

re-

into the

fame fubflance
is

that part
;

of the fubftantial earth of clay
changes into quartz and other

flinty

that clay

flinty fl:ones,

which

by

art

can be reduced again
•,

to clay in

an alumi-

nous form

and

finally, that

quartz and feldfpath,

by the aftion of air and age, diflbive into a white
clay,

OF
clay, for

BOHEMIA,

23^
this

'

which reafon many granites contain
in

white clay

the place of quartz, and fcldTpath.

If this clay fhould not be conßdered as diiTolved

quartz or feldfpath, but rather as their original
earth
(as

now and then feems
here
in

to be the cafe)

it

makes

no material difference.
is

However, the

dif-

folution

more probable,

fince in the circle

of Pilfen

Bohemia many
flate,

hills

of granite, of

pure argillaceous
fiate,

of grey micaceous gneifs-

and of hornflate, are obferved to be affefled
air
;

by the
kct^
is

fo that their outfide, for

two or three

changed into a white and clayiih fubftance,

which, in the granites, fcarce offers any vifible

mark

of

their

former conftituent parts of quartz, mica,
•,

and feldfpath
hardnefs

nay often they loofe their very
fo

and flony concretion,

as to

appeal-

diflblved and mouldered into a white, loofe and
foft clay,
in

which but

a

few mouldering quartz-

and feldfpath grains, with fome mica lamellre,
are
to be dillinguillied
;

the latter changed

from

their black

and glofly brightnefs into a pale
of thcfe

filver-

colour.

Few

Hony
;

granite-particles

are vifibly remaining in this clay

there are

how-

ever enough to
granites,
as

prove
is

its

being a folution of
eafily to

which

the
is

more

be granted

granite in

iifdf

compofed of argillaceous
fub-

234

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
t
Similar
argillaceous folutions
oi:

lubftances.

the pure,

micaceous and
in the circle

gneifly clay-date are

very
clay

common
is

of

Pilfen.

This white
in the

dug

for

example near the new inn
and

neio-hbourhood of Ofiraw^ near Innichaw and in
feveral other places
j

it is

made

ufe of in

com-

mon
X

Having
which

in the year
is

1753

vifited

and examined the Blodfin the

iero-,

the highell:
it

mountain

Harzßireß and

in Germany, I found

in its

whole extent and wide fpreadgi-ey
flate

ing ramifications, conMing of

granite.

Where
more or

this

rock
tains,

rifes
it

above

the

metallic

of

the Harz-mounlefs

appears, either entitely naked, or
turf,

covered with fwampy combuftibie flaw
rotten vegetables.

produced by

On

the very higheft fummits of this faits

mous mountain and on
Blockfoerg,
Stcin,

wide branches, fuch

as the Little

the Heinrichßjohe ,

the Bruchbergj the Rennekenfhat-

and many more, the granite appears in immenfe

tered maiTes, confufedly piled up

Vail:

ruins of a former
ftra-

world.
tified.

In the

deeper valleys

it

appears found and
its

The

air

has vifibly affedled
its

hard fubftance,
its

in

changing the colour of

outfide, in leiTening

hardnefs,

where moll expofed
in diflblving
it

to the inclemencies

of the weather, nay,

into

more or

lefs

coarfe fand

and

clay.

Large

beds of
leys,

X.\ih

granite-fand

]\2L\t

been vv'alhed down in the valto the foot

on the ßope of thefe mountains, and
;

of the

moll expofed mouldering rocks
clay.

nor

is

there Vv'ant of graniteis

As

the mäca in thefe granite decays

often of b yelthefe de-

low

brafs or white filver-colour, times

immemorial

cays have been confidered by the inhabitants of thefe wildernefles as

gold-and

filver-ores.

The

colour of thefe fands and

clays, or pretended ores, differs according to their different

folution.

OF
mon
it is

BOHEMIA.
its

?o/-

pottery, nay, on account of

white colour,
whitenino-

einployed

as

lime in the

wafliino-,

and incruftating of houfes and walls.
clay be found
in fuch

If this

beds, as

bafiet
it is

out

or

are expofed to the

day water, then

commonly
its

mixed with heterogeneous matters, and

colour

is

accordand

iblution, mixture

pofition,

as

Mr. Ferber has very juftly

obferved.

I

found on the higheft fummit of the Blockßerg,
is

near a rock, which

called the De^viTs-Chancel, a fine pale

yellowifh clay, and a reddifh fpecies in another place, which

imparted to the hands, when rubbed with
gold-glittering.

it,

a fine filver-or
fine folution

This

vifibly derives

from the

of the mica, and, together with the remarkable faponaceous
foftnefs

of the clay, forcibly caufcs

me

to fay

fomething of the
i.

finer China-clay, as

having the fame qualities,

I

know

that

a very fine and white fpecies of China-clay has been difco-

vered of late in a vein, which
berg, connefted with

crofTes the granites in the

Bruchthe

the Blockßerg.
is

I
lefs

know,

2. that

Petuntß of the Chineß

a

more or

decayed granites.

And

3.

that the Kaolin of the Chineße has been confidered

by

many as

the fubftantial earth of granites. Therefore

I ihould be

inclined,

and think myfelf Intitled

to conclude,

"
;

that China-

" clay is but a fine folution of decayed granite that there is " a good chance to find China-clay in or near any granite " mountains nay, that perhaps fuch a clay may be produced " by proper artificial clccompoficions of the granites. "
;

Whether
large

the quartz

or other fine fand, which covers fo

and extenfive

parts of the world,

and of the fea-ground,
?

may be

afcribed to diflblved granite-mountains or not
I

is

a

queftion Vv'hich

cannot pafs

filent.

The many

detached

236

MINERALOGICAL
brownifh or
colours may be owing

HISTOP. Y
Sometimes
to a ftronger irony-

accordingly
thefe

yellovvifli.

mixrure of the rock,
ifh

or to the yellow brownis

clay-Qate,

which
forts

not

uncommon
the white

in

thefe

parts.

Thefe

of clay,

as

well

as the yellow, turn red in fire, the white lefs than

the yellow, which evidences

its

being

lefs

impregyellow
Jn

nated
clay
is

with iron than
ufed
as

the

latter.

The
in

common loam

walh.

a great
frontier

part of the circle of Pilfen^ and on the

mountains towards iheUpper Palaiinate

ixud

Bavaria, the vegetable mould, or the upper ilrata

of the ground, are extremely loamy.

Unlefs they

be accumulated by river-inundations, they
properly
confidered
as

may be

produced

by folutions

and decays of the adjacent granite and other
argillaceous
hills,

which

v^ill,

I

am

confident,

granite-pebbles and rocks, which are fo frequent in thefe fandy
plains,

feem

to favour fuch

an opinion

;

and as among the peb-

bles of the fca-ßiores, befides thefe granite-pieces, a great variety

of the harder remains of the more ancient mountains, nay

of different fecundary ones, are to be found, fuch as jafper,
porphyry, various coloured hcrnftone, quartz-lumps, gneifs,
horndate,

marble,

limeftones and ßint, wliich prove that
;

nothing- Hands proof of age and time
credit,

this

opinion

Grains

fome

and

this

the
in

more

fo,

as hitherto

no

fort

of rock has
quartz

been difcovered,
be contained.
veins,

which a greater quantity of

vifible

The

pure parafitical quartz, depofited in the
I

would prove,

think, infurncient to cover half the
(Tranfl.)

wcrld with fandy plains.

account

OF
countries.

BOHEMIA.

237

account likewife for the fimilar nature of other
In thofe places where the granites
tirely diffülved into clay, but

is

not en-

mouldered only to
and which

pieces, a

brov/nifli

fand

is

produced, fimilar to
fhores,

that
is

which occurs on many

perhaps owing to the f;me caufes.

But now the quedion
rates thefe argillaceous

arifes,

how

nature ope?

folutions

of the rocks

No
air
?

body indeed

will queftion the co-operation
;

of

the air and the long feries of ages
If
I v/as

but

how

a6ls the

allowed co recur to the general acid
fhould have done very eafily with
I

of the

air,

I

my

explication, fince

have feen the fulphurous

acid in Italy, ifluing

from the old volcanos, change
lavas
into a white

even the black and vitreous

and aluminous

clay.

But the

vitriolic acid in

the

air begins of late to be controverted, uniefs vi-

triol-works and other vitriolic exhalations account
for
its

prefence.

However,

i

cannot help obferv-

ing

the fimilarity

of thefe folutions

of lavas,
;

and fuch rocks and accordingly
rates

as contain quartz and feldfpath
I

am

of opinion, that nature opeIt
is

them
or

in

the fame manner.

fa6t

and
;

experience

that air
?

foftens any rock whatever

why
But
clay,

how

that I leave to future examinations.

as the rocks, I
it

feems to

am fpeaking me owing to

of, turn to

white
their

the acid of

own

argillaceous mixture, fmce by

Mr. Beaume's
excellent

238

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
Treatife on Clay
vitriolic
it

excellent
confifts

appears, that clay

of

acid, connefted with flinty or

vitreous earth,
notation, with
thefe

and according to Mr. Poerner's an-

fome phlogilton.

Now

fiippofing

rocks

or Hones to be fucceflively foftened
the
acid

or

loofened, and

of their fubftantial
fet in
arife,

mixture by humidity or other caufes to be

motion

;

the fame phjenomenon ought to

which

the acid

fleams produce

in

the

lavas.

Vitriolic

pyrites, after

having undergone feveral

elixiviations, continues to

produce
air.

vitriol,

when
is,

expofed for fome time to the
not,

The

reafon

what the ancient chemifts fuppofed, that

it

attracts

new

acid

from the

air,
is

but that

its

own

ftill

fixed
in

and una6luated acid

by the

air fet at liberty,

motion and

in a6tivity,to feparate

from the phloThis

gifton,

and to corrode the metallic earth.
is

phenomenon

called
-,

the mouldering {verwitle-

rung) of the pyrites

and the fimilar alteration of
juftly

the above rocks goes

under the fame name.
phlogiflon
it

1 heir

acid

forfakes

the
it
•,

or

other
in the

mixtures, which fixed

fpreads

now

loofened Hone, afts upon the vitreous earth, unites

with

this earth
I

and produces

clay.

But
and
at

have deviated too much from
therefore
I

my

fubjeft,

return

to
faid

the gneifs-mountains
that

Catharinaherg.

they are to be
confidered

OF
mountains,

BOHEMIA.
SaxoJiian
;

239

confidered as continuations of the Freiberg gneifs-

and of the

and Bohemian

argillaceous flate-mountains

or,

which

is

the

fame, that the whole

tracft

of the Bohemian and

Saxonian mountains, which confifls of gneifs and
clay-flate,
is

the fame ftratum.

Befides

I

have enflate

deavoured to fhew, that the difference of clay,

and

gneifs

is

not againil this aflertion, fmce their

conftituent parts are fubftantially and really the

fame

;

and that the fame fubftantial earth, which
upper metallic mountains produced clay-

in the
flatc,

has under other accidental circumfbances and

mixtures produced gneifs in the lower metallic

mountains
rinaberg.

at Freiberg for

example, and at Catha-

This gneifs and argillaceous
hemia and Saxony, as in

flate

is

in

Bo-

many

other countries,
granites,
;

incumbent and accumulated on
in feveral

and

is

places covered with limeftone

which

fully confirms the obfervation, that the prevailing

and general rock-ftrata
European
chains

in

the greater and higher

of mountains confift of three

different forts of (tones.

The

loweft and underin the higheft tops
is

moft and moft ancient, which

appears bare and naked above ground,
the fecond
the granites
fort
is

granites

;

accumulated or incumbent on
gneifs or
is

clay-flate,
;

fome other

ar-

gillaceous rock

the third

limcfl:one.

Thefe general

240

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
more ancient
ftrata

neral and

of our part of the

world are covered with feveral beds, which are of
a

more modern

date,

and

confift

of clay, calcare(late
is

ous earth, marie, fand, or that
in flats

which

lies

over the coal-beds, and

never to be

confounded with the ßate of primitive and older
mountains,
in

whatfoever degree
in their

they

may

re-

femble each other
ftantial earth.

compofition and fub-

The

phyfical obfervation of the

mountains, of their fituation

and beds,

of the

different time of their origin, of their connexion

and

their various

accumulation

is

carefully to

be diftincruifhed from the chemical and mineralogical

examination

of their conftituent parts.
often
confift

A

new ftratum may very
as

of the
general,

fame earth or rock

the lower,
;

more

and more ancient ones
been
the
the

and notwithftanding

the fimilarity of their fubftance, they

may have

produced
contrary,
it

in

very feems

difrerent

times.

On
with

to

be
the

confident

nature

of things,
it

that

fame llratum,

whatfoever extenfive
rock,
if

be, confift of the

fame

produced

at

the fame time, or if this
in

rock be found changing
that then
it

a

certain

diftance,

c-onfifts

of fuch rocks that are fimilar
as gneifs

in their conftituent parts,
this reafon I
larity
J

and

flate.

For
oF
the

have endeavoured to fliew their fimiconfifts

and nctwithftanding granites

OF

BOHEMIA.
it

24I
does

the fame conftltuent argillaceous parts,

not belong to the fame ftratum but to a lower

and more ancient one.
in

Many
it
;

remarkable fad:s

the

following defcription

of the
but
it

Bohemian

mountains will demonftrate

would be
attempt

matter of an extenfive work
particular accounts of
all

if I fiiould

the fafts, which evince
flate,

in Bohemia^ that granites, clay

and limeI

Hone
a

are conftantly in that fituation

which

havQ
give

indicated

before.

It

would engage me
and of
their

to

general

view of the Saxcnian and Bohemian
run
in

metallic

mountains,
fides.

the
a

plains on both

That would
all

require

particular phyfical
at

geography of

the mines
Platte^

Johan Gcorgenßadt, Joachimfihal and
all

and of

the vaft mountains
I

between Prague
only a
fa(51:,

and Drefden. which
I

have hinted here
filent.

could not pafs over
in

dences will appear

the fequel, and

The may
fo.
I

evi-

per-

haps be given fome day by me,
Ihould not prevent
I

if abler

men
Euc

me from
beg
to

doing

being again aftray
to

leave, betöre

return

Catharinaherg^

obviate

fome

objeflions,
this theory.
flate is
;

which might be perhaps oppofed to

Though
though
it is

it

is

an undoubted faft that

accumulated on granites, and limeflone on Hate
likewife

fad

that thefe three forts

R

of

242

MINERALOGICAL HISTORV
mod
ancient, moft extenfive,

of rocks are the

and

moft confiderable
have explored
its

ftrata

of the world, as far as
;

we

depth

there are

however many

other more modern, thinner and accidental beds,

which

either

cover fmgle parts of the above pri-

mitive mountains, or are accumulated in the valleys

and

gutters, or

on the

(lope of the higher

mountains.

We need
No
in
;

not believe nor pretend that

granite fhould be every where covered with flate

or

limeftone.
places,
in

there are in
it

the

contrary-

many

which

appears bare above
to the fide

ground, and

which

it rifes

of the adflate

jacent accumulated and fuperincumbent

or

limeftone-mountains.

In the fame manner flate
It is

appears often naked above the limefl:one.
indifferent

whether

this
this

have been

fo

from the be-

ginning or v^hether

may have been produced
their

by inundations, earthquakes and other accidents,
which have taken away
does
forts
it

incumbent roof; nor

alter

at all the

above rule of the three

of incumbent ancient rocks.
that a granite-mountain, within

Let us fuppofe

the verse of the greater mountain-chains of
rope,

Eu-

be covered by limeftone,
to be confidered as

this

calcareous

fliratum ought
in later times

produced either
partial inunda-

by a particular and
it

tion, or

if really

fliould

belong to the third
is

general and old limeftone rock, the granites
to be fuppofed having appeared

naked above the
flate

OF
flate

BOHEMIA.
very well

243
bed was ac-

before
;

this general limeflone

cumulated
imaginary

v/hich

accounts for the

difficulty

of the limeftones being found
gra-

now and then immediately incumbent on
nites.

The

pre-exiftence of the granites before

the flate, and that of flate before the limefl:one,

cannot be controverted,
bent on each other.

fmce they are incumarchited: can lav

No
I

the

roof before having
Before
I

laid the

foundation*
fl;ill

can go on

have

a previous re-

mark

to

recommend.

The

examination of the
fubfl:antial

phyfical origin, and of the commiOn
parts of feveral rocks,
larity

fliews

their

great flmi-

and

their infenflble degeneration, as I

have

evidenced
gneifs,

above by the example of
flate,

clay-flate,

horn

granite,
in
.

quartz,

mica and

feldfpath.
fcription
ceflity

Hence
of mines,

mineralogy,

and the dene-

arifes

an

indifpenfable

to

diftinguifli

by

conftant

names,

the

different

degrees

and

varieties

of

the rocks.

The name

of gneifs fliould never be given but

to the rock,

which vifibly contains the three
its

above fubflantial parts of
variety,
trified

milxture
in

;

and that
grey
pe-

which contains only mica
clay,

and which

is

deftitute

of quartz,

Ihould

conftantly

go under

the

name of grey

micaceous ßate. I allow this to

be a violent diftinc-

R

2

uon

244

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
upon
nature, fince the three fubftanparts of gneifs are not conftantly vifi bis, (which
^lI

tion forced
tial
is

the cafe

Freiberg) and grey micaceous flateis

very often found with gneifs in the fame mountain
;

for

being nearly related to each other,

I

cannot help wifhing that the utmoft care be taken
in
their denomination.

Mineral bodies,

1

know
;

very well, are not differenced by nature into different claffes and families, as plants and animals

they are but different varieties and different rnixtures.

Neverthelefs

it

is

better to

diflinguilh

by words and

intellectual diflinclions things,

which

can be diflinguifhed, than to confound them and
to be in want of proper'expreffions.

The
which

mines
in
its

at Catharinaherg are in the Stadtherg,

length runs between hour nine and

ten of the compafs, has a valley on both fides,

and

is

of about 340 fathoms diameter.
the veins run in a direcftion which
is

Comparal-

monly
lel

with that of the valleys and the mountains
in this place three
fifTures,

but

noble veins, and feveral in-

fip-nificant

run a-crofs the mountain in

hour two of the compafs.

Thefe are the Nicolai^

the Calves head^ and the Elizabeth vein.

The

Nicolai vein dips

fomewhat

fliding or flip-

ping, (tonnlegig) § has no diftinftfide-fkirts (faaU
h<£nder)
§

The

dipping of veins and

fiffurcs Is

determined by their

angles and inclination to

the horizon, and accordingly mea-

fured

OF
licnder)

BOHEMIA.
fides.

245
vein-rock
-,

and

is

almoft infenfibly blended with

and
is

cafb in the

mountain

The

commonly
it

gneils as
confifts

the

mountain
fpecies

but

now
pabe-

and then

of a

of granite.
fplits

Tne

gneifly-mountain-rock breaks and
the dipping of the vein
fix
;

rallel to

but

if veins

tween hour

and nine unite or

crofs the

main

vein, the gneifs next to the vein gets or affeds a
fituation,

which

is

parallel to the dipping of xho.

crofs-vein.

Wherever the mountain-rock turns

harder and founder, the vein turns fm aller and
thinner.
It
is

commonly not above one

foot wide.

A

reddifh irony clay foaks through the vein and init.

cruftates

This commonly appears
richer ores. FifTures

in the neigh-

bourhood of

from the

hanoring;

fured by a quadrant.

The

GcrT::an

miners give them different

names, which are expreflive of their dißerent inclination to
the horizon.

A
A

"jertical

or flanding vein

dips or falls fi:om ninety to

feventy-five degrees.

tonnkgig voin dips or
;

falls

from fevcnty-five to forty-five

degrees

and has

this

denomination from tonn or tun and legen

or lay, implying, that tuns or caßs or barrels laid on the hading

of fuch veins, fmk by their
that accordingly fhafts

own weight
iHll

to the bottom,

and
ii.

might

be funk in them, which

a great advantage to the works.

For

this reafon I fhould
;

not fcruple to

call thefe veins y7A-//>^

or flipping vziv.s

as tbat

denomination

anfvvcrs the idea of the

German miners.
j

Flach-faltend veins dip from forty-five to fifteen degrees

and might very well be engüfhed hy ßat
Sch'-iuehende Gaetige

'veins.

dip under fifteen degrees, and I do not

fcruple to call t\\Qva foaring nieins, as this denomination exaftly anfwers the

German name..

(Tranfl.

R

3

or

24-6

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
White
j

or from the hading, uniting with the vein, improve
it.

fine

dry with quartz

is

a forerunner of

rich ore

coarfe v/hite clay deftitute of quartz forfills

bodesno good,
it

at laft the whole vein andftrikes

deaf.

Croffing veins between hour fix and nine

are pretty

common
ftrike

^

akerate the direftion of the
are deaf
in

vein; contain fome quartz-,
felves,

themit

nay

deaf the vein

unlefs

be

ftrengthened by
the
crofs-veins

fifllires

from the

eail.

In this cafe
in

bring rich

ores,

which
in the

the
;

hading are commonly richer than

hanging

but thefe richer ores are only to be found within
the crofs.

Thefe obfervations of the Nicolai vein Hand
in general for all the veins at Catharinaherg.

The
rites

ore confifts of rich filver and copper-pyfliior,

with blue

blende, copper-glafs, cop-

per-green and fometimes with fome native filver

and copper.

Commotau
f"

in the Cii'cle ö/'Saaz.

'^

HE

mountains from Catharinaherg to Ro^

-L
fift

thenhahn,

Commotau and Scnnenberg conin

of

gneifs,

which

many

places

is

fine

mi-

caceous

and greatly quartzous.

Some

p-ranite

rocks appear in thefe parts above ground.

Near
the

OF
the

BOHEMIA.
Commotau the
flate,

247
changes

alum work

at

gneifs
is

into that

argillaceous
coals.
It is

which

commonly

found with
vitriolic

much impregnated with

acid,

and properly roafted produces
of vegetables are not unto be queftioned
as a variety

alum.

Impreffions
in
it,

common
whether

and

it is

whether

it

might not be confidered
it

of gneifs, or

be owing
in

to a later origin,

and to an ac-

cumulation
the

fome valley or floping ground of
gneifs,

more ancient
ftate

which
flate

is

more probable.
Tolfa
in

However, the aluminous

at

the

Roman
This

belong to the Ampler or pretended

primogenial mountains.
flate
is

in

the open fields put in fquare

pyramidal

piles, fired

and

roafted.
;

Once
is

fired

in

continues burning by

itfelf

and

left fo

for

fome weeks
colour
a year
is

till it is

quenched by water.

Its

black

then found changed into red.

During

it is left

expofed to the
;

air,

and then three
elixiviation

times fuccefiively elixiviated
lafting
is

each

about twelve hours.
fix

The
in the

elixiviated flate
air,
till it

during

months

left

be
dif-

brought to the fecond, and
folution in

after a

fimilar

the air to the third

elixiviation.
it

At

the

firft

boiling of the brine
in

is

mixed with

urine,

and

the lead pans evaporated to a fa;

rinaceous powder
in

which afterwards

is

diifoived

fredi

water

and by two fuccefllve boilings

brought to

cryftallifation.

R

4

In

248

MINERALOGILAL HISTORY
they boiled likewife vitriol
j

In former times

but

it

was found unprofitable.
is

The

annual

pro-'

dues of alum

about 200,000 pounds, which,

on account of the great number of alum-works
in

Germany^

fells at

a lowered price of twelve flo-

rins per

hundred

v/eight.

The

other Bohemian

alurn-works at Eger and 'Tarn are of no importance.

Thefe alum-works induce rne to mention the
Bohemian fulphur and
Alfattel
vitriol- works.

Thofe

at

m

x\\ft

circle

of

Säa%, at Najjahcrg

and

Crofilucko-iviz

are
its

the moil remarkable.
is

The

pyrites,
is

after

fulphur

extrafled by firing,
Kupferherg^ in the

clixiviated

for vitriol.

At

circle of Saaz^ there might be produced towards. 100,000 pounds of blue or cyprian vitriol ; but

there

is

no opportunity for
florins

fale,

tho' the price be

lowered to fourteen

per hundred weight.

Prefniz in the Circle

ofi>Z2.'z.

THE
loured.
faltes
is

m.ountains confift of gneifs, which
fllver-coicured,
blueiili

is

white

or dark-cothat ba-

Detached bafalt-prifms
not wanting.
i.

fliew

They work

here for filver
is

and
in

iron.

The

filver-mine iVf^nß Kirchhaw,

a vein running to the louth, betwixt the hours

twelve and one, and containing reddifli ponderous

OF
gyps-fpar.
in

BOHEMIA.
nay to the very

249

In the deeper drifts native filver,

and
turf,

the iippermofl ones,

other rich filver ores are faid to have been found

of old.

Even

this
filver.

gypfeous fpar
It

is

fuppofed to

contain fome

ferves as a fluor in the

copper furnaces
the vein
is

at Catharinaherg,
;

To

the fouth

found

but to the north,
it is

in the

Hoping

of the mountain,
in

fhattered and deaf.

A vein
but
v/ith-

which the gallery or drain was driven has unilliaft,

ted with the chief vein under the

Dut improving

it.

The works
and
produce of
2.

are carrying

on rather

for the fluor,

for hopes, than for any prefcnt
ore.

remarkable

Orpes iron-mine.
flats

It

is

a

common obfervation,
the foot offimple,

that

commonly begin on

more
tains,

ancient

or pretended primogenial-mounplains.

where they fink under the adjacent
exifl;ence

However, the
ancient

of

flats

in the midfl:

of

mountains, and

in their valleys,

appears

am.ong feveral other evidences by the nature of
this

iron-work

at O'rpes,

and fundry others more
Partial and
as

to the north, which produce the fame ore and are

under fimilar circumftances.
dental
wafliing
jiiore

acci-

inundations,

as

well

the

fuccefllve

down of

the decays of the neighbouring

ancient and higher mountains, will pretty

well

250

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
|1

well account for this phsenomenon.

At Orpes the
on v/hich

undermoft or loweft ground
a large bed of fcaly limeftone

is
is

gneifs,

accumulated and

incumbent.

This

is

covered by a fearing vein or

a bed of iron- (lone thirty farhoms thick.

The
ftriped

whole

is

buried under a white argillaceous ftone

II

One
is

of

the

moft remarkable

flats

of

this

kind,

%vhich

undoubtedly a

marine^ bed, has been more than
It is in the

once examined by the tranflator.

Harz

foreft

between ZellerfeUt,

Altena-w,

and the Calenberg,

in

the

midft of ancient mountains, and appears there in feveral places

near the Feßenburg, the Schulenberg, and the Caleriberg, not

only in deep valleys

as

Mr. Ferber

fuppofes, but even

on

and near the top of the higher ancient flate-mountains. Such
is its

fituation

on the

fides of the

Calenberg and the Schwoarfo

xeberg

towards Altenaiv,
is

and rem.arkably
quarry

near an inn,
there

which
the
that

called the Auerhahn in a
Shalke.

known
is

by

name of
this
is

The
to

tranflator
as

therefore

of opinion, of that

flat

or

marine bed,

many
;

others

kind,

rather

owing

more general
to

revolutions

and

caufes than
tial

Mr. Ferber feems
alledged by him,

admit

though the par-

caufes,

may

be without difpute ad-

mitted for thofe fecundary beds, which are deftitute of marine bodies.

The

fecundary marine bed on the higher
inftrudtive

Harz
of

mountains

is

a very

phaenomenon.
fine

It confifts

fine fandftone,

commonly white, compadl,
found in the Shalke, and
is

grained and

pure

;

and

fo

it is

cut into the form
it is

of grinding and fcythe-ftones.
greyifli or brownifli colour

But

in feveral places

of a

and mixed with fome
the Feßenburg.

fine
It

mica

flakes.
a'

Such

it;

is

commonly near

contains

great variety of fine impreflions of fcarce and moft part un-

known

OF
flriped

BOHEMIA.

2^1

with mica, to the thicknefs of feven fa-

thoms.

The above

large foaring iron vein, if not rather

iron ftratum, contains the fineft iron-coloured ores,

which refemble the Swediß)
fra5lorium
chalybea.

;

fuch as ferrum reatra^

mineralifatum,

tritura

textura

Lythophyl Bornian, p
refracioriura,

124.

Ferrum
minimis.

textura granulata, grants

Ibid»

known marine
ferforat^.

fea-bodles, as of Afleria columnares rotunda

Afieria folut^ /olares,

Oßreo peßinites anomius

njefpertilio alatus,

whofe impreffion

produces a fpecies of hyfterolithus.
Ofireopedinites anomius planus latior,

whofe impreffion pro-

duces a fpecies of hyfterolythus, peculiar to this place.
Entomolithus paradoxus y trilobus tranfverßm rugofus
;

or a

new and
Co-nchce

uncipfcribed fpecies of

Cacadu or

Dodßey-{o^\\., pe-

culiar to this place.

minores

lee-ues

;

and Cochlea and

Buccinitce Icenjes

minores.

The
miles

decays ol

this

remakable fandftone bed appear many

oil

the other lide of Goßar, in the plain country near

Kloßer

Graz'.'of,

and towards the

Steinßeld, in

detached drag-

ged and bluniod fandftone
tions

pieces, filled with the

fame petrifac-

which are

fcarce in themfelves, but the
is

cluded and moulded in fandftone, which

more fo as incommonly deftitute
draw confequen-

of petrifaftions.
ces

I

forbear in this place to
fadl
;

from

this

fmgular

which, obvious in themfelves,

prove to conviftion that very \iolent caufes have co-operated
to raife

and

to deftroy

our higheft mountains.

(Tranfl.)

which

252

MINERALOGILAL HISTORY
fherl,

which are found with
mica, hornblende,
{Cronßedt Mineral.
2. p. 398. 5
gre^/
§.

garnets,

\yolfrain,

amianth, green fudflag,

106. Wülleriu Mineral. Edit.
clay, in
llick-

&

6.)

and a deaf irony green
are

which

all

thefe minerals

commonly

The
floor

fcaly limellone,
this iron-vein

which

is

the hading or the

of

or bed,
it

is

grey towards the

fouth.

In both places

bafiets out.

The
tnica,

white
is

argillaceous

Hone,

flriped

with

which

the hanging or the roof of this vein

or bed, feems to be produced by the decays of
the adjacent mouldering higher gneifs-mountains.

This

fucceflive accumulation

is

fupported

by

feveral argillaceous beds in the neighbourhood,

^

and by many pieces of
upper

foflil

wood, which arc

penetrated with iron, and are fo frequent in the
flats

of the argillaceous ground near Orpes

that even fome

good

iron

is

extradled

from them.

^ Near
Cronßedt,

Prefnik,
§.
'](),

tKey dig in a gallery a green painters clay

and near Kaaden white China-zXzy ,

with,
is

a white grey, milky, opaque, argillaceous ftone, which

fmooth and
C/jhia-clay,

glo/Ty in
as

its

fraftures

and a produftion of the
its

appears by the loofe clay contained in
it

middic.
'Tables

Mr.

Peithner has defcribed

in his Mineralogical

under the name of

Porcellanites-

China-clay

is

found

in feveral other places in Bohemia, for example, at Lumpe,

near Eoehmiß? Giejhubel,

at

Zitolib,

on
SiC,

Soniienn.virbel

near

Weyperth at Latm, Marklin, Hlublofs,

Weiperth

BOHEMIA.

253

Weiperth

hi the Circle of^2aJz,

THE
yet.
It

following mines are working here for

filver

and cobolt.
is

i.
;

dementis- Stolle.
the vein

The

mountain rock

gneifs

not opened

Where

it

baffets

out they have found under

the turf a fpecies of very rich brown filver-ore.

feems to have been horn-ore

;

but want of knowit

ledge and curiofityhasdeftroyed
fmelting.

by unconcerned
they have

The

fituation

of the ground did not
in the vein
;

permit to drive the gallery
therefore driven
it

in the gneifs,

but

fo unwifely,

that they have not thought neither of a

place

where to put up the rubbiCh, nor of the
to include the brook
trance,

neceflity

which runs before the enit

and of courfe overflows

as often as

it

fwells

by fudden fpring-or autumn-v^'aters.
2. S.

Anthony

Stolle is

driving in the vein, in a
fole

gneifs-mountain.

On

the

of the gallery the
gneifs.

hanging
flate
is

is

(late,

and the hading

This

a

branch of the neighbouring metallic
in

mountains

Saxony^

and a variety or dege-

neration of the gneifs, v/hich appears clearly in
this place,

where they border together.
in this gallery

They
John

have found

fome

filver

and cobolt.
3. S.

254
3.
S.

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
John
in the

Defart.

The

vein

runs in

gneifs.

Joachimflhal

in the Circle 0/^2.2:1.

LL
gneifs,

the Bohemian metallic mountains, from
confiil generally
vifible

Catharinaherg hither,

of

which

is

a

mixture of
clay.

quartz,

mica and a
this

whitilh

Near
fo

Joachimfihal

vifible difference

of the conflituent parts
clofely

difappears,
gether,

and they are

mixed
is

to-

that the

rock thence produced

to

be

called grey micaceous and quartzous clay-flate.
It
is

the

common

rock of
lefs

all

the
in

mines at
the depth,

Joachimfihal, and turns

micaceous
fofr,

where

it is

more argillaceous,

lamellous and

black, and the more refembling to the argillaceous
(late

of other metallic mountains,

efpecially thofe

at Claufihal in the

Harz forcß. However,
continues
it

the grey

micaceous

clay-flate

in
its

Ibme mines
nature.

to a great depth before

changes

The

metallic mountains at Joachimfiahl are toin different

wards the fouth of a gentle afcent, run

ridges to the eail, to the north, and to the weft (the

higheft being that which runs to the north) and
to the frontiers of Saxony fink
plains.

down
hills

again in the

The

valleys between thefe ridges are ex;

tremely deep

accordingly the

are

remarkabljr

O F

ß O

H

E

M

I

A.

255
a

ably high, which has afforded to the miners

good opportunity to work
from every
valley in
fide

many

galleries,

which

converge to the fouth, and to the
city

which the

of Joachimflhalh fituated.
i

Thefe ridges are to the fouth
and the Little Mittelßerg
the 'Turkner^
;

the Adelfgreen,

to the north-eaft: rifes

and

in the well the
-,

Ffaffenherg

\

to

the eaft

is

the Hoheherg

to the weft the

Upper-

^urkner^ the Shottenberg^ the Kohlberg^ the Keilberg^

and the

Under-2iVidi

Upper Nidafjerg.

All

thefe hills are very fteep,
terior

and naked.

Their ex-

mould

is

fandy and barren.

The

facility

of workir^g by

galleries has induced the miners of

old to fearch the numerous veins from every part.

Hence Above

that
forty

aftonifliing

number of old
ftiil

galleries.

of them

are

working, and many
'Therefia

of them, for example the George and the
llolln are

driven a length of 450 fathoms.

All thefe galleries and works of Joachimfthal
are divided into fix different fields, and belongto the following
1.

companies
to

their tenants.

Unity\

belongs

the

community of

the

citizens at Joachimfthal.
2.

Hohe Tanne

is

belonging to the imperial

court.
3.

Hubert or Helena-Hubert,

4. Friedenfield.
5.

Schweitzer- Gew^ltigungy divided between the

court and private companies.
6.

S^chßßi

2ß6
6.

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
Stechßß EäeUeuth-Stolln, d^nd Apple-iree-Stolln

at Abertham, belongs to private aflbciations.

All of them are drained by tv/o deep canals or
levels,

^^r^^n^ ^ndDaniel. The former has

its

door

in the city,

and including

its

feveral wings
it

is

driven
fa-

4,500 fathoms. thoms, and its fole

In a diredt line
is

is

1600

170 fathoms perpendicular
It
is,

under the higheft top of the mountain.
the deepeft gallery of the ancients.

was
in-

Daniel

cluding

its

wings, driven 5600 fathoms, and in
It

a direft line 1500 fathoms.

runs twenty fa-

thoms underneath the fole of Barbara^ empties
under the town m.ore to the fouth.
ing-levels
are kept
in repair

Thefedrain-

by the court, for
profits.

an allowance of a ninth part of the

There
mines.
in

arc but three

drawing

fhafts for all thefc

Hohe-Tann dips fomewhat Aiding nearly

Itswhole depth is 60 -i fathoms. 73 degrees. is 154 fathoms perpendicular. HubertUnity-ßaft
Jhaft
is

70 fathoms perpendicular.

Hence

arifes

the neceflity that thefe fhafts ferve

by alternate

turns to different mines and affociations.

The works
neath the
fole

are every

where funk
and

much

underfo that

of thefe

fhafts

galleries,

thefe mines, after thofe in 'Tyrol,
in

are the deepeft

the world.

They have from 200

to

350 fa-

thoms pefrpendicular depth under the

turf.

Confiderino;

OF
hills,

BOHEMIA.

257

Confidering the finuation of the high and ftcep

which go under the colleftive name of the

metallic-mcimtains of Joachinifihal^

and which are

feparated by deep valleys, one would be inclined to

think that the afcent,

fall,

and

direiflion

of their

rocks and veins exttrior form.

mud

be correfponding with their That is comm.only the cafe in

other metallic mountains.
fuel) obfervations, the

But

here, contrary to

rock generally afcends from

the fouth, and finks either to the weft or to the
north, as in

fome

rcfpeft will appear
is

by the run of

the veins, which

abfolutely unaffefted and un-

dilhirbed by the diredion of the valleys, except
that
it

feems to influence their quicknefs.
\

Thefe veins are very numerous
an
indefinite

they

fall into

depth,

and continue quick

and

metallic 350 fathoms.

In refpeft of their general

run and diredion, they are by the Bohemian furveyors and engineers divided into midnight and

moYning veins.

The

midnizht or northern-'veins run from fouth

to north,

between the ninth hour and three, dipeaft

ping from
being
1.

to

weft from 54 to 78 degrees,

in

general ßiding veins.
fifllire

Gold-rofe hading

runs in

hour
2.


S


filTure


runs in

1

:

6 i

line.

Gold-rofe hanging

3.

Francifca

258
3. 4.
5.

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY

6. 7. 8.

9.

10. 11.

12. Bergkitler-vein 13.

14.
15.

16. Geiiler-vein

17. Flat- vein
18.

— — — — Anna — — — Fundgrube — — Backer— — Hilbrandt Gelhieber — — hour Rofc, from — — hading — — — Jofeph — — Schweitzer — — — loung Schweitzer — •— Jerome — — — — — — Mathefi-vein
Francifca
vein

9

:

line.

8:7
12:6-^.
1
•"

7

1-

12:64.

10:4
2
1
:

Jericho, in

3

fifTure

:

12:14.
1:24.

1:24-

2:44.

1:74
12:4 12:7 2:2

The Morning

or Eaßern-ve'ins run from eaft to

weft between hour 3 and 9, dipping from fouth to

north from 60 to y^ degrees, being
ßiding veins.
1.

all

of them

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7. 8.

— -— de Paula — — — Joachim Sufann — «— — — — Kayferthum Corona — — — — Defart John Urfula — — —
Lawrence runs
Francis
in

hour

5

i

-I

line.

p^:

ß

6:046: ^ 6: '^l

5:2
6:04.

in the

6:64
Q.

Three

OF
9.

BOHEMIA.
5i

259
line.

10.
1 1.

12.

13.

14.
15.

16.

17
18.

19.

20. Wafferftoiln
21.

22.
2 3-

24. Elias

25.
26. 27.

28.
29.

— — — — Hütten plaa Morice — — — — — Seegen-Gottes — — — Geyer Andreas — — — — — — — Heer-Paukner — — Fundgrubner — -— Spathgang — — — Cow-vein — — 6 — — .— 6 Michael — — James Major — — — 6 Rolher — — — 6 Saxen-Kerl — — — — 6 George — — Old Saxen-Kerl — 6 Tirre Schonberg — — Himmeis-Krohn
Three Kings
-

74-

Trinity

2t 7t

7

o
6

6

7

-

Stoln

7

34-

7

o

There

are befides

them many other midnight
but not having

and morning- veins, either uniting with the former, or running by themfelxes
•,

been yet examined they are

frill

deftitute

of proper

names.
In order to give a general idea of the mines ac

Joachimßhal
plate,
1.

I

have annexed a general
richeft

map

in

The

veins are
2

among

the nor-

S

thern

26o

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
:

thern ones
richo,

Geßieber^ Fundgrube^ Rofe from Je-

Berg-Kittel and

Jerome

;

among
Stolln.

the

morning ones, Morice, Geyer, Andreas,
Elias, Old-Saxon-Kcrl,

Coiv-vein,

and George

The

vein rock
is

in the

northern as well as the

eaflern veins

afiigrey, yellow, white or blueifli

clay, argillaceous fiate,

and various coloured but
is

commonly

red hornftone (petroftlex) which

the
is

matrix of the richeft ores.

The

Rofe-fpar

a

calcareous fpar, confiding of accumulated roundifli

and twiftcd

lamellse,

found

in the

vein

called

Rofe from Jericho.

The midnight

or northern

veins contain for the greater part a very fine red

hornftone, femi-pellucid and ofapleafant colour.
It has not yet

been found

in

any morning vein.

As

foon as this red hornftone appears the clay
off,

breaks

but prefently returns at the end of the

hornftone.

They

are

conftantly

alternating,

but feem to be of the fame fubftantial mixture.

The
but

Paukner-vein has not fhev/n any thing yet

flate

intermixed with arfenical pyrites.
is

The Fundgrube
flintlike

either entirely filled
it

up with
and

grey hornftone, or holds

in nefts

nodules.

The width and
rious,

thicknefs of thefe veins are vato

from one inch

two

feet.

The fame
;

vein appears very

different in its thicknefs

they

Arc

OF
are

BOHEMIA.
comprefled that
is

261

often

fo

much

no vein

but a fimple joint only

to be diftinguilhed.

The

hardnefs or foftnefs of the mountain-rocks
in
it
•,

have a fhare

nay, the mountain

and vein
turns

rocks turn fofter as foon as the vein

itfelf

quicker and nobler.

The
to

veins

do well
;

in

general in the afcent
richer

of the mountains
be expe6led

and
the

ores

are

ever

in

croflings

of the nor-

thern and eaftern veins.

If both veins be filled
ore.

with clay there

is

no chance of

If one be filled with quartz or calcareous fpar,

knd the other with hornftone, the ores turn
in the crofTing
;

rich
ar-

infallibly

if

two

veins,

one

gillaceous and the other hornftone,
crofs

by dippino-

one another, rich ores are produced.
thefe crolTings the
in

In

veins

are

now

and

then

difturbed
if

their

run

and

dippino-,
lliat-

and

they

do not

improve

they are

tered.

Ramifications or

fifTures

feparating from a vein,
to

and

uniting

afterwards

another,
if

raife

its

value and

thicknefs,

efpecially
ir

they

fliould

happen

to

unite with

in
it

an
for a

acute

angle,

and continue to run widi
length.

confiderable

This happened

in the Geyer,

where they
have

S 3

202
have

MINERAL OG ICAL HISTORY
at prefent a

profpeft of the

richeft ores.

However, the contrary happens

likewife,
fo

and

veins have been by the uniting fiffures

much

comprefied and fhattered, that fcarce any track
has

been

left

remaining-,

then experience has

taught, to trace the run of the deftroyed vein
that
fiflure,

by
of

which contains a

thin covering

clay one fingle line thicknels.

The
monly
of

fifiiires

of the Rofe from Jericho

in the

ha-

ding are fcarce evxr worth working, though comlarger than the vein
itfelf.

Beiides thefe

metallic veins

fome deaf ones,

a confiderable thicknefs,

go

a-crofs thefe argilla-

ceous and metallic-mountains.
here
tice.
is

They

are called

combs (kamme) and deferve particular no-

Some of them
is

confiftofred^iyr/)^'^)',

which

called here fandftone,

and fome of a fpecies of

trapp, which

called here wacke.
flefh- coloured

The
in

porphyry confifts of a red

hornftone (petroftlex) and milky feldfpath grains,

which fometimes vitreous quartz-grains
diftinguifhed.
is

may
por-

be

In

fome

places

this

phyry

foft

and unpetrined.
are
in

Then

the feld-

fpath grains
"I

caft

in

a

reddifh

loam.

Sh

found

it

the Ktihgang.
this

Some
crofs

large veins

or

combs of

porphyry

the

metallic

mountains

at Jcachimßhal,

commonly from

fouth
to

OF
to north.
jel

BOHEMIA.
crofs

263,

They

unite with the veins, runparal-

with them

and

them, now and

then

improving
ry

their metallic value.

Such

a

porphy-

vein

is

next to the Cow^vei^i-, two of them
to the Schweitzer,

are clofe

one near Elias on

George-Slolln, but the largeft,

and

till

yet the only

improving one, has been found on the Rofe from
Jericho.

Here

it

has in the hading united with

the vein, and has produced the richeft glafs-ores

which ever have been dug
broke
it

in

this

mine,

but

off with
this

the porphyry.

The whole
eight or ten

width of
it

porphyry-comb has not been explofuppofed to be at
its

broke

it is

leall

fathoms.

In

cracks and
a

filTures this

improving
fat clay
;

porphyry-comb contained

remarkably
it

nay the porphyry foftened by
rocks turned
rich.

as other

vein-

The
and
this

Combsy confiding of a fpecies of Trapp

or hardened irony clay, are
greenifli

commonly of
are black,

a grey

colour.

Some
calcareous
in

and

in

fpecies
fherl

white
are

fpar-grains

and

greenifli

found
is

the Cow-vein in tbs

Unity.

Their run

very regular.
inclies

Their width
to forty

and thicknefs from fame

upwards

fathoms, remakably large where they baflct our.

They
and

unite,

run parallel with the metallic veins,
either to their

crofs

them

improvement or

to

S 4

thtir

104

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
llriking

their various difadvantage,

them

deaf,

altering their run, or compreffing thetn fo as to

be

v/ith great

pains to be found again.

Under

ground

thefe

combs

are often

fo
;

hard that they but croßed by
to the air,

cannot be worked but by blafdng
galleries, or

by other accidents expofed

they wither

and moulder into that argillaceous

earth which formed them, change their colour to

yellow and ochraceous, and turn very faponaceous.

This clay for the greater part diflblves in water. In refpefl to their run and diredion they are
hereabout
as other veins called

Morning or Ädidmid-

night-Comhs.
nio-ht-veins
latter

The former

crofs the metallic

and dip from north to fouth.
the metallic morning-veins
to
weft.

The

crofs
eaft

and dip

from

Some of ihem

are entirely

perpendicular.

There have been found above
Combs
v^\\\c\\

thirty

Morning6"^^^«

bafTet out.
it

One of them
bafiets out.

^rz

is thirty

fathoms where

Five fuch

PFacken-veins have been crofied by the works be-

tween the Cow- vein and
"Jericho vein
is

Elias.

The

Rofe from

crofied on the level of the 'Daniel-

Gallery

by three fuch combs, fourteen, nme and

eight inches, two of

them twenty fathoms deeper
and with the vein, which
has

have united

togetlier,

OF
has been fo

BOHEMIA.
to break in the hading.

265

much improved by
or

this accident, that

Wifinuth has begun

The

Midnight-combs

IVacken

commonly
combs
near the

difturb the run of the

metallic

morning-veins.

The Cow-vein

is

croifed by three large
T'herefia-drain

two of them are on the

Geyer^ under ground from fome inches

to fix feet

but where they baflet out they have a thicknefs

from
and

thirty to forty fathoms.

The

third

comb
is

is

grey, and on the Barbara-Sole,
forty

between thirty

fathoms.

In this place, which

150
fa-

fathoms perpendicular depth, and about 3000

thoms

diftant

from the door of the

gallery, they
tree,

found of old, that
is

famous antidiluvian
as
it

which

the

more remarkable

lay in the midll of
I

thefe (late rocks
of.

and the comb
;

am
;

fpeaking

The
•,

exterior appearance

the

inner ftripes
the ramifi;

or fibres
cation

the
this

concentric

circles

of

fubftance into

round branches

the foft bark which ftuck to

them

•,

and fome-

thing like leaves found in feveral parts of this grey
(tone, or

even on

this

fubftance

itfelf

;

in fhort,
firfl dif-

every vifible circumftance convinced the
coverers of their having found one or
trees in the midft

more

petrified

of the mountain

;

and the pious

fimplicity of thefe former times, wliich confider-

ed the moft natural phsenomena as prodigies or
figns

of divine warnings, dared not conüder thefe
trees

2.66
trees

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
but
as

having been buried here by the

deluge, as appears by the

name of

this petrified

wood, and by the
in his Sarepta,

different accounts

oi Mdttheßiis

and

in his Chronicle of Joachimßhal.

Soon
this

after this difcovery the water prevailing,
drift

and
it

whole

of the cow-vein giving way,

has been ever fince either impoflible or extremely

dangerous to examine
curious for Naturaliits.

this

place,

which

is

fo

Many mining

officers at

yoachimfihal\i2iWt fince attempted to

doubt whether

thefe pretended antidiluvian wood-like blocks ever

have been

real

wood.

They have

confidered

as a fibrous and black variety of the grey

them comb-

rock, which they fuppofed generally torife from this
place, and thence to diverge in the feveral ramifications,

which
laft

crofs the

mountains

at Joachim-

ßhal.
.as

This

fuppofition cannot be admitted,

thefe

combs

are fo very different in their direc-

tion
is

and dipping.

But even the

firll

fuppofition

deftitute

of foundation, unlefs a

man

Ihould

allow to himfelf to conclude from the remarkable
fcarcity

of petrifactions,

in

the fimpler or pre-

tended primogeniai mountains, that no fuch petrifaftions are to be

found or to be admitted

at all.

A

Naturalift cannot help wifhing to fee thefe old

drifts

and caverns cleared again,

in

order to take
j

fuller

information of this angular phasnomenon

but hitherto no information is to be had except what

may

OF
may be gathered from
thofe fragments

BOHEMIA.

207

the accounts of MaUheJIus a.nd
in feveral cabinets.

which are kept

Theirfimilarity with other petrified wood, efpecially

with beech-wood,
firfl

is

fo ftriking, that

even the very

fight of

it

keeps

down any doubt which you
wood
in

might haveentertainedagainftit, except you fnould
be inclined to look upon the petrified
neral as lufus 'nature.
J

gein

remember
It

to

have feen

Baron Fabfi von
miftake the
the

Ohayn''s colleflion at Freybe^g

föme

very unequivocal famples.

was impofilble to
annular circles,

wood

fibres, the yearly

ramification of the branches, their roundifh
foft unpetrified

form and the
people have
fil

bark, which

fome

falfely

fuppofcd to be amian thine fof1

cork

(ftiber

montannm.)

cannot fay any thing

of the leaves,

fince I never did fee

them

-,

but for
really

my

part,

I

am

perfeftly convinced that

it is

petrified

wood,

and that

1

may

rather

depend

upon

the evidence of

my

eyes than

upon the obcon-

jedions of fome wife pyrrlionifts,
fider

who might

even the petrified
of nature.

Ihells

of calcareous ftrata

as fports

Subterraneous caverns have
generally but in

not

been found

calcareous

hills.

However,

I

know by

very good authority, that a cavern of a
in thefe ar-

remarkable width has been difcovered

gillaceous metallic flate mountains at Joachimfihal^
in the

mi J ft of

folid

rocks, and in a depth

of

250

26S

MINER ALOGICAL HISTORY
It

250 fathoms.
drift,

was

hit in

1772 by the

fifth

driven by the Hob-Tanner

company on
had

the

Andreas Vein.
in the vein

A

fhort time before they

fine ore
;

from an half inch to three inches thick

but fuddeniy, when the miners worked a blafting
hole in
the hading, a violent flroke

from under
and a
hole,

ground forced the bore from

their hands,

flood of water, fpouting not only

from the
fiflfure,

but breaking forth from every rock
flowed the whole
to
fly.

over-

drift,

and obliged the miners

Soon

after

the water ceafed to break in
it

from the roof a head, but
fathoms.

continued violently

to fpout from the bore hole to a diftance of three

The

engine could not overcome this
till

fubterraneous inundation
fee

a fecond wheel

was

to

work,

and the

drift

was drained again,

which

facilitated the

going on with the works, and

the breaking into a cavern eleven fathoms length

and nine fathoms wide.

Its

roof appeared foul

and Ihattered
maflies

;

its

floor

was craggy by large rock
;

tumbled from above
which made

and

it

was

ftill fil-

led with water,

it

impofTible then to

explore

its

depth.

The fixth
however,

drift or level

of the

v/orks has fince been extended and driven towards the fame place
ftill
;

its

depth or bottom

is

unexplored.
the

Having giving

names of the

feveral paten-

tee-companies, and of the feveral fields which they
are

OF
are working,
I fliall

BOHEMIA.

2^9

here take notice of the veins,

which

fall

within the extent of their works.

The
Tiers,

field

of Hubert
Sy

is

crofTed

by Geyers^ Pauk-

trinity
veins.

hundgrube. Baker, Gefiicber, and

Anna

Unity works

on Andreas, Geßieher, Cow

vein,

Seegen Gottes, Fundgrube, Backer, Hillebrand

and

Rofefrtm Jericho.

Hohe

'Tann

works on Geyer, Seegen
and
Elias.

Gottes,

An-

dreas, Roje from Jericho,

Fridenfeldt

on Cow

vein,

RoJe from Jericho,

Schweitzer, Chrißopher,

Jofeph,

and feveral

crof-

fing

morning

veins.

The
former

field oiSachftfld-Edelleuth-Stolh (or the
is

Sax-

onian gentlemcns gallery)
fields,

feparated from the
in

and fituated

an argillaceous
is

flate-hill,

called the Dirnberg,

which

indepen-

dent of,

and divided by a valley from the other
It is the higheft

metallic mountains.
eaft

top to the

oi Joachinifihal

'y

has

its

own

veins,

which feem

to

have no connexion with thofe

in the metallic

mountains.

Being emptied towards the day,

the works are driven already above lOO fathoms

below the

level

of the valley.

Its veins are like-

wife divided into eaftcrn and northern veins.

The
I. S.

'Northern or Midnight Veins are,

'Thomas; runs in hour ten three lines, dips
It

in fifty degrees to the eaft.

has two ramifications,

which

270

MI NER A LOG
white

1

C

AL

HITSORY
unite.

which turn deaf where they
rock
is

The

vein-

calcareous

fpar,

red

hornftone

(petroßlex)
2.

and blende.
in

MargarethaVein runs
in

hour eleven

fix lines

and fpreads

two ramifications.
they are yet purfued.

They

are

me-

tallic as far as
is

The vein-rock
pyrites.
five
its

clay,
3.

and argillaceous flatefprinkled with
Hulf-GotteS'Vein runs
in

hour eleven

lines

;

dips in feventy-five degrees, and fpreads

fiflures

and ramifications

in

the hading, which

from twenty

to twenty fathoms unite again with

the main vein.
it

The ramifications

feparating from

make

it

deaf, carrying the ore along with
\

them

in
it

the hading

but uniting again with

it

they

make

quick and
cate ting
flate,

fair again.

This

feeras rather to indi-

two veins conftantly and
and
unitino;.

alternately feparais

The

vein-rock

aro;illaceous

clay, pitch-blende or

blackjack.

4. WolfS'Vcln runs in hour nine and three lines

dips in feventy-five degrees;
in crofles.
5.

is

never quick but

Daniel runs
out.

in

hour nine and

five lines.

Is

worked
6.

Newhetificr runs in hour ten,

is

worked out
in eighty

likewife.
7.

Zeitler runs in

hour twelve, dips

degrees.

The

OF
The Morning
ones, and are,
i.

BOHEMIA.
Veins crofs

27

the

above northern

Reichs St ollner Vein running in
2.

hour
Saul

five

dipping in feventy-five degrees.
in

King
in

running

four
•,

and

five,

dipping

eighty-five degrees

both having in former times

produced very rich ores, and are on that account
v/orked out.
I fliall

only take notice here of tlie moü: remark-

able ores found in thefe feveral veins at Joachim-

ßhal, as Baron
his

Boi'-n^

in

tlie

printed account of
all

cabinet, has

accurately defcribed

their

varieties,

and the vein-rocks

in v/hich they are

contained.
all

But previoufly

I

am

to obferve, that

the ores of thefe veins

are deilitute of vifible

coverings, nay that often they appear fprinkled in
die hading -and hanging rocks, though the veins
in

themfelvcs

be not immediately grown to the
rather

rocks,

but

feparated

from

them

by

thin argillaceous joints.
is

To
fides

fave the ore which

fprinkled in the rock fides of the vein, they

are cut

down on both

of the vein one foot

thicknefs, and delivered to the wafh-works.

The molt remarkable
as follows
I
.

ores at Joachimflhal are

Nativefther

in different

vein-rocks

;

in

Skard

Cohoh (Scherhen-Coboh) and on the black wacke
it

appears in capillary forms, and

is

called then

Brujh-ore.

Native

filver

has

been

found

in

Geßuber,

272

MINERALOGICAL KISTORr
;

Geßmber^ Schweitzer ^ and Cow-vein

though more

common on
2.

thefe veins
is

it

has never been plenty.

Glafs-ore

the ricwt^ ovc ^t Joachimßhal',
is

one hundred weight

comm.only valued
it

at

180
and

marks of filver.
part
it.

They melt
in

in lead in order to
cryftalline,

It

is

undetermined,

grape-like forms, and has been found in former

times

on

Cow-vein,
fo

Rofe from Jericho^

and

Schweitzer, in

large

lumps nnd

maffes, that

fmall

pyramids,

fcatues,

and many ornamental
it,

toys, have been carved of

as

appears from the

accounts given by Matheßus, and from the

many

curiofitiesof that kind kept in the electoral cabinet
at Drefden.

Large

cryflalline pieces

of glafs-ore,
fale in

found

in

former times, are kept for

the

archives at Joachimfihal.
3.

Redßiver-ore found,
is

in

undetermined and
y^^tdrocis,
;

in cryftallized forms,

found on

Geyer,

and
its

Br.ckerS'Veins,
is

in arfenical
;

cobolt

in 'Trinity
it is

matrix

arfenical pyrites

in Geß/juher

red
it

hornftone (petroßlex) and on Roße ßrom Jericho
is

rofe-form.ed

lamellous calcareous fpar.
is

This
is

laft

variety, which
its

at prefent

very fcarce,

in

refpect of

fingular beauty
cryftalline,

preferable to any

other.

The

ruby coloured, and pel-

lucid red ore Hicks on, and often in the midft of

the above lamellous rofy-fpar,
cident refembles

which on that ac-

now and

then to a rofe or ra-

nunculus, and has given the

name of

that flower

to

OF
to
will,

BOHEMIA.
it is

257

the vein in which

found.

A

connoißcur

by

the very
in

colour
it

of the red ore, guefs
found.
fine

the

mines

which
is

is

The
in the

Bohe"

mian red ore

remarkably

ruby coloured

and pellucid
foreß,
is

\

that

from Andreaßerg

Harzits

fomewhat darker, on account of
;

ftronger mixture with fulphur

and iron that from

Saxony keeps the middle between thefe varieties»
Agricola^ in the tenth

book

de

Natura

FoJJilium^

is

of opinion, that the red ore from Joachimßhaloti
the

Barbara vein
is

is

auriferous

;

which by the
it

affayers
felf.

denied.

I

had no

leifure to try

my-

4. in

White fdv er- ore

is

faid to

have been found

former times on Andreas and Rcfe from JeriLead-Glance, containing fome
in

cho in pyrites.
5.

filver,

found

in
in

former times on Geyer, and

1730 onCow-veiny
ores are gene-

one foot thicknefs.

Such poor

rally fcarce in the veins
6.

cf finer ones.
pyrites, faid to

Yellow copper-ore and
in Seegen Gottes. in

have

been found
7.
ties

Cobolt

different

argentiferous

varie-

occurs witn feveral filver ores in the Geßu-

ber^ Hillebrandt,
S. Efprit,

Roje from Jericho, Schweitzer^

Emperor Jofeph, and other veins.
filver, is

The
Bohc'

pure cobolt, deftitute of

flampt and fold

afterwards to feveral cobolt-manufadlories in

mia and the Empire.

A hundred weight

fells

from

T

thirteen

2ßS

M IN E

R

ALOG

I

C

AL HISTORY
In former times, the
lefs,

thirteen to forty-five florins.

demands ofthat commodity being then
produced
in

they

the
;

v/hole

Kingdom

not

above

20O5OOO pounds
T,

at prcfent they

produce about

000000 of pounds.
for this

In the moll ancient times

coboit-ores
the rubbifn

were by ignorance thrown amongft
;

reafon the bing-places at
at

Joachimßhal are fearched over

prefent,

and

fome wafh-works
are to be
^(^t

after

the Hungarian principles

up.
is

The
as

greater part of the Bohe-

mian coboit

exported to Holland.

Though
not

the

Bohemian ores are
the preparation

good

as the
is

Saxonian ones,

of the fmalte

brought

hitherto in Bohemia to the fame mechanical perfedlion as in Saxony^

where the manufadlurers are
exactly the famples defe-

never at

a lofs to

work

manded.

This feems owing to an imperfect
and manipulation.

paration of the ores, and to fome ignorance of
their nature

8 Pitch Blende^ containing fometimes three marks

of

filver,

faid

to

have been found

in

1772 on
then with
filver

Geyefs vein^ occurs in fome other mines.
9.

Arfimcal

ore^

mifpickel,

now and

fome orpiment found with the coboit and
ores.

In

the

old v/orks on the Hiibcrt-'vein a
calx
drips

white arfenical
ftalaclites.

and coagulates into

ID.

Cinnahar-ore^ according to Matheßiis and

Jlbimis^ formerly
Shcttenber?- at

found

in

Dorothea-rein in the

JcachimflbaL

The

OF
The
flate

BOHEMIA.
is

259

hardnefs and folidity of the argillaceous
a great advantaf^e

or of the mountain rock

to the works, nnce in mod: places they

want no

timber.

The
ciples

engines are built according to the prin-

of thofe which are

uf;;d

at Shemni^,

and

which have been defcribed by Mr. Poda.
fame
mills.
is

The

to be faid of their wafiiing and ilamping

The
at

hiftory

and the former riches of the mines

Joackimßhal have been defcribed by Mr. Peithfecond volume of the

ner^ in the

New
in

Phyfical

Amufements^

pubüüied

at

Prague

1771

in

Odavo.

Aberdam

t\vo

hours

way

diflant

from

Joachimllhal.

THE
date,

mines

lie

on the

limits

of the deeper

granite

and the

incumbent argillaceous

and afford an eafy opportunity to be conflate.

vinced of the orranites beins; under the

Some
flate,

veins at thi

;

place run in grey micaceous

and contain

filver

and

cob.ilt-ores

\

fome

in

reddifli or

alternating grey granite, which here,
in

as

commonly

Bohemia and Saxonia^ contains
are obferved like-

tin ore,

though fome tin-veins
flate.

wife to be in argillaceous

T

2

F^v&^s

260

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
and Jerome
are

Eva^s Apple-tree
filver-mines at

the

chief
at

Aber dam.

Thefe veins are

a

depth of fixty fathoms, and by uniting with red

porphyry veins become remarkably
have itzw native
forms,
filver,

richer.
in

I

in wires

and

capillary

m

yellow,

brown and black horn-ftone
;

(petrofdex) with glafs-ore
bolt,

and hair

filver in co-

both found

in

Eva's Apple-tree.

The
nite,

Morrice-mine and fome others are in gratin.
tell

and are worked for

Matthefius and Albimis

that a tranfparent
S.

cinnabar-ore has been found formerly in
rence at

Lo-

Aberdam.

Platte in the Circle of Saaz.

HERE
diftant

are three different forts

of mines,

fil-

ver, iron

and tin-mines.
is

Zwittermill

a

high

mountain two hours

from

Platte,

Its eaftern
flate

part confills of alh-grey micaceous

or a fpecies of gneifs, in which Trinityßlveris

mine
lid

working.

Its

weftern part confifls of fo-

compa6t hornflate or a mixture of quartz
This hornflate
It
it

and mica, thoroughly mixed and penetrated with

fome

iron.

is

extremely hard and

fonorous as metal.
lerii.

belongs to the Corneus IFalit

They

dig

in a quarry, cut

into the

form

OF
form of
as
peftels,

BOHEMIA.
it

261

and ufe

hereabout, and as far
inftead of iron
lefs

Johan Georgenßadi
the tin-ore.

in Saxonia^

ones, as being lefs expenfive
to
is

and

obnoxious

For

this

reafon this horndate
S.

called hereabout poch wacke.
tjiis

John Baptiß^s

vein crofTes

rock, and confifting of blackilh,

more

or

lefs

micaceous
been given

deaf clay
up.

(late,

its

working has
in the hansiino-

The

hornflone
is

DO

and hading of O
poch wacke,

this vein

fofter

than

the

common
fide

grey coloured,
to the grey gneifs
;

mixed with mica, and ßmilar
on the eaftern
of
this

mountain
is

whence

it

appears that this hornftone

but a variety of the

eaftern and general rock of the Zwitter-mill.

In

Trinity

mine on the eaftern part of
are

this

mountain two veins
BleJJing

working,

C2i\]tdi

Heavenly

and Divine Providence.

To
•,

the weft they

are comprefled

by the hornftone

but they

may

very likely

in a greater

depth unite and

fall in to-

gether by their dipping, and then prove quick and
metallic.
It
is

obferved in this mountain, that

the filvcr morning-veins,
7
if
-i

running
if

in

hour 7 or

are

quick and metallic
lefs

ftanding or vertical
is

they dip

than 45 degrees, that

flat

or

foaring, they are deaf.
2.

Irrgang or Labyrinth
all

is

a large iron vein,
nine, line four,

which

along

its

run

in

hour

for a fp?ce of about three

German

miles, as far as

Annaberg

in

Saxonia,

is

v/orked by feveral com3

T

panics.

262
panies.

MINEP. ALOGICAL HISTORY
Each of thefe companies
gives to
its field

and part of the vein a particular name.
ample, Maria Hulf mine near Platte
Gottcs-vein.
calls

For exit

Hilf

Here

the hading

is

granite,

and the

hanging flate \ and it has been obferved to be richeft where running between thefe rocks. Commonly
it

runs in granite, which often contains fherl

•,

and
it

it

gets a hanging of Ü.ue in thofe places where
flate.

runs into the incumbent

They

told

me,

that this granite-rock contains
bafaltes.

fome wedges of
veins
•,

Crofiing foul and

argillaceous

force this iron vein into a different direction

but

conftantly
It
is

it

returns to

its

rule

and main direction.

about four fathoms wide, and yields the
red button-ore

fineil

and other areillaceous red
in a thicknefs

iron-ore,

which often appears

of

one fathom.
ganefe
it is

Now

and then brownHone or manufe'

found with the button-ore, and they

as a flux.

The
granite.
S.

^in-mincs

near Tlatte are

all

of them in

Conrad

is

the chief of

all,

and v/orks the

foUov/insf veins
1.
6'.

Chrifiopher' s vein^

running

in

hour 11,

points' 6,
2.

dipping

in

72 degrees.

Frefß-for tune's vein, running in hour 11 4,
in

dipping

82 degreec.
8

3. Conrads-vein, running betv/een hour

and
It

Q,'and makes a crofs with the two former.
dips in 82 degrees.
4.

Chriß

OF

BOHEMIA.
They
baffet generally

263

4..Chriß birth's 'vein runs in hour 3.
5.

Matthiew'i vein.

out

with tin-ftone, which formerly has been waPned

and thus furniflied an opportunity for difcovering
the veins.
difh

The
is

rock, in which they run,

is

red-

and grey

granite,

fometimes

greenifli.

Their

vein rock
ftripes

loofe granite with parallel layers or
;

of zwitter

which diverging from the vein
Generally
fo
it

make

it

extremely thin.

it is

from one
eighty
clay

to four fathoms

wide; and

was about the
is

middle of
fathoms
•,

its

depth.
ftill

The
quick.

deepeft pit

the vein

White yellow

or lithomarga, blackifli mica, and fine pointed

black wolfram or pyrites are found with the tinzwitter.

The wolfram

is

here in deaf veins, the
tin.

conftant fore runner of

The

crofTings

of

the veins, and of the fmaller vertical or
fures

flat fif-

running

in

hour

fix

improve

thefe veins in

general.

Gottes

Gab

in the Circle
at prefcnt

ofSiiz.
no mine work-

N

this place there

is

ing except in the

Kf.Jf-,

a

mountain confifting

of micaceous and quartzous

clay-flate.

They

dig

here in feveral pits, fuch as
T'ubal-Cain^ iron ore,

but

ijrony

lin-zwitter.

John in the defert^ good loadilones, and rich Accidentally they meet

T

4

likewife

^64

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
copper and filver-ore
filver,
•,

likewife with

nay there

have been found famples of

copper, iron

and

tin flicking in the

fame matrix

The
is

miners fuppofe that an iron-flat or bed
a tin-flat or

incumbent here on
is

tin-ftratum

but that
ture

inconfiftent with

the height and nais

of the

mountain,

which

a

fimple

or

true gang-or primitive mountain.
vertical as
latter

Several veins,
crofs
it.

well
iron

as

fiat

ones,

The
and
flats.

carry

and

tin,

and being

flat

foaring have been by the miners miflaken for

The

vertical veins

ftrike

them

deaf-,

and they

yield lefs tin as
fiflTures
;

loon as they are united with filver

this

feems to be owing to the fame caufe,

which
duced

in

the Saxoraan metallic mountains proarfenical veins (and fuch

filver in

are the
fif-

tin-veins) wherever they are crofi"ed
fures.

by irony

Infiead of cobolt, mifpikkel, tin and other

arfenical ore, they yield then filver-ore.

Though

fuch particular obfervations are
lifhing general principles,

fjg.r

from eftab-

and the alchymifl:ical
filver,
;

conclufion, that iron

and arfenic produce
rafli

might prove t90 bold and too
I

perhaps

am however
if

of opinion,

that furh

obfervaveracity,
fince they

tions

made with
not only rules

precifion

and

are extremely interefling
eftabliih

and

ufcful,

f^.r

particular mountains,

veins and mines, but may

in

time lead to a nearer

knov/ledge of the hitherto too myfterious chemical
preparations of nature.
I

have

OF
I

BOHEMIA.
in

265
iron

have faid that
tin is

the

Kaff-mountain

and
vein.

dug
tin,

in the

fame

pit

and

in the
its

fame

The
;

iron here generally appears in

upper
irony,

part

the

which
at

is

here extremely
greater depth
;

conflantly

appears

a to

and

it

would be worth while
which might be
conjecture
in the
is

examine whether
ftill

filver-

ore might not be found in a
eafily

greater depth,
gallery.

done by a

My

fupported by a general obfervation
filver mines.

neighbouring Saxonian rich

The fame
in a
filver
;

vein contains there under the turf iron,
tin,

middle depth

and

at the greateft depth,

and

this

feems to be owing to the fame

caufe,

which

in

any point of thefe veins,
filver

if arfe-

nical, has

produced

whenever,

as I told be-

fore,

an irony vein comes a crofs or unites with

them. Having already declared

my

opinion on the

importance of this obfervation and its confequences,

and being
cies, I

far

from inclining

to alchymiftical fan-

hope not

to be aflved for a natural folution
I

of

this

phsenornenon.

declare freely to be as ig-

norant of the caufes

as I

fhould like to
is,

know them

;

what non
It
is

I
is

know
faft
I

of the matter

that this

pha^nome-

in the

Saxonian metallic mountains.
it

not

alone'who have been convinced of
;

by

feveral

obfervations
atteft
it,

fome of the moft learned
it

miners can

and have convinced me of
in Saxony they

by many examples. Nay

make

ufe

of this and other fuch obfervations, and apply

them

266

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
fuccefs to
their

them with
working of

a fcientifical
;

and pra6lical

mines

and even the annaliits
ftill

of the Saxonian mining places, but
prefent producing filver,

more

fo

the ancient records, prove that' feveral Saxonian

mines,

at

yielded in
drifts,

former times,

and

in

their

upper

good

tin-and iron-ore.

Mr.

Peithner,

who

before his

prefent preferment to the
fellor,

chara6ler

of coun-

taught

at

Prague the fcience of mines, has

found the fame obfervation fupported by feveral
correfponding ones in Bohemia.
I

have perufed

fome parts of
of

his iedlures, as

penned dov/n by one
following

his difciples,
:

and

in thefe I find the

paflage
'*

" Some of our Bohemian mountains,
the golden-top^ near the new road to Berinconfifl in their

fuch as thofe at Platten^ Neudeck, Gottes Gab^ and

" above
'*

ger.,

and fome others,
drifts

upper parts
(which
as I

" and

of iron

flats
is

or beds,"

have already noticed lowed by rich
I

a miftal<ie of flat

and

foar-

ing veins) " but in a greater depth they are fol*'.

tin,

nay even by
in

filver-ore.
.

"

return to

the mines

Kaff

Pyrites here

quickens the tin-ore.
vious roafting,
in
is

The

tin-ore, after a pre-

pounded and wailied on

hearths,

which operation they make ufe of theloadftone

in order to feparate the iron.

Though
off

all

the iron

particles cannot be

drawn
raifed

by

the loadftone,

they are

however

by

ir,

and the

eafier

wafhed down.

Formerly

OF
mines, which are
red
ore.
filver-ore,

BOHEMIA.
faid to

267
fil'/er

Formerly there have been near Gottes Gab
hereabout called native

have produced a dark

brown-

Bleyftadt, in the Circle ofS^izz,

THE
in a

mountains

confift:

of grey micaceous,

quartzous and argillaceous flate, which mine called Heerzug contains red garnets. The richeft veins run from the weft ; the northerly veins are deaf

and

crufli the

former.

The

rock

filling

the weftern or eaftern veins confiftscall

of quartz, which they

gneifs,

and appears
fa-

under a found and compad or a loofe and a
rinaceous form.

Their dipping
width
is

is

generally vertical, and their
to

from three

eight

feet.
till

They
is

are

fteady to a depth of i6o fathoms,

the quartz

turns deaf and
glance, and

unmetallic.

The

ore

coarfe

now and then white
lead-clay.

lead-ore and

brown and reddifh
was
likevv'ife

Formerly there

green lead-ore.

The

glance confell it

taining fcarce any filver, they

pound and

either as lead to the furnaces at Joachimßhal, or

to the potters for glazing.

Schlackenwald,

268

M INE

R A LO G

I

C A L

HISTORY

Schlackenwald,

in the Circle

ofS>-3i2iZ.

THE
than

country

is

rather
;

gently

afcending
till

mountainous
foil

accordingly they

and plow the
Thefe
forms
confift

which covers the deeper rocks.

of a mixture of quartz, glimmer,

and white

clay,

which
a

fplits

into lamellse,

and

gneifs,

or

continuation

and variety

of the Bohemian argillaceous metallic mountains.

They have
I.

here

three different forts of veins.
;

Lead-veins with filver

and particularly a quartz
gallery,

vein in the

Emperor JofepFs
veins ^ fuch as

running

in

hour eight.
2.
'Tin

thofe in the crofs mine,
pyrites, tin ore,

which produces wolfram, copper
and
3.
tin zwitter in

quartz.

Tin

flocks.

In fome mineralogical accounts,
is

the

name of ftock-works

too

often

mif-

applied to the uniting of feveral veins in the fame
run, or to the larger bellies of fingle veins.
cither of thefe cafes there
is

In
the

no reafon,

why

name of vein fhould be given up
ftock-work.
I

for that of "a

underlland by flock-zvork^

that

native place of metals, which without any regular

or determined run to any certain point or line of
the

compafs, and without any determined dip-

OF

BOHEMIA.

'26g

ping, appears rather as a large conical
rocks, funk or inferted in the
tain.

body of midftofa mounof pure
lefs

Such a cone or lump
is

confifts cither

ore or of a rock, which

more or

impregis

nated and penetrated with metallic particles, and

conflantly of a different kind than the furrounding

or including rock.

within a curve line, which

The whole may

flock

is

included

be either an oval

or a circular one.
unite as
In the

Thefe circular out-lines either commonly in the depth or they diverge.
cafe the flock has the
in this
it

firft
•,

form of an invert-

ed cone

hath the form of a truncated

and flanding cone.

Three fuch flocks have been
i.

hitherto obferved at Schlackenwald,

1 he Royal
working,
3.

Huber, which
2.

is

the

largefl,

and

ftill

The

Stock-ßaft, fmaller

and worked out.

A

Stock not yet examined, but reputed to be

of the

fame circumference
condition beincc
ferved,
I

as the fecond.

Their natural

the

fame, as far as hitherto ob-

fhall

confine myfelf to the defcription

of the Royal Ruber

The

rock which furrounds
is

it,

or in which

it is

flanding,

gneifs.

The

flock

itfelf confifts

of

granite, or a mixture of quartz,

feldfpath
lefs

and

mica-grains and lamellas, more or

penetrated

and fprinkled with

tin-ore.

The
in
its

feldfpath

is

reddifh or grey

-,

but often

place appears a white and greenifh clay, which

probably

2^0

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
as a
in the

probably might have turned into feldfpath,
decay or mouldering

midft of the rock and

under ground cannot be properly luppoled.
laft

This
the

variety of granite, which

is

commonly

leafl rich

of tin,

is

2.x.

Schlackenwald

C2.\\zdigrit{greifs)

and

its

conflituent parts, quartz, mica and clay
it is

feem to indicate, that
sneifs,

but a variety of the
In a mineratrue;

which furrounds the fiock.
is

logical refpeft that afiertion

pretty

and
of

the difference of the rocks being lamellous and

of the

grits

appearing in a compaft form,

is

no importance.
origin, antiquity

However,
and

this difference is

very

remarkable and intereiling

in

refped:

of their

fituation'.

This grit-fcone

confiils

of grains and lamellae,

ferrumiinated together as the pebbles in a
ftone.

pudding
of

Whatever be

its

origin,

it is

in refpeft
it

the time and the manner, in which

happened,
in vv^hich

ofcourfe different from that revolution,

fimilar conflituent parts joined into an uniform,

not granulated more

compadl rock,

which

is

lamellous, and goes under the

name of

gneifs.

Moreover

it

breaks in with the granite of the flock,
j

without any remarkable feparation or bedding
it

never occurs
it is it

in the

including gneifs.
is

Accordproduced

ingly

a variety of the granite, and

with

in the flock, in the

fame moment and by

the fame revolution.

The

OF

BOHEMIA.

I*]!

The oranite of this flock is comparatively with the common merallic mountains to be confidered
as the vein
;

the furrcanding gneifs

is

in

the fame

refpeft to be

compared with country rock.
:

But
like

here the queilion arifes

whether

this ftock, after,

other veins and
in its this

fiflures,

be produced
?

and

prs-exiiling mountain-rock

Or whether

granite-Hock

may be

confidered as a top or

flimmit of the ancient primitive and deeper granite,

which was afterwards furrounded, inclofed and
•covered

by the more modern

gneifs

?

Being cona

vinced by
cient

many

fa<5ls

that granite

is

more anflate,

and deeper rock than argillaceous

gneifs

and other fuch
inftances

varieties

-,

having moreover

feen

many

of the granites high and bare

appearing through and above the more modern

and incumbent rocks,
laft

I

am

rather inclined to this

opinion.

1.

ßccaufe the

common
firft

theory of the origin

of veins by

filFures

or cracks

produced

in

the

mountain-rocks, when

they began to dry,

does not account for round conical holes in the

mountain-rocks, of fuch extent and regular form
as the flocks
2.

under confideration.

Bccaufe even allowing fuch conical holes
remains the difficulty,
filled

there_

how

they might have
granite,

been afterwards

up with

which

commonly

272

MINERALOGICAL HiSTORV
as vein-rock,

commonly is not found its own fifllu-es.
However,
to

except in

wave

the charge of being

too

much

prejudiced for

my

hypothefis,

I

leave

my
this

conjeftures of the
granite-ftock and
to
its

origin

and antiquity of

furrounding gneifs-mountain,
intelligent reader.

the
in

confideration of the

Nay,

fupport of thole,

who might be
in

inclined

to confider this granite ftock as being of

modern date and produced
Graniie-ßock in
its

the

more more ancient
Royal Hui>er

gneifs, I will candidly relate, that the

upper part

is

ioo, but in the

depth only 92 fathoms diameter, having the form

of an inverted cone, and being for that the more
refembling to the metallic veins, which diminifl^
to the depth, and at laft difappear entirely.

But there
at the
this
is

is

befides a third'poffibility

;

that of

the granite {locks and gneifs-rocks being produced

fame time.
indeed the

Of

all

the before-mentioned

leall

probable.

Whatever hypothefis
a

my

readers fliould have

mind

to,

they will obferve that no conclulion
g;eneral obfer-

can be drawn from them againft the

vation, that the granite in the largeft and higheft

European mountains
ceous
(late

is
;

more ancient than

argilla-

and

gneifs

and that thefe are incum-

bent on granite, as limeftone and other modern
beds are accumulated on them.

Though by my own

OF
own, and
(o

B O

M

E

M

I

A.
I

289

many
I

other obfervations,

am

con-

vinced ofthat,

cannot denyto nature the power of

producing under proper circumftances the fame fpecies

of granite or rock, which
times, either
lava's
It
is

it

produced
fire,

in for-

mer

by water or by

as

appears

by fome
tello's.

which exaftly refemble the graniobvious that
I

meant not

to

fpeak

of thefe fuppofed modern granites, but of the ancient ones, in as nature in

which we can be the

lefs

miltaken,

its

prefent quiet courfe, and without
in

fome new and great revolution
not likely
to

our globe,

is

produce any remarkable granite

rocks, or any far-ftretching, high-tov/ering chain

of fuch mountains.
chief,

The

argillaceous flate of the
in

middle and richer, metallic mountains
is,

Europe
that

in a

mineralogical
is

rcrpe(5t,

the fame as

flate,

which

bedded

mountains; nay which is
ooze of every

more modern every day produced by the
in

the

muddy

lake

;

however,it would be
in

extremely wrong to confound them

a

Natural

Hiftory of the Earth, in the fame manner as they
are
lar

confounded

in a

Syllabus of Mineralogy. SimiItratified itones,

beds of clay or other

or

dif-^

ferent only

by accidental circumftances, fuch

as

that

of colour or hardnefs, or mixture of iron,
very often found in difftrata.

lime or phlogifton, are
ferent

depths and feparated by other
mineralogifl

A
rank

mere

or

coUedor

offoflils

would

U

290

MIN-ERALOGICAL HISTORY
in the
clafs,

rank the produce of thefe different beds

fame

nor think of any difference

;

but the
fail

hiftorian of fubterranean geograp'hy

cannot

to obferve their differences in refpedl of their antiquity,

origin, relation to

other beds, metallic
the
crofTing veins.

contents,

and

influence

on

The

fine-grained iimeftope of the Alps^ the fcaly

or faline limeftone, the calcareous tophus or travertine, the limeftone
finally

incumbent on
which we
fee

coals,

and day

that

fpecies,

every

on the Dutch fhore, produced by fea are lime, nay fome of thefe different
a<7ree in the

fhells,

fpecies
in

manner of

their oripjin

;

though

general they are different in this and in

many
their

other refpefts.

A

common

fyftematical colledor
flints

will unconcernedly break the

from

chalk-matrix, in which they are found in France^
.

in

England^ and in Stevens-Klint on Seeland, and
flints

moll fyltematically rank the
fiiices,

with the other

and the chalk with the calcareous earths
fcientifical naturalift

but a

draws from thefe na-

tive places, and other concomitant circumftances,

conclufions on the origin of the

flints.

The former

examples
and
its

illuftrate
;

what

I

have

faid

of the granite

varieties

and the

latter

demonftrate the
dif-

neceffity

and ufe of a nice obfervation of the
fofTils.

ferent native places of

Ire-

O
I

F

B O

H

E

M

I

A.

29

return to Schlackenwald.
is

The

mixture of the

granite

not uniform throughout the mafs of the

whole frock.

Sometimes large
it,

(Iripes

of pure

quartz are contained in
ably
rich

and thefe are remark-

of

tin-ore,

with blue and green fluors,

of wolfram, fome copper- pyrites and black-lead
(molybdana.)
In other places the mica
;

is

accu-

mulated

in large laminse

in

others

prevails the
fat clay.

feldfpath, or, inftead

of that, a white

Though

the wliole (lock be throughout fprinkit is

led with tin-ore,

however more frequent and
the parallel ftripes, which

more accumulated

-in

crofs the finer grey or reddifh granite.

Some deaf
monly
of them
ore.
in
in

fifllires

or veins crofs the (lock

hour
their

three.

The
the

ancients

commade ufe

works, efpecially for firing tha
called
in

One

vein,

TJhevpermac.s-Vein^

croiTes

our granite frock

hour twelve, and conin

tains tin-ore, pyrites

and wolfram

quartz.

I

am

ignorant, whether thefe veins have their con-

ftant run

beyond the granite-ftock
which
is

in the gneifs,

a circumftance
at

obferved in the tin (lock

Geyer in Saxony^ and might be fuppofcd perin tills, as

haps
other

they are found agreeing in fo
I

many

circumflances.

am

equally

ignorant

whether

this granite-flock,

as that at

Gey er^ have

a fkirt or inclofiire (flockfcheider) which in that

place confills of feldfpath, fometimes mixed with

U

2

quartz.

292

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
The tin-ftock at
Altenberg
in
in
is

quartz, mica or day.
in Saxony

of a different nature, fince inclofed

granite,

and confifling of a variety of granite,
particles are prevailing.
faid to

which the quartzous

The

mines at Schlackenwald are

have

been working above 530 years.

The

Royal Huber

was formerly held by grant by

feveral companies,

who worked
prefs-queen
;

this ftock in

common

with the

Em-

but hence arole very irregular works,
place are of old {landing, fmce the

which

in this
fields

upper
fore

or levels,

having been worked out

without any refpefl to after-times gave way bethe year 1580,

and caufed a large gaping
to be feen.

fifiure,

which

is ftill

However, they
be above 100 fais,

went on again with the fame
under
levels,

irregularity in the

which are

faid to

thoms under ground.
even
at prefent the

The

confequence
fafely

that

works cannot be

exami-

ned, and that any jumping on the turf above the

works makes the whole ground tremble and fhake.

Some

time after the ocular examination of thefe
in

mines by Baron Mitrofßy^ which happened

the year 1743, her Royal and Imperial Majefty

has

recalled

and redeemed the grants, but to no

great advantage, fince after the irregular ravages

of the old man, which have crippled the whole
ftock,
it is

almoft impoflible to introduce any
befides,

regular

work

and the richer and larger
tin-

OF
tin-ore cryftals

BOHEMIA.

293

of former times feem to be gone.

Formerly they had here that fcarce fpecies of ore,
which
ore.
is

known under
otiis

the

name of white
III. p-

tin-

Beyer in

metalii eis. Part.

169, has

given an account of the preparing, uftulating,

waihing and fmelting of thefe and other
ores.

tin-

To

encourage and to
in

facilitate the

Bohemian

tin-mines

general, her Majefty has ordered
at

her mineral trade commiflion

Vienna to buy the

Bohemian

tin at a certain fixed price.

The

tin-ores of Schlackenwald, 'Platte, Gottefgah

and of many Bohemian wafh- works, were formerly
fuppofed to be auriferous, and to contain feme
filver.

But modern

aflays

have proved the con-

trary.

Schonfeld, near Schlackenwald.

THE
The
Siincn

tin

mines

in this

place are the mofl anthe

cient in

Bohemia.
is

Of

former

filver

mines nothing

remaining but ancient records.

Judas and the Crofs mine have been the

richeft

tin-mines,
in gneifs.

and were worked on veins

which ran

The

white tin-ore, which
Cronßedt,

U

3

294

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
§. 2.

Cronßedt^
terra

209, has called ferrum calciforme

quadam

incognita intime mixtum^
It offers

was found
in in-

in thcfe

nnines.

either

compaft
it

determinate forms, in which cafe

refembles to

ponderous white or greenifh

and

fat quartz, or

in white or j^ellow fplendent cryilallifations.

Grasllitz, in

the Circle of S2i2.z.

HAS
they

yellow andgreeniüi copper-pyrites, with

green and brown copper ochres in argilla(late.
is

ceous and quartzous
thefe pyrites nothing

In the fmelting of

remarkable, except that

make

ufe of white fluor, fetched
foft pyrites

from Saxony,

and that to fome
ftone.

they

mix lime-

Mies,

in the Circle ö/'Pilfen.

rx^HE mountains confift of grey micaceous and
-L
argillaceous
flate,

fornetimes

mixed with

quartz.

The
then

veins are generally quartz, which
is

now and

c ry flail ifed.

In a fpecies of thefe

cryftallifations I

obfcrved the

fame parallel

in-

cifions

OF
cifions,

BOHEMIA.
a

295
cryftallifa-

which

are

charader of the

tions

from Hodriz near Shemniz in Lower Hungary.
ore
is

The

lead glance, which per

hundred weight
to-

yields

from two to four ounces of filver, and

wards forty pounds of lead.

Yellowifh green
in

hexagonal prifmatic lead fpar has been found

former times.

The works
ill

are

in

great decline,

and have ever been very

contrived, which

makes

their examination not only difficult but dangerous
too.

T^Joe

coal work near

Wilkifheu

/« the Circle

^Pilfen.
is

IT-

but of

late that in this place a gallery

has
-,

been driven into a coal-bed, which baffets out and they have butjuft begun to fink a fhaft upon it. If I were only to write for thofe who in the art and
fcience of the mines fee

and conceive no further
have a profpetft
were not con-

entertainment than

as far as they
;

of clear gain before them

and

if I

vinced too, that exaft mineralogical obfervations,

even of poor mines,
richer ones,
1

may prove
f^.y

very ufeful for

might have very
of

juftly fupprefied

what

I

fhall

have to
its

this

inconfiderable
as thofe gentle-

coal-work and

fituation.

But

men

will

not poffibly loofe their time with

my

U

4

performanceSj

296

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
I Ihall

performances,

rather freely fubmit

my

ob-

fervations to the judgment of the few learned connoiffeurs.

The
piia
fift

mountains, which to the weft divide Bohe-

from the Upper-Palatinate and Bavaria^ conof granite and of feveral varieties of argillaflate.

ceous

The
In

granite

of the higheft

moun-

tains hereabout contains large and thick black
Iherl-cryftals.

my

defcriptions of the mines at

Caiharinabergl have given already Ibme account of
the rocks of thefe mountains, which connect with
en, and to the fouth run into the the Circle o{ Pi If

Circle of Prachin, and to the north into that of

Saaz.

In order to determine the fituation of the
I

coal-bed at V/ilkißden,
this ridge

am

to fix

upon a point of
fliall

of mountains, and that

be a-tKla-

draWy one hour's way diftant from Wilhßen.

The mountains
dark grey or

in this place

confift
lefs

of pure

fometimes micaceous and more or

quartzous

blueifii argillaceous flate.

*

* If a great quantity of quartz be clofely blended and con-

nefted with argillaceous

flate,

it

proves very hard and longi;

tudinally fibrous in the fradlures
into true hornfiate.
p. 358. 2.
I

that

is

to fay,

it

changes

Cornsiis Fijfijis

Wallerii Mineral, Ed. 2.
/i/fti/r/zou

have been convinced at
llate
is

of

this

dege-

neration,

pure argillaceous

commonly
I'eins,

cro/Ted

by

quartz veins.

Horn
its

flate

has

no fuch

but inftead of

them quartz has with the clay and

internally and

equally connefted itfelf
It is

produce the mica.

found here in
the

OF

BOHEMIA.
this flate are

297

On

the road between

Kladraw and Haide, and
found,
in the

towards Pilfen fragments of

fome of them regular cubes, others

form

of oblique or rhomboidal pyramidal columns,

from fome

inches

to

one foot
I.

in height
in

•,

their

form

as the cryilal, n. 8. tab.
III.
I

Linnets Syßema

Natura^ tom.
near Kladraw,

In

the granite mountains,

have found fimilar rhomboidal
conllant and regular; in

and pyramidal columns of grey and reddifh granite.

Their form'

is

the fame horizontal or foaring fituation as the
argillaceous flate
tical
;

common pure
mountains

accordingly

it

is

not conftantly in a ver;

pofition, as at Edelfors or in other metallic
it

nor does

appear in the form of waves.

It

may be doubted
More-

therefore with great propriety, whether that vertical polition

hath been

its

natural poiition from

its

very beginning.

over the pofition, which

may

be accidental, does not deter-

mine the
flate,

fpecies

;

the lefs {o as even the pureft argillaceous
firatined ftone beds appear not

nay many other modern

only in horizontal and foaring, but likewife in

many

other,

and even

in vertical poficions.

All thefe circumftances, toit

gether with the chemical aflays, prove
(Wallerii Mineralogy, ed. 2, p.

to be argillaceous

355, 358, 359, and 364..)

and convince me,
but that
it

that

it

fliould not

be confidered

as

a genus,
ar-

might bevery
{Scbißus

juftly

ranked with the

common
as
it

gillaceous flate
variety, I

Wallerii.)
its
;

Hov/evcr,

is

a

do not controvert

proper

name and

claHification

in the Mineralogical

Sydcms

but in refpeft to phyfical geo-

graphy
flate.

it

fhculd ever be

fepi;rated

from the argillaceous

fome

29S

M IN
is

E

RAL OG I CAL HITSORY
in

ibme of them the feldfpath,
quartz

fome others the
clay.

decayed into farinaceous

But a
is

third fpecies of

columns of the fame form
;

to be found about

Kladraw

and

this confifts
flate,

of a variety of the dark grey argillaceous

whicli Teems to be an intermediate fubftance be-

tween argillaceous
is

flate

and

granite. Its fubftance
fine

darkgrey, blackißi and
it is

micaceous

flate

-,

but

mixed with parallelopiped fpots of white
air

and lamellous feldfpath, which expofed to the
turn milky and opaque.

By

this accident

it

refem-

bles to porphyry or to a variety of granite.

Near
its

Plan red garnets are found

in

it,

which proves

being a variety of argillaceous flate, becaufe the

Bohemian

garnets are
flate.

commonly
in

in

micaceous
I

quartzous clay

Perhaps the rock,

am
is

fpeaking
ßate
in

of,

is

breaking

the limits where
together.
It

and

granite

border

my

opinion a remarkable phenomenon, that

this variety

of argillaceous

flate

with fpots of feldflate

fpath, nay even the

pure argillaceous

and

granite are found

in thefe parts in confl:ant deter•,

mined and regular columnar forms
are

and

as they

found
it

fo in their natural fituation in the

moun-

tains,

appears clearly that thefe rocks in their for-

mer

flate

of

fluidity

had a natural tendency to a
it;

regular form whatever be the caufe of o

The

OF
The
induce
tions
is
*,

BOHEMIA.
forms as

299

regularity of their faces

and angles would
cryftallifa-

me
but
as

to confider their

commonly the name of cryftallifations
I

given only to regular aggregations of diflblved

faline

and metallic bodies,

leave to

my

readers
is faift,

the liberty to look out for a better name. It

that thefe rocks iplit and break with as
gularity as poffibly
ftallifation.

much

re-

may be produced by any
it

cry-

How

happens, that fo few granite
in certain

and

flate-rocks,

and thofe but

places,

are, endowed with that quality, I

am
is

at a lofs to

account "for.

|1

In the neighbourhood ofKladraw
riety

another va-

of argillaceous Hate.

It is clofely

mixed

with quartz

and mica

j

is

extremely fhivery and

a true table-flate (ardefia) for which reafon they

break and ufe

it

inflead of
it

tiles.
;

The
I

convent at
it is is

Kladraw

is

covered with

and

fuppofe

a

fair conclufion that this table-flate (ardefiaj

not

conftantly
(flozberge.j

found

in

modern or flat-mountains

II

Let us

fairly confefs that

we

are equally ignorant of the
;

natural caufes of the faline and metallic cryftallifations
befides the

and that

above-mentioned rocks and Hones there are

many

more, which break into regular forms, though thefe have
not been hitherto properly attended to by our Mineralogifts.
I

gave a hint of that kind in the

firft

Latin edition of my

Syftem of the Earth, p. 11, 12, 13.

The

300

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
coal-work at Wilkißen
diftant
is

The
way

but one hour's
is

from Kladraw^ and the road
diftant,

thence
fields,

conftantly defcending.

In the adjacent

and fcarce a gunfliot
blocks

many

grey granite
I

appear above the vegetable mould.
diftinguifli

could not

whether thefe blocks were
of the granite-rocks
fad,
that

detached pieces, or parts

under ground; but
bed, with
its

it

is

the coalflate,
is

Ikirts

of black and rotten

but from three to

fix

fathom under the

turf.

Its

roof or cover confifts of a mixture of white-grey
clay,

fome quartz-grains and fome
is

flakes

of

ar-

gentine white mica; that
loofe incoherent granite,

to fay,

it

confifts

of a

which on that account
in faft is

rather deferves
called
fo
it

the the

name of fand, and
workmen.
?

by

The

queftion

whence

was produced

is

eafily

anfwered by the

above defcription of the higher mountains near

Kladraw
as
grit

;

and that roof may juftly be confidered
fchiftous

and decays of the

and granite

mountains, waflied down

and

fuccefiively accu-

mulated upon the coal-bed.
coal-bed in
itfelf ?
I fay,
it is

But what

is

the

the continuation of

the argillaceous
this

flate at
;

Kladraw^ penetrated in
it is

by petroleum
mountain

accordingly
fiat,

not, as

com-

monly, a modern
mitive

accumulated on the priat

rock

Kladraw, but

it

is

a pare

OF

BOHEMIA.

^01

a part and a continuation of that very primitive

mountain. § Some of my readers

will, I

this aflertion at variance with

am confident, find the common opinion,

according to which coal-beds are generally confidered as conftantly

belonging to the modern

accumulated

flats

(flozberge) and as never

making
pe-

part of the more

fimple

ancient

or primitive

mountains

;

but

as coals are argillaceous flate

netrated with petroleum,
§

^

I fee

no reafon why

Though
it

the continual floping defcent of the primitive
this

ground from Kladraiu to JVilkißen be favourable to
pothefis,

hyflo-

wants neverthelefs better evidence, as

on that

ping primitive ground modern beds might have been accumulated

by the fame revolutions, which have accumulated

{o

many others.
However
it

would be very unfair

to

deny the

polTibility

and

ingenuity of the hypothefis, ftubbornly to
Mineralogifts againft fafts and reafon,
i.

aflert

with fome

that coalbeds are

conftantly to beconfidered as the remains of ancient forefts,and
2. that they are conftantly covered

with and accumulated on be fupported by partial

modern
and

ftrata.

That

aflertion
;

may

local obfervations

but they can never

make good

a ge-

neral afl"ertion as will appear in the fequeh

^ Many
and
forefts;,

coal-beds confift vifibly of remains of trees, plants

more or

lefs

bituminous, and more or

lefs afFe£l-

ed and changed by the fituation in which ancient revolution«

have

left

and brought them.
here.

Thefe are out of queftion

Mr. Ferber might liowever

have taken fome notice of them, by telling, that befides thefe
coal-beds, there are fome others, which are undoubtedly confifting

of bituminous argillaceous modern

flate.

It

would

not have hurt his hypcthefls.
'

nature

302

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
flate,

nature fhould not faturate with the fame fubftancc

any argillaceous

whether
;

it

be of an ancient
I

or a more modern origin

and
far

am

the

more

of this opinion,

as

we
is

are

from being con-

vinced that petroleum

only to be found in mo-

dern beds.
fiats
lels

The

diftinclion

between the modern
is

and the pretended primitive mountains
material than
is

commonly

fuppofed.
;

It

merely

relates to their different antiquity
flate
is

for the

argillaceous

of the pretended

primitive
as

mountains

as well

accumulated on granite
is

every other modern bed

accumulated either on

granite or other rocks-, and whether this accumulation arrived in the beginning of the world, or long
after,
is

an objedl of mere conjecture.
is

The diffe-

rent width of the ftrata

of no greater importance.

The

pretended primitive mountains are moreover

called

Gang or ^^/Vmountains, becaufe
them
at
-,

metallic
as thefe
is

veins are generally found in

and

have been formerly working

Kladraw there
gang-mountains

no doubt,

that the mountains hereabout are juflly
•,

to be confidered as primitive or

However,

this

circumftance alone would not

make good
likewife

the affertion, fince metallic veins are
in

found

modern

ftratified

fiats

;

for
,

example the cobolt-work
lead-works
in

in

Saxe-Saalfield
in

the

Derhyßire^

and

many

other
-

places J for hence it naturally foilowsjthat the moun

tains

OF
tains
refpe(5l

BOHEMIA.

3O3
folutlon, in

produced by water, or by aqueous
of

the different periods of their origin

and

.

accumulation, and on no other account, can be
with propriety divided into old and modern ones,

owing

their origin

to different degrees of relaancient -mountains might, in

tive antiquity.

The
the

comparifon

to

modern

incumbent

ones-,

and

their greater variety of thin ftrata, be called

with greater propriety ßmple- mountains.

Their

denomination

of primitive,

original,

or gang-

mountains
I

is

by no means

charafteriftic.

am

to obviate here an objeflion,

which pro-

bably will

be made to

me by
Pilfen

thofe

who

are ac-

quainted 'with the country between Kladraw and
IVilkißjeny

and between
flat,

and Prague,

It is

in general

and immediately behind Kladraw

the mountains flope into a plain, which confiftsof
clay

and loam, and afterwards of coal, lime, and

other depofited aqueous
ingly this whole
tra(5t

modern

ftrata.

Accord-

of land feems
beginning

to be coverat

ed by

modern

beds,

Wilkßoen.

But

I

cannot allow that affertion
I

in refpe<5t to the

place

am

treating of, fince the
in the plain,

coal-works ac
in the

Wilkißen are not

but

Hoping
the

of the higher ancient mountains.
coals are immediately under the

Befides,

turf, being cover^

ed only by loofe grit and decays of the higher
mountains, and deftitute of any regular roof of
lime

,^04

MIN

E

R ALOG
1

I

C

AL

HISTORY

lime or marie.

had no opportunity to examine

the coal-works at Kotteßjaw^ Vv'hich are but one
hour's ride diftant-, but
I

am

afTured for the rclt

that the whole trad of land hence to Pilfen and

Prague

is

generally

flat

and

ftratified,

containing

fome coal-beds near
greyifh

Pilfen^ Shabrach^

Berawn, and

limeftone beds at Stiez^ which

are covered

by
at

yellow clay.

Probably the brooks

Pilfen and Berawn

v^ere larger in

former times,
thefe dif-

and may be fuppoled to have depofited
ferent

beds.

The

ancient

mountains

behind

Kladrazü however, which confift of argillaceous
flate

and granite, continue uninterruptedly running
;

under ground

for they appear

above ground

in

fcveral places between Kladraw, Pilfen and Prague»

The

grey granite-rocks appear on the road from
to Pilfen
;

Kladraw
ous, or

and thence
is

to

Prague the

ar-

gillaceous flate, which

either pure, or micace-

a horn-fchiftus.

All

this together coin-

cides to fliew that the coals at Wilkißen

may

be-

long to the more ancient mountains, which are

found running under ground

far

beyond this

place.

Even

fo far as

Prague are obferved fome fchiftous
rife

mountains, which

high above the ground.

The
and
coal-

other mountains thereabout are calcareous,
contain petrifaflions
;

fo that the

common
Itrata

beds

at Shabrach,

and the different

of marie

and

clay,

which are found between the prominent

OF

BOHEMIA.

3O5

ncntrocks of argillaceous flate,may bejuftly afcribed to one or to different inundations.

The grey-yel-

low veo-etable mould between Kladraw and Prague
is

for

the greater part
it is

owing to inundations
and
\

however

partly produced by the decays of

the argillaceous

and micaceous

flate-gneils

hornftone- rocks, which appear above the ground

and

this

is

evident from the mica flakes, which
it.

are found in

The
is,

conclufion, which

I

am

to

draw from

this,

that coals are not conftantly found in the
flats,

mo-

dern

but that ancient (pretended primitive)
is

argillaceous flate

llkewife

now and then
other places.

fatura-

ted and penetrated by petroleum.

This may be

probably obferyed
it

in

many

Should

not perhaps be the cafe of the coal- works in the

high and Ihaggy mountains of the Habichwald
near Cajfel in Hejfe
^
-f-

There are

feveral others,

which
f For this I refer the reader to my late account of th« German volcanos, by which it will appear, that this large
and iliaggy mountain
is

produced by many

fucceflive ancient

volcanic eruptions, and

cannot by any means be ranked

among

thofe ancient granite-or Ihiltous-metallic-mountains,
is

which Mr. Ferbcr

fpeaking

of.

However,
on the
I

as I

have no ob-

jeftion againft his hypothefis,

and am rather

inclined, to agree

with him, I
laying

Ihall lillen to his call

naturalifls,

and by

down

in a few vvords^

what

know 0/ my own obfervation

X

306
which
ever,
I

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
fufpefb to be of the fame nature.

Howmight

I

wifh, that intelligent
this

naturalifts

examine
it

my

adventurous opinion, compare
it

with nature, and confirm or refute
It is

by exafl

obfervations.
naturalift,

of fome importance to the
to

nay even

the miner, fince

it

ac-

counts and will account not only for the horizontal

and foaring, but likewife for the

vertical fitua-

tion of coals.

Zinnwald

tion

of the coal-mine on the Habich^MaU, not only make a

Aipplement to the above defcription, but likewife to Mr. Ferher's affertion.

On

the higheft

fummit of the HahichwaU, which

confifls

of alternating and various beds and rocks of volcanic afhes,
lavas, cinders

and tufo, accumulated on more ancient lime and
is

fandftone, there

(befides a fpacious plain behind the oftofalls

gon,) towards Hof, a gently Hoping ground, which
runs down
rifes

or

Into the Dru/eltbal.

In

tlie

midft of this ground

a

hill,

which

is

called the Zigenberg,

and

is

incumbent

on the lower coal-bed, which has been worked
reftions,

in

many

di-

and

as it ftiould feem, furrounds it

on every

fide.

The
turf,

ftrata in this

coal-mine are,

i

.

Immediately under the

black vegetable mould, mixed with decays of the furhills,
;

rounding volcanic
hard lava and tufo
2.

that

is

to

fay,

with fragments of

three feet.
as

White

fine

quick fand,
hill

found on the other

fide

of the

Dmfelthal, and the

behind the Pauls-harmitage, under

many

tufo and lava beds, in an ancient pit

and gallery,

cal-

led xheßlver-<weU,

and behind the Sneckenberg in

a fand-pit

'immediately furrounded wich volcanic materials, but notcapt

with them.

One fathom

three feet.
3.

White

OF

BOHEMIA.

^O^

Zinnwald

in the Circle

o/'Leitmerlz.

THE
or the

mines
if

in

this

place are but (lowly
at all.

working,

working
is

The

country

mountain-rock

granite of a different.

mixture.

Some

large foaring-veins,

which very
improperly

3.

White

fine clay^ as

found likewife under the above fand
bafalces
;

pit

;

and under a flratum of

behind the great water

fpout in the garden at Weiß'enßine

three fathoms.

Digging
begins
black,
to
its
firft

in this clay bed to the to

depth of three fathoms,

it

turn grey by ftripes
;

and afterwards entirely
which
is

till it

degenerates into coals
lelTer faturation

vifibly

owing

greater or

with petroleum.

4.

Coals, having in this mine no roof, as being immedi;

ately connefted with their fubflantial earth, the above clay three fathom three feet.

The

clay penetrated with petroleum, or the uppermofl imis

perfeft coal,

in

fome places

loofe,

and afpecies of

blackifli

or brownilh ruble or rotten-ftotie, which being an excellent

brown or

blackifli painters clay,
CaJJel,

was formerly fold under the
till

name o{ Painters clay from
v/ho
dealt in
it

the painter Huchfeld iied. native place a fecret.
I

it,

and had kept

its

have found

again, not only in

tJie

coal-mine, but likewife

immediately under the above fand pit behind the Snekenherg,

whence the painter Huchfeld is faid to have dug it. Towards the fole the coals turn harder and richer,
then more bituminous and more like the Zcotch coal
again proves the former prefence of fluid petroleum.
;

bein?o which

X

2

5.

The

308

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
call
off,
flats

improperly they
are varioufly

run

in

it,

and thcfc

cut

comprelTcd

and altered
;

in their diredion

by other vertical ones

in v/hich

cafe they are purfued

and found out again by the

fmall metallic or argillaceous joints, which to the

German miners

are

known under

the

name of

Schkppiingen,

5.

Thefole of the
ftriking fire with
this

coals
fteel.

is

white fand rock, extremely hard,

and

As

hitherto no pit has beeen funk

through

rock,

I

cannot

tell

on

whai:

ground

it is

incum-

bent, whether on

volcanic mafies, which in refpeft of the

high fituation of the coal-mine on the fummit of the Habicfj^

ivaU
cafe in

is

probable, or on limeftone, which feems to be the
refpeft of the fimilar fandftone rocks,

found on the

ether fide of the Drufelthal near the caftle of Weijfenfiein,

which

is

in a lower fituation than

any volcanic ftratum of the

Hahicbnvald.

From

thefe fads I

draw the conclufions,

r.

that coals are

not conftantly found in any regular order of facceffive ftrata,

nor conftantly under a roof;

2. that

being in

this place vifibly

produced from clay, faturated by petroleum, they

may bs
llratr;

"found in any place or ütuation where clay or argillaceous

Hate
fied

is

to be

met with,

in
as

ancient fimple or modern

mountains, as well
3.

on and

in

volcanic mountains

and

that henceforth coals will not be confidered as con-

ftantly

produced from

trees, plants

and

forefts,

buried by

inundations, though
gin.

many

coal-mines have had fuch an ori-

I cannot conclude this

account without taking notice of
in the coaf-

iome fpungy

coals,

which occur now and then

bed

OF
Schleppungen^

B

H

E

i\I

r

A.

309

and have been defcribed by Baron
or in his ac-

Swab
the
nite,

in

the Swedißj Tranfa<5lions,
at Edelfors.

count of the gold- veins

The

rock of

foaring veins confifts of various

mixed grablu^,

quartz partly

cryftallifed,

tin ore,

green and yellow fluor, pyrites and verdegreafe.

They appear

often on

both fides inclofed by

faalhands or fkirts of lamellated cat-gold of fome
inches thicknefs.

bed on the HaLichtvald.
the found coal-bed
fied
;

They

are found

by nodules within
fcori-

are extremely light,

aud refemble the

fpungy

lava's,

found near the oftogon on the Habichi.vaU,
confidered as cinders or as coals
is

They cannot
confumed by

poffibly be
fire
;

fince

there

no reafon why they fhould
heat or
fire fliould

have been burnt out, and

why

their

not

have catched the combuftible matrix of found coals, in which
they are contained.
If I were allowed to

fuppofe that the clay-bed on the
thofe in the Solfatara, from

Habich-ixald was produced, as

volcanic

allies,

changed by fulphurous acid into clay, there
account for thefe fpungy honey-

would be

lefs
;

dlfiiculty to

combed
the
acid,

coals

fince then they

might be

juftly confidered as

fpungy volcanic cinders
volcanic afhes,
firft

or

confumed

lavas, together with

changed into
coals

clay by

fulphurous

and afterwards changed into
I

by

fluid

petroleum.
to the

Though
and who

am

inclined to think fo, I leave

it

however

nearer examination of thofe,

who

are qualified for the talk,

will greatly oblige the Mineralogilts

by making out,
llrata

whether any

coals are

found under the volcanic

of the

Habichi-vahi, which, if fo,

would greatly

alter tlie hypothefis;

but

it

nevej has appeared fo to me.

(Trartß.)

X

3

Toplitz,

3IO

MINERALOGICAL HISTOB-V

Topliz, in the Circle (j/'Leitmeriz.

nr^HE mountains
-^
nite
;

from the above place

to this,

by the way of the Oak-foreß^ con fill of o-raand the ground is continually (loping to'loplitXj
till

wards

at

once

it

fmks abruptly into

the plain.

The
It
is

country about Toplitz confifts of gentle

accumulated modern mountains of clay,limeand coals.
interrupted by fome fteep infulated higher

mountains, which are calcareous, and feem to be
detached parts of the lower and gentler
raifed
flats,

by fome violent accident.

This affords
dif-

an excellent opportunity to diftinguilh the
ference of the

modern incumbent and the more
and to obferve

ancient fimpler mountains,

how

the former have been accumulated on the latter,

when
in

their vallies

were large refervoirs of water,
feveral

which

their

fediments

were

fuc-

cefTively depofited.

The

hot zvelh

and the hath

at Toplitz

are ob-

jeds too

much and

too generally known, to want

any defcription of mine.
a ftrong fmell

The

bath-water has

of hepar fidphuris.

They

tell

here that, at the time of the earthquake at Lißon^
thefe

OF
creafed,

BOHEMIA.

3II

thcfe wells, together with

thofe at Carlsbad, de-

and then burft out with great violence ; whence they deduce fubterraneous canals, reachBut the great diftance ing as far as Portugal.
feems not to be favourable to fuch a fuppofition

and a

fimilarity of caufes
in the

phasnomena
the town

may have produced thefe fame moment of time. Next to
for kilns. Neartheforeft-

rifes

a large limeftone ftratum, and clofe

by

are
is

loam

pits,

worked

gate
clay,

a coal-bed, covered with

fome fathoms of

which partly
ftratum

contains

is fullers clay, and commonly lumps of cry ftallifed pyrites. Immediately
is

under

this

a ftratum of wood-coals, or
-,

foffil-v/ood,

fome inches thick

and then the coal-

bed, which appears four fathoms above ground,

and has not been hitherto explored
width.
thill

in its

whole

It

confifts

of fhivery coals, and

many

beds of clay,

from

five

to eight inches

thick.

There
as

are

no regular works, the coals

being dug
bilh
is

from a quarry.
and the
afties

The

ftiivery

rubas

burnt,

produced fold

manure or dung

to the farmers.

X

4

Graupen

312

MIN E

R

ALOG CAL HISTORY
I

Graupen^

rr^ H E
-*-

road from 'Topliz to Maria-fchein runs.
hills

over gentle and low

of clay and lime.

The
curs,

detached granite, which

now and then occomes from the mountains on the other fide
Near Maria-fchein fuddenly
this fide
rifes

of

Toplitz.

a

large chain of high and fteep mountains of gneifs,

which include the bafon on
Graupen^ a tin-place,
tains,
is

of Topliiz,

at the fcot

of thefe moun-

which are called the Knutkr Gezirck.
fteep

Af-

cending thefe
vein,

mountains
to

I

obferved an old
-,

worked out up

the turf

but found no
filver-veins,
ftill

remains of old bing-places.

Two

belonging to the community of Graupen^ are

working
beech^
is

•,

one called

S.

Nepomuc^ the other Silver-

which proves

alfo in this place, that gneifs

generally a matrix of filver- veins, though here
iikewife contains tin-veins, v/hich
in granite,

it

commonly

run

and are then not interrupted.

Bj
and
a

means of a

fhaft

funk on a vein, they had difcoat a fmall depth,

vered others, which unite
all

of them, are metallic.

They

might, by

draining level of two hundred fathoms, clear
to a confiderable depth
;

them

and to judge of the bingplacea

OF
be worth
1.

BOHEMIA.'
It

3

1

^

places and the ores, which I found there,
their while.
1

would
and

obferved,
pyrites,

Sound

lead

glance with

blackjack
2.

in quartz.

The fame
Lead
Sound

with yellow blende.

3.

glance, blende and tin-ore in quartz.
tin-ore

4.
5.

and lead-glance

in tin-ftone.

Large pieces of

cryflallized

tin-ore

and

blende.

6 Fluor with copper-green and

azure.

The
make
tin

mixture of leadglance and yellow blende
it

probable, that, in a greater depth, the

will

be followed by

filver,

as

is

commonly

the cafe in the neighbouring mines of Saxony.

Thefe veins
to the
filver

are

called
is

filver- veins, in refpe6t
;

which

contained in the lead-ore

and befides them many tin-mines are working
the fame
I

in

mountain, but to no great advantage«
called the Sweif^

examined one of them,

ia

which they work on thin f oaring
fures,

tin-veins or fif-

which

in

refpe(5t

to their flat

and foaring
at

extenfion

greatly refemble the

larger ones

Zinnwald, being like them crofled by
tical

many

ver-

or dipping veins, cut off or alter'd in their

fituation,

and accordingly worked and purfued
principles.
in

pn the fame

They

are

nothing different from thofe
in their thinnefs

at

^innzvald,

except

and

in their

want

^14

MIN ER A LO G
fkirts,

I

C

AL

HISTORY
in

want of
fides

being immediately grown to the

of the country or rock,

which they are whole width of

running.

They

confifl in their
it
is

folid tin-floney

and

very rare to meet any

quartz in

them, which makes them bear the extheir

pence of working, although
ever above half an inch.
lae

width

is

fcarce

The

beds or lamel-

of the gneifs-rock

in

the country, on both

fides

of the veins, are moftly vertical or {landing

upright.

The

foaring veins, if cut off or croffed

by

vertical ones,

produce large joints or
in the vein.
It

riders

of

tin-ftone

up and down
filver

would be

worth enquiring whether
tain

thefe vertical veins conin

any

;

but the miners

this place

do

not
It
is

know

nor care for any other than tin-ftone.

remarkable, that the furface of the

moun-

tain finks

and

falls in

the fame direftion, as the

foaring tin-veins are raifed or funk by the crofling
vertical veins.

From

the top of this mountain the whole coun-

try or valley of Maria-Schein and ^cplitz appears

before you.

It

is

covered by

many

gentle in-

cumbent

hills

or

flats,

which are interrupted by
of

fome infulated conic
*

fteep granite-mountains, for

example near Muhlfrjaw, where
granite-rocks
rifes

a fteep chain

above the ground, and üiows
Graupen

to the cooleft imagination, that the mountains at

OF

BOHEMIA.

315
fea,

Graupen have been formerly the fhore of a

which covered the valley of Maria-Schein, and
above

which

the

infulated

granite- cliffs

at

Muhlßaw

mult have once appeared.

Muckenburg

or

Muckenthurmel.

FROM
flope of the

the before mentioned old mines in the
I

Knutkr-Gezirck

purfued that afcending
line
I

mountain to another

of old mines,

which

is

called the Altenherg.

paUed near
Itiil

Creuzgang and Manfuetus^ which are

working

on

larger tin-veins than thofe at Schweif.

Though
flo-

five

workmen

are only

employed in Creuzgang^ the

dividend however in 1767 confifted of 1400
rins,

which greatly vouches for the riches of the
afcends rapidly towards Muckenthur"
in

mountain.

Hence
funk a

it

mel or Muckenherg^ where they have
Ihaft

gneifs

on a large copper-vein, which they

confider to be a flockwork.

Here

is

the highefb

point of thefe mountains,

many hundred fathoms
;

above the valley of Toplitz

and hence they flope
in

and fink towards Altenherg

Saxonia.

Gneifs-

rock continued to Furfienaw^ where a variety of
granite

^l6

MI N

E

R

ALOG

r

C A L

HfSTORV

granite appeared, which beyond Geifing at Alten-

herg had
ture.

its

common and

natural colour and mix-

Ratieborziz

or

Bergftedt, in the Circle of

Tabor.

THE
gentle

filver-mines

in this place

are the pro-

perty of Prince Swarzenberg.
hills

They

are in
;

and grey or

blueifli clay-flate

in

which

are obferved

fome

fiffures

of greenifh

litho-

rnarga, or half-indurated pot-ftone earth or ba-

con-ftone.

A variety
Kietiburg's

of veins, which crofs thofe

mountains, are worked to advantage.

Count
which
mine.
is

works

at

Rzemizow, a vein

parallel to that at Ratiebcrziz,

To

the

weft of this place Cardinal Migazzi has a filver-

The
io

old mines at 1'abor, which were for-

merly

rich
late

of native-and redgilder-ore, have

been of

taken

up again by Baron

Keßer.

Near Budweifs, and near Rudolph and Adamfladt^ are many confiderable old mines in different mountains,

which are working partly by Her Royal
citizens at

and Imperial Majefty, partly by the
Budweifs.^

and

partly

by prince Swarzenberg.

They

OF
at

BOH£MIA.'

31^

They have of late found
Budweiß.

dendritical native filver

The mines
taken up them.
fiedt
I.

at

Ratieborziz

or Bergfledt, which

belong to the prince of Swarzenhfg, have been
again
in

17 19.

There

are feveral of

Tht

Chief-mine or Haiipt-Baw 2it:Berg-

confifts

of Lawrence^ Charles, Michel and
S.

Nichols,

which are drained by

Johi's gallery or

the deepeft water-level.

The

veins are S. Nichols

and Charles

;

both northern veins, or running from
in

north to fouth, and dipping
grees.

about fixty de;

S Nichols dips to the

eaft

S.

Charles to

the weft.
inches
•,

Where

richeft,

they are

about three

where yielding fprinkled and mixed ore,
{c^l.

they are about two

The

deepeft fcle

is

at

prefent feventy fathoms vertical under ground.

About

fifty

fathoms to the weft, and

in adireftion

parallel to their's, runs a

foul vein twenty-five

fathoms

wide,

which

confifts

of mixed,
ofi^

white

blue and yellow clay, and cuts
ramifications,
in fuch a

the crofting

which diverge from the chief veins

manner, that hitherto they have not been

hit again
2.

beyond

it.

The

under- work near Bergfiedt, purfues a

vein which runs between hour two and three, and

has lately yielded rich- ore in
[haft. It contains

the
vv^ith

S.

Aiithany-

lead-glance

filver,

and

that fort of fpeculsr blende

which

fi^.all

be fpoken

of

3l8

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
foftens

of hereafter. Where the rock
with quartz, there
3.
is

and

is

mixed

likewife native filver.
S.

Dorothea-mine and

George's gallery are

to the weft of Bergfledt, for the prefent extremely
rich,

and work on two veins, which have united. One is called S. George, runs in hour two the other is Dorotkca-'vein, which diverges from the
•,

former

in the

hanging runs

in

hour twelve.

This

was formerly exremely

thin, ran in

hard rock,

and contained rofy-coloured feldfpath, with fome lead-glance blende and a little filver; but as foon
as a joint with mifpikkel

came

into

the hading,

the vein produced white-and red filver-ore, native

ülver and glafs-ore.

S.

George has

in refpedt to
it

Dorothea an

irregular dipping, becaufe
it

coinas

cides or unites with
it

in the depth.
itfelf,
it

As long
fo

continues running by
clay-veins, that

it is

much cut

by foul

produces but little and

poor lead-glance and blende.
4.

Old-Wofchix-Uope God*s BleJJing-Gallery was

-quick already fourteen years ago.

They work

here

on

a vein, which

runs between hour nine and

twelve, and dips between forty-five and feventy-five
degrees. It
richeil
is

from

tv/o inches to
It
is

one foot wide, and

where thinneil.

chiefly

quickened by

the coming-in of a winding undulating black clay
fiflure,

which appears fometimes

in the

hanging

;

then

OF
then
It
is it

BOHEMIA.
by feme morning or
in a different

3 IQ
filver-ore,'

produces fallow, white-and red

likewife crofTed

eaftern;

veins,

which affed

it

manner

fince,

before they crofs

it,

the vein appears cut off
crofs,
;

and

dead,

till,

beyond the
former run

it

appears quick

again in the

fometimes the ore and

the vein are entirely loft or hid under the crofsjoint, fall out extremely rich

underneath

it,

but

difappear entirely above

it.

Three hundred and fifty men, the wafhers and
fmelters included, have here

employment.

The gang
1

or vein, or the metallic matrices in

thefe veins are,

Fine white quartz partly tranfparent, partly

cryftallifed.

Some

cryft-o.llifations are

lamellous,

having on the under part fquare regular impreffions,

as

in the cryftallifations

from Hodriz near

Shemniz.
2.

White calcareous
cryftallifed.

fpar, variouily tranfparent

and

3.

Yellow tranfparent calcareous
combs.
feJd fpath,

fpar, cryftal-

lifed like

4.
5. 6.

Reddifh

remarkably found.

Clay, black, grey, and yellow.
Aftyeft- like

cork, in whitifti, thin and flexi-

ble lamellse.
7.

Mifpikkel or white arfenical pyrites, quick-

ens the vein.
8.

Sulphurous

2^0
8.

MINERALOGICAL HISTORY
Sulphurous pyrites occurrs now and then.
filver-ores contained in thefe matrices are,
filver, like

The

9 .Native

wire or hairs,

commonly on
tranf-

mifpikkel or on yellow cubic fulphurous pyrites.
10. Red-filver-ore,

found and cryftallifed,

parent like ruby.
11. Glafs-ore, found, cubic, 12.
13.

and

capillary.

White

filver-ore.

Lead glance

mineralifed with filver, coarfc

or

fine,

cubic or polyedrous.
or red blende, knotty or
cryftal-

14.
lifed,

Brown
contains

much

filver.

15.

Specular

blende,

yellow

or

greenift>,

lamellous

and

tranfparent,

occurrs

in

large

lumps, now and then under a
broken,
it

cryftallifed

form

•,

confifts

of large lamelise, which
It is

refle<3;

the light like mirrors.
filver.

extremely rich of

The
much

wafti-and pounding-mills

have nothing
containing

particular.
filver,

But the above blende,

and being for that reafon fmeked

with the other ores, makes the fmelting fome-

what difficult.

The medium of the
is

filver-produce

of thefe mixed ores

from 40, 50, to

up-

wards of 100 ounces per hundred weight.

THE END.

INDEX.

X/i.-/>iJ

a,l>ur.-,

N
.^Brud-hanyn^

D

E

X.

a miningplace near Xalathna in Tranjylvaniay has gold

mines,
uigathe,
wi'ite

page 117

of fluor, 160 Antimony^ red and grafsgreen, löo ArdeUia^ Wallachian name of Tranfylvania^ 14 Argidaceous rocks and ftones,

and

red,

in

Horn flatc^
Kneifs^

Simon "Judas copper vein at Dognaßia^ which runs

Metallic rocky
Schißous clay^ and

53 Alahaßcr and Gypfum^ conftantly found in and about
rock-Calt- mines,
Alcaline
foffil,

in metallic rock,

144.

Jalty

native

and

at Debreczln^

4

AlumworksySX-Commotau^ 247 Antimony^ found with mineralized gold at Nagyag,

m Hungary incumbent on granite, 205 and under limeftone, which has changed them in fome places into marl, 208
Trapp^
Arfenic cryßaUifedy or orpi-

102
,

v/ith native gold,

ment, found with mineralized sold, 102
calx, dripping into

129, 130, and at Alagurka, 222 -, grey and yellowplumofe ; if found in the veins at Kapnik improves
their auriferous quality,

form of

ftaLiclites

Joach imßhaly
Arfenical^ fucn

th^ from 258

as tin-veins,

crolled

by

iron- veins,

produce filver in the Saxonian mountain^, 264, 265
veins, fuch a mifpikkel, uniting with ii'ver-

grey plumofe, in a fiffure of an auriferous zinnopel-vein at
-,

hanging

veins, iiviprove them,

318
its

Felfo-banya^
,

160

Bannat

of Teme/wary

on

quartz-cryft.ils,

limits and

160 on white pellucid rhomboidalprifms
-,

radiated,

Y

government, 7 10 inhabitants, 14 mines, 24—27

Bafaltes

1
Bafaltes

N D E

X.

columnar prlfmatlc^

Cat-gold, or yellow laminated
fkirts and includes the tin-veins in-granite at 'Zinnwald, 30 9 Caverns fub terraneous, generally found in calcareous

incumbent on Gneifs and 228 on granite,
»
,

mica

with black cryftal-

lized fherl,
)

228
33,
34.

(grains) in metallic

rock,

mountains
late

;

but one of
in
flate-

Blachmann^

a.

name given

at

difcovered
at

»

Kremniz to white filverore, which incruftates quartz, 219 >At Shemnlz it fignilies a

rock

'Joachimßhal^

267, 268
Chalcedony, or white hornftone, with petrified 'corals,

pyriticalincruftation

of glafs

and other rich

filver-ores, v/hich it is conflantly found concomitant, 219 Blqßing of the mines, invented at Frey her 1 6 1 3

near Lehotka, 194 , milky, {^ratified, with detached jafper and the fame in a^athe,
place,

194
,

.

gm

or in 1627, from Hungary introduced in Germany, ig2 5/fW^, withnativegold, 129 (fpectilar) yellow and greenifh,tranfparent ; rich of fih^r from Ratiebor"•'^mia, ziz in 320 Blokßerg^' iä«e high efl moun•
.

(blue) incrufta221 tion of iron ore -, (blueifh) dripped
as
ftaladtites

on
clay.

iron-

ore,

199
See
Kaolin

China-clay.

and Petuntfe ; a vein in granite-rocks under the

——

tain

in

Germany, and in

Blockßerg, 232 probably to be , found in every tra6t of granite mountains, 232

the Harz-foreft, confifts of granite rocks, either ftratified or confufedly piled up, 231 Bo'icza, rock, veins, mines

and ores, Born (Baron)
fuflrbcated

127, 128 danger to be in the mines
in

at Fcljo-batiya,

158
Joachims-

produced from , decaying granites, 232 may be produced perhaps by artificial decompofitions of granites, 232 and porcellanites or indurated china-clay found in Bohefnia, 252 Cinnabar, folid and fcaly,
at

Brußi-ore, a fpccies of native
Tilver,

Dumbrava,
,

1

20

found

at

granulated at Boin

thal,

271
307

boja,
,

CaJJel (painlers clay) defcri-

a

bed,

vein,

120, T2I limeftone 120, 121 Claujenburgf

INDEX.
Clanfenhirg^ ancient Roman colony, 146 Clay^ the fubftantial earth

of mica, glimmer, quartz
feldfparh and other flints,
as mouldering and decaying into clay, 229, 230,
fubftantial

volcanic productions, deftitute of any roof, confifts of clay faturated with petroleum ; perhaps produced fi'om volcanic afhes

and cinders,
Coal bed, at Toplitz
;

305
foflil

mon
,

and

comwood311

earth

ot

coal,
Cobalt, with filver-ore,

<

305 309 *— , produced from mouldering granite, gneifs and micaceous Hate, 230 235 volcanic afhes , from and fubftances, 309 with py, (auriferous)

coals,

com-

mon
away
bifh,

in

the veins at foa-

chimfbaU
,

formerly
in

257 thrown
as

Bohömia

rub-

pyrites,

in
^

the veins

at

(grey fcaly) native gold,
,

258 with 129

——

Kapnik,
,

155

Co7nbs or

{auriferous) grey, at 110 1 12 Facebay,

names given

Wacken, popular in Bohemia to

large vertical veins of por-

*——
'

,

(blue) with auriferous

phyry and trapp,
Copper, cemented
niz,
,

262
at Smol1

pyrites,
,

129

(blue) in flate, a vein

7

Z

'

producing orpiment, 195 with aurife, (black)
rous pyrites,

(ore) a.

Azur, or
&:c.

blue,

cryilallifed,

in

129

quadrangular oblongtrun31 polyedrous femipellucid forms from Saßa, B.
in

,

(grey) a vein in flate,

cated forms,

with quartz and copper pyrites, at Smolnh, 170

— 172

40
-,

'

(Painters) from Cajjel^ defcribed, 307
,
,

b.

Brown

;

a/i

undefcribed fpecies of jaf~
per,

(white)
near

with

au-

riferous lead-glance,

129

mouldering into red copper mulm or tile-ore,

Coal-bed^

TVilklßien,

from Saßa,
-,

39

feems to be a ftratum of old pretended primitive flate, impregnated by petroleum and covered v/ith detached decays of granite,

Broth-ore; a copper-pi rites penetrated
c.

with brown copper-mulm,
d.

Glafs;

red.

300,
,

301—305

cryftallized

in triangular

tvald,

on the Habichfurrounded with

odlangular and from Saß^a,

forms,
3[^»

Y

39

2

Copper

INDEX.
Copper, (ore)
ftone,
.

e.

Mulm

;

at

copper pyrites, and grey
copper-ore, 176 Copper (veins) At Moldova, run in every diie£xion, between grey argillaceous flate and a hanging of limeftone, both incumbent

Sqßa incumbent on limepage 35 J 37
Native^ on ', f. lead-glance from Illobor,

i66
,
ff.

Pitch-ore

:

produced from hardened copper-mulm at Saßa, 40
-,

on
.

gneifs,
,

44 At Muckenthur-

h.

'Tile-ore,

or

Red-ore, or red copper-

mel in gneifs, 315 -, At Newfol, in argillaceous flate, running from to fouth, dipping from eaft to weft, between forty and fifty degrees, cut off'byan oblique crofs joint of red irony argillaceous flate; confift of com-

from produced mulm, mouldering decaying jafper, 39, and found at
Oravitza,

north

•————,
cal,

3
IVl/ite

/.

arjeni-

Copper,

(fmelting)

in

31 the

Bannat defcribed,
,

57

mon

fhiftous clay,

mixed

Propofals of Mr. Delius to improve the operation, and to foften the copper by additional fulphur, or a fulphureous
regulus, (veins) Copper,

with mica, quartz, gypfum and copper ores,

which are auriferous in fome places, 195, 196
-,

At Oraviza,

in

At

63 Dog-

the

Simon jfudas, erroneoufly called a ftock,
;

na%ka

mountains of Coßoluiz, run between argillaceous flate and limeftone, confift of calcareous and felenitic ftones,

51
In metallic rock incumbent on gneifs, 51 Confifts of copper pywhite limeflone, rites, fpar, agathe, and yellow or black garnets, 53
,

of

28, 29 mountains Cornudilja, run in
-,

in the

limeftone, confift of gyp-

fum and
fpar

phofphorefcent

Mary

Vi£iory, in

metallic rock, confifts of
diflblved

mica and cop-

per pyrites,
-,

54
Golniz,
in

At Saß a, run -, between marie mixed with bafaltgrains on the hading, and limeftone on the hanging fide, confift of calcafelenitic reous or fpar with fome quartz, 33 35
,

At

horn-flate, running

from

weft to eaft, confift of grey quartz, f:jme fpar.

At

Smolniz,

— in

blue

INDEX.
blue glimmery argillaceous flate, parallel to each other, run in hour fix, dip in fc V en ty- five degrees, improved and altered in their
diredlion by fmall crofsjoints, confill of dark grey

imperial cabinet at Vienna^

Dognazka

;

veins, rocks

ores defcribed,

226 and 47 56

Ducca; a generous character ofa man, 10
evaporation of a vein, during a thunderftorm, 60 Efitomolithus paradoxus ir'ilo^ bus ; an undefcribed fpecies in the fandftone beds on the Harz-foreß, 551 Facehay^ near Zalathna. The
pyritical

EleHrical

clay with quartz and copper-pyrites,
'

,

At

171, 172 in Sivadhr,
argillaceous

glimmery
flate,

Corfars,

ftrolling

176 merchants

allowed to purchafe gold

from private mines and walh-works in Tranjjylvania^ 126 Cryßallifatlonsy with inclofed water, or cryßalli

Maria

Loretto

gold-mine
fand-ftock
1 1

confifts of a

fmall ftrati-

fied auriferous

and gold-veins,
vein at Nagyag,
,

o

— 117

en-

Feld-jpath (red) in the gold1 01 matrix of aurife-

hydri at Kapn'ik^

—————,
Cfertes
lic
-'
j

155

(quartz) great

variety in the large veins
at Shemniz,

189
123

gold mines in metalauriferous glafsfoflil

rous fallow filver-ore at Kapnik, 153—^55 , the redder the more
auriferous,

rock,
,

155
filver,

with

comveins,

ore in hornftone,

Debrezin

;

122 and native

mon
,

in the richer

alcaline fait,

4
Traivgott)
foften
'

its

— 319 — 320 red colour owing
220
155

Delms

(C'^ijhph. to

to iron,

copper by fulphur, or an additional fulphureous regupropofals
lus,

,inmetallicrock, 127

Fdß-banya

63

Demlßer (Francis ) examination of the o;old-duft and and gold-walhings in the Bannat, 83 93 Ueva\ its copper Itoclcwork, 94 Diamonds^ white and red, white and yellow in the

a mining place, ; mountains, veins, works anderes, 166 158 Firing of mines, at Goßar, Schlackcnwaldcy and Felfo-

banya^
Fißiires or

Klüfte,
lefs

I 6 fmall er

veins,

conftant and

wide

in their

dipping;,

run and 28
native

Fluor cubic

;

with inclofed

3

INDEX.
Fluoi\
i^^o native fulphur, in rhomboidal prtjms
,

mines,
Gipjics,

in

the

217 Bannat of
in TranJ/yl^

lOo
^^^^ ,griea
'

T'efnefivar

and
gold

l

with

vama commonly employed
in

,

yellow

^ quartz
309
at Frey-

wafhing,

76
See copper- ore ; Glafs ore. or native filver from Joachimßhal
l']1

jn a tin^vein in ^rai-ite at
Zinntualil,

Freygold
berg^

(

A Ja) tin)
ro

have invcn ed the blafti^g of mines by gun powder, 192 Fridivaizkj [P.) at Clanfenauthor of a Nat. berg-, Hiftojy of Tranffytvania,
i'aid
_

G«^i/}, an argillaceous rock or

mixujre oi quartz, mica and white or readifli clay,

243
the mountains at Catharinaherg and Graupen
,

10^-, 107, 14O, 147 Fuczes; mines, rocks, veins, and orus, 124, 125 Gang. See vein

in

Bohemia confift of it, 228 312

,

the veins at Catharifilled

naberg
-,

with

it,

245

Gang mcuntairs-y German name of ancient metallic
mountains, v/hichby fome
philofophers
too inconfiderately have been called

at Sr.Jha cap'd

with ar-

gillaceous flate and lime-

ilone,
,

42

— 52
228
gra-

under columnar ba-

faites,
,

primitive mountains, 302 Garnets^ found with goldduft in the Bannat, 71

incumbent on
infenfibly

•————,
',

.—91
in grey

micaceflate

ous and argillaceous
at Bleyßadt-

236, 205 connects and degenerates into rrilcaceous and argillaceous flate; accordingly to be
nites,
,

267

confider'd
fituation

in
as

refpedt

to

(yellow and black) with eighteen or thirty-hx points in Simon Judas
vein at Dognazka, 53 56 inPaul'sltdd n.ineinthe hading of the former, 54

a variety of
;

argillaceous flate
refpedi

but in
it is

to mixture

a

variety

of granites, 229

—236—247
,

degenerates at Com-

At Doznazka

errone-

}notau into

common

argil-

oufly called yellow blende,

laceous
-,

flate,

247

56
Grift
;

common name
in

of py-

white, filver-coloured. blueifh and dark-coloured
at Prejuiz,

rites

fome Hunzarian

248
Gneijs

INDEX.
Gneiß,
,

Silver-vein
a

in

it,

248,
is

312
312

Gold-ore^ according to a popular opinion of the Trari'-

common mabefides

trix of filver-veins,
,

contains,

fyhanians, found only immediately under the furface of the horizon, 121

the filver-veins, tin-veins

— 130

Graupen^ 312 , copper veins at Sa/ka^ 42, 52 and at Muckenat

Gold-ore. See gold-duß^ zinnop el^ and veins ^

A. Native.
1.

ihurmel^

315

In calcareous fpar

Gold-dufl and woßlngs \ ia the Bannat of Te?nefwar found in the river fand

from Staniza,
2.

129
anti-

In radiate

mony, from Slaniza, I2g
3.

and beds, which are pathe turf, and rallel to
confiftofloam,rockft:ones,

In grey fcaly co-

balt from Stani%a,
4.

129
127

On

blende and

mica,

garnets

and

fine

lead-glance,
5.

irony-fand, incumbent on flate or brown fandftone

In black lead, 226

and

coals,
in the

77,

78

— 84

6 Fuezes,
7.

On

felenite

from 125

--87-91

On

auriferous

•———
ted,

Bannat not to be defcribed to any goldveins, fmce never-found flicking to any matrix, 86
-,
,

pyrites

ftone,
8.

and black horn129
In grapes and preve<!;etable o;old are

tended
takes,
9.

its

origin inveftiga-

grofs impofitions or

mif-

92
,

its

wafhino-o in the

225 Onzinnopel, 160

Bannat defcribed and examined, 76
,

B. Mineralized. Lamellous, fpten1
dcnt, black-grey, or

in

Tranjfylvania

wo-

found under the turf in a fandy (Iratum, incumbent on argillaceous flate, 136
,

all

T'-anJJylvania carry

the brooks in gold-

ven in feldfpath, from Nagyag, 98—101 found with native filver, loi, 102, and orpiment, 102
_

duft,
is

137 wafhed by the

2.

like

fcaly anti-

mony from Nagyagy
3.

102
or

Wallach'iam in 'Tranjfylvania^ and produces every year about a weight of

In

pyrites,

fprinkKd upoii as Spanißj fnufJ-'j from Facehay^ 115

thoufand pounds,

iic

Y

4

GM-orey

INDEX.
Gold-ore,

C. Aur'iferom
jiances
I.

ores

or

Sub-

veins confift of blendifh and auriferous lead- glance

127
Gold Feins
3.

Calcareous auriferous earth, found by

in metallic rock.

At

Cfertes,

the

noduks
Kapnik,
2.

in

the

veins
1

at

metallic lock cap'd with
Hate,
4.

54

Red

filver-ore au-

123 At Kapnik, run
;

riferous,

from Trfzty an, 129 GUfb-üre auriferous in horn-flone, 122 4. Lead-glance auri3.

from north to fouth, dip from weft to eaft confift
of red feld fpath, fallow aurifer us filver-ore, auriferous quartz and clay,

ferous, in

white clay, at
1

Kißanya,
in blue clay, from

29

152—154
Theirauriferous quality diminifhes in the depth, 155, increafes wherever anti-

5. Pyrites auriferous,

Her128
black

zigan^
6. in

mony

appears,
5.

154

hornftonc, homGinel, 129
7.

At Kremniz, run

in

black

from fouth
of
folid

clay,

from
8.

Cajonel,

129

from

Cajonel^
g.

on quartz, 129

to north, confift quartz, auriferous red and white filver ore

on blende
ibid
rock.

from

Cajonet,

Gold-veins, running

A.

In

metallic

See

metallic-rock

At Abrud-hanya 1. near Xalathna, 1 1 In th^ Kirn ik-müuntaifi they are thin and fnort ; being and deaf firflly vertical for eight fathoms ; then dipping till they become fearing and auriferous for about two fathoms, when they turn again and break
of,
2.

and auriferous pyrites, 194 6. At Nagyag, the metall ic rock covered with red clay, run from north to fouth, confifting of red feldfpath and white quartz lor 97 7. At Rota, run between green ifh calcareous and white metallic rock ;

contain blende, leadglance and native gold,
8.

At Sargo-Banya^
165, 166
to fouth,

confift of auriferous filver

and lead,
9.
fift

118

At Shemniz, run
con-

Boicza the is covered with limeftone, and the
metallic

At

from north

rock

of quartz, lead-glance, and zinnopel 3 produce gold.

I
gold,
filvcr,

N D

E X.
of the higheft mountains and deepeft mines in Hungary and TranJJylvania, 202, 203

lead,

— 190

i8i

Gold-veins^ hi meiallick rock. 10. At lopiiza, in

metallic rock cap'd with Hate confift of auriferous quarts native gold, auriferous
ores
;

Granite,

appears no where incumbent on or alternating with other rocks,

filver,

and

lead-

204
however may be incumbent in unexplored depths on fimpler
rocks, hitherto undifcovered, 204 does not contain

run from fouth to north, immediately under the turf, 123, 124 11. Jt Ui'banya^ or

Konigßerg^

run between

metallic-rock andgranitej confift of grey quartz and
auriferous pyrites,

200

any metallic veins in Hungary, 204
contains
confift

B. In Hornßone. 1. At Facebay. a. Sigisnwnd gallery, confifts of quartz, hornflonc,

many tinwhich
at

veins in Bohemia,
Platte,
at Catharinaberg,

of granite

263
Zinnwald
.

auriferous pyrites,

auriferous clay, and gold

245

at

mineralized witn pyrites,
b.

no — 112
Loretto,
parallel

307—309
at

The
granite,

tin-ftock
ftriped

Maria
of

Schlachniuaid conüüs of

confifts

two

with

veins and a ftratified auriferous fandftone ftock,

containing mineralized gold in pyrites, IIO 113

— JI7
and

pure quartz and tin-ore, This tin-ftock 291. furrounded with gneifs
ibid

2.

At

Felfo-banya^

of granite with a fragment of llatc
fticking in
it,

A piece

run

in grey hornftone

207, 2oS
a ftate of

rock, which is under the former ; confift of zinnopel, which contains gold, lilver and other-metals, 159 164 Granite^ under columnar
metallic

Was
in

in

pafte and duilility

when

fome places flate was accumulated on it, 207,

208

A grey and
fpecies

reddifh

bafaltes, between Lowofiz. and Topliz, 228 under gneifs 225 236 Is the undermoft Itratum

— —

near

Kladraiu

breaks

naturally fplits into cubical and

and

rhomboidal forms and
prifms.

INDEX.
prifms,

297

Granite,

may be produced
ttie

S%amQS-nvtx in Hungary, 166
Horn-ßate, (Corneus Waller/7 jconfifts of quartz clofely

by modern revolutions,
as appears by
lava's

which
nitello,

refeaible to gra-

289
its

clay,

mixed with mica and incumbent on gra-

If
particles

feld-fpath

moulder into
called gneifs,

clay,

it is

231, and pttuntfe, 232 Produces by mouldering ar>^iilaceous flate

Hungary fome thin metallic veins, 205 Never contains any quartznite, contains in

veins, and

is

229 236 Clay more or lefs mixed with quartz, mic and feld-ipath particks, ^29 236 247. Perhaps c .'na-clay, 230 235. quartzous
gneil's,

and

Wilkißen

in

found near Bohemia in
beds,

horrizontal

—247.
'

297
is

— moulders into clay,
130
flate,

296,

— 240
called

a variety of grey mica-

ceous
in

and

fand,

231

Bohemia pochwacke, 260 Aveinof blackifh flate runit at Platte, 261 Quartz and copper- veins running in it at G'ö/wzz, 176

Contains
veins at
Platte.,

iron-

ning; in

262
cry-

With
Granitcllo,

black

ftallized fherl,

296
to

refembling
lavas,

Antimonial-veins runnins: in it at Rofenaw, 177

fome

289
131

Gyalter, an iron mine,

Horn -ßone ( Corneus IVallerii) at Facebay, incumbent on
argillaceous
tains rich gold-veins,

confilts of fmall flocks or Hvidules in grey and

brown

argillaceous flute

conand feems to be produced by
ftrata,

modern
Gypftim, conflantly found in and about the rock falttions,
in

floods

or revolu-

212, no, 114 HungaryriQ\tx found in-

mmes.
pellucid

144
ftriped
in the

cumbent on lime,

213

white
at

rock-falt

contains auriferous filverveins at Cfertes, ill.

mar mar OS,

165

And
By

problen:iatical

Habiclnvald near

CaJJel, co-A-

holes,

round 114

mine defcribed,

305

P. Fridzvahky errone-

Halotrichian Scopoli, feems to be an effloiefcence of vi-

oufly called calcedony, 119^ a. Black, with native

trei,
Jietrings, fi(hed

223

gold,

now and then
in

in

frefh

water

the

129 Grey (petrofilex incumbent on metaliic rock.
^

b.

INDEX.
ver and
Grey.,

rock, with auriferous filzinnopel-veins,

from Pö /«//(',
Iron-ore^

jQrt

at Felfo-banya^

159-— 164
fills

fand with goldduft in the Bannat and in
-

and

flint- like,

^#?

77—91

a vein at 'Joaclninjihal., 260 t. Red^ femipellucid,
flintlike,

Iron-veins, at Orpes, foaring

in the northern

veins AX.yoaohifuJIhal ; the matrix ofthcricheft filverores,

betweejuimeftone and incumbent white argillaceous ftone, 250
,

in

flate,

at

260
d.

— 272

Stoofs,

White, fchiilous

Kru?nbach, Jbavira, Rho~ niz, Poinik, 175—177
,

and rocky, refembling to calcedony, and flintlike, with petrifacftratified, near tions of corals ;
Lehotka,
1

m

granite,

or beflate, at

tween granite and
Platte,
-,

262

Hot-wells, at Ofen,
^

94 4
in

uniting with arfenical ones, fuch as tin-

,

at

SheftiKiz,

produce calcareous tophus with iron
limeftone,

produce filver in the Saxonian mines, 264,
veins,

265
ore appears in the upper-drifts of the tin-vein
at Gotte-gah,

193, 194 olatus planus HyfleroUthus, latior, in the fand-ftone beds on the HarzforcJI, 251 226 Jacquin. At Vienna, jafper. See zinnopel, -, Red or deaf zinnopei, found in micaceous clay-flate near Sihem<

ocher,

265
fubftantial

Kaolin,

is

the

earth of granites,

232
de-

Jr^/);z//f mountain-rock-veins,

and rich gold-ores,
fcribed,

152—154

>'

185 , Brown, an unJefcribed fpccies moulders
?iiz,

into red eopper-ocher,

39

'Joachijnßbai

The moun254
veins unaf-

Kirmk-?noimtain, contains a great number of fhort and rich gold-veins, 117 Klein, a popular German name ufed in Hungary for the crofs- joints of the

tains black flate,
'

main vein,
Kluft, fee Fijjiires.

171

.

The

fected by the direction of the valleys, 257 . The mines extremely deep, 256 joints or crofs-filTures, call-

ed Kleins
Jron-ore^

171 with blueiih dripped calcedony
incruflated

m Hungary,

Kneifs. See Gneifs. Koczians obfervations on th j gold-wafhings in the Bannat, 76 Koleferi (Sam.) Auraria Romano Dacica or account of the ancient Roman antiquities and mines in Tranf.
;

INDEX.
TranUylvanlay

Kremniz,

a

great

I o6 mining

place, mountains, veins, ores and works defcribed,
194.

Lavas, fomerefembling gra289 nitello,
,

vHreous or pretendi

ed

Ice land- figa.the

c. black.
^.blueifti, femi-tranfparent,

Limeßone^ a cinnabar-vein in it, 120, 121 occurs in the , (fcaly) Simon Judas copper vein at Dognazka, 53 feems to have had a different origin, and to be either ancient or accidental, 210, 290 the granulated and fcaly deftitute of petrifactions,
,

in detached pieces near lynx or Tockay ; called lux-fapphircs in Hungary^

the accidental and

210 mo-

167
.,

dern limeftone beds, containing petrifactions, are
in

See metallic

rock^

Hungary
,

deftitute

of

Nagyag, and
ductions.

volcanic pro-

metallic veins,
tites in

211

head

glance^ auriferous,

129 124

and with native gold in white quartz and blende at Rota^ 155, 156
,

tophus, like ftalacglobular and columnar forms, produced near Liptaw by the waters coming from the higher Carpathian mounta is

Lead-vein

198
;

A. In limeftone
ditßa^

at

Mo199

B. In flate, 132 267 C. In metallic rock, at Dognazka^ 47, 48
AtTopliza and Fuezes^ contains native gold,

copper-veins in it at Oraviza, 28, 29
,

Lux and LynxHungary^
blackifli

Sapphire^ in

a popular

Ger-

man name
and
pellucid lava

of

vitreous

blueifli
;

124

femierroneoufly

i/w^öKi',incumben ton clay, metallic rock and granite, with fea-fhells at Bogßariy 62 , incumbent on argil-

called Iceland-agathcy

167

—— laceous
,

flate,

24—28

conftantly incumbent on clay, contains in Hun-

Alanganeßy red, cryftallifed in a hanging filTure of an auriferous zinnopcl-vcin, 161 Marmaros-ßones^ oftangular alum-like quartz-cryftallifations,

J65
See

gary feme lead and copper

—— often

veins,

206

immediately incumbent on granite, 207

Cinnabardind ^t'.ckßher-veins Metaliic-rock, an argillaceous rock, mixed with mica, quartz.

Mercury -mines.

INDEX.
quartz, feldfpath and bafalt-grains,

MetaUlc
called

- rock,

33, 34

erroncoufly fandfione at Dog-

Metallick-rock, Is fo called in Hungary (or rather by Baron

jiazka,
,

54

Born) becaufe the richer mines oi that country are conftantly found in it, 33,
,

contains gold-veins at Abrud hanya^ 117
at Cfertes, at
1

23

immediately
granite,

.34 in-

cumbent on
,

205 206
argil-

under
flate,

the

laceous

181 — 123

--97-^^5
with and fpargrains ; the common rock at Kremniz. and Shefnniz^ 181 — igi--i23 contains gold and
,

Kremniz, 194 at Nagyag, 67-105 at Nagy-banya, 150» 151 ;''"likewife filver at Sargo-banyüy 165, 166 ; likewife lead at Rota^ 155, 156 contains copper•,
veins at i)(?^/Z(7:^/Y7, 51 MicOy produced from clay, into which it moulders

(grey)

(herl,

quartz

again,
-,

229

lead-veins,

— 165—166
-,

123—125

a variety, inftead

of mica mixed with litho-

marga,

as a wedge or ftock in the common metallic rock, 189 (white) with lithomarga, contains veins of quartz and clay with auriferous filver, gold and

white and difiblved in the copper veins and rocks at Dognazka^ 54 on cat-gold , (yellow) fkirts, and inclofes the tin- veins in granite at zinnwald, 309 M'ifpickkel, uniting with a lilver-vein improves It,3 18

Moldova

;

veins, rocks

and

ores defcribed,

44

antimony, 152— 154— iqi
-,

Mountains. Their diftin6lion into primitive or primogenial and fecundary or accidental
tains,
is

a variety, naturally

modern mounmerely relating

fplit

and broken,

in flat

regular pieces, near

Nag-

to the different times

and

yag

refembling to fome lava's from the Euganeanmounta'mi ; feems to be a volcanic producSlion, 133 -, avariety formed like bullets, found in the found metallic rock near the Therefta-vein at Shemniz,
;

accidents of their origin, and implies no real diffe-

rence in their fubftances,

302
,

incu?nbent ox accumu-

lated.^

are

modern

in ref-

pecl to the lower ilrata

on

i88

they are accumulated, 310 Nagyagi properly called Sekerejnbj

which

INDEX.
kenmb, a gold-mine and mining place, 96 105 Nagy-banya, mining, place,

Porphyry (rcdj Cveins) uniting with the veins at

auriferous filver in metallic

Aberdam^ improve theni with filver, 260
,

rock, 150, 151 Newfol^ mining place, mountains, rocks,

or

1

affile

combs

veins, ores

and works,
mifmales

195

Nti?n'mularii , or lapides

98 —nu-

Tranjfylvania^

from Tarda,
Ofe?i petrifacStions

143 and hot3,

wells,

4

Joachlmßhal, quicken the vein, 261, 263 or pri?nogenial Primitive precarious mountains, a denomination, implying only that they are anterior the origin in time to of the incumbent more
at

Orpbncnt, or cryftallifed arlenic, in a vein of blue
clay in flate, incumbent on metallic rock, 195

modern
tains,
,

ftrata

and moun* 302

caverns difcovered
at 'Joachimjlhal,

——

in

them
',

,

with

mineralized

267
petrifactions,
in

gold,
,

102
with
native
ful-

but

very fcarce, in the veins

phur,

160
Hungary^

which run

Peß, a
in

PetrifaSfions

3 fea fliells of limcftone near Ofen,
Claujeriburg,

city in

— 184—185
the

them,

265

Pyrites in a tin-vein at Zin-

tvald

309
quickens
tin-

—near
,

146—
-,

veins at Gottefgab,
in

266

white ftratihed
or

auriferous, in clay.

hornftone
at Lehotka,
-,

calcedony,

194

hornftone, blende,
,

in a trap-vein, run-

and 115 129 called gelft by the
quartz

ning in old flate-mountains, a petrified tree, call-

German miners
gary,
_

in

Hun217

^

ed the diluvian-tree, 265 -, in a zinnopel vein
at

Pyritical vein gives an elec-

Shemn'iZy 7nadrepore% or

porpites,

Petunfe,

is

184, 1 85 decaying granite,
the
feldfpath

flame during a thundreftorm, 60 ^lartz quickens the coppertrical

veins at 5wo/mz,

172

in

which

moulders into clay,
Plajaßoes, a

232

(auriferous) andlamellous, 191
,

national militia
*•
•)

in the
ivar,

Bannat of Temef1

with native gold, 129, 130

{cryßalUfations) point-

Pocket-work, ufed before the blafting of the rocks, 188

ed on both ends,

,

160 odangular alumlike

INDEX.

like
,

from Marmafos, 165
in

flate-mountalns

of

fhe

a tin-vein in gra-

Har%-freßy

250

nite at
,

Zinnwald,
(fat) in the
A^-^t^^ö^,

309
gold1

vein at

01

-defcription of the coaibeds on the fumrnt and around the Habichivala irl

{grey) vein, between

Heß,
Rock'falt, at
clay-flate,

305

granite and metallic rock,

Marmaros

fur-

contains

gold-pyrites

at

200 Konigfierg, [irony) auriferous, ,
217
vi\\h native , (milky) fulphur, 160

rounded with micaceous 165

at Torda^ incum, bent on argillaceous flate, cap'd withlimeftone beds,

140
,

^lickftlver-veins at
"ua^

Dumhra-

confifts of ftratified

nt2iv

ZrJaOma^

am in

fait,
,

141

argillaceous flate and iandftone, confifts of quartz,

gypfum and
.

alabaf-

ter foi

fpar and found fcaly cin-

flrata

nd between the faltat Marynarcs, are

nabar, 120 ^iBoboja^ runinlimeftone, contain granulated cinnabar, 120, 121
Raizes, a
calling

common near the faltmines, 144 ,with incl uded waterdrops, 143 Romwi, name of the Wallachians
in

Sclavonian

tribe,

themfelves Srbi, inhabiting Servia and the

the

Bannaty

Tranjfylvania and Walla^
chia,

Bannat oT
,

T'^wf/jf^r,

their

14 language Scla-

14

vonian,
,

their character,

14 22

Rofe-fpar, fpecies of calcareous lamellous red-fpar,

peculiar

to

a

mine

at

,

ufe the Gr^^/^ alphabet,

23

260 'Joachimßhal, , with red filver-ore,
272


Rafpe's {R. E.) defcription of the Blockjler^ 231 , of granite-fands

-SWiW^ the fimbriae, out-fhirts
or fide-covering of metallic
veins

and clay, 231, 232 on the origin of chi, na-clay, kaolin and petunfe, 232
,

not conftantly ap; pearing fmooth and pobut

lifhed as flickon-fides,

oiten

giown

to the fides

ontheorigin of quartz

fand,

232

,

defcription of marine
petrifa6lions,

fand-ftone-beds with un-

of the mountain-rock, 155 vein in , of the tin granite at Ziiimvald^ confift of yellow mica or catgold,
,

known

in-

209

cumbent oa

the

higher

many

veins, as the
tin-

INDEX.
gneifs have

Graupen in flcirts, but are immediately grown to the fides, 313, 314
tin-veins
at

Saßa^ copper-ores defcribed,

no

37—41
Sezugaß ("Baron) 9, 10 Selenite, with native gold, 125 Shemntz ; mining placq, mountains, rocks, veins, ores and works, 180 194 Sherl (cryßaWßd) in metallic rock, 123 181 191 a. bluBy columnar, hexa-

Sal-ammoniacmzn\ii-&.dioty at
Bronfvicy
Salt

145

See Rock-falt. Sandaraca. See Tuiphur. Sand (quartz) on the feathe plainer fhores and countries probably, produced from decayed granative.

— — —

nite rock,

232, 233
flate

gonal or polyedrous, truncated, on copper-ore from
Saßa.,
b.

Sandßone^ incumbent on argillaceous
tallic
i

40

and me195
ful-

rock,

,

with red native
ftratified

phur,
,

195

Bohemian bafaltes, 228 in granite, 296 in trap at Joac. green,
black, in

mineralized gold- pyrites in a ftock 1 at Facebay^ 1 in Hun-, furrounds gary the nobler metallic-

chimjlhal,

26.3,

264

Skalka

(compofed of the Hungarian article is, and

mountains,
,

ftone,
,

211 incumbent on lime211
deftitute

the word Kalika a point or fummit) the name of the top of a mountain in

Hungary, which produces
red native fulphurin fandftone,
flate

of metal-

lic-veins,
-,

211

accidental

ilate-beds often

on fandftone,
,

modern incumbent 211
139

name of a fand, ftone quarry on the fumm\toHh.tHarz-foreß, 25O
Silver -ore,
a.

incumbent on clayand metallic rock, 195

with petrifadlions,
-,

of

unknown

Blach?nann

fignifies

at

fea-fliells

metallic

on the higher ancient and

Kremniz white

filver-ore

incruftating quartz,

219

mountains of the Har-z250 foreß,
Sapphire, (Lynx or Lux) a vitreous femi-pellucid

At Shemniz
b.

it

has another

fignification,

219
from
jfoa^

Bruß-ore, a fpecies of
filver

native

blackifh and blueifh lava from Tockay, 167

Saßa.

See veins.

chimßhal, 271 Fallow, auriferous, in c. id6(^mhfrom Kapnik, 153
ä.

Glaß-

INDEX
d.

Glafs-ore,

in

cubic

fifiures,

produce

filver,

forms,
Silver- ore^
is

21 mineralized

with fulphur,
e.

2l8

— 272
See

264, 265—313 Silver-veins, by uniting arfenical ones improved,3i8

Gosfe dtmg-ore^2iC)^

/.
g.

Mulm^
filver.

220 220

A. In gnciß, at Prefniz, at Graupen, 241 312

Native Bruß-ore.

from 'Joach'imßhal^ 271 with mineralized gold lOl, 102 at Nagyag^ 21 on pyrites,
dendritig, Native-fiher cal, from Budweiß^ 3169

3'7
/>.

Gneifs being a common matrix of filver, 512 B. In Hornßone, at Cfertes, 122 At 7netaUic-rock. C. In KreTnni% run from fouth to north, confift of folid quartz, and auriferous red and white filver- ore and
pyrites,

Plumofe
1. Gr<?)',

194
150, 151

in quartz,

219
219

At Nagy-banya, with auriferous filver,

2.

iPhite,

in

irony-

quartz,
i.

At Shefnniz, run from north
to fouth, confift of quartz, lead-glance and auriferous jafper or zinnopel,

iJ^Y/.

1. auriferous^

124— 129
218 124

at Kremni%,
at Topliza,

— 190
At

181

2. CryßaUifed, at foachiiJi-

D. In

hiaci

clay-ßate.
ft ill

ßhal ruby-coloured and
pellucid,

Joachi?nßhal,

from Saxony,
darker,

257 fomewhat 257

quick in a depth of 350 fathoms,

254—257
At Claußhal
foreß.
in the

Harz-

from J/idreaßerg, darker, 257 on rofe-fpar from yoachi?nßhal. 269 272 on cobalt, arfenical py-

At Weiperth
cumbent
flate,

in

between gneifs
E. In grey and
Slate,

Bohemia and in-

253
hliie

clay-

ritesaiid

red

horn-ltone

ßate, at Ratiehorziz,

316
in

from 'Joachhnßhal^ 272 3. Dendritical and in globular lumps, 218, 219
k.

fragments of

flate

granite,

207, 208

A.

Argillaceous ox clay-ßate;
old- metallic

fVhitCy
;

auriferous

at

of the
tains,

and pre-

Kre7nmz

and

called

tended

primitive
in

mounto
its

B lachmann when
ting quartz,
Silver-veins.

incrufta-

refpeil

219

Iron fiffures in Saxonia uniting with arfenical-ones, fuch as tin-

Z

mixture, the fame as tha^ which is found in modern mountains ; but is different in refpedl of antiquity

INDEX.
Slat^^

A.

Argillaceous.
.

289 Produced from granite and
gneifs mouldering and de-

quity and origin,

C. Grey, micaceous ßate, incumbent on gneifs, covered u'ith limeftone. 44 confifts of grey clay and

caying into clay ; as apits being immediately connecting in the fame mafs witli gnei fs, 229 247 by petroleum
pears from

mica,
contains
Stoojs
;

240

— 243
at

iron-veins

and between them

fome

nefts of copper-ore,

175

changed into coals, 305 At Kladraw in Bohemia breaks and broken in regular cubic forms, or in rhomboidal prifms, 297

At Moldova,

44

copper-veins at Swadler^ lead and quartz-veins at
Bleyßadt,

176 267

incumbent

on on

granite,

D. Horn-ßate '^zo.Hornßate. E. Modern argillaceousßate^
incumbent on fandltone
and lime, caps the coalbeds in Hungary, 211
is

incumbent
rock,

metallic

195 under limeftone, 24 28 contains iron veins and ftocks, 192 177 131 lead-veins in it, 192 132 at copper-veins in it,2o6 Neivfohl, 195, 196 At Oraviza under a hanging of limeftone, 28,29 filver veins, 253, 254

— — — —

vitriolicand furnifhes the

alum-works zxCommotaWy

247
Slickon-fides,

of fmoothandpolifhed fkirts, fimbriae and coverings
a
fpecies

or vertical joints in
tallic

veins,

155

— See

me-

—257—316
B.
Blue., rnicaceous clay-ßatCy

Saalband
Smolniz, mining place, 169

contains the copper-veins
at Smolniz, filled with dark

— 175

grey

clay

and quartz, 17c 172

Spar, calcareous, with native gold, 129

J

C. Grey, micaceous
is

clay-ßc/tCy

thai,

(Rofe) at "Joachims' with red filver ore,

a variety of horn-flate,

260
Srbi,

— 272
arfe-

260
forms and fills a vein in hornflate,

name of

the Raizes in

the Bannat of Tc?ne[zuary

261
StalaSiites arfenical, or

14
nic calx dripped in a ftaform, from Joachim-ßhal, 258 problematical fpecies,
Jaclical

incumbent on granite, contains at Jberda?n filver and
cobalt-veins,
tin*«;s

and fometin-veins afcending

from the deeper granite,

A

259
Dogna-zka, copper-veins,

light, red

and yellow as

At

contains

amber

\

vitreous and glof-

47

^V5

INDEX.
fy
;

refifts

the acids

;

gives

clay,

flate,

marie, fand,

no

fmell

when

burnt

found at Feljo-banya in the zinnopcl gold-and filverveins,

237—'247 (marine) on the fummit of fome of the higheft
lime,
,

259

argillaceous and metallic

Stala^ttes, blueifh calcedony

dripped as ftala£lites, 199 Stocks or Stochuorks at Deva and Dogna^ka^ erronecufly fo called, as confifting of many coinciding and uniting copperveins, which run in metallic rock, and micaceous clay flate, having a determined direction and

mountains in the Harzforcß^ confift of f^mdftone
and
petrifacStions,

250

Sulphur^ for itsdeftroyins; the iron, recommended in the refining cf copper, 63 Howfeparated from the pyrites at S)nclni%,
,

1

74

fied)

crvftallifed

or fandaracain
ftallifed

vi'hite cryquartz at Fclfo-

dipping,
Stock
at

50—53—94,
auriferous

95

hanya.

Facchay^ in hornftone, confifls

grey of a

orpiment.
fli

160 on yellow 160
in

ftratified

cone

cubic

or {lock, containino- »old mineralized in pyrites, 1 1 ztSchlackenwald, in gneifs,
confift of granite

160
native in faad-

flone,
Temej'njar,
city,

ore ; inverted cones ; are crolTed by fome deaf and fome metallic

and tinhave the form of large

unhealthy,

n
1'm-ore, white, from Schonfeld, refembles to

white or

veins,

which feem
in

greeniüi fat quartz,

294

to continue
tain

the

fur-

rounding gneifs, uncerwhether having re-

Tln-ßocks at Schlackcmvald^ confill of conical granitelumps, furrounded with
gneifs,
2b<:)--2']i-~7()l

gular inclofures orflickonlides (Stocßeider) as the tin-ftock at Geyer in Saxonia ; feem to be the fummits of old granite-peaks, furrounded with gneifs by

Tin-veins at Aberda?n in granite, and thence afcending
in the

incumbent

flate,

259

At

Goitcfgahy carry iron in

modern

revolutions,

269 ~27I--29I

the upper drifts ; produce tin a middle depth, and

Strata, (ancient) granite, argillaceous rock, lime-

may

———

ftone,
,

236
(modern)

— 238
Z

yield filver in a greater depth, as arfenical or tin-veins crolfed

thinner and accidental, confift of

by
are

iron-veins

crofl'ed

conftantly

obi'erved

2

in

INDEX.
in Saxony to produce filver
in the crofling,

ceous olay-flate,
h.
c.

153—206

Tin-veins^
gneifs,

at

264, 265 Graupen in

black,

grey and
;

312
and tin262, 263
the tin-

d. greenißo

At
ore,

Platte, run in granite,

confift of granite

hardened irony fpar and fherl-grains ; occurs at
bole; contains

At Schlackemvald,

'Joachimflhal in large vertical veins, running in

ftocks confift of granite, inclofed in gneifs, 269 At Schonßcld, run in gneifs

293
at

black flate, 263, 264 under ground extremely hard ; moulders in open air into faponaceous bole,

Xinnwald
confift

in granite,

which

diflblves in water,

nite,

of

granite,

264
contained zX.'jQachimßhal in the cow-vem a petrified and pretended antediluvian tree, which is defcribed,

307--309

At Ah er dam,
granite

the ve;ns in
tin

produce

which afcend into the incumbent grey mithofe

265

caceous flate produce filver and cobalt, 258 Tickay, vitreous black and
blueifn pellucid lava, cal-

Trjztyan near Fuezes.

Gold

mine defcribed, 125 Lead mines in Tßavoja. blue micaceous clay-flate,

ed thereabouts Lynx or Lux-Sapphire, 167 Toplitz, hot v/ells and coal-

Vanßa

(Peter) a generous chief of robbers, faved the

310, 311 See gold-veins. Tophus, feems to be proced by the fediments of hot wells, 194 Tor da Salt mines, 140
Tipliza,

works,

Emperor of Germany from
being taken by the Turks, 10 Vein and Gang fynonima, 47
,

FlJJures

are

fmaller

veins, having a lefs con-

Tranjfylvania.

Antiquities

delcribed by Koleforj, J 08 Natural Hiftory,

and fteady run and dipping, 28, called Kliifte
ftant
in

written by KoUferi and P. ic6 Fridivalzky, , called Ardeliia
,

Germany, 28 Combs or TVacken are large vertical veins of porphyry, trap and horn-,

Trap,

14 rock j a. blue \ ftriking fire with fteel ; unmetallic or confmall deaf taining but veins j cap'.d with micaargillaceous

by the Wallachiam,

262. or Stockiuorks^ are large mafles of ore, or metallic rock, as nodules
ftone,
,

Stocks

included and furrounded with the mountain-rock

they

INDEX.
they have no diredion or run to any part of the
Veins, petrifaiSlions in veins,

184,

185—265

having commonly the form of a large See Stach and cone.
compafs,
Stockvjorks.

See Cinnabar, Copper, Gold^ Iron, Lead, ^ickfilvery
Silver,

Tin-veins.

Saal-

band.

Veins,

monly
thal,

the veins run comparallel to the valat "Joachims-

Veins (Crofs) or Crofs-Joints^ are called Kleins in Hun-

leys, except

gary,
_

171

where they are unaffe6ted by the valleys, 257 254
T^h'eW dlrc5lion or

,

are fuch veins as

in

the

run fame mountain,

run,

is

in a contrary dirckStioa or contrary dipping to the

but

determined in Gerynany by the compafs or a dial ; accordingly thofe w^hich run 'from eaft to weft, or vice verfa, between hour three andnineare eafternor JHorning-veins ; and thofe

main
crofs

vein, fo
it

that

they

either in the

run

or dipping. In the laft cafe they make what they
call in
crofs.

Germany

a falUng-

They
filled

are

com-

monly
which
thofe

which run from fouth

to

with fubftances, clay, ftones and ores,
are different
in the
it

north, or vice verfa, between hour nine and three, are called Northern or

from main vein,

Midnight-veins,
• ,

i^'j

and afFecl manner.
,

in a various

Their
is

dipping,

or

at

Cathari7iaberg^

inclination

rizon,

towards the hodetermined by a

"Joachimfthal
it,

and Shemniz.

they quicken and improve

quadrant or fc6for ; and they get accordingly different names, 245 vertical or ßandingveins are thofe

245, 246—261—182,
,

at

vein deaf,
-,

Srnohvx the main unlefs quickvarious
efFedl

which dip
feventy-

ened by crofiing ones, 172
their

from ninety
five degrees.

to

upon the main veins
Smolnix,
,

at

Sliding

or

ßipping Veins

lyi

(To?inl£gigt) thofe

which

at Felfo-banya ftrike

dip

from feventy-five to

forty- five degrees.

Flat veins, thofe w^hlch dip b-^tween forty-five and
fifteen degrees.

160 See Cinnabar, Copper, Goldy Lead, ^uckßlvery Iron,
the
Tin-veins.
Ventilator

main vein dead,

and air-condu£l:ors

Soaring veins, which Jip Uom. fifteen de&rees to o

in the gold-mines at

Na100

gyag,

Vitriol

INDEX.
Vitriol^

how

feparated from

confift of granite,

26^

pyrites,
_

175

JVood, petrified and irony in

Volcanic

produ^lons, fcarce in Hungary, 21 See Metallic-rock ; Lava.
Sapphire.

the clay beds nearO/^«, 252
,

petrified

found in a

trap-vein,
thal,

which runs in

old flate-rock at Joachims-

Wachen

;

name

hard phyry and trap,
Wallachia-^

popular for large veins of rocks, fuch as por-

German

265
;

Zalathna, metropolis of the
Jl-'^allachians

a great

mi-

262
14.

ning place
nia,

in

Tranff^lva-

by the inhabi-

tants called Xara-7nore,

'Lara-moreJ'Vallachian,

108—110—120 name
14

JVallachians, call them.fdves

of Wallachia

Romun, and feem

to be

remainders of ancient Ro-

Zinnopel; red auriferous jafper, contains gold, filver,
lead,

man

colonies,

14.

zinc

and

pyrites,

their language cor-

216-188
,

rupt Laiin,
atrrees

fome

loofer parts

and
216

with
in

famples look as red boles,
chief rock of the veins at Shemnizy which run in metallic rock, 182--189
,

common Italian many qualities,
the
,

14

their manners in the

Bannaty
,

their

15 religion the
Greek-,

petrified,

madreporse
in
its

non-united
,

make
in

ufe

17 of the

———
of

Greek alphabet.
,

or porpites found vein at Shemniz,

184

Tranjfylvania

more humanized and induftrious, 94—137 Wolfram ; the fore-runner
tin in the tin-veins at

, at Feljo-banya the zinzopel-veins run in metallic rock and hornftone, contain auriferous filver,

159—164
,

with native gold from

Platte,

which run

in and

OlalapoSy

166

FINIS.

BOOIL^
I-

fr'mted for
hi

G.

Kearsly,

at

No. 46,

Fleet-Street.

'T^ H P. Gentleman's Guide in his Tour through

Roads, &c.] By an Officer. Containing an accurate Defcription of that Country. Including Paris, Verfailles, Fontainbleau, Marli, St. Germains, St. Cloud, and every public Building and Place worthy a Traveller's Notice. Lifts ot Lodging-Houfes, Ordinaries, Places of Amulement, with their Prices Stage-Coaches and Water-Carriages to different Parts of the Kingdom, with their Fares ; and every other Particular neceffary for the Information of
ftrangers.
II. The Tour of Holland, Dutch Brabant, the Auftrian Netherlands, and Part of France ; in which is included a Defcription of Paris and its Environs.

X

France. [With a corred:

Map of the Pofi-

III. Ufeful Hints to thofewho make the Tour of France. In a Series of Letters written from that Kingdom. By Philip Thicknefle, Efq. Thefe Letters ('none of which were ever publiflied before) contain fome Account of the interior Police in general, and of Paris in particular, with a confiderable Numberof entertaining Anecdotes, relative to the firft perfonages on that Part of the Continent.

Thefe three Volumes, which may be had feparate or together, Price 3s each, will enable Travellers to make the Tour of France and the Low Cor.ntriei ; as they contain every Thing worthy the and will Attention of the moft minute Enquirer prevent, if properly attended to, the fcandalous impofitions too offen pradtifed by the Publicans upon the continent.The laft Article only is written
-,

\*

by Mr. Thickneffe.

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