The Not-Do List: 9 Things You Need To Stop Doing

We’ve all familiar with creating a to-do list to increase our productivity. Another list which can jumpstart our productivity is the not-do list – things we shouldn’t do. By being conscious of what to avoid, it’ll automatically channel our energy into things that we want to do. Doing both hand in hand will maximize our performance. If you want to take your productivity to the next level, here are 9 habits avoid:

1. Trying to do everything
I mention 80/20 rule a lot in my articles because it’s true. And I’ll repeat again. Not all tasks are equal. Each task has its own importance. In fact by the 80/20 rule, 20% of the tasks on our to-do list account for 80% of the value. So cut ferociously at your to-do list and slice away the 80% low-value tasks. When you’ve streamlined it to the minimum essential, laser focus all your energy on those 20% high value ones. Do the same thing the next day. Rinse and repeat. Keep only the absolute important things and let go of the rest.
Read Strategy #6 on 13 Strategies To Jumpstart Your Productivity for more on the 80/20 rule.

2. Answering all emails (or calls and messages for that matter)
I used to think I have to reply to all emails until I noticed that not all my emails were replied to. In fact, many weren’t, even when they were follow-up replies to reader mails asking for help. Seemingly, all the effort that go into meticulously typing, wording and formatting my mails wasn’t really getting me anywhere. I would be stuck in email land the whole day long with no output to claim of my own except for an increase in mails in my sent box. So I began to selectively reply to higher priority emails , and the world didn’t stop. In fact, I now have more time to create more high value content and articles for readers, which is a big win for everyone.

Putting important tasks off Procrastination is the mind killer.3. I’ve written 11 simple. If I drop what I’m doing at the moment to work on them it can be disruptive. Give yourself the permission to make mistakes which you can correct later on. The ones who claim to be happy procrastinating are usually living in an illusion. It’s a lot more effective. then return for a 2nd or 3rd draft where you iron out the little details. Trying to get things perfect the first time round Interesting. It may seem like a good idea to put off that task now. This is to collect the items that drop in mid-way through the day. where you work on the core content. yet practical steps which can help you move out of the procrastination cycle. Don’t subject yourself to such a situation. I batch and process everything at one go. 5. usually administrative. Then at the end of the day. Being hung up over details . Once you start. Likewise for my emails. I have a “Reply by Tue/Thu/Sat” folder where I archived mails to deal with on the respective days. that’s something you should look into. Get into the notion of ‘drafts’ – let yourself work on a 1st draft. Thinking you have to do everything immediately Apart from my to-do list and not-do list. Get started on your most important projects now and stop putting them off. Out of all the people I’ve met in all my life. If the perfectionist side of you is hindering you from getting things done in the first place. I’ve never come across anyone who gets authentic joy and happiness from procrastination. it gets easier. It’s all about a matter of getting started. so instead I put them in my do-later list. 6. it’s the perfectionist in us that causes many of us to procrastinate (see #4). nitty gritty tasks that don’t take much time but aren’t majorly important too. It’s much easier this way than trying to get everything right in the 1st version. I do this when writing my articles and my books and my productivity is higher. 4. but that’s just setting yourself for a jam later on. I also have a do-later list. alternating from “Oh I’m happy the way I am” to “I wish I don’t have to do this” to “Sigh I wish I started earlier” in a matter of seconds. and it’s not worth it.

Does this matter a year from now? 3 years from now? 5 years? If not. Go for the bigger picture. Right now everything is going on track and I’m excited to see the final outcome. say for 5 or 10 minutes. While it may take a bit of time in the beginning.Being detail oriented is good. However. your days become very sharp and focused. my biggest goal is to finish and release my 2nd book. then maybe it’s not worth worrying so much about it now. your thoughts and your actions. Not having clear goals Do you know your goals for this month? How about your goals for this year? And the next year? If you can answer these 3 questions with absolute certainty and conciseness. so I can meet the launch timing. Read Strategy #1 of 13 Strategies To Jumpstart Your Productivity for more about setting your targets. work on the things you have control over – yourself. I have clear monthly goals and targets which I work toward and review every week. While robots can sustain constant output over a long period of time. we need to rest and recharge. after you work out your priorities. which says “Trying to get everyone to like you is a sign of mediocrity”. 9. 7. 8. and these help me to stay on track towards my longterm goals. your emotions. Trying to please everyone I like this quote by Colin Powell. . This month. Spend your energy in the creation process. Try it for a week – You’ll find it’s a lot more rewarding this way. So schedule a short break in between your work hours. Instead. perhaps it’s good to spend some time to think over them. Not taking breaks Humans are not robots. so don’t spend too much time sweating over it. Being conscious of this goal has helped me to push away the unimportant tasks and prioritize the ones essential for the launch. Otherwise. that’s more important to you. I’m a very detail oriented person myself. don’t be so obsessed with details that it holds you back. You’re never going to be able to control what others think. then you’re good to go. You’ll find your focus markedly higher when you return. and take a breather. and on people who do deserve your attention and love.

(5) Change your job or career if need be. You will feel physically and mentally better about yourself if you get to a healthy weight. (6) Get some exercise. Email is nice but a phone call is so much better. (2) Spend more quality time with your family. You should do your best to be happy with what you do. If you have children. Go out and get high on life! .How to Improve your life Ehow. Change what you eat and you'll be feeling much better. If you spend your day eating foods treated with chemicals and pesticides. If you feel that you are in a rut at work. (3) If you are overweight. If you are a smoker. Pick up the phone and call them. Talk to your HR person to see if there is something for you somewhere else. you are what you eat. If possible. you'll be feeling quite toxic. Reconnect with siblings. make plans to go out together. this means spending special time reading books and playing games together. Take your mom and/or dad out for the afternoon for lunch or whatever hobby they are into. Quit smoking and you'll feel better about yourself. Perhaps a transfer within the company is all you need. Exercising gets endorphins pumping through out your body and make you feel good. its time to move on. you are reducing your life expectancy and greatly reducing the quality of your life. lose weight.com Instructions (1) Quit Smoking. If you work full time you are spending most of your waking hours at work. Talk to your doctor about a weight loss program that's right for you if you need help. (4) Go organic. Remember.

Books are concentrated sources of wisdom.5 years of actively pursuing growth and helping others to grow through my personal development blog. After 1. What are some books you can start reading to enrich yourself? Some books I’ve read and found useful are Think and Grow Rich. so much that I have to learn. I was 22 and in my final year of university. Perhaps we are so uptight because we just don't have enough vacation time. (8) Take a vacation! Whether you have any vacation time or just weekends available. Its a known fact that people who get very little sunshine have more suicidal thoughts than those who get a lot of sun. At that time. For sure. I’ve heard positive reviews for The Tipping Point. The American culture has a lot to learn from the Europeans when it comes to vacation time. the more I realize there is so much out there I don’t know. . As I thought about the meaning of life. be sure to take time for yourself to go on vacation. The human potential is limitless. I’m very passionate about personal growth. then we have something in common. The Science of Getting Rich and Living the 80/20 Way.(7) Get some sunshine and fresh air. It is through improving ourselves that we get the most out of life. so I’ll be checking them out soon. As a passionate advocate of growth. so it’s impossible to reach a point of no growth. we can be even better. I realize there is never an end to the journey of self improvement. 7 Habits. I’m continuously looking for ways to self-improve. The more I grow. there is always something about ourselves we can improve on. The more books you read. I realized there was nothing more meaningful than to pursue a life of development and betterment. Whenever we think we are good. Here they are: 1. Outliers and The Difference Maker. Who Moved My Cheese. I’ve compiled 42 of my best tips which might be helpful in your personal growth journey. Some of them are simple steps which you can engage in immediately. It was just 4 years ago when I discovered my passion for growing and helping others grow. Some are bigger steps which takes conscious effort to act on. the more wisdom you expose yourself to. 42 Practical Ways To Improve Yourself Are you someone who likes to grow? Do you constantly seek to improve yourself and become better? If you do. Read a book every day. Go out and get some sunshine and be happy.

All of us have fears. fear of risk… All our fears keep us in the same position and prevent us from growing. Fear of uncertainty. I always think of fears as the compass for growth. canoeing. wine appreciation. If you have played video games before especially RPGs. Level up your skills. It doesn’t have to be a long-term course – seminars or workshops serve their purpose too. You may want to mix it up with jogging. it represents something I’ve yet to address. Pick up a new hobby. dancing. If I have a fear about something. pottery. Recognize that your fears reflect areas where you can grow. The end result? A room I totally relish being in and inspires me to be at my peak every day. I decided this was the end of it – I started on a “Mega Room Revamp” project and overhauled my room. Robin Sharma. In the past. 8. among other self-help gurus) to improve your productivity and your quality of life. I feel it’s because when you wake up early. A few years ago. gym lessons and swimming for variation. . As a speaker. Create an inspirational room. English. 5. golf. If you are living in an inspirational environment. 7. As a Singaporean Chinese.2. I’m constantly leveling up my writing skills. Waking up early (say. Italian cooking. you are going to be inspired every day. Beyond just your usual favorite hobbies. Overcome your fears. my main languages are 3. As a blogger. whether physically. Is there any new course you can join? Courses are a great way to gain new knowledge and skills. What skills can you level up? Wake up early. Out of interest. Mandarin and Hokkien (a Chinese dialect). 4. I took up language courses in the past few years such as Japanese and Bahasa Indonesian. 5-6am) has been acknowledged by many (Anthony Robbins. rock climbing. I personally make it a point to jog at least 3 times a week. 6. I didn’t like my room at all because I thought it was messy and dull. mentally or emotionally. Have a weekly exercise routine. etc. 9. I’m constantly leveling up my public engagement abilities. fear of public speaking. or ice skating. Learn a new language. football. at least 30 minutes each time. Seth recently wrote a waking up early series which you should check out to help cultivate this habit. you’ll know the concept of leveling up – gaining experience so you can be better and stronger. I realized learning a language is a whole new skill altogether and the process of acquainting with a new language and culture is a totally a mind-opening experience. Take up a new course. Your new hobby can also be a recreational hobby. and addressing it helps me to grow. I’ve been to a few workshops and they have helped me gain new insights which I had not considered before. your mindset is already set to continue the momentum and proactively live out the day. Your environment sets the mood and tone for you. is there something new you can pick up? Any new sport you can learn? Examples are fencing. Learning something new requires you to stretch yourself in different aspects. For example. web design. A better you starts with being in better physical shape.

A life handbook is an idea I started 3 years ago. Being too comfortable doesn’t help us grow – it makes us stagnate. What are BHAGs you can . What is your comfort zone? Do you stay in most of the time? Do you keep to your own space when out with other people? Shake your routine up.Org. financial challenge. both of you will gain more than if you were to set off on the target alone. colleagues. After that. blind spots are things about ourselves we are unaware of. In personal development terms. so I recommend you check it out. exercise. we will always have blind spots. you’re literally growing as you learn to act in new circumstances. As much as we try to improve. I use Free Sticky Notes to manage my to-do lists. etc) and compete with an interested friend to see who achieves the target first. Stay focused with to-do lists. blind spots refer to areas our eyes are not capable of seeing. since they will have no preset bias and can give their feedback objectively. 15. These represent my blind spots. Start your life handbook. Real growth comes with hard work and sweat. By exposing yourself to a new context. For example. I work on steps to address them. Put someone up to a challenge. Discovering our blind spots help us discover our areas of improvement. I’m a big fan of setting BHAGs. the days when I don’t do this end up being extremely unproductive. Make a date in your calendar to open it 1 year from now. Get out of your comfort zone.10. 14. Scientifically. I started my life handbook since 2007 and it’s been a crucial enabler in my progress. boss. 16. Basically. It’s really simple to use and it’s a freeware. Set a challenge (weight loss. part of my to-do list for today is to write a guest post at LifeHack. Sort of like your manual for your life. Write a letter to your future self. Set Big Hairy Audacious Goals (BHAGs). Through the process. Identify your blind spots. and this is why I’m writing this now! Since my work requires me to use my computer all the time. One exercise I use to discover my blind spots is to identify all the things/events/people that trigger me in a day – trigger meaning making me feel annoyed/weird/affected. In comparison. it’s a book which contains the essentials on how you can live your life to the fullest. Asking for feedback gives us an additional perspective. Competition is one of the best ways to grow. 11. or even acquaintances. Ask for feedback. 17. Some people to approach will be friends. What do you see yourself as 5 years from now? Will you be the same? Different? What kind of person will you be? Write a letter to your future self – 1 year from now will be a good start – and seal it. It’s always fun to do the exercise because I discover new things about myself. family. I start my day with a list of tasks I want to complete and this helps make me stay focused. such as your purpose. even if I may already think I know my own blind spots (but then they wouldn’t be blind spots would they?). your values and goals. 12. BHAGs stretch you beyond your normal capacity since they are big and audacious – you wouldn’t think of attempting them normally. 13. Then start working to become the person you want to open that letter. Do something different.

both from yourself and from . The best way to learn and improve is to take action. you need to first be walking the talk. there are bound to be negative people. To help others grow. Wherever we go. reading a new personal development article a day (#40) and meditating. 25. exercising (#9). With all the friends who surround you. There are times when there are difficult people you can’t avoid. As Jim Rohn says. Quit a bad habit. such as at your workplace. These people reflect certain qualities you want to have for yourself too. 27. or when the person is part of your inner circle of contacts. What do you think are your flaws? What are the flaws you can work on now? How do you want to address them? 19. which you’ll feel absolutely on top of the world once you complete them? Set them and start working on them. Acknowledge your flaws. Some good new habits to cultivate include reading books (#1). 18. I use my personal development blog as a personal journal too and I’ve learned a lot about myself through the past year of blogging. 24.embark on. Think about just one quality they have which you want to adopt. What is something you have been meaning to do? How can you take action on it immediately? Waiting doesn’t get anything done. “You are the average of the 5 people you spend the most time with”. Avoid negative people. Start a blog about personal development. they are going to have things you can learn from. Are there any bad habits you can lose? Oversleeping? Not exercising? Being late? Slouching? Nail biting? Smoking? Here’s some help on how you can quit a bad habit. Cultivate a new habit. Get into action. Everyone has flaws. Try thinking of a good friend right now. As you write. Learn how to deal with them. What’s most important is to understand them. 20. What are the qualities in them you want to have for yourself? How can you acquire these qualities? 21. Learn from people who inspire you. Start a journal. These people management skills will go a long way in working with people in the future. 22. Taking action gives you immediate results to learn from. Think about people you admire. It’s up to how we want to tap into them. they will be more than happy to help! 26. and address them. Learn to deal with difficult people. Learn from your friends. Journaling is a great way to gain better self-awareness. Don’t spend too much of your time around them if you feel they drag you down. There are expectations of you. acknowledge them. It’s a selfreflection process. Everyone has amazing qualities in them. Your journal can be private or an online blog. How can you learn from them and adopt this skill for yourself? Speak to them if you need to – for sure. Is there any other new habit you can cultivate to improve yourself? 23. People who inspire you. you gain more insights about yourself. waking up early (#8). clarify your thought process and read what you wrote from a third person’s perspective.

you also get to exercise your analytical skills. doing work I enjoy. In return. and so on.others. Break away from the past. 36. it’s time to let it go. I found chess is a terrific game to learn strategy and hone your brainpower. I also realized that during the nights when I meditate (before I sleep). The clutter clearing process is very liberating. get into action. 28. Is there any grievance or unhappiness from the past which you have been holding on? If so. I run The Personal Excellence Blog. which you have to uphold. Holding on to them prevents you from moving on and becoming a better person. Readers look toward my articles to improve themselves. 32. 33. review and nail the goal. There’s no faster way to improve than to have someone work with you on your goals. Get a mentor or coach. Your goal can be to stick with a new habit or something you’ve always wanted to do but have not. I get a lot more done. exercising. Stop watching TV. 30. present myself and engage people. You can also learn strategy from other board games or computer games. etc. for myself and for the people I’m reaching out to. The days when I don’t get on chat. Interestingly. Chinese Chess. plan. Let go of the past. 30 days is just enough time to strategize. such as connecting with close friends. Start a 30-day challenge. I realized having chat programs open at default result in a lot of wasted time. I need lesser sleep. After I started public speaking as a personal development speaker/trainer. where I share my personal journey and insights on how to live a better life. Reduce the time you spend on chat programs. Set a goal and give yourself 30 days to achieve this. WarCraft. Many of my clients approach me to coach them in their goals and they achieve significantly more results than if they had worked alone. This time can be much better spent on other activities. Check out the Toastmaster clubs nearest to you here. Meditate. with #2 being death. 29. I realized most of the programs and advertisements on mainstream TV are usually of a lower consciousness and not very empowering. Befriend top people in their fields. 34. skill sets and know-how. Toastmasters is an international organization that trains people in public speaking. Not only do you have fun. Join Toastmasters (Learn public speaking). the time I’ve freed up from not watching TV is now constructively used for other purposes. forgive . These people have achieved their results because they have the right attitudes. such as Othello. Learn chess (or any strategy game). I’ve not been watching TV for pretty much 4 years and it’s been a very liberating experience. Meditation helps to calm you and be more conscious. 31. I’ve learned a lot about how to communicate better. How better to learn than from the people who have been there and done that? Gain new insights from them on how you can improve and achieve the same results for yourself. 35. I usually disable the auto start-up option in the chat programs and launch them when I do want to chat and really have the time for it. which enforces to me that I need to keep improving. public speaking is the #1 fear in the world.

let go and show love to these people requires magnanimity and an open heart. It’s much more challenging to love them back. some of which you can check here. Have you been working too hard? Self-improvement is also about recognizing our need to take a break to walk the longer mile ahead. notice how you feel as you behave kindly to others.000 ways to improve yourself. it doesn’t matter what I write. Being able to forgive. I finally moved on from a past heartbreak of 5 years ago. such as selfdiscipline. 39. Not only that. and love. reach out to them. Is there anything you have an interest in? Why not turn it into a venture and make money while learning at the same time? Starting a new venture requires you to be learn business management skills. most of us don’t show enough kindness to people around us. 42. 25 ways. Start a business venture. 42 ways or even 1. . You can’t be driving a car if it has no petrol. but I promise you that as long as you keep to it. leadership. I can be writing list articles with 10 ways. It’s easy to hate the people who hate us.yourself. Take a break. Show them love. rejuvenate and charge yourself up for what’s up ahead. If you ever stand for something. Nothing is going to get through. Just recently. Is there anyone who dislikes or hates you in your life? If so. Commit to your personal growth. The results may not be immediate. Some of my readers make it a point to read at least one personal development article every day. you’ll start seeing positive changes in yourself and your life. Take some time off for yourself every week. You can never be too kind to someone. and move on. 40. Reach out to the people who hate you. It’s much more liberating than to hate them back. We are responsible for our personal growth – not anyone else. There are many terrific personal development blogs out there. As you get back to your day after reading this article later on. 41. patience. love them all the same. you are going to get haters. Being kind helps us to cultivate other qualities such as compassion. The process of starting and developing my personal development business has equipped me with many skills. In fact. Not your mom. but if you’ve no intention to commit to your personal growth. Even if they refuses to reciprocate. your friend. Make the decision to commit to your personal growth and embrace yourself to a life-long journey of growth and change. Chances are. and I have never been happier. which I think is a great habit. Kick off your growth by picking a few of the steps above and working on them. Relax. your dad. and see how they react. develop business acumen and have a competitive edge. 37. start exuding more kindness to the people around you. Seek a resolution and get closure on past grievances. me or LifeHack. Show kindness to people around you. organization and management. The effect was liberating and very empowering. 38. Read at least 1 personal development article a day. you will feel even better than yourself.

there’s a very real possibility you’re income won’t be rising for at least some period of time. Sooner or later though. and asking for their assistance in areas which aren’t critical. that’s not that big of a deal. Twitter.” For some lessons. Facebook. If you’re in the US. Getting a comfortable and regular dialogue going with specific people will make it much easier to make the “big ask” when you’re in a real pinch. Cut your living expenses – dramatically. . and elsewhere online.” 2. So before you find yourself out of a job or in some type of jam where you need help RIGHT AWAY. Far better (although maybe not easier) to pare back elements of your lifestyle well before you need to do so. get active with individuals in your network sharing ideas. please share with us too! 8 Life Lessons You Should Learn Today You grasp many life lessons only after making a mistake and realizing. that can be manageable in the short-term. Feel free to share your thoughts in a comment below and I’ll get back to you! If you have any other suggestions to add to the list. there are so many material goods so readily available it’s easy to get caught up in accumulating as much stuff as you can. As long as your income is rising. I wish I’d done something very different. Ask for help from your professional and personal networks. You then have to make quick (potentially painful) decisions about what in your lifestyle gets cut to avoid accumulating debt. Not only does it curb potentially over-ambitious expectations for you (and your family) about what is “necessary” to be happy and fulfilled. Here are eight of these life lessons you should consider addressing now. A functioning network comes from knowing you can reach out to people for help and they’ll actually recognize you and respond. “Oh crap. In other areas. while you don’t need to: 1. It’s one thing to build a network and accumulate hundreds of contacts on LinkedIn. offering help.I’d love to hear your thoughts on this article or anything about personal growth. It also means first doing your part to benefit those within your network. But having a name and skeletal contact information in an online list isn’t really an active network. you’d be a lot better off if you could get started working to counteract the problem before it happens. plus those which exist in real life. every dollar of expense you eliminate is a dollar to be saved or invested for the proverbial “rainy day.

you’ll be so much further along in achieving sales success. As a result. Do you hear that popping sound? That’s your knowledge about whatever it is you do evaporating as new technology. When you don’t really need to. The last few years have obviously seen a tremendous amount of uproar and change in the career prospects of millions. but better to be prepared ahead of time than thrown into a life crunch with no realistic preparation to exploit. 4. Sure this means more work and effort. Social media both makes ongoing learning easier (through ready access to experts and information you’d never have been able to reach before) and harder (since many “experts” have no clue what they’re talking about). identifying what needs and benefits are important to them. That means you’re a salesperson. Jobs which seemed secure (in part because particular employers and industries appeared secure) have turned out not to be. and being able to anticipate and respond to objections they pose. The implication is you’ll benefit from doing some reading and practicing selling skills right now. Get smarter. 5. which apply across multiple fields of study. Doing so will help you improve at understanding others’ points of view.e. . new practices. With so many uprooted at once in tremendously challenging economic times. if you work. Exercise. create a plan B (and maybe even a plan C) and work multiple options so if a potential career derailment strikes you. you want or have to start your own business). or interact with others in any way (that should include everybody reading this) then you are certainly trying to convince people to adopt your point of view. Seek out a career change. finding that next job has taken much longer. use every means you can to not only stay current on what you’re doing right now. In reality. but also try to anticipate what you may be doing in the future to get a head start on learning in newer areas.. you’re able to transition as seamlessly as possible to your next best alternative. live. Plus. Hone your selling skills. Far better to have a familiar command of a new discipline than learning from scratch in an accelerated time frame. if you ever find yourself needing to more actively sell (i. Many people not in sales jobs have the mistaken belief they aren’t salespeople. What do you do? Make an active and very concerted effort to continue learning during and after you are in school. 6.3. or any of a thousand other things render your knowledge ineffective or downright incorrect. That’s why it has been important (and will likely remain so) to anticipate what your first steps will be if you’re suddenly out of work. Pay particular attention to techniques on how to learn more effectively and faster. new marketplace realities.

Don’t you hate when you only hear from someone when they need something? Me too. you’re best served by noticing the “little people” and adopting some of their orientation to humble service. Doing this will reduce the number of people who will be rubbed the wrong way by you reveling in your success. Only problem? There are areas (such as “love handles”) that show no signs of going away no matter how well I eat and work out. When things are booming. you’re not typically thinking about what life might be like when your situation isn’t going as well. although my waist size slowly increased by 6 inches in the years after getting married. especially if they tend to stay in the background and embrace a servant leadership approach to how they conduct themselves. That can lead to overlooking others who are important contributors to your success. I’d have been in a lot better shape. When things are going well. 7. so I never did any in my 20s and most of my 30s. . And we’re not the only ones either. Slowly but surely over the course of a couple of years. Getting in touch with something bigger than you even if it only lies within yourself always helps put things in the proper perspective. It will also ensure you’ll have many more friends should your fortunes turn because you’ll be supported by others who care about you and not what you’re accomplishing.I always hated exercising. And understanding the consolation spirituality provides when everything’s going your way allows you to understand the kind of spiritual second wind that can be yours when nothing’s going as you planned. Pray. I lost all the weight and dramatically reduced my body fat percentage. irrespective of what or wherever you choose to do it. 8. the initial physical assessment showed I was out of shape and had about 25 pounds to lose. take a little time to work on your spirituality. My resistance was bolstered by the fact my weight was manageable. Be humble. and had much less of a hurdle once I started exercising way too late. When my wife finally got me to work out and then signed me up with a trainer. If I’d been exercising all the way through. The irony is that at those times when things are going super for you. controlled some of those problem areas.

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