How do holograms work??

If you want to see a hologram, you don't have to look much farther than your wallet. There are holograms on most driver's licenses, ID cards and credit cards. If you're not old enough to drive or use credit, you can still find holograms around your home. They're part of CD, DVD and software packaging, as well as just about everything sold as "official merchandise." Unfortunately, these holograms -- which exist to make forgery more difficult -- aren't very impressive. You can see changes in colors and shapes when you move them back and forth, but they usually just look like sparkly pictures or smears of color. Even the mass-produced holograms that feature movie and comic book heroes can look more like green photographs than amazing 3-D images. On the other hand, large-scale holograms, illuminated with lasers or displayed in a darkened room with carefully directed lighting, are incredible. They're two-dimensional surfaces that show absolutely precise, three-dimensional images of real objects. You don't even have to wear special glasses or look through a View-Master to see the images in 3-D. If you look at these holograms from different angles, you see objects from different perspectives, just like you would if you were looking at a real object. Some holograms even appear to move as you walk past them and look at them from different angles. Others change colors or include views of completely different objects, depending on how you look at them.

If you tear a hologram in half, you can still see the whole image in each piece. The same is true with smaller and smaller pieces. Holograms have other surprising traits as well. If you cut one in half, each half contains whole views of the entire holographic image. The same is true if you cut out a small piece -- even a tiny fragment will still contain the whole picture. On top of that, if you make a hologram of a magnifying glass, the holographic version will magnify the other objects in the hologram, just like a real one. Once you know the principles behind holograms, understanding how they can do all this is easy. This article will explain how a hologram, light and your brain work together make clear, 3-D images. All of a hologram's properties come directly from the process used to create it, so we'll start with an overview of what it takes to make one. Making a hologram Making a Hologram Transmission and Reflection There are two basic categories of holograms -- transmission and reflection. Transmission holograms create a 3-D image when monochromatic light, or light that is all one wavelength, travels through them. Reflection holograms create a 3-D image when laser light or white light reflects off of their surface. For the sake of simplicity, this article discusses transmission holograms viewed with the help of a laser except where noted. It doesn't take very many tools to make a hologram. You can make one with: • A laser: Red lasers, usually helium-neon (HeNe) lasers, are common in holography. Some home holography experiments rely on the diodes from red laser pointers, but the light from a laser pointer tends to be less coherent and less stable, which can make it hard to get a good image. Some types of holograms use lasers that produce different colors of light as well. Depending on the type of laser you're using, you may also need a shutter to control the exposure.

Holography labs and professional studios often use specially designed tables that have honeycomb-shaped support layers resting on pneumatic legs. There are lots of different ways to arrange these tools -. You can make your own holography table by placing inflated inner tubes on a low table. Workspace Requirements Getting a good image requires a suitable work space. holograms that use a red laser rely on emulsions that respond most strongly to red light. which divides the beam of light into two parts.• • • • Lenses: Holography is often referred to as "lensless photography.we'll stick to a basic transmission hologram setup for now. there are green and blue-green safelights made specifically for holography. A beam splitter: This is a device that uses mirrors and prisms to split one beam of light into two beams. while the lenses used in holography cause the beam to spread out. These are under the table's top surface. the object beam. it needs to have a very fine grain. the better. then placing a box full of a thick layer of sand on top of it.it can't vibrate when you walk across the room or when cars drive by outside. The darker the room is. Since darkroom safelights are often red and holography often uses red light. In some ways. It's a layer of light-sensitive compounds on a transparent surface. One beam. The laser points at the beam splitter. If you don't have enough space for such a large table. However. In some cases. The other beam. 5. 3. In other words. Along with the lenses and beam splitter. the mirrors have to be absolutely clean. 4. Mirrors: These direct the beams of light to the correct locations. Mirrors direct the paths of these two beams so that they hit their intended targets." but holography does require lenses. hits the emulsion without reflecting off of anything other than a mirror. a camera's lens focuses light. The difference between holographic and photographic film is that holographic film has to be able to record very small changes in light that take place over microscopic distances. and they dampen vibration. Holographic film: Holographic film can record light at a very high resolution. like the ones used in darkrooms. Each of the two beams passes through a diverging lens and becomes a wide swath of light rather than a narrow beam. A good option for adding a little light to the room without affecting the finished hologram is a safelight. 2. like photographic film. reflects off of the object and onto the photographic emulsion. but these won't be as steady as a larger setup. which is necessary for creating a hologram. Image courtesy Consumer Guide Products Since holography typically uses red lasers. The sand and the inner tubes will play the role of the professional table's honeycombs and pneumatic supports. the requirements for this space are more stringent than the requirements for your equipment. you can improvise using cups of sand or sugar to hold each piece of equipment. red darkroom safelights like this one may interfere with the final image. Holography also requires a working surface that can keep the equipment absolutely still -. Dirt and smudges can degrade the final image. 1. the reference beam. .

your eyes and brain interpret the light that reflects from the picture as a representation of the original image. how much the lens magnifies the scene and how much extra light you add to the mix. the resulting picture is still simply a recording of the intensity of reflected light. where light-sensitive compounds react to it.) The light from the object beam reflects off of an object. . A shutter opens or moves out of the path of a laser. blocking the light. 3. eliminating the need 2. The light from both beams comes into contact with the photographic emulsion. 2. control light levels and hold the camera absolutely still. a pulsed laser fires a single pulse of light. recording its amplitude. you need to reduce vibration in the air as well. Heating and air conditioning systems can blow the air around. and so can the movement of your body. The shutter closes. four basic steps happen in an instant: 1. Light passes through a lens and hits the photographic emulsion on a piece of film. as it reflects off of the scene in front of you.when you take pictures with a camera. In photography. A shutter opens. light passes through a lens and a shutter before hitting a piece of film or a light-sensitive sensor. For these reasons. regardless of changes to the setup. A light-sensitive compound called silver halide reacts with the light. 4. We'll look at how holograms are like photographs in the next section. you'll need to turn the heating and cooling system off and wait for a few minutes after setting up your equipment to make the hologram. 4. holograms are recordings of reflected light. Holograms and Photographs When you take a picture with a film camera. You can make lots of changes to this process. When you develop the film and make a print of the picture. 3. This is because making a hologram is a lot like taking a picture with a microscopic level of detail. the four basic steps are still the same. You can learn more about the process in How Vision Works. These precautions sound a little like photography advice taken to the extreme -. In addition. for a shutter. The shutter closes. But no matter what changes you make. The light from the reference beam bypasses the object entirely.To make clear holograms. (In some setups. your breath and even the dissipation of your body heat. or intensity. like how far the shutter opens. Like photographs. How Cameras Work and How Film Works. Making them requires steps that are similar to what it takes to make a photograph: 1. you have to keep your lens clean.

or Hertz (Hz). when you develop the holographic plate and look at it.In holography. Holograms and Light To understand how interference fringes form on film. Instead. the result of this process is a piece of film that has recorded the incoming light. and they travel in a straight line until they encounter an obstacle. or mirror-like. what you see is a little unusual. . monochromatic or white light reflects off of the surface of the hologram to make an image. Light's amplitude. This relates to the wave's frequency. They have peaks and troughs. These waves are fairly complex. Developed film from a camera shows you a negative view of the original scene -. Reflections from completely smooth surfaces are specular. you might see a dark frame of film or a random pattern of lines and swirls. while reflections from rough surfaces are diffuse. But when you look at a developed piece of film used to make a hologram. Your eyes and brain interpret the light shining through or reflecting off of the hologram as a representation of a three-dimensional object. However. Decoding these interference fringes requires a key -. In a transmission hologram. you can still get a sense of what the original scene looked like. monochromatic light shines through the hologram to make an image. Next. and vice versa. Rather than recording a simple pattern of reflected light from a scene. mirror-like (left).areas that were light are dark. You need the right light source to see a hologram because it records the light's phase and amplitude like a code. corresponds to its intensity. it records the interference between the reference beam and the object beam. or the height of the waves. Each fringe can be smaller than one wavelength of the light used to create them. you need to know a little bit about light.it's made of high-frequency electrical and magnetic waves. Obstacles can absorb or reflect light. but you can imagine them as similar to waves on water. and most objects do some of both. The wavelength of light is the distance from one peak of the wave to the next. or scattered. we'll explore exactly how light makes interference fringes. light passes through a shutter and lenses before striking a light-sensitive piece of holographic film. The frequency of light determines its color and is measured in cycles per second. Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum -. Just like with a photograph. you don't see anything that looks like the original scene.that key is the right kind of light. Light reflection can be specular. In a reflection hologram. Turning this frame of film into an image requires the right illumination. diffuse or scattered. while colors at the violet end of the spectrum have higher frequencies. or the number of waves that pass a point in a given period of time. Colors at the red end of the spectrum have lower frequencies. The holograms you see on credit cards and stickers are reflection holograms. When you look at the negative. It does this as a pattern of tiny interference fringes.

When light waves reflect. 2.it absorbs some of the laser light that reaches it. There are a couple of things to keep in mind about the object beam. A column of light leaves the laser and passes through the beam splitter. or along the length of the beam. or physically blocked by the surface of the object. they follow the law of reflection. Light Reflection Redundancy If you tore a hologram of a mask in half.White light. but to make a hologram. The holographic plate captures the interaction between the object and reference beams. The waves line up spatially. 3. It scatters light in every direction following the law of reflection. it's relatively chaotic. But by removing half of the hologram. or across the wave of the beam. . For this reason. This is because photographs record only the amplitude of the light that hits the film. is the same as its angle of reflection. the holographic plate doesn’t get information about areas that are out of its line of sight. Even waves of the same wavelength can be in a different phase. the light has to start out with one wavelength and one phase across the entire beam. while holograms record differences in both amplitude and the phase. you could still see the whole mask in each half. the surface of the object is rough on a microscopic level. so it causes a diffuse reflection. as well as temporally. Here's what happens when you turn on a laser to expose a holographic plate: 1. like sunlight. The light that emerges from a laser is also coherent. One is that the object is not 100 percent reflective -. is orderly. you also remove half of the information required to recreate the scene. changing the intensity of the object wave. and the lighter portions absorb less light. You can make and view a photograph using unorganized white light. Laser light. The darker portions of the object absorb more light. The two columns reflect off of their respective mirrors and pass through their respective diverging lenses. or in phase. You can check out How Lasers Work to see precisely how a laser does this. The object reflects off of the object and combines with the reference beam at the holographic film. In other words.it has one wavelength and one color. you need the organized light of a laser. The angle at which they strike the surface is the same as the angle at which they leave it. It contains lots of different wavelengths traveling in lots of different directions. including ones that are beyond the visible spectrum. Although this light allows you to see everything around you.each portion of the plate holds information about each portion of the object. All of the peaks and troughs of the waves are lined up. contains all of the different frequencies of light traveling in all directions. In order for the film to record these differences. the angle of incidence. on the other hand. or the light at which it leaves the surface. the resolution of the image you see in half a hologram isn’t as good. All the waves have to be identical when they leave the laser. We'll look at how this happens next. In addition. This diffuse reflection causes light reflected from every part of the object to reach every part of the holographic plate. This is why a hologram is redundant -. or the angle at which the light hits the surface. On top of that. even if it looks smooth to the human eye. Lasers produce monochromatic light -. or alignment between the peaks and troughs.

these two numbers add up.Capturing the Fringes The light-sensitive emulsion used to create holograms makes a record of the interference between the light waves in the reference and object beams. You can read more about hyperboloidal shapes at Wolfram MathWorld. At every point at which the two beams intersect. they cancel one another out. you combine a sine wave with a wave of varying amplitudes. In frequency modulation (FM) radio transmissions. captures a cross-section. of these three-dimensional shapes. In a hologram.three-dimensional shapes that look like hyperbolas rotated around one or more focal points. the two intersecting light wave fronts form a pattern of hyperboloids -. either flattening or amplifying that portion of the wave. Either way. they amplify each other. This is destructive interference. or a thin slice. When a peak meets a trough. This a lot like what happens when you transmit information using radio waves. the sine wave is the carrier wave that is overlaid with a second wave that carries the information. you combine a sine wave with a wave of varying frequencies. In amplitude modulation (AM) radio transmissions. If this sounds confusing. If you drop two stones into the water at opposite ends of the aquarium. You can think of the peak of a wave as a positive number and the trough as a negative number. they will constructively and . waves will spread toward the center in concentric rings. When two wave peaks meet. resting where the two wave fronts collide. When the waves collide. just imagine looking through the side of a clear aquarium full of water. The holographic plate. This is constructive interference.

For this reason. Turning these fringes back into images requires light. The trouble is that all the tiny. Sometimes. The light that reaches the holographic emulsion is just like the waves in the aquarium. overlapping interference fringes can make the hologram so dark that it absorbs most of the light. The amplitude of the waves corresponds to the contrast between the fringes. You can also use the holographic process to magnify images by positioning the object farther from the holographic plate. such as dichromated gelatin. your brain and the right kind of light to decode them into an image. as well as the shapes of the interference fringes. The index of refraction is the difference between how fast light travels through a medium and how fast it travels through a vacuum. You can magnify a displayed hologram by using a laser with a longer wavelength to illuminate it. creating a hologram of an object that doesn’t actually exist. These fringes are like a code. Another alternative is to use a light-sensitive substance other than silver halide. This spread-out light is what forms part of the interference pattern on the emulsion. The magnifying glass spreads out the laser light. Both the spatial coherence and the contrast are a direct result of the laser beam's reflection off of the object. You can visualize the interaction of light waves by imagining waves on water. letting very little pass through for image reconstruction. water. The silver halide in the emulsion responds to these light waves just like it responds to light waves in an ordinary photograph. and some of the waves are taller while others are shorter. Its interference fringes still exist. Differences in the index of refraction also cause rainbows on soap bubbles and on oil stains in parking lots. It has peaks and troughs. like the apparent bending of a spoon placed in a half-full glass of water. but they have a different index of refraction rather than a darker color. processing holographic emulsion often requires bleaching using a bleach bath. For example. the light from the object beam passes through the glass on its way to the emulsion. When you develop the emulsion. The wavelength of the waves translates to the shape of each fringe. The light waves reflected off of the object can spread out farther before they reach the plate. it is clear instead of dark. These darker and lighter areas become the interference fringes. Once a hologram is bleached. what you'd see is a cross-section of the interference between two sets of waves in one specific location. glass. just like it would with ordinary light. to record the interference fringes. Bleaching the Emulsion Holographic Magnifying Glass If you make a hologram of a scene that includes a magnifying glass. In a bleached hologram. using mathematical equations.destructively interfere with each other. the speed of a wave of light can change as it travels through air. while those that receive less intense light stay a little lighter. If you took a picture of this aquarium and covered up all but a thin slice in the middle. We'll look at how this happens in the next section. This makes it possible to program a computer to print a pattern onto a holographic plate. different gasses and different types of film. parts of the emulsion that receive more intense light get darker. variations in the index of refraction change how the light waves travel through and reflect off of the interference fringes. It takes your eyes. . this produces visible distortions. Recreating the Object Beam Holography and Mathematics You can describe all of the interactions between the object and reference beams.

whether you see the real or the virtual image depends on what side of the hologram is facing you. The beam from the laser starts out as the reference beam. Instead of moving upward and diverging. but you encounter this phenomenon every day. This virtual image comes from the light that hits the interference fringes and spreads out on the way to your eyes.your brain's interpretation of light waves that seem to be coming from a real object on the other side of the hologram. There are lots of object and laser setups that can produce these types of holograms. similar to the way you can create lots of photographic prints from the same negative. Every time you look in a mirror. or flipped back to front -. However. you see yourself and the surroundings behind you as though they were on the other side of the mirror's surface. the relative positions of different objects. it moves downward and converges. Other Hologram Types The holograms you can buy as novelties or see on your driver's license are reflection holograms. shadows. A lot of the time. It turns into a focused reproduction of the object -. This description applies to transmission holograms made with silver halide emulsion. With the right illumination. This beam is absolutely identical to the original object beam before it was combined with the reference wave. Since the object was on the other side of the holographic plate. spreading out as it goes. your brain interprets it as a beam of light reflected from a real object.they're the ones that bounce off of the mirror's surface and reach your eyes. This is what happens when you listen to the radio. then using it to stamp the interference pattern into metallic foil. and returns to the emulsion as the object beam. the beam travels toward you. One method of mass-producing holograms is coating this surface in metal to strengthen it. Image courtesy Dreamstime The holograms found on credit cards and other everyday objects are mass-produced by stamping the pattern of the hologram onto the foil. Your brain uses multiple cues. you can view these holograms in normal white light. or differences in angles. creating an interference pattern. This may sound far-fetched.it's the opposite of the virtual image that you can see without the aid of a screen.a real image that you can see if you put a screen in its path. The beam also travels in the same direction as the original object beam. The wave of information returns to its original state. This changes the texture of the emulsion's surface. and your brain interprets it as a three-dimensional image located behind the transparent hologram. These are usually mass-produced using a stamping method. The real image is pseudoscopic. It uses these same cues to interpret the pseudoscopic real image. the surface of the emulsion collapses as the silver halide grains are reduced to pure silver. we'll look at some other types of holograms. light that hits the reverse side of each fringe does the opposite.The diffraction grating and reflective surfaces inside the hologram recreate the original object beam. the emulsion and the object all in one line. holograms can display both images at the same time. Your brain plays a big role in your perception of both of these images. You're still seeing a virtual image -. When your eyes detect the light from the virtual image. Most holograms also act like color filters. before it was combined with the sine wave for transmission. to interpret this scene correctly. But the light rays that make this image aren't on the other side of the mirror -. It passes through the emulsion. However. Your radio receiver removes the sine wave that carried the amplitude.or frequency-modulated information. Next. so you see the object as the same color as the laser used in its creation rather than its natural color. You view this hologram when white or monochrome light reflects off of its surface. When you develop a holographic emulsion. You can also mass-produce holograms by printing them from a master hologram. including. bounces off the object on the other side. Your eyes focus this light. in some cases. But reflection holograms can also be as elaborate as the transmission holograms we already discussed. with the laser. . distances and parallax. A common one is an inline setup.

The First Hologram . You can think of holograms that are made this way as having multiple layers that are only about half a wavelength deep. The famous hologram "The Kiss" shows a sequence of similar. The Bragg effect can also change the way the hologram reflects light.Reflection holograms are often thicker than transmission holograms. The light from each layer interferes with the light in the layers above it. while those with little Bragg effect are thin. like a gust of wind or a vibration. You can also use a pulsed laser that fires for a minute fraction of a second to make still holograms of objects in motion. This also means that there are more layers of reflective surfaces for the light to hit. This means that you might see the hologram as one color from one angle and another color from another angle. some of it reflects back toward the light source. The Bragg effect is also one of the reasons why most novelty holograms appear green even though they were created with a red laser. stationary images. Inc. holograms can appear to move and recreate entire animated scenes in midair. especially in holograms that you can view in white light. Multiple Images In movies. You can also expose the same scene before and after the subject has experienced some kind of stimulus. green and blue lasers can create a full-color hologram. but today's holograms can only mimic movement. When light enters the first layer. creating one hologram that displays different images depending on viewing angle. The hologram only creates each image when light strikes it from the right angle. In addition. Exposing the same plate using the exact same scene and red. though. where the process repeats. You can get the illusion of movement by exposing one holographic emulsion multiple times at different angles using objects in different positions. You can expose the plate from two angles using two completely different images. and it's not usually used for mass-produced holograms. This process is tricky. the Bragg effect can be different for different wavelengths of light. Multiple exposures of the same plate can lead to other effects as well. This is known as the Bragg effect. When you view this hologram from different angles. holograms with a strong Bragg effect are known as thick holograms. and it's a necessary part of the reconstruction of the object beam in reflection holograms. your brain interprets the differences in the images as movement. Image © 1996-2007 Holophile. It's like you're viewing a holographic flip book. This lets researchers see exactly how the stimulus changed the object. and some continues to the next layer. Your eye sees many frames simultaneously. and your brain interprets them as moving images. At different viewing angles. There is more physical space for recording interference fringes.

were not invented until 1960. is capable of multicolour-image reproduction. the reflection or Denisyuk hologram. Gabor won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention in 1971. which are sometimes also useful for holography. which are necessary for creating and displaying good holograms. Pioneering work in the field of physics by other scientists including Mieczysław Wolfke resolved technical issues that previously had prevented advancement.[8] Several types of holograms can be made. However. It was thought that it would be possible to use X-rays to make holograms of molecules and view them using visible light. In the future. thus making the image appear three-dimensional. Although holograms don't currently move like they do in the movies. compete well with the large. However. The technique as originally invented is still used in electron microscopy. you may be able to use holograms to do everything from watching TV to deciding which hair style will look best on you. and they can use acoustical holography to create threedimensional reconstructions of sound waves. and they incorporate a reflective aluminum coating that provides the light from "behind" to reconstruct their imagery. retrieve. While it has been possible to create a 3-D holographic picture of a static object since the 1960s. It works by reflectively or refractively manipulating bundles of light rays. But holograms have an increasing number of practical uses. where it is known as electron holography. Gabor used a mercury vapor lamp. One of the most promising recent advances in the short history of holography has been the mass production of low-cost solid-state lasers. whereas Gabor-style holography works by diffractively reconstructing wavefronts. Transmission holograms. The image changes as the position and orientation of the viewing system changes in exactly the same way as if the object were still present.[2][3] [edit] Overview and history Holography was invented in 1947 by the Hungarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor (Hungarian name: Gábor Dénes). Holographic memory has also become an increasingly common method of storing large amounts of data in a very small space. compact. "writing. and filters make his light more coherent. drawing") is a technique that allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed so that when an imaging system (a camera or an eye) is placed in the reconstructed beam. These cheap. Another kind of common hologram. The discovery was an unexpected result of research into improving electron microscopes at the British Thomson-Houston Company in Rugby. Scientists can use holograms to study objects in three dimensions. Phillips. such as those produced by Leith and Upatnieks. researchers are studying ways to project fully 3-D holograms into visible air. lasers. solid-state lasers can.[4][5] work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971. These versions of the rainbow transmission hologram are commonly formed as surface relief patterns in a plastic film. X-ray holograms have not been created to date. The technique of holography can also be used to store. and the company filed a patent in December 1947 (patent GB685286). such as those found in millions of DVD recorders and used in other common applications. Rainbow holograms are commonly seen today on credit cards as a security feature and on product packaging.[11] [edit] The basics . are viewed by shining laser light through them and looking at the reconstructed image from the side of the hologram opposite the source. A later refinement. it is only in the last few years[1] that arbitrary scenes or videos can be shown on a holographic volumetric display.Dennis Gabor invented holograms in 1947. Specular holography[9] is a related technique for making three-dimensional imagery by controlling the motion of specularities on a twodimensional surface. He was attempting to find a method for improving the resolution of electron microscopes. and process information optically. Using lasers to make three-dimensional images of objects may sound like a novelty or a form of art. artists and dedicated hobbyists. which produced monochrome blue light. under some circumstances. Holography Hologram artwork in MIT Museum Holography (from the Greek ὅλος hólos. the "rainbow transmission" hologram. USA. using a white-light illumination source on the same side of the hologram as the viewer.[10] [edit] How holography works A detailed theoretical account of how holography works is provided by Hariharan. expensive gas lasers previously required to make holograms and are already helping to make holography much more accessible to low-budget researchers. an image of the object will be seen even when the object is no longer present. The first practical optical holograms that recorded 3D objects were made in 1962 by Yuri Denisyuk in the Soviet Union[6] and by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks at University of Michigan.[7] Advances in photochemical processing techniques to produce high-quality display holograms were achieved by Nicholas J. The holographic recording itself is not an image – it consists of an apparently random structure of either varying intensity. England. Some researchers even believe that the human brain stores information in a manner that is much like a hologram. but holography as a light-optical technique did not really advance until the development of the laser in 1960. "whole" + γραφή grafē. density or profile – an example can be seen below. allows more convenient illumination by white light rather than by lasers.

the direction of these diffracted waves is determined by the grating spacing and the wavelength of the light. Diffraction occurs whenever a wavefront encounters an object. The figure below is a photograph of part of a hologram – the object was a toy van. It is analogous to sound recording where the sound field is encoded in such a way that it can later be reproduced. Interference occurs when one or more wavefronts are superimposed. and not in the more regular structure. so that interference occurs between the two beams. not on the hologram itself. and reconstructed later when the original light field is no longer present. it is necessary to understand interference and diffraction. whereas a hologram. When the object is removed. A photograph represents a single fixed image of a scene. A light wave incident on a grating is split into several waves. For those unfamiliar with these concepts. It is somewhat simplified but is accurate enough to provide an understanding of how the holographic process works. The process of producing a holographic reconstruction is explained below purely in terms of interference and diffraction. A simple hologram can be made by superimposing two plane waves from the same light source on a holographic recording medium. the recorded light pattern is a holographic recording as defined above. The figure shown at the top of this article is an image produced by a camera which is located in front of the developed hologram which is being illuminated with the original reference beam. The photograph was taken by backlighting the hologram with diffuse light. A simple example is a metal plate with slits cut at regular intervals. It is no more possible to discern the subject of the hologram from this random pattern than it is to identify what music has been recorded by looking at the hills and valleys on a gramophone record surface or the pits on a CD. Holographic reconstruction process When the original reference beam illuminates the hologram. Though holography is often referred to as 3D photography. it can be shown that one of the diffracted waves emerges at the same angle as that at which the second wave was originally incident so that the second wave has been 'reconstructed'.Holographic recording process Holography is a technique which enables a light field to be recorded. Photograph of a transmission hologram It is important to note that the holographic recording is contained in the random intensity structure (which is a speckle pattern). it is diffracted by the recorded hologram to produce a light field which is identical to the light field which was originally scattered by the object or objects onto the hologram. this can be viewed from different distances and at different orientations just as if the original scene were present. [edit] Plane wavefronts A diffraction grating is a structure with a repeating pattern. The two waves interfere giving a fringe pattern whose intensity varies sinusoidally across the medium. known as the reference beam. when illuminated appropriately. When it is illuminated by only one of the waves used to create it. [edit] Point sources . To record a hologram. which appears to bear no relationship to the scene which it has recorded. [edit] Holography explained in terms of interference and diffraction For a better understanding of the process. this is a misconception. A second light beam. re-creates the light which came from the original scene. and focusing on the surface of the plate. The camera is focused as if on the original scene. which is recorded in the hologram. The spacing of the fringe pattern is determined by the angle between the two waves. Thus. and on the wavelength of the light. This image is a virtual image as the rays forming the image are all divergent. The recorded light pattern is a diffraction grating. The hologram itself consists of a very fine random pattern. it is worthwhile to read the respective articles before reading further in this article. The resulting light field generates a seemingly random pattern of varying intensity. some of the light scattered from an object or a set of objects falls on the recording medium. also illuminates the recording medium. an observer who looks into the hologram "sees" the same image on his retina as he would have seen when looking at the original scene. which is due to interference arising from multiple reflections in the glass plate on which the photographic emulsion is mounted.

[edit] A simplified mathematical model of the recording and reconstruction process A light wave can be modelled by a complex number U. The energy of the combined beams is proportional to the square of magnitude of the combined waves as: If a photographic plate is exposed to the two beams and then developed. T. real and reference wavefronts all emerge at different angles. When the developed plate is illuminated by the reference beam. UH is equal to the transmittance T multiplied by the reference beam amplitude UR. a holographic recording of the point source has been created. the virtual. the pattern formed is more complex but still acts as a negative lens provided it is illuminated at the original angle. as it is generated even though the object is no longer there. each of the individual zone plates reconstructs the object wave which produced it. and these individual wavefronts add together to reconstruct the whole of the object beam. which represents the electric or magnetic field of the light wave. When a plane wavefront illuminates a negative lens. the resulting pattern is a sinusoidal zone plate which acts as a negative Fresnel lens whose focal length is equal to the separation of the point source and the recording plane. [edit] The efficiency of a hologram The efficiency of a hologram is a measure of the fraction of the reference beam energy which is converted into reconstructed beam energy. This image is known as a "virtual" image. which then scatters light onto the recording medium. The amplitude and phase of the light are represented by the absolute value and angle of the complex number. The object and reference waves at any point in the holographic system are given by UO and UR.Sinusoidal zone plate If the recording medium is illuminated with a point source and a normally incident plane wave. each point in the object acts as a point source of light so the recording medium can be considered to be illuminated by a set of point sources located at varying distances from the medium. When the plane wave is incident at a non-normal angle. When the reference and object beams are incident on the holographic recording medium at significantly different angles. so that it appears to him or her that the object is still in place even if it has been removed. When the hologram is illuminated by the original reference beam. enabling the reconstructed object to be seen clearly. some of the light is diffracted into a diverging beam equivalent to the original plane wave. The second and third beams are modified versions of the reference beam. The combined beam is given by UO + UR. the light transmitted through the plate. is proportional to the light energy that was incident on the plate and is given by where k is a constant. There are several recording medium and set-up parameters which affect holographic efficiency: • • • the recording medium may be thin or thick (the latter is known as a volume hologram) the holographic recording may involve phase or amplitude modulation the reconstruction may be made by transmission or by reflection . it is expanded into a wave which appears to diverge from the focal point of the lens. The viewer perceives a wavefront that is identical to the wavefront scattered from the object onto the recording medium. It has the reverse curvature to the object beam itself and forms a real image of the object in the space beyond the holographic plate. The first of these is proportional to UO. The resulting pattern is the sum of all these 'zone plates' which combine to produce a random (speckle) pattern as in the photograph above. its transmittance. This is the reconstructed object beam which enables a viewer to 'see' the original object even when it is no longer present in the field of view. One beam illuminates the object. each representing a light beam emerging from the hologram. Each point source wave interferes with the reference beam. The fourth term is known as the "conjugate object beam". when the recorded pattern is illuminated with the original plane wave. a laser beam is first split into two separate beams of light. The second (reference) beam illuminates the recording medium directly. According to diffraction theory. Thus. [edit] Complex objects To record a hologram of a complex object. giving It can be seen that UH has four terms. giving rise to its own sinusoidal zone plate in the recording medium.

[edit] Thin holograms The discussion above of how holography works. A phase hologram is made by changing either the thickness or the refractive index of the material in proportion to the intensity of the holographic interference pattern. can be applied again here to show that a volume hologram can reconstruct the object beam when illuminated by the original reference beam. This allows the holographic reconstruction to be done using a white light source. .[12] It should be noted that if a thin hologram is illuminated with a broad spectrum light beam (for example a white light source). but in practice. hologram. A transmission hologram is one where the object and reference beams are incident on the recording medium from the same side. relates to a thin amplitude transmission hologram. [edit] Volume holograms It might appear at first sight that a hologram could not be made using a recording medium whose thickness is much greater than the wavelength of the light used to make the hologram. The main advantage of a reflection hologram is that the reference beam is incident on the same side of the hologram as where the viewer is located. Volume reflection holograms can have either amplitude or phase modulation. Many laser beams satisfy this condition. as quoted by Hariharan. The arguments used above to show how a hologram can be made using a point source. where n is an integer. A phase hologram is one where the phase of the re-constructing reference beam varies according to the intensity of the recorded fringe pattern. In principle. can be shown to correspond to the second of the original beams. or thick. Bragg's law shows that diffracted waves occur at angles given by sin θ = nλ/d.[13] [edit] Theoretical maximum efficiencies The maximum theoretical efficiencies of the various types of holographic recordings.[11] are given in the table below. which means that if it is illuminated with a light source which has a broad spectrum of wavelengths. though the first holograms by Gabor used "quasi-chromatic" light sources. and is therefore effectively a reconstructed object beam. In a volume. and is subsequently developed giving a transmittance which varies with the intensity of the pattern. it is diffracted into several different beams. and lasers have been used to make holograms since their invention. they must have the same frequency and the same relative phase during this time. which is also the most powerful. Consider a simple hologram made from two plane waves which intersect in the recording medium. a single laser is always used.7% 7. Thin transmission Volume transmission Volume reflection Amplitude modulation 6. The transmittance of the recorded hologram varies with the intensity of the interference pattern produced by the combined object and reference beams. and the other incident at an angle θ as above. because the interference pattern recorded will now be three dimensional and its structure will vary significantly with hologram depth so that it cannot give rise to a single reconstructed object beam. An interference pattern is formed consisting of planes of constant phase. The emulsion is exposed to the interference pattern.A thin hologram is one where the thickness of the recording material is significantly smaller than the spacing of the interference pattern which makes up the hologram. one of which is equivalent to the original object wavefront. whereas a reflection hologram has the object and reference beams incident from opposite sides. whose spacing is given by d = λ/sin θ. and then a complex object which can be considered to be a set of point sources. the transmittance of the recording is proportional to the phase of the recorded fringe pattern. It can be shown that when such a plate is illuminated by the original reference beam. In a phase transmission hologram. Photographic emulsion recordings. A volume reflection hologram is often referred to as a Denisyuk hologram. one being incident normally. Reflection holograms can only be made using volume holograms. making viewing more convenient. that is. This is not the case. Many of the recording media listed below act as phase recording media. and the net effect will be that the original object will not be discernible. An amplitude modulated hologram is one where the optical transmittance of the recording medium varies with the intensity of the fringe pattern. the depth of the recording material is equal to or significantly greater than the fringe spacing. the reconstructing beam is then incident on the hologram from the same side as that where the viewer of the reconstruction is located. can be converted to phase modulation recordings by a process known as bleaching. which give amplitude recordings when developed under normal conditions.2% Phase modulation 34% 100% 100% [edit] Practical aspects [edit] Making a hologram The object and the reference beams must be able to produce an interference pattern that is stable during the time in which the holographic recording is made. A significant advantage of a volume hologram compared with a thin hologram is that the reconstructed beam only occurs at the Bragg angle. The first of these beams. as is the case with most display and security holograms. A straightforward example of this is the use of photographic emulsion on a transparent substrate. they must be mutually coherent. reconstruction occurs only at the wavelength of the original laser used. To do this. each wavelength will reconstruct an object beam of slightly differing shape and size. If the hologram is illuminated with one of the original plane waves. two separate light sources could be used if the coherence condition could be satisfied. however.3% 3.

Most materials used for phase holograms reach the theoretical diffraction efficiency for holograms. If the phase of one beam changes with respect to the other due to vibration or air movement. If the lens is moved. the hologram plate is illuminated with a reference beam which is similar to the reference beam used in the recording. spatial frequencies ranging from 200–1200 cycles/mm so ideally.In addition. Nonetheless. i. One does. For instance. It was very common in the early days of holography to use a chess board as the object and then take photographs at several different angles using the reconstructed light to show how the relative positions of the chess pieces appeared to change. A relative path change of half a wavelength shifts the interference pattern by one fringe. in general. Since each point in the object illuminates all of the hologram. Amplitude holograms have a lower efficiency than phase holograms and are therefore used more rarely. Thus. which is 100% for thick holograms (Bragg diffraction regime) and 33. If several objects were present when the hologram was recorded. a hologram can be broken up into small pieces and each one will enable the whole of the original object to be imaged. Mechanical stability is also very important when making a hologram. but the resolution of the image is reduced as the resolution of the recording medium decreases. good reconstruction is obtained using a laser of a different wavelength and reflection holograms can be reconstructed using white light or sunlight. It must also be sufficiently sensitive to record the fringe pattern in a time period short enough for the system to remain optically stable.9% for thin holograms (Raman-Nath diffraction regime. the reconstructed image is magnified if the laser used to reconstruct the hologram has a shorter wavelength than the original laser.[11][14] It should be noted that standard photographic film has a very low. The light scattered from objects with a rough surface forms an objective speckle pattern that has random amplitude and phase. Certain pen laser pointers have been used to make small holograms (see External links).5 μm. Any change in the shape. these fringe spacings can range from tens of microns to less than one micron. For example. Generally. and no holographic recording is obtained. A specularly reflecting (or shiny) surface reflects the light in only one direction at each point on its surface. The size of these holograms is not restricted by the coherence length of the laser pointers (which can exceed several meters).7 μm or 1400 lines/mm. response at the frequencies involved and cannot be used to make a hologram.. the light intensity is averaged out. The reference beam is not normally a plane wavefront. If the response is not flat over the range of spatial frequencies in the interference pattern. The recording medium should be able to resolve fully all the fringes arising from interference between object and reference beam. Exact reconstruction is required in holographic interferometry. lose information and the spatial resolution gets worse as the size of the hologram is decreased — the image becomes "fuzzier". ample for a deep hologram. then the resolution of the reconstructed image will also be degraded. An image can be formed from any point in the reconstructed beam. A good holography laser will typically have a coherence length of several meters. The reconstructed object beam is diffracted from the hologram. These are discussed in a section below. [edit] Reconstructing and viewing the hologram To reconstruct the object beam. the medium used to record the fringe pattern must be able to resolve it. Thus. If the response of the medium to these spatial frequencies is low. and a dim image will be obtained. if this angle is 45° and the wavelength of the light is 0. even though the object is no longer present.e. The objects that form the scene must. This requires very precise relocation of the developed holographic plate. so in general. The spacing of the fringes depends on the angle between the object and reference beams. [edit] Holographic recording media The recording medium must be able to resolve the interference fringes as discussed above. the recording medium should have a response which is flat over this range – see recording media below. the image changes in the same way as it would have done when the object was in place. however. the stability requirement is very stringent. or even zero. and an image of the object is formed when an imaging lens (an eye or a camera) is placed into the reconstructed beam. It is possible to record holograms in certain materials using a high-power pulsed laser technique that uses only a couple of nanoseconds to record the holographic pattern. but by their low power of below 5 mW. the reconstructing reference beam must be identical to the original reference beam and the recording medium must be able to fully resolve the interference pattern formed between the object and reference beams. A working hologram can be obtained even if not all the fringes are resolved. If the fringe pattern moves by one or more fringe spacings. the fringe spacing is about 0.[15] The recording medium has to convert the interference pattern into an optical element that modifies either the amplitude or the phase of the holographic interference pattern to produce either an amplitude or a phase hologram. In an offaxis holographic recording. the reconstructed objects will exhibit parallax in the same way as the original objects would have done. and some of the more common media used are listed below. . orientation or wavelength of the reference beam gives a distorted reconstruction. it is usually a divergent wavefront that is formed by placing a convex lens in the path of the laser beam. the fringe pattern moves across the field of view. the whole object can be reconstructed from a small part of the hologram. [edit] Fidelity of the reconstructed beam To replicate the original object beam exactly. giving a null fringe if there has been no movement of the object and mapping out the displacement if the object has moved. most of the light will not be incident on the recording medium. holographic films typically some micrometers thick). the coherence length of the light determines the maximum depth in the scene of interest that can be recorded holographically.e. the diffraction efficiency of the hologram will be poor. have optically rough surfaces so that they scatter light over a wide range of angles. any relative movement of the two beams must be significantly less than λ/2. i. where the holographically reconstructed wavefront interferes with the live wavefront.

it is separated from the master hologram and mounted on a metal backing plate.1–50. General properties of recording materials for holography.[20] [edit] Applications [edit] Art Early on.[25] Some are associated with novel holographic techniques. The MIT Museum[27] and Jonathan Ross[28] both have extensive collections of holography and on-line catalogues of art holograms. although some holographers would regard themselves as both an artist and a scientist. The Royal Canadian Mint even produces holographic gold and silver coinage through a complex stamping process.The table below shows the principal materials for holographic recording.000 3.000 500–1. Julio Plaza and José Wagner Garcia. The required exposure is for a long exposure. During the 1980s. Such embossed holograms are now widely used. by embossing.000 2. associated with Moysés Baumstein) found in holography a way to express themselves and to renew the Concrete Poetry (or Shape Poetry). and Moysés Baumstein of Brazil.000–10. many concrete poets (Augusto de Campos. efficiency [mJ/cm2] Amplitude 6% Photographic emulsions No Wet 0. The material used to make embossed copies consists of a polyester base film. The bottom layer of the duplicating film (the thermoplastic layer) is heated above its softening point and pressed against the stamper. featuring an illustration by Miller. Note that these do not include the materials used in the mass replication of an existing hologram. Salvador Dalí claimed to have been the first to employ holography artistically. He was certainly the first and best-known surrealist to do so.[22] None of these studios still exist.1 Phase (bleached) 60% Dichromated gelatin No Wet Phase 100% 10 Photoresists No Wet Phase 33% 10 Photothermoplastics Yes Charge and heat Phase 33% 0. a number of art studios and schools were established.[21] During the 1970s. Surface relief holograms are recorded in photoresists or photothermoplastics and allow cheap mass reproduction. many artists who worked with holography helped the diffusion of this so-called "new medium" in the art world. and many more artists integrate holographic elements into their work.). [edit] Data storage Main article: Holographic memory Resolution limit [mm−1] 1.[18] The first book to feature a hologram on the front cover was The Skook (Warner Books.000–5. the Royal College of Art in London and the Lake Forest College Symposiums organised by Tung Jeong (T.001–0. either in an optical way similar to holographic recording or. It is possible to print holograms directly into steel using a sheet explosive charge to create the required surface relief. 1984) by JP Miller. which attracted national media attention. as security features on credit cards or quality merchandise. Source:[16] Required exposure Material Reusable Processing Type of hologram Max. but the 1972 New York exhibit of Dalí holograms had been preceded by the holographic art exhibition that was held at the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan in 1968 and by the one at the Finch College gallery in New York in 1970. Short exposure times (less than 1/1000 of a second. an additional reflecting layer of aluminum is usually added on the hologram recording layer.200 2. For instance. a resin separation layer and a thermoplastic film constituting the holographic layer. avoiding the simple holographic reproduction of a sculpture or object. artists saw the potential of holography as a medium and gained access to science laboratories to create their work. such as with a pulsed laser) require a higher exposure due to reciprocity failure. Notably. Dieter_Jung_(artist) of Germany. A small but active group of artists still use holography as their main medium. "Telstar" by Ad Infinitum became the first record with a hologram cover and National Geographic published the first magazine with a hologram cover. That same year. for example. The Museum of Holography in New York founded by Rosemary (Possie) H.000–10. so that it takes up its shape. The embossing process can be carried out with a simple heated press.000 – . each with their particular approach to holography.J. for instance. Holographic art is often the result of collaborations between scientists and artists.000 Elastomers[17] No None Phase – 300 [edit] Embossing and mass production An existing hologram can be replicated. there is the Center for the Holographic Arts in New York[23] and the HOLOcenter in Seoul. in Brazil. artist Matt Brand[26] employed computational mirror design to eliminate image distortion from specular holography. Décio Pignatari. Jackson.000 Photochromics Yes None Amplitude 2% 10–100 Photorefractives Yes None Phase 100% 0.000 >5.000 10.[19] The first step in the embossing process is to make a stamper by electrodeposition of nickel on the relief image recorded on the photoresist or photothermoplastic. The resolution limit given in the table indicates the maximal number of interference lines per millimeter of the gratings. in the case of surface relief holograms. such as Harriet Casdin-Silver of the USA. there was the San Francisco School of Holography established by Lloyd Cross. however. In order to permit the viewing of embossed holograms in reflection. This shape is retained when the film is cooled and removed from the press.01 Photopolymers No Post exposure Phase 100% 1–1. When the nickel layer is thick enough.[24] which offers artists a place to create and exhibit work. each one searching for a proper "language" to use with the three-dimensional work.

On one side. the latter simply by a lens. The amount of processed information can be very high (terabits/s). Jeff Blyth has published very accurate methods for making film in a small lab or garage. one has to perform the operation always on the whole image. There also exist holographic materials that do not need the developing process and can record a hologram in a very short time. This is useful. Holographic data storage is a technique that can store information at high density inside crystals or photopolymers.[31] A small group of amateurs are even constructing their own pulsed lasers to make holograms of moving objects. it was possible to generate holograms. optical cache memories. This compensates for the fact that the recording time. and a permanent hologram is produced. This was a very important development for amateurs. many amateurs are now making their own film. The optical processing performed by a dynamic hologram is also much less flexible than electronic processing. this would result in about one-gigabit-per-second writing speed.Holography can be put to a variety of uses other than recording images. the operation a hologram can perform is basically either a multiplication or a phase conjugation. [edit] Dynamic holography In static holography. In 2006. is still very long compared to the processing time of an electronic computer. The holography community was surprised at the amazing sensitivity of DCG to green light. and experts believe one-terabit-per-second readout is possible. Fred Unterseher published the Holography Handbook. In 1983. Jeff Blyth responded with the G307 formulation of DCG to increase the speed and sensitivity to these new lasers. and cost of producing a commercial product are significantly lower. While this approach to data storage can not attain the high data rates of page-based storage. It had been assumed that the sensitivity would be non-existent. In 2005. as many electronic products incorporate storage devices. Currently available SLMs can produce about 1000 different images a second at 1024×1024-bit resolution. The favorite formulations are Dichromated Gelatin. and on the other side. as the cost for a 5 mW laser dropped from $1200 to $5 as semiconductor laser diodes reached mass market. Many of these holographers would go on to produce art holograms. a Denisyuk DCG hologram by amateur Dave Battin Since the beginning of holography. which they plan to market under the name Holographic Versatile Disc. As current storage techniques such as Blu-ray Disc reach the limit of possible data density (due to the diffraction-limited size of the writing beams). Examples of applications of such real-time holograms include phase-conjugate mirrors ("time-reversal" of light). While more film manufactures have filled in the voids. Methylene Blue Sensitised Dichromated Gelatin and Diffusion Method Silver Halide preparations. by sending it back through the same aberrating medium with a conjugated phase. Another company. more recent research into using submicrometre-sized "microholograms" has resulted in several potential 3D optical data storage solutions. With the right type of media (probably polymers rather than something like LiNbO3). a large number of surplus Holography Quality Green Lasers (Coherent C315) became available and put Dichromated Gelatin (DCG) within the reach of the amateur holographer. This brought in a new wave of holographers and gave simple methods to use the then-available AGFA silver halide recording materials. The most common materials are photorefractive crystals. Lloyd Cross started the San Francisco School of Holography and started to teach amateurs the methods of making holograms with inexpensive equipment. While many holographic data storage models have used "page-based" storage. since the operation is performed in parallel on a whole image. [edit] Hobbyist use Peace Within Reach. It allows the removal of the wavefront distortions a light beam receives when passing through an aberrating medium. developing and reconstructing occur sequentially. a remarkably easy-to-read description of making holograms at home.9 TB. atomic vapors and gases. such as a device that compares images in an optical way. A particularly promising application is optical phase conjugation. where each recorded hologram holds a large amount of data. recording. Now. plasmas and even liquids. there are hundreds to thousands of amateur holographers worldwide. but in semiconductors or semiconductor heterostructures (such as quantum wells). This enables some applications. experimenters have explored its uses. is developing a competing format. for example. holographic storage has the potential to become the next generation of popular storage media.[32] [edit] Holographic interferometry Main article: holographic interferometry . Starting in 1971. In 2000.[29] The search for novel nonlinear optical materials for dynamic holography is an active area of research. Read speeds can surpass this. InPhase Technologies. Frank DeFreitas published the Shoebox Holography Book and introduced using inexpensive laser pointers to countless hobbyists. in free-space optical communications to compensate for atmospheric turbulence (the phenomenon that gives rise to the twinkling of starlight). the tolerances. addition and Fourier transform are already easily performed in linear materials. and optical computing. This allows one to use holography to perform some simple operations in an all-optical way.[30] Many film suppliers have come and gone from the silver-halide market. In optics. technological hurdles. The advantage of this type of data storage is that the volume of the recording media is used instead of just the surface. companies such as Optware and Maxell produced a 120 mm disc that uses a holographic layer to store data to a potential 3. image processing (pattern recognition of time-varying images). The ability to store large amounts of information in some kind of media is of great importance. This method relied on the use of a large table of deep sand to hold the optics rigid and damp vibrations that would destroy the image. which is in the order of a microsecond.

[37] [edit] Non-optical holography In principle. Estonian kroon 25/50/100/500 notes. Several holograms may keep information about the same distribution of light. ID cards. enables enhancement of the resolution of optical microscopy. For a tightly budgeted project. specialized and technologically advanced equipment. there are two choices of hologram: overprint holographic diffraction foil or custom etched diffraction material. The information for each holopixel is computed from a series of rendered images generated via computer graphics. . it is possible to make a hologram for any wave. and vibration in engineering structures. which enables. [edit] Holoprinters This section needs additional citations for verification. They are used widely in many currencies. Holography allows for different levels of security. It can also be used to detect optical-path-length variations in transparent media. The size of a holopixel is typically around a square millimeter.[35] [edit] Sensors or biosensors Main article: Holographic sensor The hologram is made with a modified material that interacts with certain molecules generating a change in the fringe periodicity or refractive index. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. including Geola (Lithuania). Canadian dollar 5/10/20/50/100 notes. such as the Brazilian real 20 note. across a holographic medium. There are only a few digital holoprinter manufacturers in the world. as each holopixel dot has to be written individually in three colours. where the colours overlap within the medium.[36] [edit] Security Main article: Security hologram Identigram as a security element in a German identity card UBS Kinebar gold bars use kinegrams as a security measure. Holograms produced in elastomers can be used as stress-strain reporters due to its elasticity and compressibility. South Korean won 5000/10000/50000 notes. green and blue lasers to write a series of dots. Security holograms are very difficult to forge. and automated conveyor systems to determine the three-dimensional size of a package. for example. [edit] Interferometric microscopy Main article: Interferometric microscopy The hologram keeps the information on the amplitude and phase of the field.000 to $15. fluid flow to be visualized and analyzed. such as a truck or pallet for bulk shipment of goods. The numerical analysis of such holograms allows one to emulate large numerical aperture. emitted to various directions. It uses red. Recent achievements of interferometric microscopy allow one to approach the quarter-wavelength limit of resolution. They are also used in credit and bank cards as well as passports. The machine can cost up to half a million dollars and is about the size of a small room. British pound 5/10/20 notes. Printing a digital hologram can take several hours. and sports equipment. the color of the holographic reflection. the pressure and force applied are correlated to the reflected wavelength. The holopixel contains information about the whole image from its own unique perspective. (February 2011) A holoprinter is a holographic printing device that can print out full-colour digital holograms from a rendered 3D model or a video series. depending on budget and intensity of security.e. or holopixels. View Holographics (UK) and Zebra Imaging (US). which are not dimensional but diffract light into patterns of bright rainbow light. It has been widely used to measure stress. larger shipping firms. It is then laminated on to a hard plastic backing. The corresponding technique is called interferometric microscopy. and Japanese yen 5000/10000 notes. Euro 5/10/20/50/100/200/500 notes. The highest level of security in fully custom holography. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. in turn. cost can range from $5. [edit] Other applications Holographic scanners are in use in post offices. which. because they are replicated from a master hologram that requires expensive.000. They are often used in tandem with checkweighers to allow automated pre-packing of given volumes. this involves the design and creation of unique images in three dimensions. books. therefore. therefore its color.Holographic interferometry (HI)[33][34] is a technique that enables static and dynamic displacements of objects with optically rough surfaces to be measured to optical interferometric precision (i. The film may require development after exposure. The holographic medium is typically a polymer film. It can also be used to generate contours representing the form of the surface. to fractions of a wavelength of light). DVDs. strain.

For audio rendition. and NVH. With the Fresnel diffraction lens and atomic mirrors atomic holography follows a natural step in the development of the physics (and applications) of atomic beams. there was a series of concerts organized by Crypton Future Media which included Hatsune Miku. [45] The claim that holography was used was reported as fact in the trade media. as magnetic and electric fields can shift the phase of the interfering wave passing through the sample. the wave field synthesis is the most related procedure. apparel company Burberry produced the "Burberry Prorsum Autumn/Winter 2011 Hologram Runway Show". The company's own video shows several centered and off-center shots of the main 2-dimensional projection screen. in Beijing. most notably those of transportation.Electron holography is the application of holography techniques to electron waves rather than light waves. [edit] Things often confused with holograms Effects produced by Lenticular printing and Video projection.[40] although such holograms have not yet been commercialized.[38] The principle of electron holography can also be applied to interference lithography. and all the 3-D effects stem from 2-D perspective. Recent developments including atomic mirrors and especially ridged mirrors have provided the tools necessary for the creation of atomic holograms. Atomic holography has evolved out of the development of the basic elements of atom optics. vehicle and aircraft design. and Pepper's Ghost are often confused with holograms. [46] .[41] In 2010. In 2011. a singing synthesizer application and its female character.[42][43][44] This effect was actually achieved through a special method of rear projection against a semi-transparent screen.[39] Acoustic holography is a method used to estimate the sound field near a source by measuring acoustic parameters away from the source via an array of pressure and/or particle velocity transducers. The general idea of acoustic holography has led to different versions such as near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and statistically optimal near-field acoustic holography (SONAH). performing on stage as a "holographic" character. Today it is commonly used to study electric and magnetic fields in thin films. Measuring techniques included within acoustic holography are becoming increasingly popular in various fields. which included life size 2-D projections of models. Electron holography was invented by Dennis Gabor to improve the resolution and avoid the aberrations of the transmission electron microscope.

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