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CENTRAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY NOTIFICATION
New Delhi, the , 2007
No. -- In exercise of the powers conferred by clause (b) of Section 73 read with sub-section (2) of Section 177 of the Electricity Act 2003, the Central Electricity Authority hereby makes the following regulations namely: 1. (1) (2) Short title and commencement These regulations may be called the “Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations, 2007”. These regulations shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Gazette of India. Definitions In these regulations, unless the context otherwise requires,-“Accuracy Class” means a classification assigned to current or voltage transformer the errors of which remain within specified limits under prescribed conditions of use. “Act” means the Electricity Act, 2003. “Authority” means the Central Electricity Authority established under subsection (2) of Section 70 of the Act. “Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)” means a continuously acting automatic excitation control system to regulate a generating unit terminal voltage. “Base Load Operation” means operation at Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR) or its high fraction. “Basic Insulation Level (BIL)” means the crest value of a standard lightning impulse wave (1.2/50 µs) which the insulation provided to an item of electrical equipment/apparatus can withstand. “Black Start” means the start up of first unit or a gas turbine following Grid failure. “Boiler Maximum Continuous Rating (BMCR)” means the maximum steam output (tonnes/hour) the steam- generator (boiler) can deliver continuously at rated parameters.
2. (1) (a)
(b) (c) (d) (b) (c)
Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations, 2007 DRAFT
(f) “Break time” means interval of time between the beginning of the opening time of a switching device and the end of the arcing time. (g) “Burden” in relation to current transformer means the impedance of the secondary circuit expressed in ohms and power-factor and in relation to voltage transformer means the admittance of the secondary circuit expressed in mhos and power-factor (lagging and leading). The burden is usually expressed as the apparent power in voltamperes absorbed at a specified power-factor and at the rated secondary current. (h) “Cold start” in relation to steam turbine means start up after a shut down period exceeding 72 hours (turbine metal temperatures below approximately 40% of their full load values). “Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) module” means gas turbine generator(s), associated heat recovery steam generator (s) and steam turbine generator. “Combined cycle mode” in relation to gas turbine based thermal generating station means operation of gas turbine alongwith associated exhaust heat recovery steam generator and steam turbine. “Control Load” in relation to coal/lignite based thermal generating units means the lowest load at which the rated steam temperature can be maintained under auto control system. “Current Transformer” means an instrument transformer in which the secondary current, in normal conditions of use, is substantially proportional to the primary current and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections.
(m) “Design Head” means the net head at which peak efficiency of hydraulic turbine is attained while operating at rated head. (n) (o) (p) “Extra high Voltage (EHV)” means a voltage above 33,000 volts. “FRLS Cable” means Flame Retardant Low Smoke cable which emit low smoke and is resistant to fire for certain duration of time. “Gas Turbine” means a machine which converts thermal energy into mechanical work and includes compressor, combustion system and expansion turbine. “Generator” means an equipment which converts the mechanical power of the prime mover into electrical power.
Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations, 2007 DRAFT
“Governor” means a device which regulates the speed and output of turbinegenerator units. “Gross turbine cycle heat rate” in relation to coal/lignite based thermal generating station means the external heat energy input to the turbine cycle required to generate one kWh of electrical energy at generator terminals. “Gross heat rate” in relation to gas turbine based and diesel engine based thermal generating stations means the external heat energy input required to generate one kWh of electrical energy at generator terminals. “High heat value (HHV)” means the heat produced by complete combustion of one kilogram of solid fuel/liquid fuel or one standard cubic meter (Sm3) of gaseous fuel as per IS:1350 (Part-II) or IS:1448 (P:6) as the case may be. “Highest system voltage” means the highest r.m.s line to line value of voltage which can be sustained under normal operating conditions at any time and at any point in the system. It excludes temporary voltage variation due to fault conditions an the sudden disconnection of the large load.
(w) “Hot Start” in relation to steam turbine means start up after a shut down period of less than 10 hours (turbine metal temperatures approximately 80% of their full load values). (x) (y) (z) “House Load” means the unit is operating in isolation to the grid and generating electric power to cater to its own auxiliaries. “Hydraulic Turbine” means a machine which converts the potential energy of water into mechanical power to rotate the generator. “Hydro-electric Generating Station” means the ‘generating station’ as defined in the Act for generating electricity by water-power.
(aa) “Impedance Earthed Neutral System” means a system whose neutral point(s) is(are) earthed through impedances to limit earth fault currents. (bb) “Impulse” means a unidirectional wave of voltage or current which, without appreciable oscillations, rises rapidly to a maximum value and falls, usually less rapidly, to zero with small, if any, loops of opposite polarity. The parameters which define a voltage or current impulse are polarity, peak value, front time, and time to half value on the tail. (cc) “Impulse withstand voltage” means peak value of the standard impulse voltage wave which the insulation of the circuit-breaker withstands under specified test conditions.
Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. “Mesh Voltage” means the maximum touch voltage within a mesh of a ground grid. (ii) (jj) “Maximum heat input per burner” means the heat generated from fuel firing in one hour divided by the total number of coal burners. as guaranteed by the manufacturer for design fuel and corresponding to site conditions. 4 . regardless of whether or not it is supplied as an integral part of the device.in relation to coal/lignite based thermal generating units means the output at the generator terminals (net of any external excitation power) as guaranteed by the manufacturer at the rated parameters.in relation to gas turbine based thermal generating stations means the output of the Gas Turbine Generator measured at the generator terminals (net of generator excitation power) in case of simple cycle and sum of output of the Gas Turbine Generator(s) and Steam Turbine Generator measured at the generator terminals (net of generator excitation power) in case of combined cycle. 2007 DRAFT (dd) “Insulation co-ordination” means the selection of the dielectric strength of equipment in relation to the voltages which can appear on the system for which the equipment is intended and taking into account the service environment and the characteristics of the available protective devices. . (ee) “Isolated Neutral System” means a system where the neutral point is not intentionally connected to earth.in relation to diesel engine based thermal generating units means the output at the generator terminals (net of generator excitation power) as guaranteed by the manufacturer for design fuel and corresponding to site conditions. (hh) “Maximum Continuous Rating” or “MCR” . except for high impedance connections for protection or measurement purposes. (gg) “Load cycling” means operation alternating at high and low level of load on a regular basis. The term "lightning arrester" includes any external series gap which is essential for the proper functioning of the device as installed for service. . (ff) “Lightning Arrestor (Surge Diverter) ” means a device designed to protect electrical apparatus from high transient voltage and to limit the duration and frequently the amplitude of follow-current.
(ll) “Motor Control Centre (MCC)” means the switchgear which contains modules for motor supply and its control. generators.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. (mm) “Net Head” means the pressure head differential between the entrance to the hydraulic turbine casing and the tail race water surface elevation. (vv) “Power System Stabiliser (PSS)” means a device for achieving the dynamic stability of the generating unit under most severe conditions of operation in 5 . (rr) “Owner” means the company or body corporate or association or body of individuals. (tt) “Power Control Centre (PCC)” means the switchgear which contains modules for power supply to other switchboards/ switchgears/ distribution boards and its control. unburnt combustibles. associated electromechanical and control equipment. (qq) “Overhead Line” means any electric supply line which is placed above ground and in the open air.e. latent heat of moisture in fuel and that formed by combustion of H2 in the fuel) divided by the plan area of the furnace. (pp) “Off Circuit Tap Changer (OCTC)” means a device provided on high voltage side of transformer. which is used for variation of voltage during charged condition of the transformer. moisture in the air. including main inlet valves and/or gates. heat generated by fuel/s fired in one hour plus the sensible heat of combustion air above 270C minus the radiation loss. (ss) “Performance coal” means the coal quality for which steam-generator performance is guaranteed by the manufacturer. consisting of conductors which are insulated or bare. (nn) “Net heat input (NHI) available in furnace per unit plan area” means the net heat input (i. whether incorporated or not or artificial juridical person which owns or operates or maintains Electric Plants/ Lines. 2007 DRAFT (kk) “Minimum tail water level” means the water level in the tail race at the exit end of the draft tube corresponding to a discharge required to run one machine at no load. (uu) “Power House” means the structure which houses hydraulic turbines. which is used for variation of voltage during OFF condition of the transformer. (oo) “On Load Tap Changer (OLTC)” means a device provided on high voltage side of transformer.
(ddd) “Station” means either the Thermal Generating Station or Hydro-electric Generating Station depending upon the context. (fff) “Step Potential” means the difference in surface potential experienced by a person bridging a distance of 1 m with the feet without contacting any grounded object when ground currents are flowing. (eee) “Steam turbine” means a machine which converts thermal energy from steam into mechanical work to drive the electrical generator. “Resonant Earthed Neutral System” means a system in which one or more neutral points are connected to earth through reactances which approximately compensate the capacitive component of a single phase to earth fault current.e. 6 .2 bars). (bbb) “Solidly Earthed Neutral System” means a system whose neutral point(s) is (are) earthed directly. if reduced homologically in size. switching ON/ OFF of transmission lines. (yy) (zz) (aaa) “Simple cycle mode” in relation to gas turbine based thermal generating station means operation of gas turbine with exhaust gases vented to atmosphere. load rejection. 736 watts) under 1 meter of head at full gate opening. 2007 DRAFT case of disturbance created by short circuit condition. “Runaway speed” means the speed attained by a hydraulic turbine at full gate opening when the generator is disconnected from the system and the governor is in-operative. (xx) “Pumped storage plant” means a system of generating electricity in which the electricity is generated during the peak hours by using water that has been pumped into upper reservoir during off-peak hours from the lower reservoir. (ccc) “ Specific speed” means the speed in rpm at which a given hydraulic turbine would rotate.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. (ggg) “Subcritical unit” in relation to coal/lignite based thermal generating unit means a unit designed for main steam pressure less than the critical pressure (221. so that it would develop 1 metric horse power (i. (ww) “Pump Turbine” means a hydraulic turbine having a runner capable of running in one direction in generating mode and reverse direction in pumping mode.
“Switchyard” means a sub-station associated with a generating station for transforming electricity for further transmission. intended in principle for use in connection with generation. measuring. “Unit” in relation to a coal/lignite based thermal generating station means steam generator with interconnected steam turbine-generator and auxiliaries. distribution and conversion of electric power. “Switchgear” means switching devices and their combination with associated control. (ppp) “Turbine setting” in relation to hydro-electric generating station means the elevation of distributor centre line or runner centre line.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. transformation and control of electrical power other than transforming or converting solely for operation of switching or instruments and includes a pole mounted substation. (nnn) “Touch Potential” is the potential difference between the object touched and the ground point just below the person touching the object when ground currents are flowing. accessories. (ooo) “Transients” means over voltage or over current phenomena prevailing in an electrical system for a transient period of the order of a fraction of a second or a few seconds not exceeding five seconds. operated as one single set/system to generate electric power. (iii) “Substation” means any premises or enclosure containing an assemblage of electrical apparatus for conversion. (qqq) “Two Shift Operation” means operation at MCR or its high fraction for about sixteen hours in a day. (jjj) (kkk) (lll) (mmm) “Thermal Generating Station” means the ‘generating station’ as defined in the Act for generating electricity using fossil fuels such as coal. transmission. gas. liquid fuel or combination of these as its primary source of energy. protective and regulating equipment.2 bars). 7 . (rrr) (sss) “Under Ground Power House” means the Power House in which all major components of the turbine-generator sets are underground. lignite. unit being shut down for the remaining time. enclosures and supporting structures. “Surface Power House” means the Power House in which upper part starting from the generator floor or service bay are above the ground. 2007 DRAFT (hhh) “Subcritical unit” in relation to coal/lignite based thermal generating unit means a unit designed for main steam pressure more than the critical pressure (221. also assemblies of such devices and equipment with associated interconnections.
availability and efficiency over its lifetime. 4. Technical Standards All Electrical Plants and Electric Lines to be constructed shall conform to the General Requirements specified at Regulation (6) below and “The Technical Standards for construction of Electrical Plants and Electric Lines” as appended with these Regulations at Schedule -I to IV detailed hereunder: a) Schedule I: Technical Standards for Thermal Generating Stations b) Schedule II: Technical Standards for Hydro-electric Generating Stations c) Schedule III: Technical Standards for Sub-stations and Switchyards d) Schedule IV: Technical Standards for Electric Lines (2) 3. 5. is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections. (uuu) “Volumetric Heat Liberation Rate” is defined as the heat generated from fuel firing in one hour divided by the volume of the furnace. 8 . Objectives These regulations are intended to specify the Technical Standards for construction of Electrical Plants and Electric Lines with the objective that all Electrical Plants and Electric Lines to be constructed conform to minimum requirements as laid down hereunder to ensure high level of performance in respect of reliability. Applicability of Regulations These regulations shall apply to all Electrical Plants and Electric Lines for which order is placed by the Owner after the date of notification of these regulations. Words and expressions used but not defined in these Regulations shall have the same meaning respectively assigned to them in the Act. in normal conditions of use. (vvv) “Warm Start” in relation to steam turbine means start up after a shut down period between 10 hours and 72 hours (turbine metal temperatures between approximately 40% and 80% of their full load values).Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT (ttt) “Voltage Transformer” means an instrument transformer in which the secondary voltage.
USA 9 . All equipment and systems installed shall comply with latest statutes. Regulations. regulations and safety codes. The various parts / components / assemblies of equipment and systems shall be of proven materials with well established physical and chemical properties appropriate to the service as intended. A non-exhaustive list of reputed international standards is given below: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) American Petroleum Institute (API) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) American Water Works Association (AWWA) American Welding Society (AWS) British Standards (BS) Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN). facilities. These shall be complete and include all the equipment and systems necessary to ensure high level of safety.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2006 b) Central Electricity Authority (Technical Standards for Connectivity to the Grid) Regulations. 2007 c) Indian Electricity Grid Code issued by Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) and d) Applicable State Grid Code issued by appropriate Regulatory Commission. The Electrical Plants and Electric Lines shall be suitable for full range of ambient and other environmental conditions. maintainability. 2007 DRAFT 6. reliability and availability throughout their life. 2006 c) Central Electricity Authority (Measures relating to Safety and Electricity Supply). as applicable in the area. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) The design. components and systems shall be in accordance with standards/ codes issued by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and/or reputed international standards/ codes. The Electrical Plants and Electric Lines shall be designed to comply with the requirements stipulated in a) Central Electricity Authority (Installation and Operation of Meters) Regulations. construction and testing of all equipment. (1) General Requirements The Electrical Plants and Electric Lines shall be constructed considering prudent engineering practices and optimal utilization of resources. Germany Heat Exchange Institute (HEI).
instruments. However. manufacturing. commissioning as per comprehensive Quality Assurance Programme to be agreed mutually between the owner and the equipment supplier. Germany Other International Standards. USA International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) National Electric Code (NEC). technical description. in the event of any conflict between the requirements of the International standards/codes and. USA Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA).Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. engineering and construction as may be required for inspection (8) (9) 10 . The Owner shall retain at the site and make available the following documents for inspection. Electronic and Information Technologies (VDE). USA National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). etc. (7) All materials. diagrams. b) Copies of the project design memorandum. as may be required by a statutory body: a) As-built drawings including. 2007 DRAFT j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) Hydraulic Institute Standards (HIS). c) Copies of the results of all tests performed on major items and d) Such other technical documents relating to the design. erection. but not limited to the civil and architectural works. USA VDE association for Electrical. drawings. the latter shall prevail. and the requirements of the BIS standards/codes. data sheets. operating manuals and manufacturer’s warranties for all major items and / or equipment . The SI /MKS system of units shall be used for design. components and equipment shall be tested at all stages of procurement. procurement. USA National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). equivalent or superior to the above Standards can also be adopted.
4 Areas where a potential flammable atmosphere may exist shall be classified in accordance with the provisions of the internationally recognised standard. Government of India and any other stipulation in this regard of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Board (SPCB). liquid effluent discharges and solid waste disposal) of the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOE&F).5 meter from any equipment except in case of Turbine – Generator for which noise level shall not exceed 90 dBA. 1. equipment requiring operator attention and/or electrical equipment shall not be installed in hazardous areas. The Station shall comply with the environmental stipulations (such as ambient air quality. Gas turbine based Stations and diesel generator sets based Stations shall be designed for life not less than fifteen (15) years.1 GENERAL TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS: The coal/lignite based thermal generating stations shall be designed to give life not less than twenty five (25) years. wherever required so as not to exceed the permissible noise limits.0 1. For short term exposure. Equipment/ machines shall be provided with acoustic enclosures. a) Noise level at the Station boundary shall not exceed the Ambient Air Quality Standard in respect of noise as notified by MOE&F and any other stipulation in this regard of the SPCB and CPCB. gaseous emissions. noise levels shall not exceed the limits as stipulated in the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Standard.2 1. Noise level for the continuously operating equipment shall not be more than 85 dBA at a distance of 1 meter and at a height of 1. Certified equipment shall be used in the designated hazardous areas. 11 .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. To the extent practicable. 2007 DRAFT SCHEDULE I: TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR THERMAL GENERATING STATIONS This Schedule describes the minimum technical requirements for construction of Thermal Generating Stations of various types in following four parts: Part Part Part Part A: B: C: D: Common to all types of Thermal Generating Stations Coal/lignite based Thermal Generating Stations Gas Turbine based Thermal Generating Stations Diesel Engine based Thermal Generating Stations PART A: COMMON TO ALL TYPES OF THERMAL GENERATING STATIONS 1.3 b) c) 1.
0 2. 2007 DRAFT 1. Following minimum layout requirements shall be complied with as may be applicable for coal/lignite and/or gas turbine based Stations: i) ii) iii) The layout of the Station shall be compact so as to optimise use of land. high flood zone of rivers or the high tide zones of sea / backwaters Siting criteria prescribed by MOE&F Availability of required water Feasibility of rail. The use of insulation or finishing materials containing asbestos in any form is not permitted. materials and minimise losses in the system. non-hygroscopic and shall withstand continuously and without deterioration the maximum temperature to which they will be subjected as per duty conditions. road or other linkages for transportation of fuel and equipment to the site Feasibility of power evacuation Layout considerations General layout of the Station shall be developed considering space optimization. incombustible. functional requirements. chemically rot proof. The insulating materials.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. accessories and protective covering shall be non-sulphurous. future extensions (if envisaged) and provision of space requirements during construction stage.C shall be provided with required insulation along with cladding.1 2.5 All the equipments/surfaces (excluding coal/lignite pulverisers and electrical equipment) having skin temperature more than 60 deg. Due consideration shall be given for the wind direction while deciding on the relative location of the following: 2. SITE SELECTION AND LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS: Site selection The following criteria shall be considered in selection of site for thermal generating stations: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Availability of adequate land for the Station Avoidance of proximity to geological faults. low chloride content. Adequate provision shall be made in regard to space and access in order to carry out the maintenance of various equipment.2 12 .
suitable isolation arrangement shall be provided. for each unit/ module. In addition. and minimum one (1) no. Provision of adequate space. In case bunker bay is located adjacent to TG area. following elevators shall also be provided for coal/lignite based generating stations: a) One passenger-cum goods elevator for each steam-generator b) One passenger cum goods elevator for coal transfer point in bunker area c) One elevator for chimney with suitable landings vi) vii) viii) ix) x) 13 . Walkways at various levels shall also be provided for interconnection between steam generator and bunker bay. 2007 DRAFT a) cooling tower and switchyard to minimize the moisture drift towards the switchyard. interconnecting walkways between TG building and steam generator shall be provided at TG operating floor level and at deaerator floor level. Coal/lignite bunker bay shall preferably be located away from the TG building to avoid the dust nuisance. For Stations with multiple units. One (1) no. shall be made for future installation of flue gas desulphurization plant. as per stipulation of MOE&F. b) chimney and ash disposal area with respect to township and adjoining habitation areas (applicable for coal/lignite based generating stations iv) Adequate space shall be provided for unloading and maintenance purposes in Turbine . For coal/lignite based generating stations. In case of coal/lignite based generating stations. of staircase. two transverse bays shall be provided in TG area. adequate space shall be provided to meet the requirement for simultaneous maintenance of two units. Adequate fire escape staircases shall be provided in TG building with fire doors at each landing.Generator (TG) area. v) Requisite lay down area shall be provided for each unit on TG floor and same shall be approachable with electric overhead travelling (EOT) crane.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. elevator shall be provided in the TG building. at ground level at one end of the building for unloading and maintenance purposes.
5 1. 6 2.5 Hz) 1.) when unit is operating above control load.0 2. The steam generator and its auxiliaries shall be suitable for outdoor installation. The design shall cover adequate provision for quick start up and loading of the unit to full load at a fast rate.0 1.2 2.g. However. turbine driven boiler feed pumps.2 The steam flow through steam turbine under valves wide open (VWO) condition shall correspond to 105% of steam flow corresponding to MCR output. 2007 DRAFT PART B: 1.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.3 1. fuel oil heating etc. Boiler Maximum Continuous Rating (BMCR) shall correspond to at least 102% of the steam flow at turbine inlet under VWO condition plus continuous steam requirement for auxiliary systems of the unit (e.1 2. the unit shall also be capable of regular two-shift operation and load cycling. However.1 COAL/LIGNITE BASED THERMAL GENERATING STATIONS OPERATING CAPABILITIES OF A UNIT IN THE STATION The unit shall give Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR) under the following conditions: Maximum cooling water temperature Worst fuel quality stipulated for the unit Grid frequency variation of -5% to +3% (47. The steam generator shall be capable to give BMCR output for the worst fuel quality stipulated. STEAM GENERATOR (BOILER) AND AUXILIARIES The steam generator shall normally be based on pulverized fuel combustion and shall be of sub-critical or super critical type with single /two pass or any other proven flue gas path configuration. fluidized bed combustion (FBC) based steam generator may be used.4 1. wherever very low grade fuel or coal/lignite with high sulphur content is stipulated. 1. The unit shall be capable of automatically coming down to house load and continue to operate at this load in the event of sudden external load throw off. The unit shall be capable of base load operation.5 Hz to 51.3 14 . The unit shall be designed to give maximum possible efficiency for the fuel stipulated and other site specific conditions. The unit shall have minimum rate of loading/ unloading of 3% per minute above the control load (50% MCR).
one spare mill when using worst coal and two spare mills when using performance coal corresponding to BMCR condition in case of medium speed mills). Coal/lignite preparation system for pulverized fuel system shall have sufficient spare mills. The steam generator shall not require oil support above 40% unit load. with an input coal size up to 50 mm. All start up vents shall be provided with two valves in series . 2007 DRAFT 2. valves including safety valves and fittings shall meet the requirements of Indian Boiler Regulations (IBR). The following criteria for furnace sizing may be used for typical Indian coal for unit sizes upto 500 MW. slow burning.6 2.1x105kcal/hr/m3 iii) Maximum Heat input per Burner 55 x106 kcal/hr/burner @ (Not applicable for fluidized bed boilers) S. :Description Value @ 6 Maximum Net Heat Input (NHI) per unit plan 5x10 kcal/hr/m2 area of furnace ii) Maximum Volumetric Heat Liberation Rate 1. vessels.9 2.7 Pressure withstand capability of the furnace shall correspond to minimum +/660 mmwc at 67% yield strength or maximum expected pressure/draft of fans.5 2. piping. (e.11 2.8 2. Fuel oil system shall comprise of light diesel oil (LDO) for black start condition and heavy fuel oil (HFO/LSHS/HPS) for start-up & low load operation. The pulverized coal/lignite burners shall be low NOX type with NOX emission (both fuel NOX and thermal NOX) not exceeding 260 gms per gigajoule of heat input.No. For pulverized coal/lignite based steam-generators. The typical characteristics of indigenous coal (high abrasive ash.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. whichever is higher. 2. Coal supply to the mills shall be from the individual coal bunkers having storage capacity of about 16 hours. i) 2. fuel oil firing system shall be provided for start up and low load flame stabilization.g.4 The steam generator including pressure parts.10 2. The coal fineness achieved from the pulverisers shall be at least 70% thru 200 mesh (75 microns) and 98% thru 50 mesh (300 microns) at rated capacity of the pulveriser.one motorized isolating and one motorized regulating type.12 15 . high ash resistivity etc) should be given due consideration while designing the steam generator and auxiliaries.
0 3. Steam coil air pre-heater (SCAPH) may also be provided for maintaining air temperature within safe limits to prevent corrosion during start up or very low ambient air temperature conditions. reheater.2 STEAM TURBINE AND AUXILIARIES The steam turbine shall comply with latest versions of IEC-45 or equivalent. economizer and air preheater. 2007 DRAFT 2.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Specific weight of ash may be considered not more than 650 kg/m³ for determining hopper storage capacity and not less than 1350 kg/m³ for ESP structural design. superheater.1 3. Pressure withstand capability of the ESP casing shall correspond to minimum +/. Each hopper shall have a storage capacity of minimum of eight (8) hours.13 2x60% forced draft (FD) fans and 2x60% induced draft (ID) fans shall be provided to maintain balance draft conditions in the furnace over the entire load range while burning the stipulated range of fuels. Suitable air pre-heating system shall be provided for recovery of useful heat from the exhaust flue gases.660 mmwc at 67% yield strength and flue gas temperature of 200° C.16 ii) iii) iv) 3.14 2.) shall be provided for removing suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the flue gases to meet the statutory stipulations. The dust collecting system (electro static precipitator. bag filter etc. The gross turbine cycle heat rate as guaranteed by the equipment manufacturer shall not exceed the following values: Unit rating (MW) 100 MW 200 MW 250 MW 500 MW to less than 200 MW to less than 250 MW to less than 500 MW to less than 660 MW Gross turbine cycle heat rate* (kcal / kWhr) at 100% MCR 2000@ 1970@ 1950@ 1950$ 16 . The soot blowing system shall be provided for the waterwall. ESP shall be provided with effective ash evacuation system having controls for ash temperature and ash level in the hopper. the following requirements shall be complied with: i) ESP shall be able to meet the stipulated SPM emission requirement even when one electric field in each pass of the ESP is out of service while firing worst fuel. 2. In case electro static precipitator (ESP) is provided.15 2.
700 warm starts and 100 cold starts during its life.7 3. with 2x100% jacking oil pumps. Steam turbines of less than 100 MW rating may be non-reheat type.8 3. In case turbine driven BFP is envisaged. units more than 200 MW shall be provided with back up governing system of mechanical hydraulic or electro hydraulic type. single/multi-cylinder design with number of uncontrolled extractions as optimized for regenerative feed heating. including the following: 3. However. the indicated gross heat rate shall be reduced by 40 kcal/kWhr $ 3. A self-contained lubricating oil system shall be provided for each steam turbine-generator. the pumps provided shall be 2x100%.6 3. condensing. reheat type. 2007 DRAFT Supercritical units 1890 ( with turbine driven BFP) * corresponding to reference conditions of 33O C cooling water temperature and 0% de-mineralised water make up @ corresponding to sub-critical units with motor driven BFP. Jacking oil system. In case motor driven BFP is envisaged. In case of separate control oil system.9 17 . The oil used for turbine governing (control) shall be either from the lubricating oil system or from a separate control oil system. The steam turbine shall be designed for a minimum of 3000 hot starts. a minimum of one AC motor driven auxiliary oil pump shall be provided as standby for the main oil pump. The turbine shall be provided with protective devices as per IEC-45 or equivalent. the indicated gross heat rate shall be increased by 40 kcal/kWhr corresponding to sub-critical units with turbine driven BFP. A main oil pump (MOP) shall be provided which may be either directly driven by turbine shaft or by AC motor.3 The steam turbine shall be of tandem/cross compound construction. Provision shall also be made for one DC motor driven emergency oil pump for meeting lubricating oil requirement during nonavailability of AC motor driven pump. shall be provided to supply high pressure oil to each bearing of steam turbine-generator to lift the rotor during starting or turning gear operation.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.5 3. In addition.4 3. The steam turbine shall be provided with electro-hydraulic governing system.
For steam turbines with rating more than 100 MW. 2007 DRAFT i) ii) 3. Condensate polishing system shall be provided in the steam turbine cycle for the following: a) units with rated pressure 170 kg/cm2 and above at turbine inlet b) units using sea water for condenser cooling 3.12 3.C. The start up and drainage system shall comply with ANSI/ASME Standard TDP-1 “Recommended practices for the prevention of water damage to steam turbines used for electric power generation”. manufacturing and testing of condenser shall be as per Heat Exchange Institute (HEI) or equivalent.11 Separately actuated over-speed trip device. as required. Hydraulic/pneumatic/D. Condenser tubes shall be of titanium when using sea water and stainless steel for other sources of water. depending upon the quality of cooling water.14 3.17 i) ii) 18 . dumping steam in condenser during sudden turbine trip (without tripping the boiler). On load condenser tube cleaning system may be provided. Condenser The design. unit house load operation etc.13 3.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 3. Non-return valves shall be provided in the steam extraction lines as required for protection from overspeed that may result from sudden load throw off or turbine trip. operated device shall be provided for rapid reduction of vacuum in condenser to bring turbine rotor to rest as quickly as possible under emergency conditions.15 3. Turbine vibrations shall be minimized and shall be within limits as per ISO 10816 and ISO 7919.10 3. turbine by .pass system of adequate capacity shall be provided for fast hot & warm start ups of unit. deaerator and high pressure heaters shall be provided for optimized cycle efficiency.16 Suitable feed water regenerative system consisting of low pressure heaters. Emergency hand trip devices to facilitate manual tripping of the turbine locally and from control room.
1 4.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. C and relative humidity of 95% shall be considered.1. 19 . an ambient temperature of 50 deg.0 4. Regional/State Load Despatch Centre and Transmission Company.1. 2007 DRAFT iii) Vacuum pumps or steam ejectors shall be provided as per HEI or equivalent for evacuating air steam mixture and non-condensable gases from the condenser. The equipment shall be suitable for operation in a highly polluted environment.C . Condensate Extraction Pumps (CEPs) 3x50% or 2x100% condensate extraction pumps shall be provided for each unit.18 i) ii) 3.1 For the purpose of design of electrical equipment/systems. design ambient temperature shall be 35 deg. The following configurations may be considered in order to provide redundancy and start up requirements for various unit sizes: a) 500 MW and above: 2x50% or 1x100% turbine driven BFP plus 1x50% or 2x25% motor driven BFP 3x50% motor driven BFP 2x100% or 3x50% motor driven BFP 3. Boiler Feed Pumps (BFPs) The unit shall be provided with boiler feed pumps of adequate capacity to give rated output.19 i) b) 100 to 300 MW: c) Less than 100 MW ii) The required net positive suction head required NPSH at 3% head drop shall be one third of available NPSH at design point with lowest deaerator level and maximum pressure drop across the strainer. However. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM General Requirements 4. for equipment in air conditioned areas. The required net positive suction head (NPSH) at 3% head drop shall be well below the available NPSH under all operating regimes with lowest hot well level and maximum pressure drop across suction strainer.2 The Owner shall install and maintain the necessary communication equipment to transmit the required data of the Power Station to the procurer of electricity. 4. The design shall meet the requirements of Hydraulic Institute Standards (HIS) or equivalent.
The system shall have the provision of on-line dew point measurement as well as gas analyser. temperature rise shall be limited corresponding to thermal class-B insulation.2. 4. 2x100% filters. hydrogen & water cooled or air cooled type. 2007 DRAFT 4. 4.3 Generator Instrumentation Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs)/ thermocouples shall be provided at suitable locations for monitoring the temperatures of stator core. Suitable arrangements shall also be made for monitoring the temperature of the rotor winding in case static excitation system is provided. one mixed bed de-mineraliser and one alkalizer unit (as applicable). the seal oil system provided shall be equipped with 2x100% AC motor driven pumps and 1x 100% DC motor driven pump.2. 4. 2x100% de-mineralised (DM) water heat exchangers.1 Suitable generator excitation system as well as automatic voltage regulator (AVR) shall be provided with the generator as per regulations of 20 .2. 4.2 Insulation shall be thermal class-F for stator and rotor winding as per IEC 60034. However.2. The generator shall be capable of delivering at least two third of its rated output with one hydrogen gas cooler out of service.7 Excitation System 22.214.171.124 Hydrogen gas system Hydrogen gas system shall be provided with driers of 2x100% duty to maintain dryness of hydrogen inside the machine. stator windings and bearings.5 Water system Stator water cooling system shall be closed loop type with 2x100% AC motor driven circulating water pumps.7.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. The system shall be provided with coolers and filters having 2x100% duty .2. Suitable system shall be provided to prevent condensation during long shut down.2 Generator 4.2. 4. Generator shall be either hydrogen cooled.1 The turbo-generator shall comply with IS-4722/ IEC-60034 or their equivalent. 4.6 Seal oil system In case of hydrogen cooled machines. The efficiency of generator shall be more than 98% at rated load.
The accuracy class shall be as under: a) b) not less than 0.3 not less than 0.2. energy accounting and audit meters.5 for generator AVR. not less than 0.8 4.2 for acceptance testing.2.3.7. In case of brushless excitation system.1 Current Transformers Current Transformers shall comply with IS: 2705/IEC: 60044-1 in general.2.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. acceptance testing. 4.3. Power system stabilizer (PSS) shall be provided in AVR for generator of 100MW and above.5 for reverse power relay. rectifier assembly shall be provided with either complete bridge as redundant or at least one redundant parallel branch in each of the six arms of the bridge. It shall also be used to provide start-up power from 21 .1 The power transformers (Generator/ Unit Auxiliary /Station Transformers) shall comply with latest versions of BIS: 2026 or relevant IEC.2.7. generator AVR.2 Voltage Transformers Voltage transformers shall comply with IS:3156/IEC: 60044-2 in general.8. At least 100% redundancy shall be provided for the converters. The accuracy class shall be as under: a) b) 4. 2007 DRAFT the Authority on Grid Connectivity.2. Power Transformers 4. The rated voltage shall be at least 110% of the machine excitation voltage. energy accounting and audit meters. not less than 0. Instrument Transformers 4. Electro Hydraulic governor (EHG) and other measurements. The generator transformer shall be provided to step up generating voltage for connection to the grid. 4.3 4. 4.2 for low forward power relay. Electro Hydraulic governor (EHG) and other measurements .2 The rated current of the excitation system shall be at least 110% of the machine excitation current at the rated output of the machine.8. manual control shall be possible. In the event of failure of auto channels. Generators of 100 MW and above rating shall be provided with AVR having 2x100% auto channels and automatic changeover.2.
It shall be mineral oil filled with oil forced air forced (OFAF) (100% rating)/ oil natural air forced (ONAF) (80% rating)/ oil natural air natural (ONAN) (60% rating) cooling. It shall be provided with minimum 2x50% detachable cooling radiator banks. It shall be provided with 2x50% cooling radiator banks.4 The station transformer (s) shall provide the start-up power requirement and station auxiliary load requirement during normal operation of the unit(s). Each radiator bank shall be provided with suitable number of working fans plus one (1) stand-by fan and 2x100% oil pumps. of working fans plus one (1) stand-by fan. It shall be mineral oil filled with ONAF (100% rating)/ ONAN (80% rating) cooling. 4.6 The insulation levels for the transformer windings and bushings shall be as per Schedule –III (Table-5). in case of GCB scheme.5 The transformers shall be suitable for continuous operation at rated MVA on any taps with voltage variation of +10% in accordance with IS: 6600. may be provided with OFAF/ONAF/ONAN cooling. 4.3 The unit auxiliary transformer(s) (UAT) shall be used to meet the unit load requirement during normal running of the unit. Each radiator bank shall be provided with suitable number of working fans plus one (1) stand-by fan and 2x100% oil pumps.3. in case of GCB scheme. it shall provide power requirement of the unit and station auxiliaries during start-up and normal running of the unit. The tap changer for UAT shall be of OCTC type in case generator transformer is provided with OLTC and vice versa. However.3. It shall be mineral oil filled with OFAF (100% rating)/ ONAF (80% rating)/ ONAN (60% rating) cooling. 2007 DRAFT the grid in case circuit breaker is provided between the generator and generator-transformer in generator circuit breaker (GCB) scheme. 4. It shall be provided with OLTC. UAT.3.3. Each bank shall be provided with suitable no. This may not be applicable in case of GCB scheme. It shall be provided with on-load tap changer (OLTC) or off-circuit tap changer (OCTC) type depending upon system requirements. It shall be provided with 2x50% cooling radiator banks.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 4. 22 .
stored energy operated and with electrical anti-pumping features. 23 . 2007 DRAFT 4.6/3.1 All auxiliaries dedicated to the unit shall be fed from unit bus connected to UAT(s). 4. 4.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. The busduct rated more than 3150 A shall be isolated phase type.7. The lightning arrestors and voltage transformers cubicles shall comply with relevant BIS / IEC or equivalent. The protective relays shall be preferably of numerical type with self monitoring and diagnostic features. During start -up and shut . 4. trip free. the same shall be provided by the unit bus. re-strike free.6. 4.2 The busducts shall be segregated or isolated phase type.5 LT Switchgear Air break type of circuit breakers shall be provided for LT switchgear (415 V) which shall be of draw out type. However.6.6.4 HT Switchgear SF6 or vacuum type of circuit breakers shall be provided in HT Switchgear (11/6. 4.down of units.4 Lightning arresters and voltage transformers connected to generator busducts shall be located in separate cubicles for each of the three phases.1 The busducts shall be of standard size as per BIS and designed to carry maximum continuous current under normal site conditions without exceeding temperature rise limits.3 The bus assembly shall be designed mechanically to withstand rated continuous current as well as the specified short–circuit current without damage or permanent deformation of any part of the bus structure. trip free. The protective relays shall be preferably of numerical type with self monitoring and diagnostic features. 4.7 Power Supply System 4.6 Generator Busducts 4.3 kV) which shall be of draw out type. the unit auxiliaries shall be supplied power from the station bus connected to station transformer(s). Voltage transformers shall be accommodated in draw-out type compartments in phase-isolated manner in a cubicle. in case of GCB scheme. A hot air blowing system or air pressurization system shall be provided to prevent moisture deposition in case of isolated phase ducts while space heaters may be provided in case of other busducts. stored energy operated and with electrical anti-pumping features.6. Busduct rated more than 6000 A shall be continuous isolated phase type.
8 Neutral Earthing Generator neutral earthing equipment shall be designed duly taking into account the normal rise of the generated voltage above the rated value due to load throw off and field forcing. the vector group of other auxiliary transformers shall have identical vector groups. motor control centre (MCC).4 In thermal power stations with unit sizes more than 100 MW. 4. buses. The 11/6. automatic bus transfer system (consisting of fast. switchgear.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Critical 415 V switchgear buses shall also have ARC feature. interlocks and standby supply systems to station and unit auxiliaries shall be designed in such a way that the main equipment and auxiliaries are not endangered under all conditions. Bus transfer scheme shall also have manual mode to initiate transfer command manually. distribution board (DB) shall be fed by 2x100% transformers/ feeders.resonance.3 kV switchgear buses for balance of plant facilities shall be provided with auto reserve closure (ARC) facility between main incomer and reserve breakers. Station bus shall also be capable of supplying power to largest unit in the Station during start-up and shutdown.2 All the loads pertaining to balance of plant facilities shall be fed from station bus connected to Station Transformer (s). transfer in auto mode ) shall be provided to minimise time for transfer from unit to station bus and vice versa at 11/ 6.7. impedances and tolerances thereon. 4. Further. slow. type of tap changers and tap ranges.7. The vector groups of the generator transformers. 24 . However.7.6/ 3.6 kV levels. Transformer voltage ratios. etc.5 Auxiliary transformers. ferro .3KV buses shall be possible.7. with the criteria that each switchgear. Generator neutral shall be earthed through dry type distribution transformer with secondary loaded with a resistor. The auxiliary transformers shall be designed to carry the maximum expected load. 4.6/3. shall be so optimized that the auxiliary system voltages under various grid and loading conditions are always within permissible limits and equipments are not subjected to unacceptable voltages during operation and starting of motors. 4. 2007 DRAFT 4. the loads pertaining to balance of plant facilities shall be fed from unit bus. shall be provided to meet the demand at various voltage levels of auxiliary power systems. etc. unit auxiliary transformers and station transformers shall be so selected that the paralleling at 11/ 6. as required. in case of GCB scheme.3 Power supplies.
IEEE : 80 and IEEE : 665. 100% stator earth fault protection For units of 100 MW and (64G1).9 Earthing System The earthing system shall be designed for a life expectancy of at least forty (40) years. MW Standby stator earth fault protection (64G2) Inter-turn fault protection (87TG) Applicable where split 6 7 8 9 25 .0 sec. if differential protection (87 L) distance between Generator Transformer and Switchyard is about 200 mtrs and above. Generator. Grounding and lightning protection for the entire Station shall be provided in accordance with IS: 3043. 4. The protections for the generator/ generator transformer/ UAT(s) shall be provided as under: SN 1 2 3 4 5 Protection Function Remarks Generator differential protection. sensitivity and selectivity shall be provided for the entire Station. 2007 DRAFT Neutral earthing of other systems shall be such that it is possible to provide earth fault protection with proper discrimination. generator transformer. unit auxiliary transformers (UATs) shall be provided with protections connected to two independent channels/ groups.10 Protection Fully graded protection system with requisite speed. Generator transformer differential protection (87GT) for single phase bank Restricted Earth Fault protection for Generator transformer (87NGT) Over head line connection To be provided. 4. (87G) Overall differential protection (87OA). The minimum rate of corrosion of earthing conductor shall be considered as 0.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.12 mm per year while determining the conductor size. such that one protection system shall always be available for any type of fault in the generator/ generator transformer/ UAT(s). above 95% stator earth fault protection For units less than 100 (64G1). for maximum fault current or EHV system fault current of 40kA. whichever is higher for 1.
(46G) Low-forward power and Reverse power interlock for steam turbine generator (37/ 32G) Rotor earth fault protection .two stages (64F1/F2).Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Both the relays shall be duplicated for units of 500 MW and above. Back up impedance protection. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 To be provided for units of 500 MW and above in duplicate. Preferably 3-ph power relays shall be provided. Accidental back energisation protection (50GDM) Overload protection for generator (51G) Overheating (winding and/ or Alarm only bearing) (49G) Time graded IDMT type back nondirectional over-current protection in all phases on HV side of generator transformer (51GT) Instantaneous and time delayed Over Current protection to be used on HV side of excitation transformer Generator pole slipping protection (98G) 26 . To be duplicated for units of 500 MW and above. Over-fluxing protection for generator To be duplicated for transformer (99GT) units of 500 MW and above. Definite time over-voltage protection (59G) Generator under frequency protection (81G) Over-fluxing protection for generator (99G) winding in Stator is provided and if six terminals are available. 2007 DRAFT 10 11 12 13 14 Loss of field protection (40G). 3 pole (21G) Backup earth fault protection on generator transformer HV neutral (51NGT) Negative sequence current protection.
walls etc.11 UAT differential protection. ceilings. Cables to be directly buried shall be essentially armoured type. (87UAT) UAT LV back-up earth fault protection (51NUAT) UAT LV restricted earth fault (87NUAT) UAT back-up over-current protection (51UAT). Fire resistant penetration seals shall be provided for all openings in floors. 27 . Fire protection barriers shall be provided for cable galleries. cable shafts etc. PRV / other mechanical protections UAT OTI(49Q) and WTI (49 T) trip UAT Buchholtz (63) . In addition there shall be one common standby DG set of same rating to serve a block of two units.13 Diesel Generator Set Automatic mains failure (AMF) Diesel generators (DG) shall be installed for feeding emergency loads in the event of failure of station supply. PRV/ other mechanical protections Pole discrepancy protection of generator transformer breaker (162) Breaker failure protection of generator transformer breaker (50Z) .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. at various suitable locations. 4. One DG set shall be provided for each unit of 200 MW and above. grouping and soil resistivity shall be considered while determining the size of cables. To be provided if single pole breakers are used Synchronization Automatic as well as manual facility alongwith check synchronizing and guard relay features shall be provided for closing of generator transformer/generator circuit breaker for synchronization of generator with the grid. 4.12 Cables and cabling Cables shall be flame retardant low smoke (FRLS) type. 2007 DRAFT 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 4. Generator transformer OTI (49Q) and WTI (49T) trip Generator transformer Buchholtz (63). Derating factors for site ambient and ground temperatures.
one DG set may be provided for every two units.1 Control & Instrumentation system provided for the Station shall be consistent with modern power station practices and in compliance with all applicable codes. during normal as well 28 . Energy conservation measures shall be adopted while designing the lighting system. mechanical and electrical functions of the Station shall be remotely controlled from the central control room/ respective local control room of various auxiliary systems. as provided.2 The complete thermal.0 5. 4. Temperature rise shall be limited to 70 deg C by resistance method for both class B and F insulation. 4.1.1 Group II B Group-IIC CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM General 5.14 D C System Standard levels of DC system shall be 220 volts. 4.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Emergency AC and DC illumination shall also be provided at important places. One float -cumboost chargers shall be provided for each battery. standards. Enclosures of the motors located in hazardous areas shall be flame proof type conforming to IS:2148 as per details given below: a) Fuel oil area b) Hydrogen generation plant area 5. Crane duty motors shall be slip ring/ squirrel cage type induction motor. guidelines and safety requirements in force. 2007 DRAFT For unit sizes less than 200 MW.15 Illumination System Adequate illumination shall be provided in accordance with IS: 3646.1. Two sets of batteries shall be provided for each DC system each catering to 100% load. DC motors shall be shunt wound type.16 Motors AC motors shall be squirrel cage type induction motors suitable for direct online starting. 5. All motors shall be either totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) or totally enclosed tube ventilated (TETV) or closed air circuit air cooled (CACA) or closed air water cooled (CACW) type. 48 volts and 24 volts for control and protection of various equipment.
VDE 0160 etc. triple redundant inputs shall be connected to three separate input cards. Minimum number of hardwired devices shall also be provided for safe shutdown of unit.2 Control System for Steam Generator and Turbine Generator 5. 5.1. turbine stress management system. it shall also be ensured that occurrence of false trips are 29 . sequence of event (SOE) recording system etc.2. automatic turbine run up system (ATRS). 5.generator and turbine. The logics for redundant drives shall not be in the same processor. interlocking & protection. 5.6 The design of the control systems and related equipments shall adhere to the principle of ‘fail safe operation’ wherever the safety of personnel / plant equipment is involved. The number of control areas shall be kept to minimum with a view to optimize manpower. sequential control for drives. alarm annunciation system. turbine generator and auxiliaries and shall include monitoring & information. turbine supervisory system. DCS system shall be provided with 100% redundancy for processors. interlocking and protection shall be redundant.generator shall preferably be implemented as part of DCS system.4. Redundant inputs/outputs shall be connected to different input/output cards of DCS i. historical data storage.3 Human machine interface system (HMIS) configured around latest state-ofthe art redundant workstations with open architecture shall be provided to operate the unit under all operating conditions. 2007 DRAFT as emergency conditions. 5. electro-hydraulic governing (EHG) system.2. The Master Fuel Trip (MFT) system shall comply with VDE0116. 5. ‘fail safe operation’ signifies that the loss of signal.3 All stand-by auxiliaries shall be designed to start automatically as quickly as possible on failure of running auxiliaries.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Output modules for all HT drives and critical LT drives shall also be redundant.2.2 Control systems integral to steam. Control systems integral to turbine -generator shall include turbine protection system. 5. However. Control systems integral to steam-generator shall include burner management system (BMS)/ furnace safeguard supervisory system (FSSS) which shall comply with latest version of NFPA 85.2.1 The state of art microprocessor based digital control system (DCS) shall be provided for monitoring and control of steam generator. 5. closed loop control for regulating drives.2.e.2. DCS system shall be independent for each unit. control & input/output bus and network components. loss of power or failure of any component shall not cause a hazardous condition.5 All input modules for control.
ID/FD/PA fans etc. No single failure either of component or power source of DCS shall cause loss of generation.).4 Local Area Network (LAN) A redundant station-wide LAN shall be provided for information exchange between DCS of each generating unit. flow elements.5. All important analog data shall be stored at one second interval. ash handling plant. Control system for Balance of Plant Programmable logic controller/ PLC based control system with independent HMIS shall be provided for all the balance of plant facilities like coal/lignite handling plant. thermocouples.2. The binary data to be stored shall include status of SOE (1millisecond resolution). Selected logs viz. trip analysis log shall also be stored. input/output module. PLCs shall be latest state of the art system with redundant processors.) 5. carbon mono-oxide (CO) and dust emission monitoring systems shall be provided. etc. 5. oxygen.2 Microprocessor based vibration monitoring and analysis system shall be provided for monitoring and analysis of vibration of critical rotating equipment (i. start up log. water treatment plant etc. 5. 5.1 Primary instruments like transmitters.3 5.8 It shall be possible to remove and replace various modules (like any controller.9 The historical storage & retrieval system shall store and process system data for future analysis.5.e. 5.) on-line from its slot for maintenance purpose without switching off power supply to the corresponding rack and without jeopardizing safety of the Station equipment and personnel. monitoring and diagnostic facility giving the details of the fault on the human machine interface system (HMIS).2. The data shall be transferred to removable storage media for long term storage and retrieval.5.2. transducers etc. nitrogen oxides (NOx). maintenance management etc. alarm and other binary inputs. local gauges. 5.3 Flue gas analysis instruments including sulphur-di-oxide (SO2). 5. 30 . PLCs for balance of plant as well as gateway for connecting to the other off-line services of the Station (inventory management. shall be provided as required for comprehensive monitoring of various parameters of the Station. 2007 DRAFT minimized. turbine-generator.7 The control system shall include on-line self-surveillance. resistance resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). boiler feed pumps. interface module.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.5 Measuring Instruments 5.
feed water.220V/48V/24V) shall be used for control & instrumentation systems.5.g.1 BALANCE OF PLANT Coal/lignite handling system The arrangement for transportation of coal/lignite from supply source to the Station may be by rail or other captive systems such as merry go round (MGR). 5.0 6. redundant and reliable 230 V AC through uninterrupted power supply system (UPS) and/or DC power supply at standard voltage levels (e.11.5 All electrical instruments and devices like switches. 2007 DRAFT 5.8 Steam & Water Analysis System (SWAS) An online analysis system shall be provided for continuously monitoring the purity of condensate.6 Power supply system Independent.2 Coal/lignite handling plant shall be provided with 100% standby streams. Further handling shall comply with the following requirements: 6. 5. controllers. 5. Each coal/lignite stream shall be provided with 2x75% or 3x50% paddle feeders (in case of track hoppers) or vibro feeders (in case of wagon tippler) and 2x50% crushers with belt feeders. 5.1) and ASME Boiler & pressure vessel code or equivalent. transmitters. condenser vacuum).1 The coal/lignite handling plant capacity shall be such as to meet the day’s fuel requirement by its operation in 14 hours.5. 6.1.g.7 Control Valves The control valves and accessories shall be designed. The on-line chemical analysis shall be carried out in the plant cycle at strategic points as per the recommendation of manufacturers of steam-generator and steam turbine. ASME code for power piping (B 31. 6. constructed and tested as per IBR. furnace draft. steam etc. ropeway system etc. belt conveyor system.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Single set of coal/lignite conveyers from the stockyard to the bunkers shall not cater to more than three units.1. analyzers. Redundant sensors shall be provided for other important applications. solenoid valves which are located in the hazardous locations like hydrogen generation plant shall be provided with explosion proof enclosure suitable for hazardous areas as per NFPA/NEC. Day’s fuel requirement shall be worked out at 100% BMCR using worst coal/lignite and a margin of 10%.4 The triple sensors shall be provided for critical binary and analog inputs required for protection of steam generator and steam turbine as well as for critical control loops (e. drum level. 31 . The system shall be generally designed as per ASME PTC 19.
6 The provision for measurement of weight of coal/lignite shall be made through weighbridges at the receiving point.3 In case of rail based transportation. 32 .1.5 Provision of proper dust suppression facility shall be made for coal at various locations i. 6.1.1 For pulverised fuel based steam-generator i) ii) Arrangement shall be provided for extraction and transportation to silos in dry form for 100% of fly ash produced Dry fly ash storage silos of adequate capacity (about 16 hours of ash generation) to collect dry fly ash shall be provided in a separate area near the Station boundary with provision for independent access. stockyard and discharge points of conveyors.1. 6. 6.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 6. 6.e. 2007 DRAFT 6.1.3 Suitable heating arrangement shall be made for heating the HFO by steam to maintain its flowability.3. receiving point.7 The arrangement shall be made for sampling of coal/lignite alongwith associated instruments/equipment to monitor quality of coal/lignite on asreceived basis as well as as-fired basis before the bunkers.4 The aspects regarding proper storage and handling of fuel oil shall be as per statutory requirements of Chief Controller of Explosives.1 Necessary arrangement shall be provided for unloading and storage of heavy fuel oil (HFO) and light diesel oil (LDO). 6. marshalling yard for handling of wagons and unloading system shall be designed to facilitate return of empty wagons within the prescribed time by the Indian Railways.1. The weight of coal/lignite shall also be measured through belt-weighers.2 Fuel Oil System 6. 6.2 The capacity of fuel oil storage facilities shall be adequate for the requirement of fuel oil for at least 30 days operation of the Station.4 The minimum storage capacity of coal/ lignite stockyard shall be as under: Non-pit head stations: Coastal stations: Pit-head stations 30 days 30 days 15 days 6. to avoid dust nuisance and spontaneous fire.2.2. 126.96.36.199 Ash Handling System 6.
2007 DRAFT iii) In addition to fly ash disposal in dry form. Ash slurry concentration shall be minimum 25%. as a percentage of maximum ash generated corresponding to firing of worst coal/lignite at BMCR. shall not be less than the following: a) Fly Ash System ESP fly ash & chimney ash Air preheater ash b) Bottom Ash System Furnace bottom ash Economiser ash 25% 5% 90% 5% iv) v) vi) Ash removal rate shall meet the following criteria: a) Fly Ash System b) Bottom Ash System Furnace bottom ash Economiser ash 8 hour collection in 90 minutes Continuous 8 hour collection in 6 hours vii) Ash handling system shall have the provision for following standby arrangement : Bottom Ash System 100% standby for jet pumps with 2x100 % pipelines for each jet pump outlet or 100 % standby for submerged scrapper conveyor (SSC) Fly Ash System Ash slurry disposal 100% standby for vacuum pumps. the provision shall also be made for 100% ash disposal through slurry system. The capacity of ash handling systems. Suitable ash water recirculation system shall be provided to recycle and reuse water.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Furnace bottom ash alongwith economizer ash shall be extracted and disposed in wet/semi-wet form. wetting heads 100% standby blowers for intermediate and storage silos 50% standby for air compressors to be used for transporting ash One pump stream as operating standby and one pump stream as maintenance standby 33 . collector tanks.
4 Station Water System 6.1.2 For fluidized bed type steam-generator i) ii) Dry fly ash extraction. The capacity of ash handling systems. shall not be less than the following: a) Fly Ash System ESP fly ash & chimney ash Air preheater ash Economiser ash b) Bottom Ash System Furnace bottom ash v) a) Fly Ash System b) Bottom Ash System vi) 30% 8 hour collection in 6 hours Continuous Ash removal rate shall meet the following criteria: 80% 5% 5% iii) iv) Ash handling system shall have the provision for following standby arrangement : Bottom Ash System Fly Ash System Ash slurry disposal 100% standby for drag link chain conveyor 100% standby for compressors an blowers One pump stream as operating standby and one pump stream as maintenance standby 6. It shall also conform to MOE&F requirements. 2007 DRAFT 6. the provision shall also be made for wet ash disposal through slurry system. Station Water scheme i) The Station water scheme shall be designed to meet the total clarified water requirement of the Station consisting of cooling tower make up (for non- 34 . Suitable ash water recirculation system shall be provided to recycle and reuse water.4.3. as a percentage of maximum ash generated corresponding to firing of worst fuel at BMCR. transportation and storage system shall meet the requirements as stipulated above for pulverized fuel based system In addition to fly ash disposal in dry form. Furnace bottom ash shall be extracted in dry form by means of drag link chain conveyor and further disposed in wet/semi-wet form.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Ash pond management shall be judiciously planned to optimize the area and facilitate use of pond ash.3. 6. Ash slurry concentration shall be minimum 16%.3.
2007 DRAFT coastal stations). sea water shall be used for condenser cooling. potable water and miscellaneous requirements. However. Adequate storage of raw water/sweet water shall be provided at the Station site considering the period of non-availability of input water from the source. de-silting arrangement and traveling water screen shall be provided at the sea water intake. debris filter shall also be provided at condenser inlet iii) iv) 6. shall be appropriately selected considering annual variation of relative humidity in combination with annual variation of wet bulb temperature. sea water shall be used for production of demineralised water. for coastal Stations using sea water. to be adopted for design of natural draft cooling tower. service water. Raw water for production of clarified water shall be drawn from identified source of water and supplied to the Station site by raw water pumps with adequate standby provision and 2x50% capacity pipelines. The design wet bulb temperature of the cooling tower shall correspond to the ambient wet bulb temperature which is not exceeded by more than 5% duration over one year period.2 Pre-Treatment System The raw water shall be treated in pre-treatment plant to produce clarified water for meeting the requirement of clarified water of the Station. In case of sea water.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. potable water and service water through desalination plant. chemical dosing and sludge handling shall also be made. Adequate recirculation allowance shall be considered for arriving at design wet bulb temperature for induced draft cooling tower.4. equipment cooling system. 6. Provision for desilting and traveling water screens shall be made at the raw water intake point. Adequate provisions for raw water chlorination. The relative humidity. ii) For coastal Stations. Further. ii) 35 . once through condenser cooling system may be used which shall conform to MOE&F requirements of temperature rise.3 Cooling Water System i) The cooling water (CW) system for condenser and secondary cooling system for Station equipment shall be of closed cycle type using cooling towers. The cooling tower shall be of mechanical induced draft type or natural draft type depending upon site specific techno-economics.4. de-mineralisation system. In case where source of non-saline (sweet) water is not available.
ii) iii) 36 . The DM plant shall be designed to produce the daily requirement of de-mineralised water of the Station in twenty (20) hours of operation of the DM plant. equipment cooling system make-up. acid.5 i) Fire detection and Protection System: A comprehensive fire detection and protection system shall be provided for the Station.4 De-mineralisation System i) The capacity of de-mineralised (DM) Plant shall be based on the requirement of de-mineralised water for heat cycle make-up corresponding to 3% of BMCR. Chemicals such as chlorine. if envisaged. The standby pump (s) may be on unit basis or common to the Station. 6. biocide shall be dosed in the CW system for improving quality of circulating water and reducing its scaling and corrosive tendency. Fire protection system shall be designed as per the guidelines of Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC). 3 x 50 % or 2x100% demineralising streams shall be provided. CW pumps shall be provided on unit basis for supply of cooling water. shall be provided at various locations to cover the entire Station. anti-scalant. The demineralized water shall be stored in minimum 2 no.5 Waste Water Treatment System The waste water generated at various facilities will be segregated at the source of generation according to their type.4. The treated water shall be collected in central monitoring basin and recycled for plant use or disposed off to meet the requirements of state Pollution Control Board/MOEF. complying with TAC guidelines. The CW pumps shall be normally of vertical wet pit type. concrete volute pumps may also be used particularly for sea water applications. 2007 DRAFT iii) iv) The design of CW system shall be based on model studies and hydraulic transient analysis.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. v) 6. regeneration of DM plant and condensate polishing plant. Hydrant system.4. ii) 6. However. DM water storage tanks of total storage capacity equal to 24 hour Station requirement. Dedicated fire water storage and pumping facilities shall be provided for the fire fighting system. Similar type of waste water shall be collected at one point and treated.
control rooms etc. Portable and mobile fire extinguishers shall be envisaged to extinguish fire in its early phase to prevent its spread.7 i) ii) iii) The type of ventilation systems to be provided for non-air conditioned areas shall be as under: 37 . should be protected against fire by suitable automatic fire protection systems. instrument air compressors shall be provided as standby. Package type air-conditioners shall have 2x100% capacity or 3x50% capacity equipment. Ventilation & Air-conditioning System Suitable ventilation and air-conditioning system shall be provided to achieve proper working environment in the Station.6 i) ii) 6. At least one no. penetrating sealing systems. Fire station/fire tenders shall also be provided for the Station. v) vi) vii) viii) 6. Air dryers shall be provided for instrument air to achieve desired dryness. switchyard control room. Compressed Air System Compressed air system comprising of instrument air and service air shall be provided to cater to the requirement for operation of various pneumatically operated valves/dampers and general purpose cleaning & maintenance services. service air compressor and two nos. fire retardant coatings.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Passive fire protection such as fire barriers. at least one unit shall be kept as standby. coal/lignite conveyors/galleries. local control rooms and service building for O&M personnel shall be air conditioned. 2007 DRAFT iv) All major and minor fire risks in the Station such as transformers. fuel oil storage & handling. coal/lignite handling plant. Automatic fire detection and alarm system shall be provided to facilitate detection of fire at the incipient stage and give warning to the fire fighting staff. For window/ split air conditioners. Water chilling unit or condensing units shall have 100% standby equipment. if used for small control rooms. cable galleries/shafts. shall be envisaged to prevent spreading and containment of fire. Normally central control room. Airconditioned areas shall be maintained at about 25° and 50 % relative C humidity for comfort conditions. fire proof doors etc.
drag chain conveyor or pneumatically pressurized conveying system. hydraulic press. The category of cranes shall be M 5 as per IS 3177. The system shall be mechanized i. The crane capacity shall be taken as 10% more than the single heaviest equipment to be lifted. hacksaw machine.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. shall normally be provided. 6.2 Station shall be provided with following laboratories: i) ii) Electrical laboratory with necessary equipment/instruments for testing and maintenance of electrical equipment.10. Chemical laboratory with necessary equipment/instruments/reagents for chemical analysis. cutter. steam & water analysis and coal/ash/flue gas analysis. oxy-acetylene cutter and welding. universal milling machine. benches/ racks.8 Mill Reject System Evaporating cooling system Mechanical ventilation The mill reject system shall be provided to collect reject from coal mills. calibration and maintenance of control & instrumentation systems. tool grinder. These shall comply with the requirements and standards of latest versions of relevant BIS / IEC. grinder. The system shall consist of collection of rejects from each coal mill and transport to silos for final disposal. 2007 DRAFT All floors of TG building.9 i) Electric Overhead Travelling (EOT) Crane The EOT cranes shall be provided for maintenance and general station services of various TG cycle equipment.e. switchgear rooms and cable gallery: Other buildings 6. Workshop Equipment and Laboratories ii) 6. miscellaneous measuring & cutting tools etc. Two identical capacity EOT cranes shall be installed in a T-G hall over operating floor. The standard workshop equipment like centre lathe. Control & Instrumentation laboratory with necessary equipment/ instruments for testing. iii) 38 . pedestal drilling machine. pedestal grinding machine.1 Mechanical workshop equipment shall be provided for maintenance work and on-site repairs.10 6. fitters.10. 6.
different levels may be adopted for various blocks. However. ground water table etc.0 m above the High Flood Level (HFL) of the site. the type of foundation system. The geotechnical investigations shall include determination of the sub soil type. To optimize the foundation system of rotating equipment. 3-D finite element analysis may be carried out. The whole area of plant should not be raised at the initial stage itself to avoid double handling of the earth work. requirement of soil stabilization/ compaction etc. ground improvement/stabilization methods may also be considered.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.1 Geotechnical Investigations Geo-technical investigations are required for elastic assessment of foundation geology and needs to be carried out during investigation stage prior to taking up construction activity.. In certain cases. Following loads shall be considered for the design of foundations: a) b) c) d) Weight of equipment Load of other accessories Dead load of foundation structure Vacuum load 39 .0 CIVIL WORKS Civil aspects are site specific and depend upon topographical. 7. to keep the leveling cost to minimum. 7.3 Foundations: Open foundations or pile foundations or a combination of two keeping in view the lightly/heavily loaded foundations may be suitably adopted. geo-technical and other studies. the pile parameters. The optimization of excavation and filling quantities may be done while fixing the levels of different blocks. shall be established. It is preferable to keep the entire Station at the same level. 2007 DRAFT 7. boiler feed pumps and other rotating equipment shall be suitably designed and the amplitude of vibrations shall be within the limits recommended by the equipment supplier. The foundations for turbines. 7. The design philosophy needs to be based on technoeconomics of various alternatives of the construction techniques. Based on above. the bearing capacity.2 Site Levelling: The formation level of the Station shall be kept minimum 1.
6 Architectural Requirements: Over all architectural character of Station building should be in harmony with natural character of environment. Considering the size. imposed loads. 7. duct loads as well as crane loads with impact etc. loadings and requirements of construction schedule.4 Un balance forces Loss of blade force Short circuit force Temperature forces Torque loads Frictional and other longitudinal forces Live loads Wind and Siesmic Loads TG and other buildings: All buildings shall be designed as RCC or steel framed super structures with masonry or steel cladding. durability and functional aspects. wind loads etc. 40 . 2007 DRAFT e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) 7. The finishing works shall meet the requirements of aesthetics.5 Structure System: TG building shall preferably be moment resisting structures in transverse direction and braced in longitudinal direction.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Adequate glazing shall be provided for natural light. Seismic forces shall be considered as per site specific seismic parameters. earthquake loads. composite construction with steel supporting structures and RCC floors is preferred for the TG and other buildings. climatic conditions and local landscape. Interior design should be given due consideration. Mill and bunker building shall be provided with moment resisting frame having adequate bracings in the transverse direction and braced in longitudinal direction. Adequate ventilation shall be provided in all the buildings. The design of steel structures shall be as per provisions of BIS. TG building shall have structural steel framework for super structure with metal cladding on exterior face. super imposed dead loads. Other buildings may have RCC or steel framework with masonry cladding of minimum one masonry unit thickness on exterior face. The superimposed dead loads shall include the loads due to equipment and associated auxiliaries and accessories.800 and other relevant standards. 7. The structures shall be designed considering worst load combination of dead loads.
The height of chimney shall be decided based on MOE&F guidelines and shall also be got cleared by Airport Authority of India.9 Roads and drainage: The entire area within the Station boundary should be well connected with network of roads. Chimney shall be provided with liner test port for continuous emission monitoring. corrosion resistant steel. cross wind loading.7 Chimney: Chimney may be single flue unitized or multiflue for two or more units. Wind tunnel testing for chimney shall be carried out to optimize the design. The top external portion of windshield shall be provided with alternate bands of red and white colours to meet aviation safety. 7. Use of special cements. 7.10 Safety Provisions The safety provisions shall be in conformity with the provisions laid down by National Building Code and other international codes. lightning protection and grounding system. The portion of liner above chimney shall be of acid resisting bricks protected by RCC minishell. 41 . protective coatings to both concrete and steel are some of the options which can be explored in such conditions. The flue liners shall be of structural steel or brick construction provided with suitable thermal insulation. circumferential wind loading and thermal gradients across the shell. Chimney windshield shall be of RCC construction. wind loading.8 Corrosion Protection Suitable measures shall be provided against corrosion for Stations located in coastal areas. Steel structures may be provided with epoxy or polyurethane based painting systems designed for minimum maintenance free life of ten (10 ) years. 2007 DRAFT 7. 7. aviation obstruction lighting and an elevator. The windshield shall be designed for vertical loading. The size of liner shall be decided based on the exit velocity and temperature of flue gases. The drains in the Station area shall be designed for maximum rainfall intensity of 50 years frequency. Internal platform and internal ladder shall be provided with the chimney.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. seismic loading.
Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations, 2007 DRAFT
PART-C: 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
GAS TURBINE BASED THERMAL GENERATING STATIONS
OPERATING CAPABILITIES OF THE GAS TURBINE/ COMBINED CYCLE GAS TURBINE (CCGT) MODULE The gas turbine/ CCGT module shall give its MCR output at the specified site conditions and the design fuel. The gas turbine and steam turbine shall be capable of base load operation. However, these shall also be capable of two-shift operation and load cycling. The gas turbine, steam turbine and all rotating auxiliaries shall be suitable for continuous operation within the frequency range of 47.5 Hz to 51.5 Hz. The design of the equipment and control system shall be suitable for operation of the gas turbine / CCGT module in automatic load frequency control. Gas turbine rating (ISO) upto 100 MW shall be provided with black start capability. CCGT module with gas turbine rating (ISO) upto 100 MW shall be provided with facility for simple cycle mode of operation. Design of the gas turbine / CCGT module shall be so optimised as to obtain maximum possible efficiency. The gross heat rate as guaranteed by the equipment manufacturer shall not exceed the following values: (A) Operation in combined cycle mode
Gross Heat Rate (HHV basis) in kcal/kWh at ISO conditions with natural gas as fuel at 100% load Gas Turbine rating (ISO )
1.5 1.6 1.7
20 MW to 30 MW > 30 to200 MW > 200MW (B) Operation in simple cycle mode
2250 1825 1700
Gas Turbine rating (ISO)
Gross Heat Rate (HHV basis) in kcal/kWh at ISO conditions with natural gas as fuel at 100% load
20 to 30 MW > 30 to 200 MW >200 MW
3400 2850 2600
2.0 2.1 2.2
GAS TURBINE AND AUXILIARIES The gas turbine and auxiliaries shall comply with latest versions of applicable ISO/ASME codes. The gas turbine compressor shall have a stable aerodynamic characteristic throughout its operating regime. The operating point in the entire frequency range of 47.5 – 51.5 Hz shall be sufficiently away from surge line so that it is stable at all conditions of load, ambient temperature and blade fouling. The compressor shall be provided with variable type inlet guide vanes to meet start up/ shutdown requirements, improved part load performance in combined cycle mode of operation and exhaust gas temperature control over a wide range. Combustion chamber arrangement shall be such as to allow maintenance without dismantling of compressor or turbine section and with minimum dismantling of piping / electrical connections. NOx control shall be either through dry low NOx combustor or through steam/water injection and shall be able to achieve the desired NOx level. Combustion system shall be provided with flame detection system for monitoring and protection. Gas turbine shall be provided with self contained lubrication oil system and control oil system with adequate redundancy for pumps and coolers. Gas turbine shall be provided with an air intake filtration system along with on line cleaning system to deliver filtered air of quality acceptable to the gas turbine. Gas turbine generating unit shall be controlled by an electro-hydraulic governing system with 100% back up. All necessary protective devices required for safe operation shall be provided. Further, control system of the gas turbines shall include necessary features to check healthiness of protective devices. The gas turbine shall be capable of withstanding momentary speed rises to the over-speed trip limit under transient conditions. For gas turbines operating on naphtha, mandatory purging/ flushing of liquid fuel delivery system (downstream of injection pump) shall be provided to ensure safety of the plant and personnel. A less combustible/ volatile liquid fuel (distillate 2 or HSD) shall be used during start-up and shutdown. Gas turbines envisaged for dual fuel operation (natural gas as primary fuel and liquid fuel as back-up fuel) shall be capable of on load fuel changeover 43
2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8
from natural gas to liquid fuel automatically (on loss of gas pressure) and from liquid fuel to natural gas on manual initiation. 2.13 All piping, valves and fittings downstream of liquid fuel delivery system and NOx water injection system shall be made of stainless steel of suitable grade to prevent corrosion and entry of rust into the combustion chamber and maloperation of stop/control valves. Each gas turbine shall be provided with on-line fuel flow metering device to monitor fuel consumption. Gaseous Fuel Conditioning System Fuel gas conditioning system of the plant shall be designed to provide required quantity of clean, dry gas at required pressure, temperature and quality suitable for the gas turbine. The temperature of the gas delivered to the gas turbine shall be at least 200C higher than hydrate forming temperature or gas dew point whichever is higher. A chromatograph and analyzer shall be provided for determining the composition and heating value of the fuel gas. Design of fuel gas system shall be as per the provisions of the latest editions of ANSI B31.1/ B31.3 and ANSI B 31.8. The gas leak detection and protection system shall necessarily be provided in enclosed areas. Liquid Fuel Storage and Conditioning System Liquid fuel storage capacity shall be provided corresponding to 15 days requirement, if liquid fuel is used as a primary fuel. Liquid fuel conditioning system shall be designed to provide required quality suitable for the gas turbine. Liquid fuel storage area shall be at least 90 meters away from the gas turbine. Liquid fuel unloading, storage and forwarding system shall be designed to comply with all applicable statutory requirements.
2.14 2.15 i)
iii) iv) v) 2.16 i) ii) iii) iv)
Steam turbine of rating more than 200 MW may be of reheat type.0 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Electrical Systems shall generally meet the requirements stipulated for coal/lignite based thermal generating stations in Part-B. as applicable.1 HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR (HRSG) AND AUXILIARIES Gas turbine exhaust plenum shall be designed for proper gas velocity and temperature distribution and effective pressure recovery. The design of HRSG shall be based on finned tube heat transfer banks of superheaters. HRSG shall meet IBR requirements. STEAM TURBINE & AUXILIARIES Steam turbine shall be single or multi pressure.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. The fin density shall not be higher than 200fins/ m. The design of HRSG shall be suitable for direct on line starting along with the gas turbine.8 3.7 3. HRSG shall be suitable for outdoor installation and shall be constructed to form a gas tight envelope to prevent gas leakage. The gas temperature at HRSG exit.0 3.9 4. The exhaust system design shall take into account very rapid start-up and shutdown rate of the gas turbine. economisers etc. Arrangement for mandatory purging of gas turbine exhaust system and HRSG shall be provided in order to eliminate chances of explosion (puffing) for combined cycle plants envisaged for operation on liquid fuel during. condensate temperature entering condensate pre-heater and feed water temperature entering economiser shall be such as to avoid acid dew point corrosion.4 3.0 5.2 3. In the event of loss of feed water. 2007 DRAFT 3. single/multi cylinder type complying with IEC-45 or equivalent.6 3. evaporators. it shall be possible to continue HRSG operation for a short duration till the gas turbine is tripped and coasted down or mode of operation of gas turbine is changed to simple cycle. The HRSG shall be designed for single pressure/two pressure/three pressure steam generation based on gas turbine rating and techno-economics. 45 . condensing.3 3. Other requirements stipulated for coal/lignite based thermal generating stations in Part-B shall be complied with as applicable. 3.5 3.
46 . as applicable.0 CIVIL WORKS Civil works shall meet the requirements as stipulated for coal/lignite based thermal generating stations in Part-B.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.0 FIRE DETECTION AND PROTECTION SYSTEM Fire detection and Protection System shall meet the requirements as stipulated for coal/lignite based thermal generating stations in Part-B. 7. de-mineralisation system. 2007 DRAFT 6. shall meet the requirements as stipulated in Part-B. 8. However. waste water treatment system. stack shall be of steel construction and its height shall meet the requirements of MOE&F. 9. cooling water system.0 STATION WATER SYSTEM Station water system which includes clarified water system.0 CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM Control and Instrumentation Systems shall generally meet the requirements stipulated for coal/lignite based thermal generating stations in Part-B.
including control panel and synchronizing panel shall be provided.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT PART-D: DIESEL ENGINE BASED THERMAL GENERATING STATIONS 1.3 1. auto loading. auto stop features and capable of parallel operation in the power distribution system.5 Hz.6 Diesel Engine Generators (Two stroke) DG set rating 3 MW to 10 MW > 10 MW Gross Heat Rate (on HHV) in kcal/kWh at 100% load 2000 1950 47 .5 1.4 OPERATING CAPABILITIES OF DIESEL GENERATING (DG) SETS The DG sets shall be capable of base load operation. lubricants. Diesel Engine Generators ( Four stroke) DG set rating 100 kW to 1 MW >1 MW to 3 MW > 3 MW to 10 MW >10 MW Gross Heat Rate (on HHV) in kcal/kWh at 100% load 2350 2250 2100 2000 1.2 1. All the facilities required for receiving and feeding the inputs such as fuel. The DG set shall be a self contained unit and skid mounted. Design of the DG set shall be so optimised as to obtain maximum possible efficiency.1 1. these shall also be capable of two-shift operation and load cycling. air etc. water.0 1. The gross heat rate as guaranteed by the manufacturer shall not exceed the following values.5 Hz to 51. The design of the equipment and control system shall be suitable for operation of the DG set in automatic load frequency control. These shall be suitable for indoor installations either on pads or on reinforced concrete foundations. However. The DG set shall have auto start. The Diesel engine and all rotating auxiliaries shall be suitable for continuous operation within the frequency range of 47.
2.2 DIESEL ENGINE AND AUXILIARIES The Diesel engine and auxiliaries shall comply with latest versions of applicable IS/ ISO/BS or equivalent codes. Crankcase gases shall be piped outside the engine room so that oil fumes don't accumulate on the engine/ radiator. The DG sets shall be cooled by engine mounted radiators/remote radiators using closed cycle cooling system.12 48 . The governor shall be electronic type of class A-2 as per BS : 5514. if applicable.3 2.6 2.8 2. suitable of being driven by engine exhaust.7 2.10 2. 9 2. An engine mounted emergency stop push button shall be provided to stop the engine during emergencies. shall be of robust construction. It shall draw air through air filter and have adequate capacity to suit engine requirements. An engine driven booster pump shall be provided to deliver the fuel oil from the supply tank through the filters. In case of remote radiators. The Diesel engine shall be provided with suitable self-starting device The Diesel engine shall be provided with an air intake filtration system to deliver filtered air of quality suitable for diesel engine. chimney etc. Turbo charger.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT 2. Diesel engine shall be provided with micro-processor based control system. An over speed trip mechanism shall be provided to automatically shut off fuel in case the set reaches above 10% of rated speed. low speed axial fans shall be provided to keep the noise level well within acceptable limits.5 2. The Diesel engine shall be furnished with efficient exhaust silencers complete with interconnecting pipes and fittings expansion bellows.4 2. The engine shall be capable of satisfactorily driving the generator at 10% over load at rated speed for one hour in any period of 12 hours of continuous running. Diesel engine shall be provided with self contained lubricating oil system. In addition an AC motor driven fuel oil priming pump shall be provided to keep the high-pressure system primed for remote and quick starting at any instant. NOx level.11 2. stack height and noise level shall comply with the guidelines laid down by MOE&F/ State Pollution Control Board.0 2.1 2.
2007 DRAFT 2. storage and forwarding system shall be designed to comply with all applicable statutory requirements.14 2.13 i) ii) iii) iv) 2. Liquid fuel conditioning system shall be designed to provide required quality suitable for the Diesel engine. Each diesel engine shall be provided with on-line fuel flow metering device to monitor fuel consumption.B shall be complied with for switchgear.15 Liquid Fuel Storage and Conditioning System Liquid fuel storage capacity shall be provided corresponding to 15 days requirement. Suitable fire detection and fighting system shall be provided for the DG set. as applicable. protections etc.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Electrical requirements stipulated in Part. transformers. Liquid fuel unloading. 49 . cables.
shall apply. and full range of ambient and other environmental conditions. project siting and layout. as required. unit size. Canal head schemes etc. hydraulic works and electromechanical works. with installed capacity of 25 MW and above. shall be governed by the limits specified in relevant BIS.5 2. The dimensions of the power house. 2. The Station shall be designed for unconstrained operation over maximum net head and minimum net head. etc. All necessary specific provisions such as selection of materials. speed rise. spherical valve and other auxiliary equipment susceptible to abrasive effects of silt.1 2. run-away speed. power evacuation arrangement. reliable and prudent construction. operation and maintenance of the Station shall be included.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2 2. Storage scheme.Electric Generating Stations on various types of schemes i.0 2. the stipulation as appropriate. Additional equipment and systems.ELECTRIC GENERATING STATIONS 1. pressure rise. The life of the civil structures shall not be less than one hundred (100) years. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS The salient features of the project. specified silt conditions wherever applicable. while that of equipments supplied shall not be less than thirty five (35) years. turbine settings.6 50 . for the multi-purpose schemes/projects shall be provided. All the equipment and systems required for safe.0 This Schedule describes the minimum technical requirements for construction of Hydro. For hydro-electric generating Stations having installed capacity less then 25 MW. 2007 DRAFT SCHEDULE II TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR HYDRO. etc shall be decided considering the best engineering practices and optimum utilisation of resources.4 2. The chemical analysis of water and silt data including the petrographic analysis shall be considered while designing the turbine. installed capacity. civil works.3 2. Pumped storage scheme.e Run-of-river scheme. The Generating Station shall be complete with all infrastructure works. protective coatings and paintings shall be made to resist silt abrasion.
OPERATING CAPABILITY OF THE GENERATING UNIT The unit shall be capable of giving the rated output continuously guaranteed by the manufacturer at the rated design head and rated discharge without any restriction over the complete range of operating conditions and ambient temperature at site as specified. Suitably certified equipment shall be used in the designated hazardous areas where a potential corrosive or flammable atmosphere exists. The various equipments including the electrical equipment requiring operator attention shall not be installed in hazardous areas as far as practicable. The maximum continuous overload capacity of the unit at the generator terminals during the high head conditions or high discharge conditions or both as guaranteed by the manufacturer shall be based on hydraulic parameters of the Station but shall normally not be more than 10% above the rated output of machine.0 4.2 3.4 4. The dimensioning and layout of the Station shall be as per BIS 12800. LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS: General layout of the Station shall be developed considering space optimization. Adequate fire escape staircases / galleries shall be provided in main Station building/Cavern. BIS 5496 and other relevant standards. Adequate maintenance facilities shall be provided as required.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. The operation of the unit shall be smooth and quiet.7 The generating units shall also be designed and constructed to operate in synchronous condenser mode for operational flexibility. for assembly.9 3. 2007 DRAFT 2. The areas where a potential corrosive or flammable atmosphere exists shall be classified in accordance with the provisions of the internationally recognised standards. Each equipment room shall be provided with alternate exits in case of fire / accidents as per requirements of factory act and other statutory requirements.1 4.2 51 .0 3. functional requirements.3 3. The layout of the Station shall be compact so as to economise the use of materials. as per the requirements of system.8 2. The noise level shall not be more than 90 dB at a distance of 1 meter from any equipment. handling during maintenance of all important equipments and auxiliaries. disassembly.1 3. future extensions (if envisaged) and provision of space requirements during construction stage. 2.
7 5. The type and rotational speed of the turbine shall be selected based on range of head.6 4.2 5. head variation etc. Before the manufacture of the prototype turbine is taken up. The rated speed resulting in even number of pair of poles shall be preferred. HYDRAULIC TURBINES AND AUXILIARIES The hydraulic turbine shall comply with of latest versions relevant BIS / IEC or other equivalent standards.5 Hz to 51.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. In case two different types of turbines are found suitable for the range of head envisaged (overlapping zone of net head) at a particular site. The unit and its auxiliaries shall be designed to operate satisfactorily for the periods during which high silt content in the river water is observed.5 Hz.3 5. operation & maintenance.1 5. The design of the equipments and control system shall permit participation of the unit in automatic frequency control mode. The vibrations.4 5. All the equipment driven by the electric motors shall give their rated performance even at a power supply frequency of 47.5 Hz).5 4. specific speed. homologous scale model of the prototype turbine shall be made if not already available 4.4 4. 2007 DRAFT 4.5 52 . efficiency etc. The amplitude of the vibrations at the shaft shall not exceed the limits specified in ISO-7919 and ISO-3945. the selection of turbine shall be based on the techno economic considerations taking into account the aspects like head variation. In case of high silt content. pressure pulsations and power fluctuations shall be minimum. and loading of the unit to full load quickly.3 The unit and all the associated auxiliaries shall be suitable for continuous operation without any restriction within a frequency range of –5% to +3% (47. The unit and all its associated auxiliaries shall be designed for trouble free operation upto maximum rating of the unit for the complete range of operation. civil costs. Turbine shall have smooth and quiet operation. at least one step lower synchronous speed shall be selected. The design shall incorporate adequate provision for auto start upto sunchronisation by single command. Adequate margins and redundancies shall be provided in unit auxiliaries and station equipment so that the generating unit continues to operate even in the event of outage of a part of the auxiliary system.0 5. part load operation.
except for operation in spinning reserve mode.8 times the rated speed for 30 minutes without causing any residual detrimental affect on future operation of the machine. critical speed of the machine shall be around 25% higher than maximum runaway speed. for which the units are expected to be operated at a particular output. Provision of runner removal from bottom for maintenance shall be made. where ever feasible.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT and tested to demonstrate that the prototype turbine will meet the guaranteed performance in respect of efficiency.e. The weighted average efficiency of the turbine shall be determined after the installation and commissioning of the generating units on the basis of field acceptance tests as per IEC 41 on one of the units. which is one of the several units on a common penstock header system.9 5. with reference to minimum tail water level shall be governed by cavitation considerations. For a unit.8 Minimum load for continuous operation (percent) 30 40 50 85 The pressure rise and speed rise of turbine shall be within the range specified by BIS. However. the centerline of the runner may work out to be either above or below the minimum tail water level. Deriaz & Propeller turbines. shall be as under: Type of turbine Pelton/Kaplan / Bulb Deriaz Francis Propeller 5. 5. The setting of reaction turbine. and other guarantees as stipulated in the specifications. Pelton turbine shall be installed at a height of minimum 3 m above the maximum tail water level or as per the recommendation of maufacturer. smooth operation. The turbine shall be designed to withstand runaway speed of 1. The weighted average efficiency obtainable shall not be less than 94% for Francis.6 The weighted average efficiency shall be computed based on the efficiencies at various outputs. centreline of runner.11 53 . i. The weightage factors shall be selected corresponding to the average duration or period (in percentage) in a year. Kaplan & Bulb turbines and 92% for Pelton. pressure pulsations. the permissible percentage of speed rise shall be computed on the basis of one unit operating alone. Based on the calculations. output.10 5. 5.7 The minimum load for continuous operation for various types of turbines. 5.
The sizes of various components of oil sump tank and pressure receiver shall be calculated as per the relevant IS / IEEE. A separate pressure oil system shall preferably be used for the control of turbines and that for control of the MIVs. Piston type accumulator with nitrogen bottles shall be used for pressures higher than 60 kg / cm2. discharge ring and other hydraulic passage shall be designed for a life of 8000 hours against excessive pitting caused by cavitations. appropriate protective coatings shall be provided for these parts of the turbine in order to minimize silt erosion wherever necessary. Although this torque is transient and can be reduced for a pump turbine with a governor by closing the wicked gates. Besides. guide vanes. strength and toughness as well as have high wear resistance. High pressure oil system shall be provided for each turbine for the operation of wicket gates/nozzle/deflector servomotors through governors and for the control of main inlet valve (MIV). The materials selected for runner. maximum torque shall occur upon flow reversal followed by speed reversal. The performance requirements of the governing system shall be governed by IEC – 61362.13 5.2 6.14 5. etc. runner. corrosion and cavitation resistance. the submergence for pumping operation shall be adequate for turbine operation as well. The speed sensing device shall be redundant.0 6. substantially more submergence is required for pump operation than for turbine operation. In case of power failure of pump turbines/ reversible turbines. 2007 DRAFT 5. shall have high hardness.12 Special care shall be taken to select the material of the under water parts. GOVERNING SYSTEM Microprocessor based digital governing system shall be used for regulating the flow of water to the turbines for the control of active power(MW) thus providing the requisite speed/frequency control and load control.1 6. The guide-vanes.15 5. 5.16 6. Since in case of pump turbine.4 54 .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.3 6. the material shall have good weldability so that parts can be fabricated and the eroded parts can be repaired easily at site. this torque should be considered in the design of shaft and couplings. As most of the rivers in the Himalayan region carry high silt which erodes the runner and under water parts of the turbine at a faster rate.
1.2 7.3 7. Suitable number of air release valves shall be provided at the appropriate location on the downstream side to allow the air trapped in the penstock to escape when it is filled with water through the bypass valve and for supplying / admitting the air when the valve is suddenly closed. The lift above the service bay (upper limit) shall be adequate to hoist & carry the rotor of the generator and to assemble the transformer. The valves shall have both service seal on downstream side as well as maintenance seal on upstream side. 8.4 SPHERICAL VALVE AND BUTTERFLY VALVE The spherical valve and butterfly valve shall comply with the requirements and standards of latest versions of relevant BIS / IEC.2 The hook capacity shall be taken as 10% more than the maximum weight to be lifted inclusive of the weight of the lifting beam. 2007 DRAFT 7. The lift below the service bay (lower limit) shall be fixed in such a way as necessary for assembly and disassembly of the turbine. wherever provided shall conform to all applicable Government rules and regulations. If the maximum weight to be lifted is more than around 300 T.1 7. 8. 8.1.1. The span of the crane shall be fixed in such a way that the travel and lift of the main and auxiliary crane hooks of the crane as well as the hook limits shall be adequate for the assembly and disassembly of the main equipment in the power house.1 8. The spherical valve shall be provided for safe emergency closure in case of turbine going to runaway speed.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.0 7. The opening and closing of butterfly valves shall normally be done under balanced water condition.3 The provision of radio remote control and variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) drive for various crane motions for the purpose of precision speed control shall normally be made for cranes having capacity 100T and above.1 The EOT cranes shall comply with the requirements and standards of latest versions of relevant BIS / IEC.1. in case it is provided. The category of cranes shall be M 5 as per IS 3177. 55 .0 8. MECHANICAL AUXILIARIES Electric Overhead Travelling (EOT) Cranes 8.4 The radio remote control equipment. The frequency of operation shall be in the requisite frequency band as per relevant standards. two cranes each of equal capacity shall be deployed to lift the heaviest package in tandem operation.
A suitable pressure hatch shall be provided to prevent any flow of water from dewatering sump into the power house.1 A ventilation and air-conditioning system shall be provided to achieve proper working conditions inside the power house complex.3 8.e. 2007 DRAFT 8. Suitable dewatering submersible pumps shall be provided to pump out this water to the tail race.4.1 Dewatering & Drainage System The water trapped between the penstock gate/main inlet valve and draft tube gate in case of Francis and Kaplan turbines shall be drained out to the dewatering sump when maintenance on the turbine of any unit is required to be carried out.. Drainage sump shall not have any pressure hatch. 8. The penstock tapping in case of high head installations i.3 8. The drainage water shall be pumped out to the tail race. The drainage and dewatering sumps shall be inter-connected by means of gate valve and non return valve which allows the flow of water from drainage sump to dewatering sump only.2. to serve the purposes like prevention of temperature stratification..Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2. The spindle of gate valve shall be extended up to turbine floor so that it is possible to operate it from turbine floor.2 In the projects where rivers have silt laden water. where the penstock pressure is more than 10 kgf/cm2 shall not be provided. 56 . turbine and generator bearings of each unit and generator transformer shall be met through either by providing pumping the water drawn from the tail pool / draft tube water pumping or providing a penstock tapping for the same. All the drainage water within the power house shall be collected inside the drainage sump constructed near the dewatering sump. a suitable pressure reducer depending on the requirement of net cooling water pressure (usually 3 to 5 kgf/cm2) may be provided. The capacity of the pump shall be chosen in such a way that a single unit can be dewatered within 8 hours operation without raising the level in the sump.. closed circuit cooling water system shall be provided.4 8.1 The cooling water requirements of generator air coolers. The control panels for dewatering & drainage pumps shall be located at a floor higher than that of turbine floor. removal of contaminated air.4 8..2 8. If the penstock tapping results in a pressure of upto 10 kgf/cm2. shaft seal.2 Cooling Water System 8. Ventilation & Air-Conditioning System 8.. 8.5 8.
2 Low-pressure (LP) compressed air system shall generally be rated at 7. window type.5. 8.6 Power House Lift The lift and its associated equipment shall comply with the requirements and standards of latest versions of IS 14665 & other relevant standards.5. conference room. 57 . The pressure of HP air compressor shall be 1.7 Oil Handling and Purification System 8.0 kg/cm2 to meet requirements like inflatable rubber seal of shaft glands.3 Normally control room. Minimum one lift shall be provided in the power house besides two sets of staircases for the movement of persons/goods. are recommended to be air-conditioned. A lift having a capacity of 816 passengers shall be provided. The conditioned air shall be around 250 C at around 50% relative humidity for comfort conditions. reception. humidity & oxygen content. package type or centralized air conditioning plants shall be made on the basis of the required tonnage and suitability of the installation at that particular location.4. pneumatic detection line for the operation of deluge valve provided for the generator transformer.5 HP and LP Compressed Air System 8. relay room. etc. boosting pressure in the fire protection hydro-pneumatic tank. water cooled cooling tubes or chiller units.2 Suitable system for circulation of natural air and exhaust shall be provided as a minimum requirement.1 times the governor working pressure. cleaning. A choice of installation out of 3 different types of installations i. generator braking and jacking. offices.1 The insulating oil required in the generator transformers for the hydro Station shall conform to IS: 335. 8. operation of pneumatic tools. 8. The type of turbine oil used as a working fluid in speed regulation system and as a lubricant and a coolant for thrust and guide bearings shall be normally ISO VG-68 conforming to IS: 1012. 2007 DRAFT removal of waste heat from equipment as well as provide fresh air necessary for human comfort with regard to temperature. 8. and to extract/force out smoke and other toxic gases during fire.7. PLCC room.1 The high pressure (HP) compressed air system shall be provided to meet the compressed air requirement of turbine governing system and MIV.e. 8. Cooling of air wherever required may be provided by evaporating.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. etc. 8.4.
The standard workshop equipment like Centre Lathe.7. Fitters. The capacity of overhead / pressurised water tank shall be adequate to meet the emulsifier water requirement for one generator transformer for 40 minutes. 8. shall normally be provided. Hacksaw Machine. miscellaneous measuring & cutting tools. 58 . The portable type pumps & purifiers and standard oil drums shall be used For small hydro-electric stations. Universal Milling Machine. 8. 8.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. each capable of pumping water to fill the overhead / pressurised water tank in reasonable time shall be provided.8 8. Pedestal Grinding Machine. Portable and mobile fire extinguishers shall be provided to extinguish the fire in the initial stage to prevent its spread.8. cable galleries/shafts.3 The oil handling facilities shall be located within the power house or in an isolated building outdoors. the provision shall also be made for fire hose cabinets/hydrants for power house indoor as well as transformer floor. Pedestal Drilling Machine. of fire pumps.9 Equipment for Mechanical Workshop Mechanical workshop equipment shall be provided for essential maintenance work and on-site repairs. All major and minor fire risks in the Station such as transformers.7. To convey the oil to the generators and transformers. specially in an underground power houses.1 Fire Fighting System General i) A comprehensive fire detection and protection system shall be provided for the Station. In addition. Two nos. shall be protected against the fire by suitable automatic fire protection systems.2 The oil handling system for each grade of oil shall incorporate two tanks (one for pure oil and another for used oil). control rooms etc. 2007 DRAFT 8. The state of art automatic fire detection and alarm system shall be provided to facilitate detection of fire at the incipient stage and giving warning to fire fighting staff. The fire protection system as well as hydrant system shall be designed complying with the guidelines of Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC) and approved by the accredited agencies of Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC). associated piping and control equipment. Benches / Racks. suitable oil pipes shall be laid within the power house.8. etc. ii) iii) 8. plus operation of one hydrant for 60 minutes.2 The provision shall be made for emulsifier protection for oil filled transformers and water sprinkler system for oil plant rooms.
for equipment in air conditioned areas. In case of pump storage plants. the generator-motor shall be specified with an additional motor shaft output corresponding to the pump input at minimum rated head and the pump overload capacity at minimum head. 188.8.131.52.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. etc. brake application.4 9. two phase and three phase short circuit conditions. centigrade or higher as applicable to Station site and relative humidity of 95% shall be considered. run-away speed conditions. design ambient temperature shall be 35 deg.2.2 Generator / Generator-Motor General The generator shall comply with the general requirements and the latest versions of IS: 4722 / IEC:60034 or other equivalent or better standards.1 9.2 9. 9. 9.5 59 . single phase earth fault.0 9.2.1. 2007 DRAFT 9. magnetic unbalance with 50% of the poles short circuited within the speed range of 1.1. However. 184.108.40.206. 180 deg and 120 deg out of phase synchronization. The overall system shall be designed considering maximum voltage variation and combined variation of voltage and frequency as specified in “grid connectivity standards”.3 times the rated speed.1 For the purpose of design of equipment/systems.C. Regional/State Load Despatch Centre and Transmission Company.2. Insulation shall be of thermal class F for the stator and the rotor windings with temperature rises limited to that of thermal Class B as per IEC 60034.3 9.3 The Owner shall install and maintain all the necessary communication equipment to transmit the required data of the Power Station to the procurer of electricity.2 All equipments shall be suitable for rated frequency of 50Hz with a variation of -5% and +3%. an ambient temperature of 40 deg.1 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM General Requirements 9.1 9. The rotor poles shall be interchangeable. The generators shall be capable to safely with stand maximum stresses during normal operation.2.2. The construction of the generator shall be such that the rotor poles and stator coils can be handled out or in without removal of the rotor and without disturbing the upper bearing bracket.1.
1.2. Lightening Arrestors of suitable rating shall be provided for surge protection of generators.2 9. 25% shall be provided. The power factor and the requirements of reactive power capability shall be specified as per requirement of grid connectivity standards. to limit speed rise and shall have such a value which will not cause the machine natural frequency to be in resonance with the expected frequency of draft-tube hydraulic surges.2.1. the arrangement of combined thrust & guide bearing mounted on a separate bearing bracket located below the rotor shall be used for low to medium capacity machines having low speed.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT 9. A margin of approx. light-weight bracket mounted on the top of the stator frame. 9.2.10 Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) / thermocouples or any other type of temperature sensors at suitable locations for temperature monitoring of stator core. A rated speed resulting in even number of pair of poles shall be normally preferred. However.2. high speed machines.2.1.1 Bearing Arrangements Combined thrust &upper guide bearing mounted on a top bearing bracket above the rotor and lower guide bearing below the rotor shall generally be used for small diameter.2. 9.1. The current flowing in stator slot shall be limited to 3000-6000 Amperes with current through individual coil being limited to approximately 3000 Amperes to optimize the generator cost.7 9.2.9 9.2.1. long core. As regards the medium to high capacity machines having low speed combined thrust & guide bearing mounted on a separate bearing bracket located below the rotor and an upper guide bearing installed above the rotor on a separate.1.2. 60 .12 Weighted average efficiency based on the computed efficiencies at various outputs for which the generator is expected to operate shall be more than 98%.8 9. Suitable arrangement for rotor winding temperature monitoring shall also be provided. stator winding and bearings shall be provided. 220.127.116.11 The inertia of the machine shall be adequate to meet the transient stability requirements imposed by the interconnected electrical power system. 9.6 The generator rated speed shall match the rated speed of the turbine or the pump-turbine.
The guide bearing temperature limit shall be specified as 70° C.2.4 9. diameter. A hot air blowing system or air pressurization system shall be provided to prevent moisture deposition in case of isolated phase ducts while space heaters may be provided in case of other busducts.2. The bus assembly shall be designed mechanically to withstand a rated continuous current as well as the specified short–circuit current without injury or permanent deformation of any part of the bus structure. 2007 DRAFT 9. etc.3 9. Generator busduct shall be segregated or isolated phase type.3 9.2. The water based system shall be adopted in underground power stations because release of CO2 gas in underground installation will be hazardous. The number of journal bearings shall vary depending upon the machine output.5.4.3 9.4 9. voltage rise on load throw off (subsequent to detection of earth fault) field suppression time.18.104.22.168.4. The isolated phase ducts shall be preferred over the segregated phase bus ducts.5 9.2.1 Generator Busduct The generator busduct shall comply with the general requirements and the standards of latest versions of BIS:8084 / relevant IEC.1 61 .2. shall be isolated phase type.2 9. Generator Busduct rated more than 6000 A shall be continuous isolated phase type.2. ferro-resonance. Fire Protection System for Generator Either water based or CO2 type of fire suppression system shall be specified.2. core length. The lightening arrestor and voltage transformer (LAVT) cubicle shall meet the requirements of relevant BIS / IEC. The busduct shall be designed to carry maximum continuous current under normal site conditions without exceeding temperature rise limits. etc.4. Busduct rated more than 3150 Amps. The limiting temperature of the thrust bearing metal on large hydro-electric machines shall be 80° C. Neutral Grounding Terminal Equipment Neutral grounding equipment shall be designed duly taking into account the maximum permissible operating voltage of the generator. System earthing shall 9.2 The horizontal mounted hydro-electric machines shall be provided with the journal type bearings. Based on these requirements standard size of busduct as per BIS shall be used.4. 9.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2. speed.
indicating the condition of winding insulation systems.2 9.2 Air Gap Monitoring In order to provide high degree of dimensional stability. Continuous On Line Machine Condition Monitoring Systems The following monitoring equipments/systems for prediction of abnormality and preventive action shall be provided for the generating units having rating 100 MW and above : 9.6 9.1 9.2 All large hydro-electric machines having a wye-connected stator winding with the neutral brought out of the machine housing shall be grounded via a high-resistance circuit consisting of a single-phase distribution type transformer connected between the generator neutral and ground having a approximately equal to 1.2.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2.2.5. The system shall consist of permanently mounted partial discharge sensors (capacitive couplers) on the line & neutral windings and portable or permanently installed test equipment. The voltage transformers shall be located in separate cubicle for each of the three phases & mounted in withdrawable drawers.2.7.1 Partial Discharge Monitoring (PDM) A partial discharge analyzer (PDA) shall monitor the partial discharge activity (damage to insulation) of the machine winding. 9. A uniform air gap under all the conditions of operation below the ± 10% shall be maintained.3 9.7. Instrument Transformers The current transformers shall preferably be of single phase window type fitted around the bus conductors for meeting the protection & measuring requirements.22.214.171.124. The surge diverters and/or the surge capacitors shall be provided in the same cubicle as that of the voltage transformers with suitable barriers.5 times the maximum machine phase-to-ground terminal voltage rating. 126.96.36.199. 2007 DRAFT be such that it shall be possible to provide earth fault protection with proper discrimination. online air gap monitoring system shall be provided. A resistor shall be connected across the secondary terminals of the distribution transformer. 9.7 62 .
1 The generator transformers shall comply with the general requirements and the standards of latest versions of BIS:2026 / relevant IEC. The system shall consist of a power transformer.1 Excitation System Static high initial response rectifier excitation system shall generally be used. grid standards.188.8.131.52 times the excitation current and voltage required by the generator at 100% rated kVA and 100% rated voltage & for supplying twice the excitation current required by the machine at 100 % rated kVA and 110% rated voltage for a duration of one minute without damage. All the performance requirements such as automatic voltage regulation (AVR).3. The rectifier PIV (peak inverse voltage) rating shall not be less than four times the maximum RMS voltage of the input.2 9.3.3. 9. 9. OFAF type generator transformers shall be provided. regulations on grid standards shall be complied. terminal voltage. provision of water cooling being not feasible.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.3 Vibration Monitoring The displacement of the bearings during the running of the units shall be monitored by using on-line vibration monitoring equipment for replicating the forces acting on the rotor.4. wherever feasible.4 9. With the failure of two bridges it shall be possible to continue operation at reduced load.4 9. power factor & speed shall be capable of changing from rated field voltage to 90 percent of ceiling voltage within 25 ms for a sustained drop in generator terminal voltage of 5 percent. The capacity of the excitation system shall be adequate to supply continuously 1. electronic regulator and deexcitation unit.2. control element.5 9. 63 .7. The excitation system while operating at maximum kVA. In case.3 9. the type of cooling shall be generally OFWF/ODWF. Static rectifier excitation system shall obtain the necessary electrical power directly from the terminals of the generator. The number of bridges shall be such that one bridge is always available as redundant.3 9.2 Water Cooled transformers. Generator Step-up Transformers 9. shall be preferred for hydro power Stations. power system stabilizer (PSS) in accordance with the Authority’s connectivity regulations and standards. 2007 DRAFT 9.
5 Provision of “Off-circuit” tap changer shall be made for generatortransformers of conventional generating units. On load tap changer shall be provided for pumped storage schemes having installation of reversible units.1 9.5. The unit auxiliary auxiliary/ 9.6 Surge diverter shall be provided on the high voltage side of transformers.4. Electrical Auxiliaries Unit Auxiliary & Station Auxiliary A. The range of operation for the tap changer shall be governed by the system requirements.4.5 9. 9.4.5 The generator transformers shall be provided with two complete independent sets of cooling equipment each with 100% capacity.3 Selection of single phase or three phase transformers for hydro power Stations shall be governed by the transportation limitations and shall be finalised considering the status of load carrying capabilities of bridges.C.C.7 Insulation levels for the transformer windings and bushings shall comply with the requirements indicated in Schedule-III. etc. On Line Spectroscopy: To monitor methane / ethylene / ethane.1 64 . The surge diverter characteristics. 2007 DRAFT 9. This system shall be normally put in auto mode. unit station auxiliary supply systems shall be provided. . their numbers and exact locations shall be decided based on the insulation co-ordination studies.4.8 Emulsifier type fire protection system for generator-transformer shall be provided.4. 9.1. Fire walls shall be provided wherever required as per the guidelines of BIS.4.9 The following on line monitoring system for large power transformers having three phase rating of 120MVA and above shall be provided: Dissolved / Evolved Gas Analyser: To monitor hydrogen and carbon monoxide. 9. supply Systems To feed the unit auxiliaries and the station auxiliaries.1 Unit Auxiliary A.5.4 Generator Transformer shall be suitable for continuous operation at rated MVA on any taps with voltage variation of in accordance with IS: 6600.4. Supply System The auxiliary supply system of each generating unit shall be provided with unit auxiliary transformer to feed the loads of the unit. 9. 9. 9.4.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 9.
The essential load consists of mainly of the unit. D.5. supply system shall be designed to provide a high degree of reliability. The station service transformers. During starting and stopping of units these unit auxiliaries shall be supplied power from the station auxiliary A. supply system. In addition.C.2 65 .2 Each switchgear. one main and other as standby shall be provided for supplying power to the station service board feeding power to the station auxiliaries. 2007 DRAFT transformers. of Station Service Transformer of equal capacity. space heaters and OPU.C. distribution boards (DBs) shall be fed by 2x100% transformers/feeders and these shall be rated to carry the maximum load expected to be imposed. supply system through tie breakers. b) c) d) 9. the station load shall be supplied by Diesel Generating set(s) of suitable capacity connected to the station service board.C. motor control centres (MCCs).C. excitation and AVR cooling fans. Supply System 9. etc. continuity of service and primarily to supply uninterrupted AC supply to station auxiliaries during normal operation and unit auxiliaries during starting and stopping of the unit.5. shall be supplied power from the unit’s own generation.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.C. cooling water pump motors. Two nos.1. In the event of A. supply system The station auxiliary A. The availability of input supply shall be ensured from the sources independent of station generation. 2 a) Station Auxiliary A. The station supply loads for various equipments shall be determined and maximum demand shall be calculated at a diversity factor of 0. one for each unit. The capacity of UATs shall be selected based on the consideration that it is able to continuously cater to the requirement of all auxiliaries of the respective unit.C. DG sets and DCDBs shall be located at higher level. The different auxiliary systems shall incorporate a auto transfer scheme/manual changeover to bring in the reserve supply source as required to prevent the loss of unit/s & to ensure the equipment safety. supply failure.75. adequate provision for meeting load of auxiliaries for one unit during starting/stopping of unit shall also be kept and for this purpose the UABs shall be connected to station auxiliary A.
2.5.2 184.108.40.206 66 . if system design so dictates.2. Special attention shall be made for grounding of HV-GIS equipment. The touch and step potentials limit shall be maintained within acceptable limits. shall be provided for power house. for maximum fault current of the system.5 9.3.5. Grounding and lightning protection for the entire power Station and other areas or buildings shall be provided in accordance with IS 3043.3. The battery capacity shall be decided with 10% design margin and ageing factor as applicable.5.5.1 9.5.3 9. excitation current for field flashing of generators and indicating lamp loads. The float cum boost battery chargers as well as their automatic regulators shall be of static type. MS Flat / rods shall generally be used as main ground mat.3 9. 220.127.116.11.1 The D. distinct grounding system.3 9.4 9.2. distribution boards shall be designed to supply the various station loads like normal continuous load. Grounding System The grounding system shall be designed for a life expectancy of at least fifty (50) years. storage buildings.2. battery chargers. separate.3.5.C.2. & other civil/ hydraulic structures inter-connected.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. computer networks and communication equipment as per the manufacturer’s recommendations.2 9. All equipment shall be grounded at two points for reliability.3.5. D. The DC batteries. communication buildings. Supply Systems for hydro power stations comprise of Batteries. and DCDB shall be placed at a floor higher than that of machine hall.4 9.6 9. Two DC battery sets (one battery of full required capacity & another battery of same capacity as a standby) each with one float and/cum boost charger shall be provided. 2007 DRAFT 9. if feasible. For most of hydro-electric projects. spillway gate structures.C. The standard voltage rating for the DC system shall be 24V / 48V for computerized control system and 220V /110V for control & protection etc. emergency lighting load. switchyard & remote structures such as control buildings. IEEE : 80 and IEEE : 665. The battery shall have sufficient capacity to provide 3 hours uninterrupted emergency illumination independently.5.2. Battery Chargers & DC Distribution Boards. It shall have a facility of both auto as well as manual control in both the float and boost modes. etc.
Proper attention shall be given to ventilation / heat dissipation aspects particularly in case of HV cables. emergency AC and DC illumination at strategic locations shall also be provided.6 9. auxiliary LV power and MV power cables shall be laid in separate trays. machine hall. 67 . shafts etc. Directly buried cables shall be essentially armoured type. shall be provided. For laying of cables in a power house. turbine pit and other high bay areas where proper colour rendition is needed and long-life is essential.6. DC illumination shall be provided to enable safe movement of personnel and access to important control points during an emergency. low smoke (FRLS) type.4.5. The main considerations/ practices shall be: Segregation & proper spacing shall be maintained . a cable trench system shall be provided. Cables shall be derated for the site ambient and ground temperatures.3 9. generator hall. Power and Control Cables Cables shall be flame retardant. a broad based system involving cable gallery.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.5.4 9. Automatic switching via photo electric cells can be adopted for outdoor lighting to optimise power consumption.2 18.104.22.168 9. spillways and dams.5 9. In outdoor switchyards.4.1 Illumination Adequate illumination shall be provided as per BIS standards. Apart from normal AC illumination system.5. parking areas etc. Energy conservation measures shall be adopted. cable racks.4. Sodium vapour lighting fixtures shall be preferred for outdoor lighting such as switchyards.5. trenches.5. 2007 DRAFT 9.5.1 Cable Trenches / Cable Racks A comprehensive philosophy of segregation/ separation shall be adopted for cable installation.Control. Incandescent lamps shall be used only for battery powered emergency lights and for certain places where lights shall not be turned on continuously or where fluorescent fixtures are impractical. while designing the lighting system. grouping and soil resistivity as per BIS. 9. Metal halide fixtures shall be used for certain indoor areas such as erection bay.4.
All relays used shall be suitable for operation with CTs secondary rated for 1 Amp or 5 Amps as per BIS/IEC/IEEE standards. The main protection relays for the generators.2 Protection Fully graded protection system with requisite speed.1 9.5. transformers and the transmission lines shall generally be of numerical type. Protective relays shall be used to detect electrical faults and to activate the alarms. and segregated cables of CTs/VTs. using separate set of instrument transformers.5 9.3 9. Electrical faults shall be detected by the protective relays arranged in overlapping zones of protection.4 9.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. All generating units shall have standard protections to protect the units not only from faults within the units and within the station but also from faults in transmission lines.6 Differential 95 % Stator E / F 100 % Stator E / F Interturn Faults Backup Impedance Voltage Controlled O / C Negative Phase Sequence Field Failure Reverse Power Pole Slipping Overload 68 . The protections to be provided for the generating units as a minimum are shown below: a) Generator Protection Functions Small (< 10 MVA) Y Y N Y N Y Y Y Y N Y Size of Generating Units Medium (10-100 Large (> 100 MVA) MVA) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y 9. supplies. sensitivity and selectivity shall be provided for the entire Station.7.7 9. 2007 DRAFT 9.7.5. protections shall be configured into two independent sets of protections (Group A & B) acting on two independent sets of trip coil fed from independent D.5.5. motors. equipment and system.22.214.171.124.7.C.5. disconnect or shut down the faulted apparatus to provide for safety of personnel. For generating units greater than 100MW.7.
bushing − Buchholtz Relay − Winding Temperature Protection − Oil Temperature Protection − − Oil level low Pressure Relief Valve − Cooling system failure c) Generator & Generator Transformer − Overall Differential Protection d) Unit Auxiliary Transformer − Restricted E/F Protection − Instantaneous and IDMT O/C Protection − O/C & E/F / Neutral Backup − Winding Temperature Protection e) Station Auxiliary Transformer − Restricted E/F Protection − Instantaneous & IDMT O/C Protection − O/C & E/F /Neutral Backup Protection − Winding Temperature Protection 69 .V.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT Over voltage Under frequency Dead Machine Rotor Earth Fault Overfluxing b) Generator Transformer − − − − Y Y N Y N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Generator Transformer Differential REF Protection IDMT O/C Protection Neutral Grounding Back-Up Protection (IDMT O/C relay) − Overfluxing − Monitoring of Insulation of L.
5. standards. − O/C & E/F / Neutral Backup Protection − Winding Temperature Protection 126.96.36.199. transformers and motors.6 9.9 Motors A.C Motors shall be Squirrel cage induction motor suitable for direct on line starting while Crane duty motors shall be slip ring /squirrel cage type induction motor with Variable Frequency Drive as applicable. Synchronization Synchronization of generator breakers shall be provided through automatic system with check synchronizing feature as well as through manual system with check synchronizing and guard relay. Temperature rise for Air cooled motors shall be limited to 70 deg.5. guidelines and safety requirements.7 9. DC Motors shall be Shunt wound. All motors shall be either Totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) or Totally enclosed tube ventilated (TETV) or Closed air circuit air cooled (CACA) or closed air water cooled(CACW) type.96) standards shall be generally applied for protection of generators.5.C by resistance method for both class B&F insulation. In the event of normal station service power disruption and for standby supply during grid black-out condition. 9.1 Control. it shall be ensured that the essential auxiliaries of all the units are fed from diesel generator & non-essential loads are automatically tripped. 9. Protection & Instrumentation General The control & instrumentation system provided for the Station shall be consistent with modern power Station practices and in compliance with all applicable codes.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.91. 2007 DRAFT f) Excitation Transformer − Restricted E/F Protection − Instantaneous & IDMT O/C Protection. 70 .101.5. 9.8 IEEE C37 (102.10 Diesel Generator The diesel generators shall be installed to provide emergency power supply to essential station services and starting up of one generating unit at a time.
2.2 9.3 The control system shall be divided in the following groups with independent controls: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Generating unit controls Common controls (for control of common auxiliaries) Station controls (for station auxiliaries) Switchyard controls Dam gate controls (wherever applicable) The above groups shall be interconnected and also controlled from control room through Computerised Control System (CCS).2. The control of each unit from unit control board shall be independent of each other. Each generating unit shall have independent redundant programmable logic controller.6.5 Automatic start/stop Auto – inactive Step by step starting As a backup to the microprocessor based controls.6.2. It shall be compatible with the station control centre and shall ensure transfer of data / communication. Provision shall be made for automatic operation of plant from remote despatch center.2 188.8.131.52.2. Manual and automatic control from unit control board (UCB) located near the unit at machine hall Automatic operation from station control center located in the power house control room. 9. a relay based back up shut down may also be provided for parallel shut down in case of emergency / protection master trip relay operation.1 Control System for Main Plant Unit and station control system shall be microprocessor / computer based distributed digital control system interconnected through fibre optic cables or copper cables (for distances less than 100 meters) having hundred percent redundancy.6.6. The following control operation and monitoring points shall be provided for units: i) ii) iii) iv) Manual control of individual equipment from control cubicle / control boxes located near the equipment. The type of interconnection with remote equipment shall be with reliable communication mode. 9. 71 . 2007 DRAFT 9.4 The following modes of unit start / stop controls shall be provided: i) ii) iii) 9.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.
gauges.3 9. For complete overview of complete Station. Microprocessor based vibration monitoring and analysis system shall be provided for critical rotating equipments.1 Instrumentation Primary instruments like transmitters.3 72 .6. input/ output cards. 9. 9. thermocouples. shall be provided.6.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2 9. for operation of Station.3.9 9. etc. transducers etc. 184.108.40.206. All the field wiring shall be laid in the conduits.3.6. All electrical instruments /devices like switches/ transmitters/ controllers/ analyzers/ solenoid valves which are located in the fields/hazardous locations shall be provided with explosion proof enclosures suitable for hazardous areas as per NFPA/NEC. control network etc. Computer based Man Machine Interface (MMI) shall be installed with operation control stations having video display units.6 A centralized control center for the control of complete power Station shall be installed in power house control room. Provisions for the historical storage / long term storage and retrieval of the data shall be provided.2.2. a passive mimic board or interconnected large video screen (LVS) shall be provided in control room. printers.2. 9.2. A common manual synchronizing set shall be provided for smaller sets. 2007 DRAFT 220.127.116.11 Independent. redundant and reliable 230 V AC UPS with 30 minutes backup shall be provided for Computerised Control System equipment located in control room and DC power supply system with 2 hours battery backup for controllers.8 18.104.22.168 9. RTDs or other type of sensors. Use of process actuated switches shall be kept to a bare minimum. impact load flow elements.3.6. key board. The emergency push button shall be hard wired from unit control board. The emergency stop push button for each unit for unit shut down shall be provided in control room. LDC and other PLCs.10 The Computerised Control System shall be compatible with standard IEC-60870 (for protection only) for communication with protection panel.6. shall be provided. An automatic synchronizer with double channel design having frequency and voltage matching including one set of synchronizing equipment for manual synchronizing shall be provided in each UCB.
shall be located in the machine hall to the extent possible. Provision of individual hoisting mechanism for draft tube gates of each unit may be considered for quick closing. The control panels for dewatering and drainage pumps shall be located at a floor higher than that of turbine floor. In addition to drainage and dewatering pumps. suitable number of submersible pumps with provision for automatic starting by means of level switches shall be provided at main inlet valve (MIV) floor. Provision for operation and control of surge shaft gates from remote for quick isolation of water conductor system in case of failure of other line of defence/protection. The station service transformers and station service boards shall be located at higher level. Suitable float switches shall be provided in power house building to give closing signal to the MIV in the event of inundation of power house due to penstock rupture or leakage in penstock or for some other reasons. unit protection panels etc. unit control panels. battery chargers and DCDBs shall be placed at a floor higher than that of machine hall. The DC batteries.0 PROVISIONS REQUIRED FOR PROTECTION POWER HOUSE AGAINST FLOODING Following provisions shall be made for protection of Power House against flooding: i) ii) Installation of submersible type dewatering pumps of sufficient capacity in the dewatering sump.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. The excitation cubicles. iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) 73 . 2007 DRAFT 10. The draft tube gates shall be capable of closing under unbalanced condition of water pressure.
adequate measures to limit the fault level like installation of series reactors on line / bus at the respective substations need to be considered for future transmission development. The 20% margin is intended to take care of the increase in short circuit levels as the system grows. The rated breaking current capability of switchgear at different voltage levels may be taken as: Table -1 66 kV 132 kV 220 kV 400 kV 765 kV 25/31.) 40/63 kA (for 1 sec.5/40 kA (for 1 sec.) 40/50 kA (for 1 sec.5kA (for 1 sec. with the addition of more generators and termination of new transmission lines.4 kV. 11/0.) 31. 74 .4 kV Distribution Sub-Station (DSS) PART-A: SUB-STATIONS AND SWITCHYARDS (66KV AND ABOVE) 1.) 25/31.1 GENERAL The maximum fault level on any new substation / switchyard bus should not exceed 80% of the rated rupturing capacity of the circuit breaker.A: Sub-Stations and Switchyards (66kV and above) Part .0 1.B: Substations (33 kV and below) Part .5kA (for 1 sec.) If fault level at 400kV sub-station exceeds or likely to exceed permissible limit of 40kA. 2007 DRAFT SCHEDULE III TECHNICAL STANDARD SWITCHYARDS FOR SUB-STATIONS AND This Schedule describes the minimum technical requirements for construction of Substations and Switchyards in following three parts: Part .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.C: 33/0.
6 The choice of site for a substation / switchyard is a compromise between technical.4 2. 4. The approximate location is determined on grid considerations. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS SWITCHING STATIONS FOR EHV SUB-STATIONS AND 1. The factors to be taken into accounts for designing EHV substations shall be as per Cl. environmental and administrative factors. No. Land area available shall be considered based on the present and the future expansion on a 10-15 year scenario.3 2.0 2.1 The EHV substations and switching stations could be conventional Air Insulated Substation (AIS) / Gas Insulated Substation (GIS).1 2.2 The capacity of any single substation / switchyard at different voltage levels shall not normally exceed: Table -2 765 kV 400 kV 220 kV/230 kV 132 kV/110 kV/100 kV 66 kV 4500 MVA 1500 MVA 500 MVA 150 MVA 75 MVA 1. The design and construction of the proposed installation shall facilitate future expansion and system upgradation including automation and computerized coordinated operation such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) and Energy Management System. system safety.1.1.1 to 4. The selection of switching schemes depends on operational flexibility.4 75 . system reliability and transmission capacity after becoming a part of the network.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. economic.1.1.2 2. The series compensation could be fixed / variable / combination of both (partly fixed and partly variable). reliability and availability. Reactive compensation as indicated by system studies of the network is to be provided.3 Size and number of interconnecting transformers (ICTs) shall be planned in such a way that the outage of any single unit would not over load the remaining ICT(s) or the underlying system. ability to facilitate system control 2. The new substation shall enhance the operational flexibility. 2007 DRAFT 1. Similarly some compensation could be either switched or non-switched type.1.1.
Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) installations shall generally be preferred to conventional AIS as a technoeconomic solution for locations where space is major constraint and also for seismic prone areas and coastal areas.5 66 kV. However.1. The switching scheme has a great impact on the total cost of the GIS and will have to be properly evaluated for a particular project. Generally single bus with / without sectionalization and double main bus switching schemes shall be used depending on voltage level and importance of installation.1.1.7. For the rigid bus-bar arrangement.1 2. The following switching schemes shall generally be adopted at different voltage levels in AIS depending on importance of installation.7 2. other type of switching schemes can also be considered based on techno-economic analysis. 2007 DRAFT and costs. Gas Insulated Substations SF6 Gas insulated Metal Enclosed switchgear shall be totally safe against inadvertent touch of any of its live parts.2 76 .6 2.1. bus-bars shall be either of the rigid type with tubular aluminium bus conductor or flexible stranded conductor with ACSR / AAAC / any other suitable conductors.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. aluminium pipes of grade 63401 WP range 2 conforming to IS:5082 shall be to be used. Table-3 Main and transfer Bus or Double Bus scheme Double Main and transfer Bus scheme or Double Bus scheme Breaker and a Half scheme or Double Main and Transfer Bus scheme Breaker and a Half scheme or Double bus and Double Breaker scheme 2. 132kV 220kV 400 kV 765 kV In case of AIS. 2. The conductor of appropriate rating and number of conductors in case of bundle conductors shall be selected considering power flow requirements and other system considerations. The GIS installations could be outdoor / indoor type. The metal enclosed Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) shall comply with IEC 62271203 and IEC-62271-200. Outdoor Air Insulated Substation / switchyard has to be shielded against Direct Lightning stroke either by provision of overhead shieldwire /earthwire or spikes(masts) or combination of both.1. a techno-economic analysis has to be done in case of each GIS installation. However.7.
7.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.5 50 Hz 3 132 kV 145 50 Hz 3 220 kV 245 50 Hz 3 400 kV 420 50 Hz 3 765 kV 800 50 Hz 3 2. Safety clearances shall be maintained in accordance with the Authority’s Safety Regulations and Standards. The grounding system shall be designed for expected life of the substation for rated fault current as indicated in Table-1. Highest System Voltage (kV) Rated frequency No.1.5 2. 2. equipment and buildings shall be provided in accordance with IEEE:80.1. The equipment offered shall be protected against all types of voltage surges and any equipment necessary to satisfy this requirement shall be deemed to be included.1.9 3.of phases 66 kV 72.3 GIS could be isolated phase / three phase non-magnetic enclosure type. For voltage level upto 220kV it could be three phase enclosure type and for 400kV and above voltage level. Earthing system for the entire switchyard. The design should be such that all parts subjected to wear and tear are easily accessible for maintenance purposes. 2007 DRAFT 2.4 2. IEEE: 665. cutting or welding on existing equipment and without the necessity of moving or dislocating the existing switchgear bays.1 77 .1.8 2. ease of erection and maintenance etc.1. IS 3043. The switchyard/ substation layout shall be decided with due consideration to statutory safety requirement.0 3. The touch and step potentials limit shall be maintained within acceptable limits. The arrangement of gas sections or compartments shall be such as to facilitate future extension of any make on either end without any drilling.7. 3. The clearances shall be adequate for moving portable equipment for maintenance and manoeuvring personnel for carrying out maintenance (clearances from adjacent live parts shall be maintained for safety) SALIENT TECHNICAL PARTICULARS / REQUIREMENTS OF SUBSTATIONS System design parameters Table-4 Parameter 1.7. it could be single phase enclosure type.
Insulation level requirements shall be kept higher as per relevant standards/practices. For higher altitudes.5 MHz and 2 MHz (microvolts) 7. Max. 2007 DRAFT 4. System neutral earthing - - - 1550 140 275 460 630 830 - 105 156 320 508 - 500 (at 1000 (at 92kVrms) 156kVrm s) 1000 (at 320kVrms) 2500 (at 508 kVrms) Effectivel y earthed Effectivel y earthed Effectivel y earthed Effectively earthed Effectively earthed The above parameters are for installations at altitudes upto 1000m above Mean Sea Level (MSL). Radio Interference Voltage for frequency between 0.2.2/50 micro sec.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 3. Minimum Corona Extinction Voltage (kVrms phase to earth) 6.) (kVpeak) 325 650 1050 1425 (1300kVp for transformer/ reactor as mentioned in Table-5) 1050 2100 ii) Switching impulse withstand Voltage (250/2500 micro sec.2 3.1 Main equipment Power transformers (Other than generating transformer) 78 . i) Rated Insulation levels Full wave impulse withstand voltage (1.) dry & wet (kVp) iii) One minute Power Frequency Withstand Voltage dry & wet (kVrms) 5.
The transformers shall comply with IEC:60076/IS:2026 in general. The transformers shall be usually of two winding type / autotransformer. The transformers above 100 MVA rating shall be provided with tertiary winding. Interconnecting transformers shall be provided with On Load Tap changer(OLTC) as per system requirement. The maximum flux density in any part of the core and yoke at the rated MVA, voltage and frequency shall be such that under 10% continuous over voltage condition it does not exceed 1.9 Tesla. Transformers shall withstand, without injurious heating, combined voltage and frequency fluctuations which produce the following over fluxing conditions - 125% for 1 minute and 140% for 5 seconds. For the purpose of standardization, maximum temperature rise of oil and winding may be specified as 50oC and 55oC respectively over an ambient temperature of 50oC. At existing sub-stations, the impedance, vector groups, OLTC connection and range etc. of the new transformer is to be matched with that of the existing transformer. Interconnecting transformers shall be suitable for bi-directional flow of power. Noise level of transformer, when energized at normal voltage and frequency with fans and pumps running and measured under standard condition, shall not exceed the values specified in NEMA standard publication TR-1. In order to reduce the risk of fire, EHV transformers shall be provided with gravels / pebbles filled soaking pits for each transformer with voids of capacity adequate to contain the total quantity of oil. Otherwise, common soak pit of adequate capacity may be provided for a group of transformers. Besides, separation walls are to be provided in-between the transformers and also between transformer and reactors, if required, as per Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC) guidelines. The transformers may be single phase or three-phase type depending upon transportation constraints. In case single phase transformers are provided, then one single phase unit shall be kept as spare in the substation/switchyard so that it can replace any of the units, whenever required. Shunt Reactors Shunt Reactors, wherever provided, shall comply with IEC:60289/IS:5553/IEC-60076 in general. Shunt reactors upto 420 kV rated voltage shall have linear V/I characteristics upto 1.5 p.u. voltage. 800 kV Shunt reactors shall have linear voltage vs. current (V/I) characteristics upto 1.25 p.u. voltage. If required, the neutral of the line reactors shall be grounded through adequately rated neutral grounding reactors to facilitate single phase auto-reclosure. The neutral of shunt reactors shall be insulated to 550 kV peak for lightning impulse and shall
be protected by means of 145 kV class surge diverters in case of line reactors. 22.214.171.124 The insulation level for the transformer / reactor windings and bushings shall be as follows: Table-5 WINDING Rated Rated Rated voltag power switching e freq. impulse withstan withstan d voltage d voltage (kVrms) (kVp) 800kV 1550 420kV 1050 245kV 395 145kV 230 52kV 95 36kV 70 24 kV 50 17.5kV 38 12 kV 28 BUSHING Rated Rated Rated lightning power switching impulse freq. impulse withstan withstan withstan d voltage d voltage d voltage (kVp) (kVrms) (kVp) 1950 830 1550 1300 630 1050 950 460 550 275 250 95 170 70 125 50 95 38 75 28 -
Rated lightning impulse withstan d voltage (kVp) 2100 1425 1050 650 250 170 125 95 75
Circuit Breakers Circuit Breakers shall comply with IEC 62271-100 & IEC-60694. The interrupting medium of circuit breakers shall in general be SF6. Circuit breakers of 220kV and above voltage class shall be suitable for single phase and three phase auto-reclosing. Circuit breakers of 132kV and below voltage class shall be suitable for three-phase auto-reclosing. Each Breaker of 132kV and above rating shall be provided with 2 nos. of trip coils. Two sets of trip circuits shall be connected to separately fused /MCB controlled DC supplies for greater reliability. Rated break time for circuit breakers shall be as given below.` 765kV 400kV 220kV 132kV 66kV 40ms 40ms 60ms 100ms 100ms
In accordance with system requirement, the circuit breakers of 400kV and above class shall be provided with Pre-insertion resistors (PIR) for controlling switching over voltage of lines of length more than 200km. Disconnectors & Earthing Switches The disconnectors shall comply with IEC 62271-102 & IEC-60694. Earth switches shall be provided at various locations to facilitate maintenance. Main blades and earth blades shall be interlocked with both electrical and mechanical means, which shall be, fail-safe. Earth switches for 132kV and above shall be suitable for induced current switching duty as per IEC. Isolators of 220 kV and above rating shall have provision for remote and manual operation. Isolators of 132kV and below rating shall have provision for manual and / or remote operation. Earth switches shall be suitable for electrical and manual operation. Only local operation is recommended for earth switches. The earth switches for AIS shall not be suitable for fault making duty. However, high speed earth switches for GIS installation shall have rated fault making capability. In case of GIS installations, high speed earth switches shall be provided for grounding purpose at over head line terminations and where cable length is long.
Current Transformers Current Transformers shall comply to IEC:60044-1 in general. The rated currents and ratio, the number of secondary cores (protection / metering), accuracy class, burden, secondary winding resistance, knee point voltage and excitation current shall be in accordance with the requirements of the protection system. The accuracy class for metering core shall be as per requirements of tariff agreement. Digital Optical Current transformers may also be acceptable in place of conventional Current transformers.
Voltage Transformers Voltage transformers shall comply to IEC:60044-2 in general. The number of secondary cores (protection / metering), accuracy class and burden shall be in accordance with the requirements of the protection system. The accuracy class for metering core shall be as per requirements of tariff agreement. Voltage transformers can be either electromagnetic type or capacitive type. Wherever PLCC is required, Capacitor type voltage transformers complying to IEC:60044-5 shall be used as the same are suitable for carrier coupling. The capacitance of CVT shall be decided depending on PLCC requirements. Digital Optical Voltage transformers may also be acceptable in place of conventional Voltage transformers. In
case of GIS installations, SF6 filled voltage transformers shall be electromagnetic type. 3.2.7 Surge Diverter Station class, heavy duty, gapless metal oxide (Zno) type Surge diverters conforming to IEC 60099-4 in general shall be provided. The rated voltage, Continuous Operating Voltage, energy handling capability, nominal discharge current and other characteristics of surge diverter shall be chosen in accordance with system requirements. Surge diverters shall be provided at locations as per insulation coordination studies. These shall be fitted with pressure relief devices and diverting ports suitable for preventing shattering of porcelain housing providing path for the flow of rated currents in the event of arresters’ failure. Leakage current monitor with surge counter shall be provided with each surge diverter. 3.2.8 Line / Wave Trap A line/wave trap, intended for insertion in a high voltage power transmission line between the point of connection of carrier frequency signals and adjacent power system elements such as bus bars, transformers etc., shall consist of a main coil in the form of an inductor, a tuning device and a protective device. The tuning device shall be so arranged as to permit interchange without removing the line trap. It shall be so designed that neither significant alteration in the line trap blocking requirements nor physical damage shall result from either temperature rise or magnetic field of the main coil at rated continuous current or rated short time current. The protective device shall be so designed and arranged that neither a significant alteration in its protective function nor physical damage shall result either from temperature rise or the magnetic field of the main coil at rated continuous current or rated short time current. 3.2.9 Post Insulators The minimum creepage distances for different pollution levels shall be as per the following: Table-6 Pollution level Creepage distance (mm/kV of line-to-line voltage) 16
Medium Heavy Very heavy 3.3 3.3.1 SUBSTATION SUPPORT FACILITIES AC & DC system:
20 25 31
AC & DC supplies shall be provided as per requirements given in “Regulations on Grid Connectivity”. For computation of capacity of battery in attended substation, in general following durations shall be assumed. Table-7 Where standby battery is Where standby provided battery is not provided Steady and 3 Hours 6 Hours continuous load Emergency light 1 Hours (3 hours in case 2 Hours loads of Hydro / Thermal Power Station) AC and DC distribution system shall be designed to meet the requirement of substation. 3.3.2 Fire fighting system for substation / switchyard A comprehensive fire detection and protection system shall be provided for substation / switchyard. Fire fighting system in general shall conform to Fire protection system guidelines issued by Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC) of India. 126.96.36.199 Automatic High Velocity Water (HVW) spray system / emulsifier system shall be provided for transformers & reactors of voltage rating 400kV and above. Fire detection and alarm system based on heat /smoke detectors shall be installed in control room building in substations / switchyards of 400kV and above. The fire alarm system shall conform to IS:2189. Further, water hydrant system shall be provided for the following area in substation / switchyards of 400kV and above: i) ii) iii) iv) DG set Auxiliary power supply station area Control room building Fire fighting pump house
2. portable and portable fire extinguishers shall be provided. PLCC equipments. 2007 DRAFT v) vi) Stores Transformer/Reactor Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in substation / switchyards of 400kV and above in Control room building.2. shunt reactors and for periodical maintenance necessary oil evacuating.3.5 Oil evacuating.3. Oil tanks of 84 .4 Control room Substation / switchyard control room shall be provided to house the control and relay panels. DC batteries etc.2 3. Average illumination levels shall be maintained as per IS:3646 3. In case of substation / switchyard with automation system with distributed architecture.1 3. testing & filling apparatus To monitor the quality of the oil for satisfactory performance of transformers.2. 3. water supply system can be extended from the fire pump house provided for the generating station. 3. PLCC panels may be provided in air conditioned kiosks located in the switchyard. For 132kV and below sub-stations. trolley mounted / In case of switchyard associated with generating stations.4 For 220kV sub-stations. filtering.3 3. Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) including protective relays.3. Air conditioning shall be provided in the building as functional requirement.3. Energy conservation measures shall be adopted.3 3.3. The battery shall have sufficient capacity to provide uninterrupted emergency illumination as per Table -7.3. filtering. Fire fighting pump house and stores. Adequate normal and emergency AC & DC lighting shall also be provided in the control room and other identified locations of the substation / switchyard.3. telemetry equipments and recording equipments. water hydrant system and trolley mounted / portable fire extinguishers shall be provided.2 3. Lighting Adequate indoor and outdoor lighting including street lighting shall be provided for the substation / switchyard.3.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. AC & DC distribution boards.3. while designing the lighting system.3. testing and filling apparatus shall be provided at new substation for a cluster of substation / switchyards.
3. decomposition product etc of SF6 gas . drying & recycling plant SF6 filling. moisture content. 3. Wherever two sets of DC sources are available. bus bars and other provisions shall be as follows.4 3. evacuation. Even in cases when only one set of battery source is available segregation of protections and trip circuits in two groups may be considered by giving DC supplies through separate fuses. drying & recycling plant with adequate storage capacity shall be provided at new substation / for a cluster of substation / switchyards along with trolley for filling or evacuation of SF6 Circuit Breaker or Gas Insulated Switchgear (in case of GIS installation) and to monitor the purity. the relays could be electrically and physically segregated into two groups (Gr. A and Gr.2. evacuation. filtering. Interconnection between these two groups shall not generally be attempted. transformer. if found absolutely necessary such interconnection shall be kept to the bare minimum. while equipment is in service.6 SF6 filling.4. The protection in respect of transmission lines. 2007 DRAFT adequate capacities for storage of pure and impure transformer oil shall be provided. filtering. 3.4. 3.2 3.2 188.8.131.52. B).1 Grouping of Protection The protection functions shall be subdivided into two groups each having independent and capable of providing uninterrupted protection even in the event of one of the protection groups failing. Grouping can be done to the extent possible in such a way that each group can independently carry out protective functions with near equal redundancy. to obtain redundancy and to be able to take protection out for maintenance.1 Protection & Control Protective Relaying System The protective relaying system shall be provided for transmission lines. reactor. auto-transformers and bus bars so as to minimize the damage to the equipments in the events of faults and abnormal conditions.3 85 .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2. However.4.
Distance protection / Directional Comparison Protection / Phase segregated line differential protection Directional IDMT type E/F relay Y Y Y Y Y Y/N 132 kV / 110kV / 66 kV Y N Y Y Directional IDMT over current and earth fault back up protection N N Y (if both MI & M-II are distance protection) Y (if Main-II is not provided) N Y (Single phase/ three phase) N Y Two stage over Protection Auto reclosing voltage Y Y (Single phase / three phase) Y Y (Single phase / three phase) N Y (Three phase) Transmission lines with distance protection shall in general have carrier aided inter-tripping or blocking feature.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.4.3. 86 . Separate cores of Current Transformer & Voltage Transformer shall be used for Main-I and Main-II. 2007 DRAFT 3.1 Transmission Lines Protection Table-8 Protection 765 kV 400 kV 220 kV Main I -Distance Protection Main II.
OTI. SA on both primary and secondary sides of transformers located outdoors and connected to over head lines Tertiary winding Protection 220 kV / 132 kV / 110kV Y Y Y Y Y 66 kV 33kV/0.Optional 87 . OSR for OLTC.MOG Y with low oil level alarm. PRD. LA(if required) 400 kV Y Y Y Y Note: (1) Y – Required.3 Reactor protection Table-10 Protection 765 kV Differential Protection Y REF Protection Y Reactor backup protection Y (Impedance type or definite time O/C and E/F Protection) Buchholz. Plain oil gauge in lieu of MOG is also acceptable. WTI and OTI (for 1 MVA and above).4kV 11kV/0.4.2 Transformer Protection Table-9 Protection 765 kV 400 kV Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Differential Protection Over fluxing Protection REF Protection Backup directional O/C and E/F Protection(HV and LV side) / Impedance Buchholz. WTI. MOG with low oil level alarm.3.4. Y/N .4kV Y* N N Y* Y Except PRD & SA which are optional.3.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT 3. Y N N Y Y Y Over load alarm Y Y N N (above 100MVA rating) Y Y N N * If HV is controlled by Circuit Breaker Y 3. N – Not Required.
The protections for 400kV and above transmission line and the line compensating equipment shall have hundred percent back up communication channels.4.6 Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) equipment complete for speech transmission line protections. Time Synchronisation Equipment (TSE)complete with antenna. 2007 DRAFT (2)WTI: Winding Temperature Indicator.3. OSR: Oil Surge Relay. speech and data channel can also be used for protection wherever possible. disturbance recorder and SCADA/automation system of the substation / switchyard. LA: Lightning Arrester 3. MOG: Magnetic Oil Gauge.5 Disturbance Recorders. OTI: Oil Temperature Indicator.7 Control Concept All the EHV breakers in substation/switching stations shall be controlled and synchronized from the switchyard control room / control room of Generating station.4.4 Bus bar protection and Local Breaker Backup Protection (Breaker failure protection) Bus bar protection and local breaker backup protection shall be provided in 132kV and above interconnecting substations as well as in all generating station switchyards.4. all cables processing equipment etc. and data channels shall be provided on each transmission line of voltage rating 132kV and above.3.3. Event logger either stand alone or as part of substation / switchyard automation system shall be provided for 220kV and above voltage class substation / switchyard.3.4. Event Loggers and Time synchronisation equipment Each 765kV. shall be provided to receive synchronizing pulse through a Geo Positioning Satellite System (GPS) compatible for synchronization of Event logger. The bus bar protection scheme shall have the provision for future expansion. Isolators of 220kV and above rating shall have control from remote/local whereas the earth switches shall have local control 88 . PRD: Pressure Relieve Device. Optionally. In case of 220kV/132kV lines. 3. 3. 400 kV and 220 kV line shall be provided with facility for disturbance recording. 3. Each 765kV/400kV/220kV line shall be provided with two protection/speech channels in addition to one speech + data channel for each direction.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.. the above functionality may be achieved using wide band communication based on OPGW or any other technology. distance to fault locator and Time Synchronising Equipment (TSE).
The system parameters given for 400 /220 / 132 kV AC system shall be applicable for the commutation voltage for both HVDC back to back and HVDC long distance transmission system. a cable trench system shall be provided. Cables shall be derated for the site ambient and ground temperatures. Isolators and associated earth switches are provided with electrical as well as constructional mechanical interlocks. The Cable shall be armoured type. and power cables shall be laid in separate trays.control. trenches.5 Cables and Cabling Cables shall be Flame Retardant and Low Smoke (FRLS) type. shall be provided. 2007 DRAFT only.0 SALIENT TECHNICAL PARTICULARS / REQUIREMENTS OF HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT (HVDC) TERMINALS/ STATIONS The design parameters given in Clause no. Provision for operation of EHV Circuit breaker & Isolators from remote control stations may also be provided wherever required. In outdoor switchyards.1 HVDC Equipment Description A typical HVDC station for shall consist of the following main equipments: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Thyristor valves Converter Transformers AC harmonic filters Smoothing reactors DC filters* 89 . - No sub zero level cable vault / trenches are advisable below control building/switchgear rooms.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 3. The main considerations/ practices shall be: A comprehensive philosophy of segregation and proper spacing shall be maintained . cable racks. Due to economic and technical reasons. shafts etc. Proper attention shall be given to ventilation / heat dissipation aspects particularly in case of HV cables. For laying of cables a broad based system involving cable galleries. 4. grouping and soil resistivity.-3 shall be applicable for the AC switch yard equipment in the HVDC terminal station to be developed for bulk power transfer for long distances or asynchronous connections between areas operating at different frequencies. 4. philosophy of direct buried cable may be employed.
Based on the studies. the reactive power requirement for the terminal and bank / sub bank size shall be determined with no 90 . 4. Continuous current carrying capacity of 400 kV switchgear and the filter banks will be of 3150 Amp.1.1. The bus rating has to be adopted accordingly.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.1. 4000Amp. and 2000 Amp. 4. Instrument Transformers and other switchyard equipment shall be similar to that of the 400 kV equipment specified under Clause 3.1 4.4 AC harmonic filters and shunt compensation a) The HVDC converter generates harmonics during the conversion process and AC harmonic filters shall be used to limit ac voltage distortion due to harmonics to acceptable levels and also to meet the reactive power requirements of the HVDC station.1.1. Isolators. The arrestors used shall be metal oxide (ZnO) type conforming to IEC99-4.1.1 The converter station AC yard AC commutating bus equipment The 400 kV AC Circuit Breakers. insulation coordination. ratings respectively. The DOV limiter shall consist of parallel varistor elements connected phase to phase or phase to ground and designed to absorb the desired amount of energy during a system disturbance.3 Dynamic over Voltage limiter devices: Converters connected to relatively weak AC systems may cause Dynamic Over Voltages (DOV) during load rejection. The DOV requirements shall be coordinated with recovery of DC system following a disturbance. b) The AC harmonic filters shall be switched in and out by circuit breakers.2 Surge Diverter The requirements of surge diverters shall be based on the Insulation Coordination study in line with IEC-60071-5.1. 2007 DRAFT vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) AC PLC filter Control & Protection Electrical & Mechanical Auxiliaries Ground electrode station* AC switchyard equipment DC switchyard equipment* * Not applicable for back to back schemes 4. The switching duties of the AC circuit breakers will be decided based on transient over voltage study. 4. AC filters and protection studies.1..1.
9 Tesla. The transformers shall have secondary bushings projecting into the valve hall.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Converter transformers a) The converter Transformers shall be single phase two winding or three winding units which shall mainly be decided by size and transportation limitations. f) This shunt reactor shall be oil filled and can be switched in or out by Circuit breaker.1.1. SVC etc may be used to improve stability during AC system transient faults. 2007 DRAFT reactive power support being envisaged from the grid.1.1. 4. The requirement of reactor shall be in line with the IEC 60289. 4.The maximum flux density in any part of the core and yoke at the rated MVA. c) The main filter equipments namely capacitors & reactors shall comply to the requirements of IEC standards as follows: Capacitors Reactors : : IEC 60871-3 IEC-60289 d) Dynamic compensation: If required. The transformers shall comply with the requirements of IEC 61378-2. The maximum temperature rises of oil and winding may be specified as 50oC and 55oC respectively over an ambient temperature of 50oC. dynamic compensation in the form of STATCOM. Suitable redundancy shall be provided in the sub-bank filters to avoid reduction of transmission capacity of the station due to outage of any particular sub-bank for maintenance. e) Shunt Reactor Banks: Shunt Reactors of suitable size shall be provided to prevent steady-state AC over voltage during low order dc power transfer.5 Power Line Carrier (PLC) filtering: PLC filters shall be installed close to converter transformer to mitigate high frequency harmonic currents generated during thyristor turn on and turn off. The requirement of dynamic compensation and the rating shall be derived from the studies. voltage and frequency shall be such that under 10% continuous over voltage condition it does not exceed 1.6 91 .
c) d) 4. The thyristor valve assembly shall be tested as per IEC 60700-1 The thyristor valves shall be water cooled. The Thyristor Valve Cooling System shall use de-ionized water circulated in a closed cycle.4.2. etc. DC filters.1. b) c) d) 4.2. thyristor monitoring and damping circuit.1.1. conductivity sensors. smoothing reactors. expansion vessel.7 Thyristor valves a) The thyristor valves shall be supplied with associated auxiliaries and cooling system. mechanical filters. Converter transformers must also be equipped with On Load Tap Changer (OLTC) mechanism and Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) devices shall be provided between tap leads of the OLTC. The pressurization will be with clean air.1. The cooling unit shall comprise of a deionizer.. A twelve pulse scheme shall be used and each twelve pulse thyristor valve shall comprise of many thyristor valve assemblies in series. The impedance of the transformer shall be determined by the bidder and variations in impedance shall be as per requirements of IEC 61378. The valves shall be placed in the valve hall which shall have a pressure of 7 mm of WC over atmospheric pressure.1 The Converter Station DC yard : The DC yard comprises equipments like HVDC bushings. 2007 DRAFT b) The insulation level for the transformer AC (line side) windings and bushings shall be as given in Clause 3 and insulation levels of the valve side windings shall be determined by the bidder. The requirements of soak pits and firewalls shall be in line with Clause no. air insulated and indoor type.2 4. Necessary control and monitoring including tripping of the HVDC system in case of cooling system failure shall be provided.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. DC instrument transformers and switchgear all of which are located in the DC yard. The creepage distance for DC yard shall be maintained as indicated below: 4. Each assembly shall consist of microprocessor based firing system complete with individual thyristor over voltage protection. The valves shall be either of suspended type or floor mounted type.2 92 .1.
Smoothing reactor The Smoothing reactor will be of oil filled /air core type depending upon the requirement. DC current measuring devices are usually located on the neutral bus and the pole bus.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.1.2.5 DC voltage and current measuring devices The measuring equipment for DC voltage is located on each high voltage DC pole and on the neutral bus.2.2.1. 4. The rated DC voltage (pole bus equipment) shall be the same for rated DC transmission voltage.4 Under Light Pollution 20mm/KV Under heavy pollution zone 20mm/KV NA 50mm/kV 50mm/kV 43mm/KV 60mm/kV 50mm/kV DC Wall bushing: The bushings shall be of polymer housing as per IEC 61462 and filled with SF6 gas along with monitoring devices.1.2. 2007 DRAFT Table-11 Insulator Type Indoor Porcelain/Composite for Valve Hall and indoor smoothing reactor area Indoor DC yard (other than smoothing reactor) Outdoor Porcelain Insulators/Bushings Outdoor Composite Insulators/Bushings 4.1.2 4. The reactors shall generally comply with IEC 60289 and shall also be subject to DC tests as per their application.3 4.6 DC filter DC harmonic filters shall be provided in DC yard to limit harmonic currents flowing in DC lines (pole lines and electrode lines).2. 4.1 Control and Protection The HVDC Bipole shall have many control features like i) ii) iii) iv) v) The reactive power controller Active power controller Frequency controller Power modulator Sub synchronous resonance damping controller 93 . 4.
3 4. on-line fault locator.4. Each ground electrode station shall ideally have a resistance of less than or equal to 0.2 Micro-processor based controls shall be used to enable flexibility in effecting modifications at a later date. 4. communication network with high reliability and availability shall be provided for transmission of control and protection signals between the two HVDC terminals. the boundary between backfill (coke) and soil shall not exceed 0.4.1 Electrode The earth electrode station would be connected to the terminal by means of overhead transmission line.e. 2007 DRAFT vi) The Load Frequency Controller (LFC).4 94 .3 ohm (both as an anode and cathode) at 50° C ambient temperature. Touch Voltage (Vt):The touch voltage between any grounded metallic object in the electrode station (including the connection to the overhead electrode line) and at any point in the soil which can be touched by a person simultaneously shall not exceed 40 V when the electrode is operating at the 5 sec overload rating. i.2.4 4.3 Balanced bipolar operation Monopolar operation with metallic return Monopolar operation with ground operation Reduced voltage operation The sequence of event recorder.4.2. Protection shall be provided by Numerical Relays to suit the requirements of high reliability and fast controllability of the HVDC system.5 A/m2 in clay soils. Telecommunication For smooth operation of the HVDC system.. operator control and monitoring system shall be a part of HVDC system with required size of Video Projection system. The maximum anodic current density at the sub-electrode surface. 4. It should be possible to operate HVDC system in the following modes: a) b) c) d) 4.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2 4. GPS system.4. transient fault recorder. The Earth electrode will be located approximately 20-30 Km (radial distance) away from the converter station. Important controls shall be duplicated for increased reliability. The communication system shall be through optical fibers. PLCC or VSAT.3 4. 4.
0 + 0. etc.5 Step Voltage (Vs):The step voltage at ground level above the ground electrode when the electrode is operating at the Temporary Overload (TO) rating shall not exceed (Vs) = 5. Surge Diverter etc. 95 . One DG set per pole shall be provided as emergency backup. Power transformer/Reactor. where ρs is the minimum local soil surface resistivity in ohm-m. Air conditioning Fire fighting Station water supply and storage Illumination system Access control & Security - All auxiliaries shall give full output at voltage variation of ±10% and frequency variation of -5% to +3%.0 CONDITION MONITORING OF SUBSTATION EQUIPMENT For condition assessment of various substation equipment (e. 5. Circuit Breaker. Fire fighting including VESDA system for Valve hall. water supplies.g.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Batteries and battery chargers would be provided for DC power supplies. The BMS shall cover the following services. The mechanical auxiliaries shall include Air conditioning. PT/CVT.4. touch and step voltages would depend on the actual geophysical characteristics of the soil at the place where the electrode station is located. Isolator.). 2007 DRAFT 4.03ρs. PA & Telephone system. Other electrical auxiliaries provided shall include Illumination. The loads shall be fed through a 415V distribution board using auxiliary transformers. Suitable mitigation measures may have to be adopted in case the site has high resistivity. Building Management System (BMS). UPS. 6. suitable on-line/off-line diagnostic tools and other related provision shall be provided. CT. etc. The above values of resistance.0 ELECTRICAL & MECHANICAL AUXILIARIES The auxiliary power requirement shall be met through two independent feeders.
STATIONS (33 kV AND BELOW) 1. In case both the 33 kV incoming feeders are from the same source (substation).0 SYSTEM PARAMETERS The system should conform to the following parameters: Nominal system voltage Highest system voltage System earthing kV kV 33 36 Solidly system 50 170 70 11 12 earthed Solidly system 50 75 28 earthed Frequency Hz Lightning Impulse kV (Peak) withstand Voltage Power Frequency kV (rms) withstand Voltage 2. applicable Indian Standards as well as other rules and regulations as per latest amendments. The 33/11 kV Sub-stations shall have adequate capacity to cater to the load growth for 5 years. Each 33/11 kV sub-station shall normally not have less than two transformers.5 2.3 2.2 2.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.4 2.1 The Sub-station shall be designed and constructed complying with the requirements mentioned in this standard. two sections being isolated from each other by bus coupler or isolators. The maximum capacity of any 33/11 kV Sub-station shall be 60 MVA. Sub-station shall have adequate land keeping possible future expansion in view. The substation shall be indoor or outdoor.6 96 . Underground substations may also be constructed.0 CONSTRUCTION STATIONS OF 33/11 kV SUB-STATIONS AND SWITCHING 2. 2. Each 33/11 kV sub-station shall normally have at least two incoming feeders preferably from two different sources. 2007 DRAFT PART – B: SUB. The design and construction of the Sub-stations shall be such that they perform their intended functions. each feeder shall supply independent sections of the 33/11 kV Substation. The sub-station shall be either air insulated (AIS) or gas insulated (GIS).
It shall not be near military or police shooting ranges.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. system safety.0 97 .2.4 The site shall be near to the main road and easily approachable in all the seasons. The selection of the site of sub-station shall be done keeping following points in view: 3. 3.1 4. 4. transformers and 11 kV feeders. SUB-STATION LAYOUT The layout of the Sub-station shall be such that 4. etc.0 3.2. reliability and have ability to facilitate system control.3 The site shall not be in a low-lying area to prevent flooding during the rains.1 The incoming and outgoing feeders are easily taken to and from the Substation structures. The land shall be level and shall not have any open drain/nallah or road crossing it. 2007 DRAFT 2.2. It shall be possible to carry out equipment maintenance without interrupting the entire supply. load in the area.0 5. environmental and administrative considerations.1 All Sub-stations shall have independent circuit breaker control of 33 kV incoming feeders. The layout shall be economical and shall not hinder future expansion. the existing network configuration.2 3. demographic factors. SWITCHING ARRANGEMENTS Switching arrangements shall ensure operational flexibility.5 3.1 The site shall be near to the load center 3.2. SELECTION OF SITE The selection of site for33/11 kV Substation shall be made after taking into consideration the capacity and location of the feeding Grid Sub-station.6 3. The site shall not be within 3 km from aerodrome.2.7 3.2. spatial load forecast.2 4. and the economic.2. 3.7 The site shall be away from garbage dumping ground to avoid vulture faults.3 5.2 The site shall be such that it is convenient for terminating HV lines. 3.
3. 5. The control room building can be single storey or double storey or underground depending upon availability of space. ring or combination of both as per requirements.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 20 MVA for urban areas and 1.15.3 7. In very densely loaded city centers.1 8.0 7. The 33/11 kV transformer shall have delta star winding connection. The equipment shall be erected. The preferred ratings for 33/11 kV transformers shall be 6. the impedance.0 8. tested and commissioned as per the relevant Bureau of Indian standards code of practice/ manufacturers instructions.5 7. 10.2 7. 6. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION The system configuration shall be radial. The radial configuration shall be minimized to improve reliability. main and transfer bus.0 7. 1.3 MVA for rural areas. At existing sub-stations. The construction activities for the control room and switchyard shall be synchronized to avoid delays in completion. Any standard ratings other than above may also be chosen depending upon technical and economic consideration. vector groups. 8.6 SUB-STATION MAIN EQUIPMENT After deciding the layout and orientation marking for the pits for various structures shall be carried out. double bus. size and weight of structures it has to support. 8. single bus with bus sectionalizer. 16.3 98 . VIP areas. Concrete padding of thickness depending upon the weight of the structures shall be provided in the switchyard. double bus with double breaker or mesh arrangement shall be adopted as per requirement.1 7.4 7. the system shall be of closed ring type 6. 2007 DRAFT 5. The depth of pit shall be decided on the basis of type of soil. 3. POWER TRANSFORMER The transformers shall comply with IS:2026 and fittings and accessories shall comply with IS 3639. of the new transformer shall be matched with that of the existing transformer. on load tap changer connection and range etc. In case of conflict the more stringent instructions shall prevail.2 8. essential services and installations.6.2 Single bus.
Transformers shall withstand. The cooling shall be ONAN or ONAF.14 8.9 8. Each transformer shall be provided with gas and oil actuated relay fitted with alarm and trip contacts.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. The maximum temperature rise of oil and winding shall be 35oC and 40oC respectively over an ambient temperature of 50oC. if applicable. voltage and frequency shall be such that under 10% continuous over voltage condition it does not exceed 1.12 8.5% each on the 33 kV winding for variation in the voltage.10 8.15 MVA and above by the utility for better voltage control. combined voltage and frequency fluctuations which produce the following over fluxing conditions .13 8. 8. for locking the switch. the wheels shall be suitably locked to prevent accidental movement of the transformer. without injurious heating.15 8. It shall be ensured that while lifting the transformer.6 8.7 8.5% each on 33 kV winding for voltage variation. The tap changing switch shall be located in a convenient position so that it can be operated from ground level.4 8. The core shall be made of high grade cold rolled grain oriented steel .69 Tesla.8 The transformers shall be three-phase type.5 8. Transformers with off-circuit tap changer shall have taps ranging from (+) 2. Wherever required transformer shall be moved by rolling over greased pipes/ rails or on the trolley provided by the manufacturer so that the transformer is not subjected to undue stress. Where rollers are fitted. Transformers with on-load tap changer shall have taps ranging from (+) 5% to (-) 15% in steps of 2. On load tap changing device shall be provided with transformers of 3. The maximum flux density in any part of the core and yoke at the rated MVA.11 8.125% for 1 minute and 140% for 5 seconds. The switch handle will be provided with a locking arrangement along-with tap position indication.16 99 . The transformer shall be placed in position either directly on plinth or with rollers as per foundation drawing. the lifting ropes/wires do not come in contact with the bushings.5% to (-) 10% in steps of 2. 2007 DRAFT 8. epoxy cast dry type or ventilated dry type depending on whether it is installed indoor or outdoor. The transformer can be oil filled.
0 10.1 9. The bus bar connections and insulator supports shall be mechanically strong and bus bars supported so as to withstand the stresses generated by vibrations and short circuits. Air inlets shall be provided near the floor and outlet near the ceiling.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT 8.3 9.22 8. The bus bar shall be able to carry the expected maximum load current continuously without exceeding the temperature limit. Transformer shall be physically checked and tested for its electrical properties and mechanical performance characteristics before commissioning. Adequate electrical clearances shall be provided from various live points on the transformer to earthed parts.1 100 . CTs and PT. fuses. The capacity of bus shall also be checked for maximum temperature of the conductor under short circuit conditions.20 8.4 9.s 8. insulators.18 8.23 9. Aluminum used for the tubes of rigid type bus bar shall confirm to IS5082. the room shall be well ventilated for escape of heated air. Space shall be provided in front and rear side of the transformer conforming to safety regulations.21 8.19 Assembly of fittings and accessories shall be carried out as per the manufacturers instructions.17 8. Transformers shall be separated from one another and from all walls and partitions to permit free circulation of air complying with requirements of IS 10028.0 9. For indoor installation. Conductor conforming to IS 398 having the requisite capacity shall be used. isolators.5 10.2 9. Transformer shall be provided with two separate earths which in turn shall be connected to two separate earth points. BUS-BARS Bus bars shall be of Rigid type or Strain type. STRUCTURES The structures shall be provided for: (i) Incoming and outgoing gantries (ii) Breaker.
0 11. safety of personnel and equipment. The station design shall be such that number of insulators is minimum but at the same time ensuring security of supply. The steel structures shall be hot dip galvanised or painted. 2007 DRAFT (iii) Bus-bar Switchyard structures to support buses. The insulators shall be porcelain or polymer type. industrial area.4 11. electrical equipment and termination of line conductors shall be made of fabricated steel. INSULATORS Adequate insulation is of prime importance for ensuring reliability of supply. The minimum creepage distances for different pollution levels shall be as per the following: Pollution level Light Medium Heavy Very heavy Creepage distance (mm/kV of line-to-line voltage) 16 20 25 31 12.1 12. Rail or RS Joist depending on technical and economical considerations. railway station.3 101 . Adequate muffing above the ground level shall be provided to avoid water accumulation near the structures. RCC or PSC.3 12.2 The post insulators shall be of pedestal type and shall conform to IS 2544 & IS 5350. In highly polluted areas painted structures shall be used. 10.2 10.1 The structures shall be able to withstand tension of conductors and load of the equipment and accessories without guys or stays. Suitable means shall be provided to accommodate conductor expansion and there shall not be any undue stress on any part or equipment due to temperature change.3 10.) special insulators viz semi conducting porcelain or polymer insulators with higher leakage resistance shall be used.0 Post insulators 12.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2 11. 11. In the areas where problem of insulator pollution is expected (such as near sea or thermal station. etc. etc.
The rated short time current rating shall normally not be less than 16KA for 1 second for urban areas and 12.1 Circuit Breakers shall comply with IS 12729 and IS 13118.0 CIRCUIT BREAKERS 13. wind load and short circuit & seismic forces. The circuit breakers shall be mounted on individual structures in a fixed position in such a way that adequate sectional clearances are always available from its live parts. 33 KV AND 11 KV ISOLATORS AND EARTHING SWITCHES The isolators shall comply with IS 9920. For 33 kV horizontal types isolating switches shall be used. 102 13. The frame of each isolator switch shall be provided with a separate earthing terminal for each phase for connection to an earthing conductor.0 14.2 14.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.4 13. Earth switches shall be provided at various locations to facilitate maintenance.5 13.4 . 2007 DRAFT 13.3 14. The operating mechanism shall be motor operated spring charged type. The operating mechanism for the isolators and the controlling circuit breaker shall be interlocked so that the isolators cannot be operated unless the corresponding breaker are in open position. The isolator shall be gang operated type. minimum oil. Rated short time current rating shall normally not be less than 25 kA for 1 second. Main blades and earth blades shall be interlocked both electrically and mechanically.6 13.3 13. The maximum fault level on any new substation bus shall not exceed 80% of the rated rupturing capacity of the circuit breaker to take care of the increase in short circuit levels as the system grows.1 14. The rated voltage for the circuit breakers shall be 36 kV or 12 kV as the case may be. For 11 kV both horizontal and vertical mounting isolating switches of 400 Amps at 12 kV shall be used.8 14. The circuit breakers shall be either air blast.7 13.5 KA for 1 second for rural areas. The 11kV switchgear shall be metal enclosed indoor type. anti pumping and trip free. The breaker shall be designed to withstand the rated terminal load. The switchgear may be fixed type or draw out type or truck type.2 13. SF6 or vacuum type. The rated current shall be 630 A at 36 kV.
1 33 KV AND 11 KV LIGHTNING PROTECTION The lightening arrestor (LA) which respond to over-voltages without any time delay shall be installed for protection of 33 kV switchgear.53 or better.4 The panel shall be provided with: i) Suitable over current and earth fault relays to protect the equipment against short current and earth fault. transformers. Earth switches shall be suitable for manual operation. iii) Measuring instruments such as ammeter. Station class.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. The arrestors shall conform to IS 3070.0 15. CONTROL AND RELAY PANELS The control and relay panels shall contain control and metering equipment for incoming feeders.0 16. iv) Mimic diagrams v) Annunciation.2 103 . relays etc. Alarms and trip facilities 15. 16. high voltage and low voltage side of all transformers and on the incoming terminations of 33 kV lines.2 The control and relay panel shall consist of separate cubicle with side covers made of sheet steel and shall be complete with internal wiring. associated equipment and 33 kV lines. 16.3 The panel shall be suitable for floor mounting and shall be completely dust and vermin proof. terminals.1 15. voltmeter and energy meter for 33 kV and 11 kV systems. 14. outgoing feeders. 2007 DRAFT 14.5 The earthing switch shall be capable of withstanding short circuit current for short duration as applicable to the isolator. Earth switches shall be operated locally only and not remotely. transformers and capacitors with provision for accommodating circuit breakers.6 15. ii) All relays used shall be suitable for operation with CTs secondary rated for 1 Amp or 5 Amps. gapless metal oxide (Zno) type Surge diverters in general shall be provided on the buses. 15. The relays shall conform to IS 3231.5 Panels shall have degree of protection conforming to IP. heavy duty. 15. bus bars. ferrules and illumination operated with door off and on switch.
The nominal discharge current rating shall be 5 kA. Line type lightning arrestors shall be provided on. at the junction of overhead line and under ground cable.7 16. the number of secondary cores (protection / metering).4 The lightning arrestors shall have corona free operation and wherever required necessary electrostatic screen or grading rings shall be provided. 16. Continuous Operating Voltage.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. accuracy class. but shall be taken as directly as possible from the lightning arrestor to a separate earth electrode or junction of the earth mat already provided for the sub-station.5 16. Instrument security factor and excitation current shall be as per the requirements of the protection and metering system. Lightning Arrestors for transformers shall be mounted as near to the transformers as possible and the star point is to be connected to the independent earth. 104 .11 The earthing lead for lightning arrestor shall not pass through any iron or steel pipe. energy handling capability.2 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS (POTENTIAL) TRANSFORMERS) (CURRENT AND VOLTAGE Current Transformers shall comply to IS 2705.3 16. 16. The rated voltage.0 17. 17. These arresters shall draw negligible current at operating voltage and at the same time offer least resistance during the flow of surge current.9 16. The rated voltage of arresters for 33 kV shall be 30 kV for use on 33 kV systems and with nominal discharge current rating of 10 kA. secondary winding resistance.10 Lightning arrestors shall have two independent earths. Bends shall be avoided.1 17.12 The porcelain of LAs shall not be damaged during erection.6 16. nominal discharge current and other characteristics of lightning arrester shall be chosen in accordance with system requirements. burden. 2007 DRAFT 16. Knee point voltage. The rated currents and ratio. These shall also be installed on 11 kV overhead lines at both sending terminating ends. 16. The rated voltage of lightning arresters shall be 9 kV (rms) for effectively earthed 11 kV system (co-efficient of earth not exceeding 80 per cent as per IS: 4004) with all the transformer neutrals directly earthed.8 16. Lightning arrestors shall be single-phase units suitable for outdoor duty.
2 Safety of personnel Preventing and minimizing damage to the equipment as a result of flow of heavy fault currents. The indoor VT shall be cast resin type only. 18.3 19. Provision of space for future expansion shall also be kept.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT 17. Voltage transformers shall be of electromagnetic type. Improving reliability of power supply.4 17. Where the distance between the primary equipment and relay panel is long.1 CONTROL ROOM Control room shall be provided to house the control and relay panels and all other indoor equipment.0 19. 105 .1 Earthing shall be carried out in accordance with regulations.2 18. The CT may be oil filled or resin type for outdoor use and shall be cast resin type for indoor use. EARTHING ARRANGEMENT Earthing shall be provided for: a) b) c) 19.6 17.9 17. There shall be no multiple earthing of instrument transformers. Current transformers with secondary side rating of 5 Amps or 1 Amps shall be provided.5 17.0 18.3 The primary side rating shall depend on the rating of the power transformer of the Sub-station.7 17. accuracy class and burden shall be as per the requirements of the protection system. 17. measuring and recording instruments required for control and operation of the sub-station. The voltage transformer shall be of oil filled or cast resin type for outdoor use.8 17. CT of 1 Amp secondary current may be used to avoid large VA burden of CT. Voltage/ potential transformers shall conform to IS 3156. Adequate space shall be provided for the operating staff.10 The neutral point of star connected secondary windings of instrument transformers shall be earthed. The rating of the voltage transformer shall be (11000/ √3)/ (110√3) volts and shall be star connected. IS 3043 and safety 18. The number of secondary cores (protection / metering).
10 The resistance of the earth connection shall be maintained to such a value as to make the operation of the protective devices effective. Earth mat shall be provided within the substation area.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. Size of the grounding conductor should be such that (i) it has thermal stability to flow the ground fault current (ii) it lasts at least for 50 years without causing break in the ground circuit due to corrosion and (iii) it is mechanically strong. The earth rods shall be of mild steel of same diameter as earth conductor The maximum and minimum spacing requirements as per design shall be maintained. The grounding rods shall be connected to the station earth mat. steel structures etc.0Ω 10.11 The step and touch potentials shall be within safe limits. 19. 19. frameworks associated with current carrying equipment shall be connected to 106 . 19.14 Welding of ground connections may be done with extreme care. The earth mat shall be laid minimum 600 mm below the ground level.4 The basic grounding system shall be in the form of an earth mat. Earth rods shall be uniformly distributed within the sub-station area and also located on the fence around the sub-station. MS flats shall be used for the earth mat. The earthing must be designed so as to keep the earth resistance as low as possible and must not exceed the following limits: 33 kV Sub-stations Distribution Transformer Structure Tower footing resistance 1. Risers of MS flats shall be provided near the equipment foundations for providing earth connections to equipment.0Ω 5.12 The ground potential rise shall be limited to tolerable values.0Ω 19. 19.15 Neutral points of systems of different voltages.7 19. 19.6 19. 2007 DRAFT 19.3 19.8 19.9 19. metallic enclosures.5 19.13 A surface layer of crushed stone shall be provided in the sub-station upto a depth of 75 cm.
0 20.7 The capacitor shall be earthed appropriately to avoid accidental leakage of charge. All non current carrying parts shall be effectively earthed to the ground mat. Cables shall be derated for the site ambient and ground temperature. low smoke (FRLS) type.3 107 .5 Each capacitor unit shall be provided with a built in discharge resistor of adequate rating to discharge the residual voltage to less than 50 volts within 5 minutes.2 CABLES Power and control cables of adequate current carrying capacity and voltage rating shall be provided.1 20.16 Metallic pipes. 20. The capacitors shall conform to IS 2834 and the residual voltage transformer to IS 3156. Cables shall be flame retardant. Proper attention shall be given to ventilation/heat dissipation as pects particularly in case of HV cables. 20.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. . The control cables shall be of copper and conform to IS1554 21. cable tray sections.6 20. the rating shall be chosen so as to prevent over compensation during off peak periods. Power cables shall be XLPE insulated PVC sheathed type conforming to IS 7098. The capacitors shall be fixed firmly to the supporting structure to make them immovable. The capacitors shall be of automatic switched type for Sub-stations of 5MVA and above.4 Where un switched capacitors are provided. 20. 21.0 21. grouping and soil resistivity as per BIS.2 20. 19.3 REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION Shunt capacitors shall be connected on secondary side of 33/11 kV transformers.1 21. 2007 DRAFT the single earthing system. metallic stairs shall be bonded to ensure electrical continuity and connected to the earthing conductor at regular intervals. 20.
The cable trenches shall be properly sloped so as to drain freely any water.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.e.1 22. 21.11 Sufficient extra length of cable should be provided for repair of faults in terminations. The relevant drawings of this should be available at work site and should be preserved for future use and reference in the substation. associated feeders and distribution transformers for improving the operational flexibility. Segregation of AC and DC control cables shall be done. 21. satellite or a combination of these shall be provided. radio.0 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM The communication system shall be reliable.0 22. mobile telephone. 21. A dedicated communication system i.5 21. which may enter. Power line carrier communication.8 21.13 All cable ends shall be suitably labeled to facilitate easy identification. Care shall be taken in substation design to permit easy entry of cable into switchgear and convenience of handling even afterwards.6 21. 108 .3 23. 21.7 21.14 Adequate number of spare cores shall be included in all control cables. AUTOMATION SYSTEM State of art systems such as SCADA and DAS shall preferably be provided in the 33/11 kV sub-stations. The radio communication network shall be in the VHF/UHF frequencies. The cables shall be segregated by running in separate trenches or on separate racks. 2007 DRAFT 21. 21.9 Cables shall not be laid directly on trench floor.10 Separate control cables shall be used for each CT and PT.4 21. 22. minimizing restoration time of power supply and preventing overloading of lines and transformers in real time mode.12 Cable laying shall be done as per manufacturer’s recommendation. Cable trenches shall not be run through oil rooms.2 22.
24. testing plants with adequate storage facilities shall be provided for a cluster of substations as per requirement. The battery charger shall be capable of continuous operation at the rated load in float charging mode. battery and load shall be connected in parallel and work as a system. filtering. The capacity and discharge rate shall be as per the load requirement. 25. A metalled approach road to transport the equipment should be provided leading from the main road.2 Battery i) The 24V/30V DC batteries shall be stationary lead acid or nickel cadmium type.25 volts per cell. 24.5 Oil and SF6 Evacuating. 26. Filtering.00 to 2.4 Auxiliary Supply Transformer An auxiliary supply transformer of adequate capacity connected to the 33 or 11 kV bus shall be provided to meet the auxiliary and lighting loads of the sub-station. 24. These batteries shall be suitable for a long life under continuous float operations at 2.0 LIGHTING SYSTEM Energy efficient lighting system shall be provided at the Sub-station. The charger in boost charging mode shall be capable of boost charging the associated DC battery at the desired rate.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. evacuation.0 FENCING AND APPROACH ARRANGEMENT Fencing will be provided around the Substation. 2007 DRAFT 24. Testing.3 Battery charger The battery chargers shall be of static type.1 SUB-STATION SUPPORT FACILITIES DC Supply Arrangement The battery charger. ii) The batteries shall conform to IS 266.0 24. & Filling Apparatus Oil and SF6 filling. The lighting system shall comprise of the following: 109 . 24.
type) extinguisher or dry chemical powder type extinguisher conforming to IS: 2878 and IS:2171 respectively shall be provided. Carbon dioxide (CO2. The layout of the substation itself shall be such that the fire shall not spread to other equipment as far as possible. All the lights connected to the AC lighting system in different areas shall be connected to the main lighting distribution boards.2 DC Emergency Lighting Emergency lighting operated on the DC system shall be provided in strategic locations viz control room. 26.1 FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM Proper attention shall be given to isolation. battery room etc.0 27.1 AC Normal Lighting AC lights will be connected to AC lighting panels. 27.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. limiting and extinguishing of fire so as to prevent damage to costly equipments. reduce chances of serious interruption of power supply and ensure safety of personnel.2 110 . 2007 DRAFT 26. 27.
Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.3 111 .2 GENERAL The DSS shall normally be located near to load centre.4 kV.0 1.4 kV or 11/ 0.4 kV Distribution transformers of 100 kVA and below shall not be less than 98% at both 50% and 100% loading. The DSS can also be placed on rooftop. The DSS can be indoor or outdoor type. The capacity of DSS shall be as per the load requirement keeping in view the future load growth for 2 to 3 years.4 kV.4 2.4 kV Distribution transformers shall not be less than 99% at both 50% and 100% loading. 2. Only dry type transformer shall be used for rooftop and underground installation.2 2.4 kV DISTRIBUTION SUB-STATION (DSS) 1. It shall be ensured that the building is suitable for bearing the load of the DSS.5 The transformer may be single phase or three phase.IS 2026 and IS-11171 The transformer can be oil filled or dry type depending on requirements.4 kV Distribution transformers above 100 kVA shall not be less than 98. The efficiency of 11/0.1 2.8% at both 50% and 100% loading. DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS The transformer shall be in conformance with IS-1180 . Energy efficient transformers made of high grade cold rolled grain oriented (CRGO) steel or amorphous material shall be used.5 2. Distribution transformers can be either 33/0. The efficiency of 33/0. 2007 DRAFT PART –C: 33/0. The efficiency of 11/0. The sub-station can be constructed underground where there is paucity of space or for supply to underground installations. In indoor installations. The DSS can be conventional. 1. package type or completely self protected type. Transformers made out of scrap CRGO material shall not be used.0 2.3 1. 11/0.1 1. installations under stilts and underground installations the transformer shall be only dry type. The cooling shall be ONAN for oil filled transformers.4 1. Adequate fencing or isolation arrangements shall be ensured.
4 kV distribution transformers shall normally have standard rating of 500 kVA. 630 and 1000 kVA.6 3. 1250 kVA.1 4. 500. TRANSFORMER MOUNTING STRUCTURE The transformer shall be mounted on a single pole.4 3. Lightning arrestor shall also be provided on the low voltage side in areas of high isoceraunic activity. 2. Direct single pole mounting shall be used for transformers upto 25kVA only. 400. The transformers of more than 25 kVA and upto 250 kVA can be mounted on H pole structure or on plinth.7 4. 250.9 3.2 3. Plinth mounted distribution sub-stations shall be adequately protected by fencing so as to prevent access to the equipment by unauthorized persons. 100. 315.2 112 . The structures shall be provided with anti-climbing devices and danger board. The 11/0. The higher capacity (larger than 100 kVA) shall be used for concentrated loads or areas with high load density where there are space constraints. Any standard rating other than above could also be chosen based upon technical and economic considerations.0 3. 63. 16. The plinth foundation shall be of concrete.7 2. The plinth shall be higher than the surroundings. Transformers above 250 kVA shall be mounted on plinth only. 25.3. Lower ratings can also be used for rural and lightly populated urban areas.8 2.5 3.1 3.0 4. 1000 kVA.3 3. 1600 kVA or 2000 kVA depending on requirement.4 kV distribution transformers shall normally have standard rating of 6. LIGHTNING ARRESTERS Lightning arrester shall normally be installed on the High voltage side of the transformer. H pole structure or on a plinth.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT 2.6 The 33/0. The enclosure shall permit free circulation of air on all sides. Lower capacity transformers (100 kVA and less) shall normally be used. 50. Lightning arresters 9 (kV) outdoor type shall be used for diverting the lightning surges to earth. 630 kVA.
4 kV DSS Suitable high rupturing capacity cartridge fuse or moulded case circuit breaker (MCCB) or miniature circuit breaker (MCB)or air break switch shall be provided on low voltage side for transformers of 100 KVA and above.1 Suitable high rupturing capacity cartridge fuse or moulded case circuit breaker (MCCB) or miniature circuit breaker (MCB) or air break switch shall be provided on low voltage side.2. 184.108.40.206 11/0.1. 3 Nos.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.0 5.2 The high voltage side of these transformers shall be protected by circuit breaker 6.4 5. The outgoing cable shall be taken out in a manner so that there are no joints PROTECTION SYSTEM 33/O. 6.0 7.2 6.2 Horn gap fuse with air break switch shall be provided on high voltage side and side switch fuse unit or wire fuse on Low voltage side shall be provided for transformers below 100 KVA.3 5. The high voltage side of these transformers shall be protected by drop out expulsion type fuse or circuit breaker.2 5. connecting strips.5 to 2 meters for pole mounted distribution transformers while the feeder pillar box can be installed at ground level .5 6.1 6. The size of the box shall be suitable for accommodating MCCB. 2007 DRAFT 5. bus bars etc.1 LT DISTRIBUTION BOX For transformers of 100 KVA and above.4 kV DSS 5.1 EARTHING Pipe earthings or rod earthing shall be provided for the distribution substation. cable connectors. earth pits with three grounding electrodes shall be 113 . sheet metal LT distribution box consisting of breaker & fuse cut outs shall be provided from where distribution feeders shall be taken out.0 6. fuse cutouts. 7. bus bars shall be as per requirement. The capacity of lugs for cables. The distribution box shall be mounted at a height of 1.
0 8. Each electrode shall be GI pipe at least 2 inches in thickness and 8 feet long and buried vertically so as to leave about 4 inch pipe length above ground level.4 8.2 114 . one connection from the handle of the 11 kV Air Break switch. Earth connections shall be made as under : i) One direct connection from the 11kV lightning arrester and another direct and separate connection from LT lightning arrester if LT LA is provided.3 7. 7. LT CABLES The LT cables shall be used for connecting LT supply from transformer bushings to the LT circuit breaker in the Distribution box and for taking out outgoing feeders from the fuse units to the overhead lines..4 8. In rocky area black cotton soil shall be used to fill the earth pit. Adequate quantity of charcoal and salt shall be used to keep the earth sensitive. A loop arrangement shall be made at the connecting end keeping the cables in such a way that rain water may not enter from the cutout point.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. The LT cables shall be in conformance to IS: 1554 and IS:4288 The LT cables may be armoured or unarmoured for transformers upto 100 KVA and armored for 100 KVA and above.0 9. The transformer neutral earth pit shall be independent just opposite the LA earth pit. METERS Meters shall be provided on the Distribution transformer for energy Audit purposes.3 8.5 9. iii) Transformer body earthing 1 no. The cables shall be properly clamped to the support without damaging the insulation. and channel earthing iv) One separate connection from the earthing terminal of pole.1 9. ii) Transformer neutral earthing 2 Nos. The meters shall be in conformance to the “Regulations on Operation and Installation of Meters” notified by the Authority.2 8. 2007 DRAFT provided.2 7. The value of combined earth resistance should not be more than 2 ohms.1 8.
In case of fixed capacitors it shall be ensured that the rating of the capacitors is such as to prevent over compensation during off peak period.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2 10.1 10.0 10. 115 . 2007 DRAFT 10.3 REACTIVE COMPENSATION Where the power factor is low reactive compensation may be provided on the distribution transformers. Fixed or automatic switched type capacitors of adequate rating may be provided on the LT bus of the distribution transformers.
0 1.1 GENERAL Whenever a new transmission line is planned and constructed.A : Electric Lines (66kV and above) Part – B: Electric Lines (33 kV and below) PART-A : ELECTRIC LINES (66KV and ABOVE) 1. the design and construction features shall be compatible with the system to which the new station/installation will be connected. 1. 2007 DRAFT SCHEDULE .e. The owner shall ensure tie-up arrangements which are necessitated by the proposed installation and which must be carried out simultaneously by other entities before the new installation is commissioned and connected to the power system.0 116 . The salient features for the EHV transmission system in the context of these standards are as summarized below: i) ii) The transmission system should be planned in an integrated manner and optimized considering the total network under CTU and STU. The overall performance and output as well as detailed operating characteristics and specifications of the installation shall conform to the rest of power system i.2 2.IV TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRIC LINES This Schedule describes the minimum technical requirements for construction of Electric Lines in following two parts: Part . natural & integral part of the power system. winter and monsoon season. the Licensee shall ensure that the proposed new installation is compatible with the existing power system and is suitable to become on commissioning. The new installation shall fulfill the connectivity regulations and other applicable standards & regulations issued by the Authority. The adequacy of transmission system to be tested for one or more load generation scenarios comprising of peak and off peak conditions in summer. EHV TRANSMISSION SYSTEM The objective of system planning is to evolve a power system with a level of performance characterized by an acceptable degree of adequacy and security.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.
3 3. Licensee shall arrange all required consents/approvals including Power and Telecommunication Co-ordination Committee (PTCC). guidelines/directives of local administrative/revenue authorities. way leaves and environmental & forest clearances etc. 2007 DRAFT iii) 3. Right of way and way leaves clearance shall be arranged by the Licensee in accordance with the requirements of construction. Care shall also be taken to avoid aircraft landing approaches.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. road/river/rail/canal/power line crossings. the design & construction of the transmission lines shall be such that they perform their intended functions under the License. In case it is not possible to avoid the forests or areas having large trees completely. the route shall be aligned in such a way that cutting of trees is minimum. Restricted areas such as civil and military airfield shall be avoided. Compensation for right of way & way leaves shall be given as per applicable Law. Wild Life Protection Act. 3. construction and maintenance of the transmission lines.0 Size and number of ICTs to be planned in such a way that outage of any single unit does not overload the remaining ICTs or underlying system. keeping in view of the overall economy. Civil aviation. Any changes in the standard requirements. It shall be ensured that all statutory requirements stipulated under Forest Conservation Act. Also. rules & regulations.1 Routing of transmission line through protected/reserved forest shall be avoided.5 3. as may be applicable. are complied with.0 4. The Licensee shall follow all the Prudent Utility Practices in the design.1 117 .4 3. requirements of applicable Indian Standards as well as other rules & regulations as per latest amendments. The line routing should avoid large habitations. Archeological Survey Act & other Acts/Rules/Laws. densely populated areas to the extent possible.6 4. if considered necessary or desirable to improve the quality. from the concerned authorities/agencies. DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES General The transmission lines will be designed & constructed meeting the requirements mentioned in this standard. Routing of transmission line through National Parks / Wild life sanctuaries shall also be avoided to the extent possible.2 3. ROUTING OF TRANSMISSION LINE The transmission line route shall be selected keeping in view the following:- 3.
may be proposed by the Licensee for consideration of the authority.2. internationally acceptable standards which ensure equal or higher performance than those specified shall also be acceptable. 140 275 460 680 830 700 - - - 1050 1550 1000 - - 156 320 510 550 f. c . Further.) (kVpeak) Power Frequency Withstand Voltage under Wet condition (kVrms) Switching Surge Withstand Voltage under Wet condition (kVrms) Minimum Corona Extinction Voltage under Dry condition (kVrms phase to earth) Maximum Radio Interference Voltage at 1 MHz (microvolts) for phase to earth voltage of … kV under Dry condition 500 525 1800 d . Nominal Voltage (kV) Maximum System Voltage (kV) Full wave Impulse withstand voltage (1. d .1 Electrical design parameters of the transmission lines Table-1 Parameter 66 kV AC 66 72 325 132 kV AC 132 145 650 220 kV AC 220 245 1050 400 kV AC 400 420 1550 765 kV AC 765 800 2400 500 kV DC a . 2007 DRAFT efficiency or safety.2/50 microsec. BIL 118 . b . 4.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. e .2 Salient Technical Particulars / Requirements of Transmission Lines 4. For the transmission line at higher altitudes. - - 1000 1000 1000 1000 At At At 550 156kV 320kV 510kV (22 kV/cm conducto r surface gradient) The above parameters are for transmission lines constructed at altitudes upto 1000m above MSL.
wind & weight spans.4 Towers The towers shall be self-supporting lattice steel type and shall be fully galvanised structure.2 Conductor The conductor of appropriate size shall be selected considering power flow requirements and other system considerations in consultation with other concerned entities. 4. The AC transmission lines shall be transposed. Typically. The earthwire shall be either of galvanized stranded steel (GSS) or alternatively ACSR/AACSR conductor type. 4. one earthwire shall be used for transmission lines upto 220 kV and two earthwires shall be used for transmission lines of 400 kV and above voltage class. generally similar to one already used in other existing transmission line(s)/ network in the country/ concerned State/Region.2.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.3 Earthwire The earthwire of appropriate size to take care of predicted/design fault currents and lightning shall be used. conductors of size & configuration. The conductors may be of type ACSR. bundle conductors (minimum two conductors per phase for 400 kV AC and four conductors per phase for 500 kV DC & 765 kV AC) shall be used for satisfactory performance of transmission lines from corona & interference aspects. guyed or pole structure towers may also be used. Generally. Other new technology earthwires conforming to International standards/specifications may also be used. design/ruling span. mid-span clearance. Type of towers. For transmission lines of 400 kV or higher voltage class. extension/ truncation provisions etc. 2007 DRAFT impulse & switching surge withstand voltage requirements shall be kept higher as per relevant standards/practices. AAAC or others and shall generally conform to IS:398 / IEC-61089. may be selected by the Licensee as per prudent utility practices. Optical Fibre Ground Wires may also be used as earthwire.2. shielding angle etc.2. Live-metal clearances. Other new technology conductors conforming to International standards/specifications may also be used depending on system requirements. 4. shall be preferred to ensure compatibility. shall be decided as per prudent utility practices following applicable standards/codes 119 . if required depending upon length of line. Alternatively. in approximately three equal parts.
4. The towers shall be designed to meet all design requirements & design criteria stipulated in latest revision of IS: 802/IEC:60826. reliability level –2 corresponding to 150 year return period wind loads shall be considered. Fasteners/ bolts & nuts shall be generally as per IS:12427 / IS:1367 / IS:6639. if applicable . 4. Ground clearance shall be as per requirements of Safety Regulations.1 Design of Towers The following specify the minimum requirements for design of towers. wind & snow loads shall be calculated and tower designs developed accordingly. Normal Towers shall also be prototype tested as per IS:802(Part-3) unless additional safety factors have been considered in the design.4. (as per IS802/IEC:60826 or equivalent) considering various combinations of design temperatures. considering wind loading corresponding to applicable wind zone for the transmission line as per IS:875. The towers shall also be designed for appropriate snow / ice loads.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. under Section-53 of Electricity Act. Reliability Conditions (Normal Condition). if so desired and/or deemed necessary. line altitude & other service conditions/ factors. 250 MPa) or/and IS:8500 grade 490 (designated Yield Strength 350 MPa) shall be generally used in towers & its extensions. Safety Conditions. Reliability level – 1 corresponding to 50 year return period design loads due to wind as per IS:802 shall be considered for design of towers for transmission lines upto 400 kV. 2007 DRAFT and keeping in view electrical system parameters/ requirements.S. Security Conditions (Broken Wire Condition). The Licensee may adopt any additional loading/design criteria for ensuring reliability of the line.2. For higher voltage level transmission lines. issued by the Authority. 120 . Anti-cascading condition etc. 4.2 Materials Steel Sections of tested quality in conformity with IS:2062 (Designated Y. Other equivalent grade of structural steel angle sections and plates conforming to International Standards may also be used.2. The loads at conductor & earthwire points under different loading conditions viz.
3 Tower Fabrication Towers fabrication shall generally conform to IS:802 (Part-II). The minimum factor of safety for design of pile/well foundations shall be 2. appropriate type of foundations (viz.5.2. danger plates.6 Aviation Requirements/Warning Signals Day and/or night visual aids/markers for denoting transmission line/structures as per requirements of Directorate of Flight Safety / IS:5613 / ICAO shall be provided. pile.3 The cement concrete used for the foundations shall be generally as per IS:456. Structural design of foundations shall be done by limit state method with minimum overload factor as 1.2. 121 . IS:2911 etc. bird guards etc.4.2. Pipe type or Counterpoise type earthing shall be provided in accordance with IS:3043 & IS:5613.2. circuit plates. 4.1. 4. 2007 DRAFT 4. 4.2.5. 4.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.4.1 Depending upon soil/site conditions. economy and feasibility of construction at site. anti-climbing devices.2 Design of foundations The design of foundations shall be as per applicable Indian Standards/Codes viz. 4. well or other alternative types) shall be considered for transmission line towers. Tower parts shall be galvanized as per IS:2629 & IS:4759.5. IS:456. shall be provided conforming to IS:5613. phase plates.4 Tower Accessories Various tower accessories viz.5. number plates.5 Foundations 4.2. 4.5 Earthing Each tower shall be earthed such that tower footing resistance do not exceed 10 ohms.2. IS:4091.2. open cast.4.4.
4.2. the load on insulator string shall not exceed 70 % of its selected rating ii) Under everyday temperature and no wind conditions. mid-span compression joints. The fittings shall generally conform to IS:2486. expected environmental & pollution conditions etc.2. repair sleeve.3 Transmission Line Construction: 4. earthwire clamps etc. These shall generally conform to IEC-61325.6. Insulator & insulator string rating shall be selected such that i) Under ultimate design wind loading conditions.7 Accessories for Conductor and Earthwire The accessories required for the conductor & earthwire viz. 4.6 Insulators. DC insulators shall be of antifog type having sacrificial zinc sleeve. Insulator Strings & Hardware Fittings 4.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.4 Insulator strings shall be complete with all required hardware fittings. 122 . spacer/spacer-dampers. The accessories shall generally conform to IS:2121.1 Requisite type of suspension and tension insulator strings with disc insulators or long rod insulators offering equivalent performance shall be used. flexible copper bond. The vibration dampers shall generally conform to IS:9708 and spacers/spacer dampers (for bundle conductors) shall be generally as per IS:10162.2. vibration dampers. Insulators shall generally conform to IS:731/IEC-60383.3. line altitude.6. 4. Number of insulators. the load on insulator string shall not exceed 25% of its selected rating. Polymer/composite insulators conforming to relevant IEC/other International standards may also be used. 2007 DRAFT 4.2.2. T-connector. creepage distance shall be selected based on electrical system parameters/requirements taking into account other factors/conditions viz.2.3 4.6.2 4. shall be used suitable for type & size of conductor & earthwire used for the transmission line.6.1 Construction of transmission line shall be carried out generally as per IS:5613 meeting stipulated requirements under other latest applicable standards and prudent utility practices.
3. 4. forest clearance etc shall be provided in accordance with Forest Conservation Act and guidelines issued by Ministry of Environment & Forests.5 5. under Section-53 of Electricity Act.4 Clearances from trees. issued by the authority. 4. buildings. road.6 : As per published : meteorological/ : climatological : data by Indian Meteorological Department : As per IS-875 : As per IS-875 : As per actual Statutory Clearances: As per Safety Regulations issued by the Authority under Section 53 of the Act. Applicable Standards: BIS/IEC/Equivalent 123 . 2007 DRAFT 4.3.3 Clearances from ground. as per IS: 875) Altitude above mean sea level (Metres) 5. 4.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2 Crossing of transmission line with roads / railway / river / power line/ telecommunication lines shall be finalized as per applicable rules & regulations laid by the concerned authorities. power lines. telecommunication lines shall be provided in conformity with Safety Rules.4 Service Conditions: Equipment/material to be used in the transmission line shall be suitable for satisfactory continuous operation under tropical conditions as specified below: Maximum ambient temperature (Degree Celcius) Minimum ambient temperature (Degree Celsius) Relative humidity (% range) Maximum annual rainfall/snowfall (Cm) Wind zone Maximum wind velocity (m/sec.3.
fruit gardens.2 GENERAL The lines shall be constructed keeping in view the prime factors of safety as well as electrical and mechanical design considerations. lakes.4 3.2 Independent feeders shall be provided for essential loads of 5 MVA and above such as water works. The routing of electric line through protected and reserved forest shall be avoided. In case it is not possible to completely avoid the forests or areas having large trees. Separate rural feeders for feeding irrigation load and domestic load shall normally be provided.4 3.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.0 2.1 2. keeping in view of the overall economy. CONSTRUCTION OF ELECTRIC LINES AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT The system shall be constructed so as to ensure: a) Voltage conditions to be within permissible levels.2 3. ROUTING OF ELECTRIC LINES The route of the electric line shall be as short as possible.0 3. Restricted areas such as civil and military airfield shall be avoided. defense and other sensitive installations.3 3.1 3. b) Improvement of reliability and security of power supply c) Improvement in quality of supply 2. rivers etc. 2. natural obstructions. Composite lines shall be adopted by the licensees as per requirement.1 1. densely populated areas. hospitals. The 33 kV line route shall be such as to avoid large habitations. The owner shall ensure tie-up arrangements which are necessitated by the proposed installation and which shall be carried out simultaneously by other entities before the new installation is commissioned and connected to the existing power system network. Care shall also be taken to avoid aircraft landing approaches. 2007 DRAFT PART – B: ELECTRIC LINES (33 kV and below) 1. The line shall avoid rough and difficult country side.5 3.3 2.6 124 .0 1. The routing of electric line through National Parks and Wild life sanctuaries shall also be avoided. the route shall be aligned in such a way that cutting of trees is minimized.
1 4. river.0 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ELECTRIC LINES The electric lines shall be designed and constructed complying with the requirements mentioned in this standard. 2007 DRAFT 3.9 3.8 3.3 4. Compensation for right of way and way leaves shall be given as per applicable law. from the concerned authorities.4 Electrical Design Parameters of the Electric Lines earthed Solidly earthed Solidly earthed system system 50 75 50 60 .2 4. ring main units and fault passage indicators as per techno economic considerations.11 The electric line shall normally not cross educational institutes and cremation grounds. guidelines/directives of local administrative/revenue authorities. applicable Indian Standards as well as other rules and regulations as per latest amendments. auto reclosers.7 3. Nominal system 33 kV voltage Highest system 36 kV voltage System earthing Solidly system Frequency (Hz) 50 Lightning Impulse 170 withstand 125 11 kV 12 kV 400 V 440 V 3. rail. Abrupt turning in line routes shall be avoided. Distribution licensee shall arrange all required consents/approvals including civil aviation. The design and construction of the electric lines shall be such that they perform their intended functions. The reliability and security of supply shall be improved by use of sectionalisers. Extension of existing lines shall be carried out after ensuring that the limits of voltage variations in the lines are not exceeded. power line crossings and environmental and forest clearances etc. Railway and road crossings shall be minimum on the line route and in case it is not possible to avoid the same the crossings shall be at right angles but not less than 60 degrees in any case. canal. The electric line shall be close to the road for approach during construction and ease of maintenance.13 4. road.12 3. The distribution licensee in accordance with the requirements of construction shall arrange right of way and way leave clearance.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.10 3. The electric line shall be far off from slaughterhouses to prevent interruptions by bird hits. rules and regulations. Angle points in the route shall be minimized.
IS 1322. The poles shall be Pre-cast Concrete (PCC) pole.6 5. IS 1678.3 5.2 SUPPORTS (Poles and Towers) The supports may be Poles or Narrow based lattice towers with fully galvanised structure as per requirement. 5. impulse and switching surge withstand voltage requirements shall be kept higher as per relevant standards/practices.0 5. 5.1 5. In hilly areas appropriate snow or ice loading shall be considered for design of poles and towers. topography. Poles shall conform to IS 785. Rail pole or Steel Tubular pole as required.2 6.7 5.5 5.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. length of pole below ground and working load shall be decided taking into consideration wind zone. LINE SPAN The following general principles shall be observed: 6. Uniform span shall be maintained as far as possible between two consecutive pole structures. wind pressure.4 5.1 Line span shall be decided taking into consideration topography. IS 2713 as the case may be. conductor configuration and ultimate tensile strength.8 6. For locations involving long spans or higher clearances on account of crossing of power or communication lines or railway line crossings specially designed poles /lattice towers may be used. type of support. 11 kV and LT lines (lines below 500V) as per requirement. For the electric line at higher altitudes. Poles may be used for 33 kV. For angles of deviations of more than 10◦ double poles structure shall be used The height of the pole above the ground level.3 126 . Pre-Stressed Cement Concrete (PSCC) pole. Cement poles shall be preferred in plain areas.0 6. and the statutory clearances required to be maintained and these shall conform to relevant IS. 2007 DRAFT Voltage(kV Peak) Power frequency 80 withstand Voltage (kV rms) in wet condition 28 10 The above parameters are for electric lines constructed at altitudes upto 1000m above MSL. terrain. Basic Insulation Level. Rolled Steel joist. The span shall be within the range specified by IS-5613.
the lower voltage line shall be underneath.0 While constructing a line.4 6. The embedded portion including plinth shall be well painted with coal-tar of good quality.1 7. For this a continuous wire may be run at the top or below the conductors and securely fastened to each pole and connected with earth normally at three points in every km. Earthing arrangements for PSCC/ PCC Poles used for 33 kV lines. ERECTION OF POLES Erection of poles shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of IS 4091 and IS 5613. FACTOR OF SAFETY The supports shall be suitable for the wind loads as per IS-875. The ends of earth wire shall be left projected from the pole to a length of 100 mm from top and 150 mm. The earth wire shall not come in contact with re-inforcement bars used in the poles. Fluorescent paint may be considered on roads with fast moving traffic. Poles shall normally not be placed along the edges or cuts or embankment of creeks and streams. to protect them against possible danger during night by fast moving vehicles on the road and to be visible to running animals. using 8 S.G. shall be provided with projected length of 50 mm at both ends of pole.0 9.W. All the steel supports shall be painted with one coat of red oxide primer.2 7. All type of supports along the roads shall be painted with black and yellow strips of 30 cm width up to 1.4 It shall be ensured that the poles are held in vertical position (by spirit level).0 9. galvanized iron wire embedded in concrete. 9. above ground level.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. While crossing another power line.6 6. The minimum factor of safety for supports shall be as per Safety regulations notified by the Authority. Following shall also be taken care of: 7. Earthing arrangement for PSCC/ PCC poles used for 11 kV lines. 8.G galvanized iron wire embedded in concrete during manufacturing. use of shorter poles can be made to maintain proper ground clearance at the middle of the span.3 127 .3 7. shall be provided by having a length of 8 S.2 9.5 6. The lower line shall cross at mid span of the upper line.80 meter. below ground level.1 EARTHING OF POLES All metallic supports shall be permanently and effectively earthed.7 7. While placing poles on high places. The earthing arrangement shall conform to IS 3043.W. 2007 DRAFT 6. if a road is crossings at mid spans then a pole shall be placed on one side of the road.
The standard Guy Strain insulators shall be of as per IS 5300. 11 kV and lines below 650 volts passing through inhabited areas shall be earthed.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.6 10. telegraph line. each stay shall be grouted entirely separate from the other. 2007 DRAFT 9. The angle between the pole and stay wire shall be about 45 degrees and in no case it shall be less than 30 degrees. four stays along the line.6 9. IS 4826 and IS 6594. All steel poles on which switches. railway crossing or river crossing shall be earthed. an earth should be provided in the well or the marshy place and connected to electric line pole. The ohmic value of the resistance of the earth should be as low as possible and should not exceed 10 ohms. Stays shall be anchored either by providing base plates.2 Angle locations Dead end locations Tee off points Steep gradient locations Galvanized iron stay wires and stay rods of adequate size shall be used.1 To prevent tilting of pole from its normal position due to abnormal wind pressure and deviation of alignment. All poles of 33 kV.9 10.7 9. transformers. Whenever the electric lines pass close to a well or a permanently moist place.7 128 . STAY ARRANGEMENTS 9. power line crossings and special structures where pipe rod type earthing shall be provided. are mounted shall be earthed. For double pole structure (DP). fuses etc. two in each direction and two stays along the bisection of the angle of deviation or as required depending on the angle of deviation are to be provided.4 10. Stay wires shall be connected to the pole with a Porcelain guy strain insulator. angle iron or rail.3 10.5 9. The individual wire used to form “stranded stay-wire” shall have a minimum tensile strength of 700 N/mm2 as per IS: 2141.0 10.8 9. The support on either side of a road crossing. the pole shall be kept in position by stays.5 10. When two or more stays are provided on the same pole.4 Metal cross arms and insulator pins for PCC and PSCC poles shall be bonded together and normally earthed at every pole for 33 and 11 kV lines and at every 5th pole for lines below 500 volts. The stays shall be provided at: a) b) c) d) 10. Porcelain insulation shall be inserted in the stay wire at a height of 3 m 10. Normally coil earthing shall be provided except for locations involving railways.
Every guard wire shall be connected to earth wherever its electrical continuity is broken.1 INSULATORS. 10. PROTECTIVE GUARD Guard wire shall be used where an overhead line crosses or is in proximity to any telecommunication line or any other overhead line and in populated localities. For this purpose barbed wire conforming to IS-278 and IS-1340 for a vertical distance of 30 to 40 cm. INSULATOR STRINGS AND HARDWARE FITTINGS Pin insulators should generally be used on straight stretch of the lines. Polymer/composite insulators conforming to relevant IEC/other International standards may also be used.5 to 4 meters from ground level or clamps with protruding spikes at a height of 3 to 4 meter shall be used. Shackle insulators shall be used in lines below 500 volts and these shall conform to IS 1445. The pin insulators may be used on lines up to 33 kV voltage level. creepage distance shall be selected based on electrical system parameters taking into account line altitude. thoroughly vitrified and smoothly glazed.8 11. Strap type fittings shall be used for dead end location. 12.2 14.0 DANGER PLATES Danger Plates shall be provided on electric lines in accordance with Safety Rules. Requisite type of suspension and tension insulator strings with disc insulators or long rod insulators offering equivalent performance shall be used on 33 and 11 kV lines. 2007 DRAFT vertically above the ground level. 14. Number of insulators. 13. while U-clamp fittings shall be used at tangent locations. Disc Insulators shall conform to IS 731 and IS 3188. The insulators shall be from defects. The pin insulator shall consist of a single piece of porcelain mounted rigidly on a supporting structure on a pin. The pin insulators shall conform to IS 731 and IS 1445.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 14.0 14.4 129 . The minimum factor of safety for stay wires. expected environmental and pollution conditions etc.3 14.0 ANTI CLIMBING DEVICES Anti climbing devices shall be provided on the supports. guard and bearer wires shall not be less than 2. at a height of 3.0 Wooden insulators shall not be used.5 based on ultimate strength of the wire.
0 16. factor of safety. Factor of safety for the conductor shall not be less than two.3 16.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. AACSR (Aluminum alloy conductor steel reinforced) shall be used according to requirement. power to be transmitted. AAC (All Aluminum alloy). Insulator strings shall be complete with all required hardware fittings. T-connector. earth wire clamps etc. The fittings shall conform to IS 2486. spacer/spacer-dampers.7 Disc (strain) string insulators can be of ball and socket type or Tongue and Clevis type. The cross-arm should not be welded/ jointed at any place other than as specified. Insulator and insulator string rating shall be selected such that a) Under ultimate design wind loading conditions. The cross-arms and the clamps shall be hot dipped galvanized conforming to IS – 2633. LT SPACERS To avoid clashing and accidental mutual touching of bare overhead conductors on LT lines.8 15.0 The insulation shall be designed to avoid excessive concentration of electrical stresses in any section or across leakage surfaces.0 . the load on insulator string shall not exceed 70% of its selected rating b) Under everyday temperature and no wind conditions. flexible copper bond.7 17. CROSS-ARMS Cross arms shall be made of mild steel channel. 14. The accessories shall conform to IS 2121. the load on insulator string shall not exceed 25% of its selected rating. Required accessories for conductor and earth-wire viz: mid-span compression joints. right of way and clearances to be maintained. Steel Reinforced Aluminum Conductors (ACSR) or equivalent All Aluminum Alloy Conductors (AAAC).5 14. Suitable insulating paint shall be provided on conductors in coastal areas to prevent corrosion as well as in theft prone areas. spacers shall be provided in between conductors at 130 16. terrain.1 CONDUCTOR The size of conductor shall depend upon the voltage regulation. horizontal or vertical depending upon the voltage level of the lines.6 16.5 16. The installation of conductor on the poles shall be carried out in accordance with the methodology given in IS 5613. 2007 DRAFT 14. shall be used suitable for type and size of conductor and earth wire used for the lines. In case clearance from building is difficult to secure. The configuration of conductors on the line can be triangular. line voltage and mechanical strength desired. repair sleeve.6 14. vertical arrangements of the conductor shall be adopted. 16. length of line. vibration dampers.2 16.4 16.
19. Feeder pillar-box shall be used for providing under ground service connection through cable to more than three or four consumers.0 19.2 131 .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. which can be either spiral or composite.7 18. Adequate number of spare cores shall be included in all control cables. The meters for the consumer connections shall be provided in accordance with the ‘Regulations on Installation and Operation of Meters’ notified by Authority.6 18.0 18.1 CABLES Underground cables or aerial bunched cables of adequate rating can also be used for supplying power. Cables shall conform to relevant Indian Standards. Cable trenches shall not be run through oil rooms. armoured cable or under ground cable.8 18.2 18. PVC cables shall not be used in systems other than LT system.3 20.4 18. 2007 DRAFT appropriate locations in different spans (particularly for lines having longer spans or lines having large sags encountering high winds). The cable trenches shall be properly sloped so as to drain freely any water. For 33 kV and 11 kV lightning arrestors having rated voltage of 30 kV (rms) and 9 kV (rms) having discharge current rating of 10 kA and 5 kA complying with IS 3070 shall be used respectively. SERVICE LINE The service line shall be provided with insulated conductor.3 18. No tapping of service line shall be permitted for supplying power to any other consumer. 18. The underground cables shall be segregated by running in separate trenches or on separate racks. Service connection shall be provided either through independent service connection or through LV box. The service line shall have adequate margin to take care of load growth for at least five years.1 18.1 20.9 19. Aerial bunched cables shall be used in the theft and accident-prone areas. Direct burying of underground cables shall not be adopted except where cables enter and take off from trench. Cables shall not be laid directly on trench floor. which may enter.5 18.0 20. LIGHTNING PROTECTION The lightning Arrester (LAs) shall be placed at the terminal points of the lines and also at the junction points of cables and bare overhead conductor lines.2 19.
11 KV AND LT SYSTEM The protection scheme shall be finalized by the distribution licensee based on prudent utility practice.4 21. An earth leakage protective device shall be provided at consumer premises as per requirement of Safety regulations of the Authority.1 21. 2007 DRAFT 20.Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.2 132 . but shall be taken directly to a separate earth electrode. 20. PROTECTION OF 33 KV. The earthing lead for the lightning arrestor shall not pass through any iron or steel pipe.0 21.3 The earth wire of appropriate size to take care of predicted/design fault currents and lightning shall be used. The earth wire shall be either of galvanized stranded steel (GSS) or alternatively ACSR/AACSR conductor.
2007 DRAFT Glossary AC AAAC AAC AC-PLC AACSR ACSR AIS AMF ANSI API ARC ASME ASTM ATRS AVR AWS AWWA BFP BIS BMCR BMS BMS BS CACA CACW CCGT CCS CEP CERC CRGO CPCB CT CTU CVT CW DAS DB DC DCDB Alternating Current All Aluminium Alloy Conductor All Aluminium Conductor AC – Power Line Carrier Communication Aluminium Alloy Conductor Steel Reinforced Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced Air Insulated Switchgear Automatic Mains Failure American National Standards Institute American Petroleum Institute Auto Reserve Closure American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society of Testing and Materials Automatic Turbine Run up System Automatic Voltage Regulation American Welding Society American Water Works Association Boiler Feed Pump Bureau of Indian standards Boiler Maximum Continuous Rating Burner Management System Building Management System British Standard Closed Air Circuit Air Cooled Closed Air Water Cooled Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Computerised Control System Condensate Extraction Pump Central Electricity Regulatory Commission Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Central Pollution Control Board Current Transformer Central Transmission Utility Capacitance Voltage Transformer Cooling Water Data Acquisition System Distribution Board Direct Current DC Distribution Board 133 .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.
2007 DRAFT DCS DG DIN DM DOV DP DSS E/F EHG EHV EOT ESP FBD FD FRLS FSSS GCB GIS GPS GSS HEI HHV HFL HFO HIS HMIS HP HPS HRSG HSD HT HV HVDC HVW IBR ACAO ICT ID IDMT IEC Digital Control System Diesel Generator Deutsches Institut for Normung Demineralisation Dynamic Over Voltages Double Pole Distribution Sub Station Earth Fault Electro-hydraulic Governing Extra High Voltage Electric Overhead Travelling Electro Static Precipitator Fluidized Bed Combustion Forced Draft Flame Retardant Low Smoke Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System Generator Circuit Breaker Gas Insulated Switchgear Geo Positioning Satellite System Galvanized Stranded Steel Heat Exchanger Institute High Heat Value High Flood Level Heavy Fuel Oil Hydraulic Institute Standard Human Machine Interface System High Pressure Heavy Petroleum Stock Heat Recovery Steam Generator High Speed Diesel High Tension High Voltage High Voltage Direct Current High Velocity Water Indian Boiler Regulations International Civil Aviation Organisation Interconnecting Transformer Induced Draft Inverse Definite Minimum Time International Electro-technical Commission 134 .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.
2007 DRAFT IED IEEE IS ISO JIS LA LAN LAVT LDC LDO LFC LP LSHS LT LV LVS MCC MCB MCCB MCR MFT MGR MIV MMI MOE&F MOG MOP MOV MS MSL NEC NEMA NFPA NPSH O/C OCTC ODWF OFAF OFWF OLTC Intelligent Electronic Device Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Indian Standard International Organisation for Standardisation Japanese Industrial Standards Lightening Arrester Local Area Network Lightening Arrester and Voltage Transformer Load Dispatch Centre Light Diesel Oil Load Frequency Controller Low Pressure Low Sulphur High Speed Low Tension Low Voltage Large Video Screen Motor Control Centre Miniature Circuit Breaker Moulded Case Circuit Breaker Maximum Continuous Rating Master Fuel Trip Merry-Go-Round Main Inlet Valve Man Machine Interface Ministry of Environment and Forest Magnetic Oil Gauge Main Oil Pump Metal Oxide Varistor Mild Steel Mean Sea Level National Electric Code National Electrical Manufacturers Association National Fire Protection Association Net Positive Suction Head Over Current Off Circuit Tap Changer Oil Draft Water Forced Oil Forced Air Forced Oil Forced Water Forced On Load Tap Changer 135 .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations.
Oil Temperature Indicator Primary Air Power Control Center Pre Cast Concrete Partial Discharge Analyzer Partial Discharge Monitoring Peak Inverse Voltage Pre-insertion Resistor Programmable Logic Controller Power Line Carrier Communication Pressure Relief Device Pressure Relief Valve Pre Stressed Cement Concrete Power System Stabilizer Power and Telecommunication Co-ordination Committee Poly Vinyl Chloride Reinforced Concrete Cement Restricted Earth Fault Root Mean Square Resistance Temperature Detector Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System Steam coil Air Pre-heater Sequence of Event State Pollution Control Board Suspended Particulate Matter Static Compensator State transmission utility Static Valve Compensator Steam and Water Analysis System Tariff Advisory Committee Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer’s Association Totally Enclosed Tube Ventilated Turbo Generator Time Synchronising Equipment 136 .Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT O&M ONAF ONAN OPU OSHA OSR OTI PA PCC PCC PDA PDM PIV PIR PLC PLCC PRD PRV PSCC PSS PTCC PVC RCC REF RMS RTD SCADA SCAPH SOE SPCB SPM STATCOM STU SVC SWAS TAC TEFC TEMA TETV TG TSE Operation & Maintenance Oil Natural Air Forced Oil Natural Air Natural Oil Pressure Unit Occupational Safety and Health Administration Oil Surge Relay.
Central Electricity Authority (Construction of Electrical Plants & Electric Lines) Regulations. 2007 DRAFT UAB UAT UCB UPS Unit Auxiliary Board Unit Auxiliary Transformers Unit Control Board Un-interrupted Power Supply VDE VESDA VT VVVF VWO WTI XLPE VDE association for Electrical. Electronic and Information Technologies Very Early Smoke Detector Acquisation Voltage Transformer Variable Voltage Variable Frequency Valves Wide Open Winding Temperature Indicator Cross Linked Poly Ethylene 137 .
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