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Global Vision International 2011 Report Series No.

001

GVI Ecuador
Yachana Reserve, Rio Napo

Quarterly Report 111


January March 2011
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve Programme Report 111 Submitted in whole to
Yachana Foundation Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN)

Produced by Andrew Whitworth Base Manager Caroline Acton Field Staff Jasmine Rowe Field Staff Fraser Ross Field Staff Jenn Sinasac Field Staff Phil Brown Intern Tim Topper Scholar And
David Lawson Jo Ridley Anja Robel Lucy Smith Hope Swift David Allcorn Theresa Crann Shannon Davies Eric DeFonso Leen Deurloo Jesse Hay Sarah Houlahan Stacey Jones Tom Lloyd Intern Intern Intern Intern Intern Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Kimberly MilehamLloyd Kim Mercer Rebecca Mott Jamie OConnell Gabriella Russell Clayton Simons Josefina Tiengtrong Robert Trembath Jaime Villacampa Keith Walker Alice Whitling Olaf Wilson Frank Spooner Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer GVI Office staff

Edited by Blaine Clarke Country Director Philip Brown Field Staff

GVI Amazon, Yachana Reserve, Ecuador Email: ecuador@gviworld.com Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
This report documents the work of Global Vision Internationals (GVI) Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition in Ecuadors Amazon region and run in partnership with the Yachana Foundation, based at the Yachana Reserve in the province of Napo. During the phase from January to March, GVI has: Added four new species to the reserve species list. Continued the bird project, begun in Phase 104, studying the effect of the road in understory bird communities. Continued the mammal project, investigating the edge effects of the road. Began new Visual Encounter Survey Amphibian and Reptile project studying the effects of the road. Continued the butterfly project, investigating the effects of disturbance from the road upon butterfly communities. Continued English lessons for local school children in Puerto Rico twice a week. Continued English lessons at Rio Bueno once a week. Welcomed three groups from the Yachana Technical High School, who joined the expedition in order to exchange language skills, knowledge and experience. Visited Yasun National Park and Sumak Allpa, an island reserve and school run by a local conservationist.

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Table of Contents
Executive Summary................................................................................................................i Table of Contents...................................................................................................................ii List of Tables and Figures.....................................................................................................iv 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................6 2. Avian Project: Impacts of road disturbance and edge effects on Avian Communities in the Yachana Reserve, Ecuador.................................................................................................8 2.1 Mistnetting Results.................................................................................................8 2.3 Point Count Results.............................................................................................11 15 3. Herpetological Project: The Effect of Structural Habitat Change on Herpetofaunal Communities...........................................................................................................................16 3.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................16 3.2 Methods.................................................................................................................17 3.3 Results................................................................................................................18 3.4 Discussion........................................................................................................22 4. Butterfly Project: Impact of road disturbance on Nymphalid butterfly communities in Yachana Reserve, Ecuador.....................................................................................................25 4.1 Results................................................................................................................25 4.2 Discussion.............................................................................................................30 5. Mammal Project: The effects of a minor road on non-flying mammal communities in a small reserve...........................................................................................................................34 5.1 Results...................................................................................................................34 5.2 Discussion.............................................................................................................38 6. Community Programme...................................................................................................39 6.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................39 6.3 TEFL at Puerto Rico..........................................................................................40 6.4 TEFL at Puerto Salazar.......................................................................................41 6.5 TEFL at Rio Bueno.............................................................................................42 7. Incidentals.........................................................................................................................43 8. Other work conducted during 111....................................................................................45 8.1 Interpretation Trail...............................................................................................45 8.2 Long Term Monitoring System...........................................................................46 10. References......................................................................................................................48 11. Appendices.....................................................................................................................50 11.1 Avian survey sites...............................................................................................50 11.2 Avian Project Introduction................................................................................50 11.3 Mistnetting Methodology .......................................................................................................................................53 11.4 Point Count Methodology..................................................................................54 11.5 Butterfly Project Introduction..............................................................................54 11.6 Butterfly Project Methods....................................................................................56 11.7 Mammal Project Introduction.............................................................................57 11.8 Mammal Project Methods....................................................................................58 11.9 Yachana Reserve Species List...........................................................................60
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 II

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

III

List of Tables and Figures


Table 2.1 Results from the 4 mistnetting sessions conducted in GVI Amazon Expedition 111. Table 2.2 Road Uniques recorded on point count surveys in GVI Amazon expedition 111. Table 2.3 Forest Uniques recorded on point count surveys in GVI Amazon expedition 111. Table 3.1 Distance from the road (m) and corresponding number of individuals encountered in each 100 m interval. Table 3.2 Distance from the road (m) and corresponding number of species encountered in each 100 m interval. Table 3.3 Distance from the road (m) and corresponding number of unique encountered in each 100 m interval. Table 4.1 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road, combined from both sites over the 18 sampling days. Table 4.2 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road, combined from all four sites over the 36 sampling days. Table 5.1 Mammals recorded during Visual Encounter Surveys January - March 2011. Table 5.2 Mammals recorded during Sand Padding January - March 2011. Table 5.3 Mammals recorded from both VES and Sand Pad surveys completed between October 2010 and March 2011. Figure 1.1 Map showing GVI Amazon location in Ecuador. Figure 2.1 Number of individuals caught at Site 3 in January 2011. Figure 2.2 Number of individuals caught at Site 1 in February 2011. Figure 2.3 Number of species recorded at each point during GVI Amazon expedition 111, delineated by distance from the road. Figure 3.1 Distribution and abundance of Pristimantis kichwarum in the Yachana Reserve. X axis represents the number of individuals recorded, Y axis represents distance from road. Figure 3.2 Distribution and abundance of Ameerega bilinguis in the Yachana Reserve. X axis represents the number of individuals recorded, Y axis represents distance from road.

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

IV

Figure 3.3 Distribution and abundance of herpetofaunal species (minus P. kichwarum and A. bilinguis) in the Yachana Reserve. X axis represents the number of individuals recorded, Y axis represents distance from road. Figure 3.4 Distribution chart displaying the range of all herpetofaunal species encountered during the phase. X axis represents the herpetofaunal species encountered. Y axis represents distance from the road (m). Figure 4.1 Graph of distribution of butterflies by tribe, in relation to the road, using data combined from both sites over a total of 18 days sampling. Figure 4.2 Graph of number of individuals caught within Nymphaliini tribe at varying distances from the road, combining data from phase 104 and 111. Figure 4.3 Graph of abundance of Nesseae hewitsoni identified at varying distances from the road during phase 111. Figure 4.4 Graph of abundance of Nesseae hewitsoni identified at varying distances from the road, combining data from phase 104 and 111. Figure 4.5 Graph of abundance of Eupticiini sp. 1 identified at varying distances from the road. Figure 4.6 Graph of abundance of Catonephele acontius identified at varying distances from the road. Figure 4.7 Graph showing Shannon diversity of species, combining data from phase 104 and 111. Figure 5.1 Total number of mammal records and species observed through VES and Sand Padding surveys between October 2010 and March 2011. Figure 5.2 Total number of mammal records separated into groups observed at each distance away from the road through VES and Sand Pad surveys between October 2010 and March 2011.

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

1. Introduction
The Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition operated by GVI is located in the Yachana Reserve in the Napo province (0 50' 45.47"S/-77 13' 43.65"W; 300-350m altitude), Amazonian region of Ecuador. The reserve is legally designated as Bosque Protector (Protected Forest), and consists of approximately 1000 hectares of predominantly primary lowland rainforest, as well as abandoned plantations, grassland, riparian forest, regenerating forest and a road. The Yachana Reserve is owned and managed by the Yachana Foundation. It is surrounded by large areas of pasture land, small active cacao farms and currently un-mapped disturbed primary forest. The road within the Yachana Reserve is a large stone and gravel based road which dissects the forest.

Rio Napo, Napo Province

Fig 1.1 Map showing GVI Amazon location in Ecuador.

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

The Yachana Foundation is dedicated to finding sustainable solutions to the problems facing the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The foundation works with rainforest communities to improve education, develop community-based medical care, establish sustainable agricultural practices, provide environmentally sustainable economic alternatives, and conserve the rainforest. The Yachana Reserve is the result of the foundations efforts to purchase blocks of land for the purpose of conservation. The Yachana Foundation has a long-term plan of sustainable management for the reserve according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) protected forest guidelines and guidelines laid out by the Ministerio del Ambiente (Ecuadorian Ministry of the Environment). One of GVIs main roles at the reserve is to provide support where deemed necessary for the development of the management plan. This includes reserve boundary determination, baseline biodiversity assessments, visitor information support, and research centre development. GVI also works with local research institutions. The Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, MECN, (Ecuadorian Museum for Natural Sciences) provides technical assistance with field research and project development. The museum is a government research institution which houses information and conducts research on the presence and distribution of floral and faunal species throughout Ecuador. GVI obtains their investigation permit with the support of MECN for the collection of specimens. The data and specimens collected by GVI are being lodged with the MECN in order to make this information nationally and internationally available, and to provide verification of the field data. MECN technicians are continuously invited to the Yachana Reserve to conduct in-field training and education for GVI and Yachana students, as well as explore research opportunities otherwise unavailable.

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

2. Avian Project: Impacts of road disturbance and edge effects on Avian Communities in the Yachana Reserve, Ecuador
Please see appendix for Introduction and Methods as unchanged from 104. 2.1 Mistnetting Results

Four mistnetting sessions were conducted on the Yachana Reserve during the expedition. Results are shown in Table 2.1. Four sites were surveyed, two south of the road and two north of the road. Table 2.1 Results from the 4 mistnetting sessions conducted in GVI Amazon Expedition 111.
Site 3 South 69.60 27 0.388 14 0.201 7 0 1 Site 3 North 68.44 22 0.321 13 0.205 8 0 2 Site 1 South 71.33 11 0.154 10 0.140 6 0 1 Site 1 North 72.80 22 0.302 13 0.179 6 0 1 Total 282.17 82 0.291 30 0.106 12 0 5

Net Hours No. of Individuals Individuals per Net Hour Number of Species Species per Net Hour Number of Families Unidentified Species Recaptures

These results at present cannot indicate any trends alone. This is a very small data set that will be analysed as part of a much larger project at a later date, looking at the effects of the road on avian communities. Absolute numbers of individuals caught varied only slightly from site to site. Site 3 south was the least productive, as only 11 individuals were caught. However, only 2 were caught that were of the same species, and the species composition at that site remained high. At the rest of the sites, species richness was comparatively lower in relation to the number of individuals caught. Twelve families of birds were observed in the mistnetting sessions this expedition. These include: Columbidae, Trochilidae, Dendrocolaptidae,
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Thamnophilidae, Pipridae, Tyrannidae and Turdidae which were also caught during the
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

previous phase (104). New families caught included: Bucconidae, Momotidae, Picidae, Conopophagidae, and Troglodytidae. The most common families encountered by number of individuals caught, included manakins (Pipridae 20 individuals caught), antbirds (Thamnophilidae 19 individuals caught), and hummingbirds (Trochilidae 17 individuals caught). The composition of species and the composition of families found at the corresponding locations of each site can be compared. North and south corresponding locations for each site were surveyed within two week of each other, and lie 300m from each other, divided at the midpoint by the road through the reserve. At Site 3, 49 individuals were caught in total. Of those, 6 species (12%) were found at both north and south locations (Fig. 2.1). At Site 1, 33 individuals were caught in total. Of those, 5 species (15%) were found at both locations (Fig. 2.2).

Fig. 2.1 Number of individuals caught at Site 3 in January 2011.

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Fig. 2.2 Number of individuals caught at Site 1 in February 2011.

Five (5) recaptures were recorded, in some cases, recaptures caught were from a previous day of sampling at that site, indicating the bird is possibly holding a territory in the area. Two birds recaptured had been previously banded at different locations. The first, a Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) with band ID 91L was caught at Site 3 south, was initially banded on 27 October, 2010, at a nearby survey location (East Bambosh, surveyed in Expedition 104), approximately 200m from the current capture location. The second, a Plain Brown Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) with band ID 77L caught at Site 1 south, was initially banded 14 October, 2010, at a survey site along Ridge trail 350m from the road (in Expedition 104), also approximately 200m from the current capture location. Two individuals, an Oscellated Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus oscellatus), band ID 14R, captured at Site 3 north, and a Plain Brown Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa), band ID 28L, captured at Site 1 north, however previous banding information has not been found for either bird.

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A new species to the Yachana Reserve, a Chestnut-belted Gnateater (Conopophaga aurita), was caught at Site 3 south in January, 2011. discussion for more detail on this record. See

2.2

Discussion

No significant inferences or trends can be observed from the data collected in this phase. The information will be gathered towards data from various phases and then analysed collectively to provide strength to any correlations found. This will involve looking at the impacts of the road on under-storey avian communities along with other taxonomic groups. A new species to the Yachana Reserve species list was captured on 19 January, 2011. A Chestnut-belted Gnateater, Conopophaga aurita, was captured at the Site 3 south location. This species (and family Conopophagidae in general) is highly elusive and individuals are seldomly seen. Mistnetting methodologies, allow more information to be gathered about elusive understory species. Mistnetting for understory birds will be continuing into the next phase. surveys will continue to obtain more results for the current project. Road impact

2.3

Point Count Results

During point count surveys for GVI Amazon expedition 111, 273 individuals and 55 species of birds were recorded from visual and audio observations. The number of bird species recorded decreased the closer the proximity to the road, however at the road the number of species recorded increased again (Fig 2.3).

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Fig. 2.3 Number of species recorded at each point during GVI Amazon expedition 111, delineated by distance from the road. During the survey period comprising of 8 surveys, 9 species (16%) were found at or near the road. These species have been termed Road Uniques (Table 2.2). Road Uniques are described as species found at points 1 (at 0 metres along the transect, on the road) and 2 (150 metres from the road), but were not recorded at points beyond 150 meters. Table 2.2 Road Uniques recorded on point count surveys in GVI Amazon expedition 111. Common Name
American Swallow-tailed Kite Black-headed Parrot Blue-black Grosbeak Buff-throated Woodcreeper Crimson-crested Woodpecker Grey-cheeked Thrush Roadside Hawk Speckled Chachalaca Thrush-like Antpitta

Scientific Name
Elanoides forficatus Pionites melanocephalus Cyanocompsa cyanoides Xiphorynchus guttatus Campephilus melanoleucos Catharus minimus Buteo magnirostris Ortalis guttata Myrmothera campanisona

Order: Family
Falconiformes: Accipitridae Psittaciformes: Psittacidae Passeriformes: Emberizidae Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae Piciformes: Picidae Passeriformes: Turdidae Falconiformes: Accipitridae Galliformes: Cracidae Passeriformes: Formicariidae

Points recorded
1 1 2 1 1 1 1 and 2 2 1

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In addition to species found only in close proximity to the road, there were also species specific to the deeper forest sites. Twenty-one (21) species (38%) were recorded that were unique to the 3rd point (300 metres) and beyond at further distances from the road (called Forest Uniques) (Table 2.3).

Table 2.3 Forest Uniques recorded on point count surveys in GVI Amazon expedition 111 Common Name
Amazonian Violaceous Trogon Bay-headed Tanager Blue-backed Manakin Broad-billed Motmot Cinereous Tinamou Collared Forest-Falcon Dusky-headed Parakeet Golden-headed Manakin Great Potoo Lawrences Thrush Little Tinamou Piratic Flycatcher Plain-winged Antshrike Ruddy Quail-Dove Scale-backed Antbird Screaming Piha Sooty Antbird Southern Nightingale-

Scientific Name
Trogon violaceus Tangara gyrola Chiroxiphia pareola Electron platyrhynchum Crypturellus cinereus Micrastur semitorquatus Aratinga weddellii Pipra erythrocephala Nyctibius grandis Turdus lawrencii Crypturellus soui Legatus leucophaius Thamnophilus schistaceus Geotrygon montana Hylophylax poecilinotus Lipaugus vociferans Myrmeciza fortis Microcerculus marginatus

Order: Family
Trogoniformes: Trogonidae Passeriformes: Thraupidae Passeriformes: Pipridae Coraciiformes: Momotidae Tinamiformes: Tinamidae Falconiformes: Falconidae Psittaciformes: Psittacidae Passeriformes: Pipridae Caprimulgiformes: Nyctibiidae Passeriformes: Turdidae Tinamiformes: Tinamidae Passeriformes: Tyrannidae Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae Columbiformes: Columbidae Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae Passeriformes: Cotingidae Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae Passeriformes:

Points recorded
5 3 3 5 3, 4 and 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 and 5 5 3, 4 and 5 4 5 4 5 3, 4 and 5
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GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Wren Spot-backed Antbird White-necked Thrush Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet

Hylophylax naevius Turdus albicollis Tyrannulus elatus

Troglodytidae Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae Passeriformes: Turdidae Passeriformes: Tyrannidae

3 3 4

Fifteen (15) species, including Amazonian White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis), Rufous Motmot (Baryphthengus martii), Dusky-throated Antshrike (Thamnomanes ardesiacus), Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata), and Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus cela) were recorded throughout the transect.

2.4

Discussion

This is the second phase of point counts using this methodology at GVI Amazon. The results collected this phase correspond to those collected and analyzed in the previous phase (104). Results from this phase indicate that the road does have an impact on the avian communities on the Yachana Reserve. This is indicated by the decrease in species recorded the closer the proximity to the road and that many species were either road uniques or forest unique. Only 9 species were unique to the road, as compared to 21 species found only in the forest. Of these, various species could be identified easier by sight, as the road sites lack the closed canopy which makes visual observations more difficult in the forest. This may be an explanation as to why more species were recorded on the road despite the trend showing less species presence towards the road. The habitat at the road may provide a successional niche suited to species that exploit open spaces. There were a high number of species that were only found at 300 metres or further into the forest (forest uniques) indicating that the road is having a negative effect on certain bird species as they are not found near the road. A high number of species were recorded at all 5 points, from the road into the undisturbed forest. The most common species and most vocal species are well-known by staff and volunteer observers, and by knowing the calls of these species, they are more likely to be picked up more frequently on the surveys than species that are more challenging to
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 14

identify. They are also very vocal species; this presents a bias with conducting point counts where only birds that call or are seen are recorded in dense tropical rainforest. A species that was never recorded on a point count survey, but was found frequently at mistnetting sites was the Ochre-bellied Flycatcher (Mionectes oleagineus). The mist netting data indicates that this is a very common species on the reserve, yet the difficult to see it in the understory, due to its shy habits and non-vocal tendencies result in it not being picked up during point counts. Analysing mist-netting data and point count data will help to negate these biases in the data that is collected. Pairing these two survey methods has enriched our understanding of the avian communities and the common, generalist and specialist species on the reserve. Point count surveys will continue to assess the impacts of the road through the Yachana Reserve. While some species were found throughout the whole transect indicating that their range is not affected by the road, results suggest that the road has a negative impact on the presence of many specialist bird species on the Yachana Reserve, indicated by the high prevalence of forest uniques. As these forest uniques are found only at a distance of 300m from the road and further into the forest, increased widening of the road will decrease the forest territory in which these species are found, with the possible effect of decreasing overall bird numbers and/or diversity within the Reserve.

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3. Herpetological Project: The Effect of Structural Habitat Change on Herpetofaunal Communities


3.1 Introduction

Rates of tropical deforestation continue to increase worldwide, exceeding efforts by governments and organisations to regenerate cleared areas. As a result disturbances and edges between forests and surrounding cleared areas are becoming an increasingly ubiquitous feature of tropical landscapes (Whitmore, 1997; Schlaepfer and Gavin, 2001). The term edge effect, typically encompasses all abiotic and biotic characteristics that change as a result of the juxtaposition of two dissimilar habitat types (Schlaepfer and Gavin, 2001). There is a general concern amongst scientists that edge effects may be detrimental to many taxa potentially extending deeply into some forest fragments affecting many endemic species. Roads are increasingly becoming a ubiquitous feature of many landscapes and their direct disturbance and edge effects are not yet fully understood (Jochimsen et al. 2004). Roads can have a variety of influences on the surrounding environment, such as habitat loss and alteration, noise pollution, chemical introduction, invasions of non-endemic flora and fauna in addition to disease and road mortalitly (Gossem 2007). Together these factors can create substantial barriers to the presence and movement of a wide range of organisms altering ecological processes, resulting in a potential loss of biodiversity of rainforest ecosystems. Amphibians and reptiles have been treated as ideal organisms for tracking and moderating abiotic edge effects (Schlaepfer and Gavin, 2001). This is a consequence of their moderate mobility and their sensitivity to temperature changes in their habitat. Amphibians are also prone to desiccation; the sunnier, windier and drier forest edges produced by structures such as roads could result in an increased vulnerability towards amphibian species. Recent studies by Jochimsen et al. (2004) documented the increased mortality rates of several species of amphibians and reptiles in North America as a result of the construction of roads. Altered roadside habitats have also been shown to modify amphibian and reptile behaviour and movement patterns, having an impact on the overall population stability and persistence (Jochimsen et al. 2004). It is extremely important to understand how amphibians and reptiles respond to a fragmented landscape, given that habitat destruction and fragmentation are some of the leading causes of herpetofaunal
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 16

decline world wide (Schlaepfer and Gavin, 2001). This project aims to investigate the disturbance caused by the road and its consequential edge effects on the amphibian and reptile communities of Yachana Reserve. Objectives To determine if and what the impacts of the road are on the presence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Yachana Reserve. Correlate results found for herpetofaunal communities with coinciding mammal, butterfly and avian projects in order to produce a multi-taxa assessment of the impact of the road through the Yachana Reserve. To gain more information about the distribution of amphibian and reptile species on the reserve, especially in regards to topographic elevation.

3.2

Methods

To study the road and edge effects on the herpetofaunal community in the Yachana Reserve, ten nocturnal Visual Encounter Surveys (VES) were conducted over the ten week duration of phase 111. All surveys were completed along 500 m linear transects, commencing at the road (0 m) and heading approximately perpendicular to the road into the northern primary forest (500 m). Five transects were completed, with each transect walked twice (from the road into the primary forest and consequently from the primary forest back to the road), to account for the emergence time of particular species. Transect locations were spaced across the reserve, with particular care taken not to traverse over large areas of secondary grassland that could bias data as a result of habitat variation. Transects were also performed off pre-existing ridge trails to avoid elevation bias. Each survey was conducted by six observers, with the 500 m transects (approximate transect width 5 m) taking approximately 2 and a half hours to complete. Each individual captured was processed in the exact manner as previous herpetofaunal surveys and the elevation of the individual was also noted.

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Study Site All research was conducted directly on the Yachana Reserve, situated within the Napo province in the Amazonian region of Ecuador. The stone and gravel based road which runs through the Yachana reserve, dissects the northern primary forest from the abandoned cacao plantations to the south. All herpetological visual encounter survey transects were conducted north of the road in the primary forest. 3.3 Results

During this phase, 123 identified reptile and amphibian individuals were encountered, comprising 5 species of reptiles and 19 species of amphibians. Pristimantis kichwarum and Ameerega bilinguis were the dominate species recorded during the phase with 53 individuals of P. kichwarum recorded along with 24 individuals of A. bilinguis. Combined, both species comprised 62.5% of the total assemblage. The distribution and abundance of P. kichwarum and A. bilinguis can be seen in Figure 3.1 and 3.2 respectively. Of the remaining 22 herpetofaunal species recorded only two species were encountered more than 3 times, Bolitoglossa pervuiana (6 individuals encountered) and Pristimantis lanthanites (10 individuals encountered). The distribution and abundance of the remaining 22 herpetofaunal species can be seen in Figure 3.3. To clearly show the distribution and abundance of particular species of the herpetofaunal assemblage in the Yachana Reserve, the following figures display distance from the road in 100 m intervals.

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Fig.3.1 Distribution and abundance of Pristimantis kichwarum in the Yachana Reserve. X axis represents the number of individuals recorded, Y axis represents distance from road.

Fig. 3.2. Distribution and abundance of Ameerega bilinguis in the Yachana Reserve. X axis represents the number of individuals recorded, Y axis represents distance from road.

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Fig. 3.3 Distribution and abundance of herpetofaunal species (minus P. kichwarum and A. bilinguis) in the Yachana Reserve. X axis represents the number of individuals recorded, Y axis represents distance from road. The distribution and abundance of amphibian and reptile individuals are reasonably evenly distributed over the 500 m survey transect. The most individuals recorded was between the 401-500 m interval, the furthest area from the road (Table 3.1). However, the region immediately juxtaposed to the road (0-100 m) recorded a relatively high 26 individuals encountered, as did the succeeding 101- 200 m interval (Table 3.1). Interestingly only 15 individuals were encountered between 301-400 m. In regards to the number of species encountered in each interval, the region next to the road (0-100 m) saw a relatively depleted number with only 5 different species recorded compared to 13 species observed between 201-300 metres and 12 species observed between 401-500 metres (Table 3.2). The number of unique species tells a similar story with the interval closest to the road (0100 m) containing only a single species unique to that interval, whereas the most distant interval from the road (401-500 m) displayed 5 unique species (Table 3.3).

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Table 3.1 Distance from the road (m) and corresponding number of individuals encountered in each 100 m interval.

Distance from road (m) 0-100 101-200 201-300 301-400 401-500

No. of individuals 26 26 22 15 34

Table 3.2 Distance from the road (m) and corresponding number of species encountered in each 100 m interval.

Distance from road (m) 0-100 101-200 201-300 301-400 401-500

No. of species 5 8 13 6 12

Table 3.3 Distance from the road (m) and corresponding number of unique encountered in each 100 m interval.

Distance from road (m) 0-100 101-200 201-300 301-400 401-500

No. of unique species 1 2 4 2 5

Pristimantis kichwarum and Ameerega bilinguis in terms of pure numbers are prevalent throughout the entire 500 m herpetofaunal transects and have been found on every survey undertaken (Fig. 3.4).

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

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Fig. 3.4 Distribution chart displaying the range of all herpetofaunal species encountered during the phase. X axis represents the herpetofaunal species encountered. Y axis represents distance from the road (m).

3.4

Discussion

Previous herpetological studies undertaken in the Yachana Reserve have predominantly focused on assessing the effect of structural habitat changes and the ability of secondary forest to preserve herpetofunal richness, distribution and abundance in addition to constructing an accurate species list (eg. Whitworth 2010). This phase saw herpetofaunal studies focused on the impact of road disturbance and the subsequent edge effects that the road may cause. The initial data documented is encouraging, however, for detailed statistical analysis to occur it is necessary that more data be collected and hence survey work for this project will continue into the next phase. Pristimantis kichwarum and Ameerega bilinguis in terms of pure numbers are prevalent throughout the entire 500 m herpetofaunal transects and have been found on every survey

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undertaken. This is hardly surprising though given the previous research regarding habitat change in Yachana Reserve that saw both species prevalent in secondary and primary forest, indicating an ability to quickly adapt to changing habitats (Whitworth 2010). One would assume that both species due to their generalist nature could adapt quickly to the disturbance and effects caused by the presence of a road through the reserve. In the 100m interval closest to the road 26 individuals were encountered, however of the 26 individuals 6 were A. bilinguis and 16 were P. kichwarum, accounting for 85% of the total number of individuals recorded. Of the remaining species encountered, Enyaloides laticeps and Pristimantis lanthanites were both observed further into the forest with only one unique species, Hypnodactylus nigrovittatus observed in this interval. The figures to date display a broad increase in number of individuals, number of species, and number of unique species observed, as distance from the road increases (Tables 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3). The distance furthest from the road (401-500 m) displayed the highest individuals documented and also the highest number of unique species encountered. This is with the exception of the interval 301-400 m that curiously recorded a low number of individuals (15) and species (6) in comparison to surrounding distances (e.g. 201-300 m and 401-500 m) that displayed a much higher abundance and diversity. The reasons for this are unclear and may be a possible result of topography across the reserve, although more information is needed to provide any conclusive evidence of this. Current research does potentially suggest some form of disturbance and edge effect caused by the implementation of the road through the Yachana Reserve. This is evident in the general increase in individuals and species encountered as you move further from the road and also in the increase of unique species found further from the road. The high numbers of individuals encountered close to the road are skewed by the dominance of generalist and quickly adaptable species such as A. bilinguis and P. kichwarum. These conclusions however, are preliminary in nature and much more information is needed before stronger conclusions can be reached. The principal drawback at present is the lack of data and the fact that most species have only been encountered once, not providing a reliable premise on their actual habitat preference in regards to distance from the road. The project surveys are due to continue into the next phase where more
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 23

transects will be undertaken and much more data recorded. Additionally, this will allow for a more detailed statistical analysis to occur and also potentially to investigate the controls that elevation may have on the distribution and abundance of the herpetofaunal communities in the Yachana Reserve.

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4. Butterfly Project: Impact of road disturbance on Nymphalid butterfly communities in Yachana Reserve, Ecuador.
Please see appendix for Introduction and Methods as unchanged from 104. 4.1 Results

From phase 111, a total of 215 individuals, of 60 species were captured and identified. A breakdown of the number of individuals found at each distance from the road is given in Table 4.1 Table 4.1 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road, combined from both sites over the 18 sampling days Dist. from road No. (m) 0 50 100 200 300 400 individuals 28 45 26 38 43 35 of

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Fig. 4.1 Graph of distribution of butterflies by tribe, in relation to the road, using data combined from both sites over a total of 18 days sampling. Fig. 4.1 shows that individuals from the tribe Euptychiini were found in abundance at a distance of 50m from the road and that no individuals from the tribe Nymphaliini were found at 0m.

Nymphaliini

Fig. 4.2 Graph of number of individuals caught within Nymphaliini tribe at varying distances from the road, combining data from phase 104 and 111
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 26

Fig. 4.3 Graph of abundance of Nesseae hewitsoni identified at varying distances from the road during phase 111. Fig 4.3 shows that no individuals of species Nesseae hewitsoni were identified at 0m or 50m, 1 was identified at 100m, 2 at 200m, 3 at 300m and 4 at 400m during phase 111.

Fig. 4.4 Graph of abundance of Nesseae hewitsoni identified at varying distances from the road, combining data from phase 104 and 111 Fig 4.4 shows that after no individuals were identified at 0m, 6 were identified at 50m, 3 at 100m, 6 at 200m, 9 at 300m and 7 at 400m.

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Fig. 4.5 Graph of abundance of Eupticiini sp. 1 identified at varying distances from the road Fig 4.5 shows that 1 individual was identified at 0m, 4 individuals at 50m and 2 individuals at 100m. None were recorded at 200m, 300m or 400m.

Fig. 4.6 Graph of abundance of Catonephele acontius identified at varying distances from the road. Fig 4.6 shows that no individuals were identified at 0m, 4 were identified at 50m, 1 at 100m, 1 at 200m, 2 at 300m and 1 at 400m.
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 28

Results combined from phases 104 and 111 (October 2010 March 2011) Over the 36 days of sampling, 416 individuals of 71 species were captured and identified. Table 4.2 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road, combined from all four sites over the 36 sampling days Dist. from road No. (m) 0 50 100 200 300 400 individuals 59 84 60 75 72 66 of

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Fig. 4.7 Graph showing Shannon diversity of species, combining data from phase 104 and 111. Fig 4.7 shows that for each distance from the road the values of the Shannon diversity index range between 2.5 and 3.5. 100m shows the lowest value (2.61), while 50m shows the highest (3.16).

4.2

Discussion

During phase 111, data in Table 4.1 shows that numbers of individuals captured at different distances from the road varied between 26 and 45, with no obvious trends with regards to preference for particular distances from the road. This, however, does not suggest that there are no interspecies differences. When analyzing data, it was not always shown that the road had any recognizable effect on individual numbers at sub-family, tribe,
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 30

genus or at species level. There was, however some data that suggested individuals been affected by the presence of the road. Fig 4.1 allows us to analyze road edge effects at the level of tribes. Shown is a peak in abundance of individuals from the Euptychiini tribe found at 50m from the road. This may be indicative of a bloom in a certain plant species beneficial to this tribe found around 50m from the road that does not occur in such abundance at other distances. The reasoning for this may be that climatic conditions created by the presence of the road has a direct effect on the surrounding flora populations, or may be an indirect effect caused by, for example, conditions created by the presence of the road having an effect on other fauna populations, which, in turn, affect the success of the Euptychiini tribe through predation, disturbance or competition. These hypotheses, however, are speculative and further research may be necessary to determine specific reasons for this correlation. Also shown in Fig 4.1 is the absence of individuals from the Nymphaliini tribe found at 0m, compared with their being found in relatively high abundances at all other distances sampled from the road. This indicates that the presence of the road has created conditions inhospitable to individuals from this tribe. When data from phase 111 was combined with previous project data from phase 104 (Fig 4.2), although 3 individuals from the Nymphaliini tribe were located at 0m, there are sufficiently large numbers of individuals found at distances further from the road to support the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between proximity to the road and numbers of individuals of this tribe. Fig 4.3 indicates that the presence of the road having a negative effect on populations at species level. Here, data is shown from phase 111 that shows no individuals of Nesseae hewitsoni were located either at 0m or 50 m from the road, after which their numbers increase in a way that appears directly proportional with their distance from the road. Combining data from phase 104 and 111 (Fig 4.4) shows still no individuals found at 0m, with relatively high numbers (3-9) individuals found at all other locations. This suggests that there are road edge effects here that have a negative effect on this species. The reasons for this are not clear, but again speculations may be made that either an unfavourable climate or unfavourable conditions of flora and/or fauna created by the presence of the road prevent Nesseae hewitsoni from flourishing at or around the road edge.
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 31

Fig 4.5 shows that Eupticiini sp. 1 was located at 0m, 50m and 100m, and was not located at any other distances. This is therefore suggestive that the road edge effects may result in increased numbers of this species. Again this may be due to the effects of the road having an effect on either floral or faunal composition of the area surrounding the road, but in this case in a way that benefits the species Eupticiini sp. 1. Fig 4.6 shows another example where the road appears to have an effect on distribution at species level. Catonephele acontius is shown not to have been found at 0m, with a peak of 4 found at 50m, and just 1 and 2 individuals found at sites thereafter. This suggests that while this species is prevented from thriving at 0m from the road, there are conditions created around 50m encouraging higher numbers of this species. Shown in Fig 4.2 are the total numbers of individuals captured at varying distances from the road from both phase 104 and 111. Although the smallest number of individuals (59) was captured at the road compared with the other locations, assumptions cannot be made about road effects on this broad level. Fig 4.7 shows the Shannon diversity of species over both phases 104 and 111. The results show relatively high values on the index (2.61 3.16), indicating relatively high levels of richness and evenness throughout the study sites. Data collected over the 36 total days of sampling shows many trends where members of the family Nymphalidae, at tribe, genus and species level, appear to impacted, often negatively, by road edge effects. This has large implications, especially within a relatively small reserve, such as the Yachana Reserve, when considering the impacts a road may have on butterfly communities. Due to a lack of inclusive information about specific buffer zone distances, it is suggested that the project is continued at new location sites. A change in distances sampled might help specify the road buffer zone impact. Site distances could potentially be 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100m. Recognizing differences in season, as long as other project procedures are maintained, data can be compared to the previous project, allowing a more focused look at buffer zones.

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This study has so far focussed on individuals within the Nymphalidae family. To widen the scope of known road edge effects on butterfly communities, it may be interesting to study butterflies of other families found in the reserve.

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5. Mammal Project: The effects of a minor road on non-flying mammal communities in a small reserve
Please see appendix for Introduction and Methods as unchanged from 104. 5.1 Results

Mammal VES from Expedition 111 produced a total of 25 records (groups of more than one individual was counted as one record), detecting at least 12 species. Some opossum, small rodent, armadillo and peccary observations were not able to be identified to species level due to the nature of the survey methods used. Table 5.1 Mammals recorded during Visual Encounter Surveys January - March 2011
Distance from road 0m Species Observed Dasyprocta fuliginosa, (unID), 25m* 150m 350m small rodent opossum sp sp. No. Records 4 No. Species 5

(unID), 2 4 7 2 3 5

Caluromys lanatus, Potus flavus Sylivagus brasiliensis, small rodent sp (unID) Didelphis marsupialis, Dactylomys dactylinus, dactylinus,, Potus flavus Potus flavus, Dactylomys

Didelphis marsupialis, Gracinanus sp 700m (unID), Agouti paca Mazma Americana, Aotus vociferans, small rodent sp (unID) Total: 25 Total:12 8 3

*Transect 3B not surveyed during Expedition 111 Sand padding also produced a number of records, detecting 8 observations, including 6 different species. Moulds and photographs collected from sand padding will also help build up a library database for mammal prints, aiding print/track identification in the future. During Expedition 111 a total of 10 sand pads across two sites (Site 1 was surveyed once and Site 3 was surveyed twice) were opened for a total of 9 days and 9 nights (totalling 90 sand pad days and nights) between the dates 21st January 2011 and 8th March 2011.

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Table 5.2 Mammals recorded during Sand Padding January - March 2011
Distance from road 0m 25m 150m 350m 700m Species Observed Nasua nasua Nasua nasua Nasua nasua, Dasyprocta fuliginosa, armadillo sp (unID) Small rodent (unID) Tayassuidae sp (unID), Leopardus pardilis 1 2 Total: 8 1 2 Total:6 No. Records 1 1 3 No. Species 1 1 3

With both VES and Sand Pad methods combined, the study to date has found 56 mammal records covering at least 16 species. It must be noted, however, the results are data deficient for transects 3B and 3D as only one VES has been completed for each of these, whereas all other transects have had two VES completed. A complete list of species observed at various distances away from the road since the beginning of the project in October 2010 is represented in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3 Mammals recorded from both VES and Sand Pad surveys completed between October 2010 and March 2011
Distance from road 0m Species Observed Dasyprocta Fuliginosa, Caluromys lanatus, Nasua nasua, Potus flavus, opossum sp
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 35

No. Records 7

No. Species 6

(unID), small rodent sp (unID) 25m Sylivagus brasiliensis, Dactylomys 9 5 dactylinus, Nasua nasua, opossum sp 150m (unID), small rodent sp (unID) Didelphis marsupialis, Potus Dactylomys dactylinus, flavus, , 13 7

Dasyprocta

fuliginosa, Nasua nasua, opossum sp 350m (unID), armadillo sp (unID) Dactylomys dactylinus, Potus flavus, 12 8

Didelphis marsupialis, Nasua nasua, Agouti paca, Gracinanus sp (unknown), opossum 700m sp (unID), small rodent sp (unID), Tayassuidae sp (unID), Leopardus pardilis, Mazma americana, Aotus vociferans, Nasua nasua, Dactylomys dactilinus, Agouti paca, Dasyprocta fuliginosa, opossum sp (unID), small rodent sp (unID) Total: 56 Total:16 15 10

Fig 5.1 represents the total number of mammal species and records observed at various distances away from the road since the beginning of the project in October 2010.

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Fig. 5.1 Total number of mammal records and species observed through VES and Sand Padding surveys between October 2010 and March 2011 Figure 5.2 represents how many of each mammal group was observed at various distances away from the road since the beginning of the project in October 2010.

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Fig. 5.2 Total number of mammal records separated into groups observed at each distance away from the road through VES and Sand Pad surveys between October 2010 and March 2011

5.2

Discussion

Results to date indicate there may be a slightly greater diversity in mammals observed at 700 metres away from the road as opposed to closer to the road between 0m and 350m. Survey work at 700m has also found some interesting observations such as Red Brocket Deer (Mazma Americana), Grey-necked Night Monkey (Aotus vociferans), Ocelot (Leopardus pardilis) and peccary only found at this distance and no closer transects to the road. This may suggest some species may prefer habitat further away from the road. It is, however, still early in the project with 12 more VES to be completed to provide a more complete data set. At this stage the data is not enough to perform any statistical analysis or draw any conclusions regarding differences in number of records or number of species closer or further from the road.

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6. Community Programme.
6.1 Introduction The community programme at GVI Amazon continues to grow and significant advances have once again been made this phase. Below are the aims and achievements to date for the various community projects being conducted at Yachana and in the surrounding area. 6.2 Colegio Tcnico Yachana (Yachana Technical High School)

GVI continues to work closely with the Yachana Technical High School. GVI welcomes students from the Yachana Technical High School joining the expedition for varying periods. They participate in all aspects of the expedition, including survey work, camp duty and satellite camps. The students are of great assistance during field work, sharing their knowledge about local uses for plants and local flora and fauna knowledge, as well as helping with the scheduled project work. They share their culture with volunteers and allow a greater insight into their background.

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Aims To provide a cultural exchange between volunteers and Ecuadorian students. To allow volunteers to practice Spanish and Colegio students to practice English. To create a greater awareness of the work conducted by GVI Amazon To enable Colegio students to gain practical experience in survey techniques.

Progress this phase This phase GVI Amazon welcomed four groups of students from the Colegio for periods of two days. During this time they exchanged language skills with volunteers and participated in demonstrations of the survey methodologies and the work conducted by volunteers and staff on the reserve. Future plans In order to continue to work towards the aims set out above we hope to increase the interaction between Colegio students and our volunteers by arranging for more small groups to visit camp. We hope to involve the students more in activities on camp, such as a potential medicinal garden, in order for them to make a real contribution to the activities of GVI Amazon. A new system for applications for longer term stays for students will also be introduced by the college. 6.3 TEFL at Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico is a village located approximately twenty minutes walk down the reserve road from the GVI Amazon camp. The school has two classes, a younger and older class, and lessons are given twice a week. Aims Improve the level of English teaching in the local community. Developing and incorporating environmental education for the children at the school. Maintain good connections with the community.

Progress Twelve English classes were given at Puerto Rico this phase. This resulted in 24 volunteer hours of teaching, to 19 older students (7-13 years old) and 12 younger students (4-7
GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 40

years old). The community were also invited to visit camp and we had a good attendance with a positive response to the morning. Relations with Puerto Rico are consistently improving and the staff and volunteers received and invitation to a community event this phase along with very successful attendance to football games and activities at the school. Future The next expedition will see the continuation of lessons, supplemented by an occasional tropical ecology class given at the end of each five weeks. communication with the community. We also hope to hold a presentation on the findings of the road effects project as this wraps up to continue good

6.4

TEFL at Puerto Salazar

Puerto Salazar is a small and poor communtiy approximately 45 minutes walk away from GVI base camp in the Yachana Reserve. The school is extremely small and the majority of attending children are very young and form just one class. Aims To begin to build better links with the community at Puerto Salazar. To increase the childrens exposure to English. To start to develop a possible teaching programme for English.

Progress Three informal English classes were given at Puerto Salazar on Saturday afternoons followed by games or football to which the community were invited to join. The lessons at Salazar have been temporarily halted, the majority of attending children were extremely young and with no adult presence from the community. Future We hope to begin lessons at Salazar again next phase once a more structured agreement has been made with the community regarding attendance and supervision of youngest children.

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6.5

TEFL at Rio Bueno

Teaching at Rio Bueno continued this phase. The school lies at the very Eastern edge of the reserve and consists of one class all of similar age, 7 to 12. You can reach the school on foot in around and hour and a half or you can take the bus to Tena which runs through the reserve the majority of the way. Aims Make connections with the community of Rio Bueno. Develop a teaching programme for the school. Give weekly English lessons. Introduce the conservation topics.

Progress Nine English lessons were delivered this phase. The class continue to be extremely willing to learn and we have made a great deal of progress with the level of English so far. The teacher is also putting a lot of effort into improving her own level of English knowledge and is taking the class through the work between lessons with volunteers. In order to encourage this we have been providing vocabulary flashcards and posters made by volunteers for use between classes. We also invited the community and school to visit the reserve in order to learn more about GVI and the work going on in the reserve. This was received very well and the visit was successful for both Rio Bueno and the volunteers. Future We hope to continue the weekly lessons with Rio Bueno and give environmental presentations each five weeks. We also hope to provide another opportunity for more community members to visit camp.

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7. Incidentals
GVI continues to document all faunal activity in the reserve through incidental sightings and audio encounters. All species encountered outside of specific surveys were recorded. Incidental sightings can be recorded during any survey or project work within the reserve, and also outside of survey or project time during walks into the forest. At the occurrence of each incidence, the time, location, date, species, and any other key characteristics or notes are taken and later entered into a database in camp. Records During this expedition, various species were encountered and recorded incidentally. These include:

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Reddish Hermit Amazonian BarredWoodcreeper Striolated Puffbird Blue-and-Yellow Macaw Opal-rumped Tanager Sunbittern Cobalt-winged Parakeet Anderson's Gray Four-eyed Opossum Silky Anteater Brown Vine Snake Rough-skinned Tree Frog Nymphalid Butterfly Amazonian Milk Frog Peruvian Rainbow Boa Pygmy Black Coral Snake Yellow-footed Tortoise Brazilian Rabbit/Tapeti White-tailed Deer Black Hawk-Eagle Southern Naked-tailed Armadillo Grey Antwren Fasciated Antshrike Stacy's Bachia Langsdorff's Coral Snake Southern Two-toed Sloth Big-headed Snail-eating Snake Glass Frog Musician Wren Paca Eastern Ribbon Coral Snake Ornate Coral Snake Black Mantle Tamarin Coati Swallow Tanager Amazon Tree Boa Yellow-headed Calico Snake Common Stream Lizard
Black-striped Forest Lizard

(Phaethornis ruber) (Dendrocolaptes certhia) (Nystalus striolatus) (Ara ararauna) (Tangara velia) (Eurypyga helias) (Brotogeris cyanoptera) (Philander andersoni) (Cyclopes didactylus) (Oxybelis anaeus) (Hypsiboas cinerascens) (Coenophlebia fabius) (Trachycephalus resinifictrix) (Epicrates cenchria gaigei) (Leptomicrurus scutiventris) (Chelonoidis denticulate) (Sylvilagus brasiliensis) (Odocoileus virginianus) (Spizaetus tyrannus) (Cabassous unicinctus) (Myrmotherula menetriesii) (Cymbilaimus lineatus) (Bachia trisanale) (Micrurus langsdorffi) (Choloepus didactylus) (Dipsas indica indica) (Cochranella midas) (Cyphorhinus arada) (Agouti paca) (Micrurus lemniscatus) (Micrurus langsdorffi ornitassimus) (Suguinus nigricollis) (Nasua nasua) (Tersina viridis) (Corallus enhydris enhydris) (Oxyrhopus formosus) (Neustricurus ecpleopus) (Cecosaura ocellata bassleri) (Oxyrhopus petola digitalis) (Bothrops atrox) (Ara severus) (Nyctibius grandis)
44

Banded Calico Snake Fer-de-lance Chestnut-fronted Macaw Great Potoo

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Turnip-tailed gecko Crane Hawk Olive Whip Snake Olive Tree-runner Tiger Rat Snake Green Acouchy Paradise Tanager White Hawk Great Tinamou Musurana Bay-headed tanager White-fronted Capuchin Smooth-fronted caimen Golden Tegu Red-tailed Boa White-shouldered tanager

(Thecadactylus solimoensis) (Geranospiza caerulescens) (Chironius fuscus) (Tropidurus umbra) (Spilotes pullatus pullatus) (Myoprocta pratti) (Tanagara chilensis) (Leucopternis albicollis) (Tinamus major) (Clelia clelia clelia) (Tangara gyrola) (Cebus albifrons) (Paleosuchus trigonatus) (Tupinambis teguixin) (Boa constrictor constrictor) (Tachyphonus luctuosus)

8. Other work conducted during 111


8.1 Aims When tourists from the Yachana Lodge take their rainforest walk the current route that they take has no focal point and is along a linear route. Along the current route the only information that the tourists receive is what the guides tell them, there is nothing to enhance the learning of the tourist. The aim of creating an interpretive trail is to give a focus to the walk through the rainforest that the tourists take and to give them some scientific information about the reserve and the rain forest and to enhance their learning. A series of painted signs, each about a different rainforest related topic are to be set up along an interesting area of rainforest with at numerous points of interest.
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Interpretation Trail

Progress Two routes were identified, one over flat terrain near the Cascada Trail and the already cut route from the road to the Kapoc tree along Access C. After conferring with the guides from Yachana Lodge the route via the Kapoc tree was selected and extended to make a circular route back to the Kapoc tree. Eight points of interest were identified along the route with three being around the Kapoc tree. GVI Volunteers were put in pairs and asked to research information and design a sign each. One pair was also tasked with designing a bilingual sign about what GVI does and its links with Yachana. Two of these signs have been created and one erected at the entrance to Access A and another one at the steps down to base camp from the Ridge Trail and Access C. After researching information and designing the signs, the information was transferred onto the signs and artwork completed. During week 10 the signs were erected and finishing touches added to the trail including chonta steps at the entrance and a hand rail along a steep section of the route. Future There is potential to put more signs along the Kapoc tree route giving tourists more information about the rainforest. The other trail that was identified near the Cascada trail could also be developed and signs erected, giving the guides a choice of routes to take tourists along depending upon fitness levels. Any new signs that may be designed can focus specifically on the different taxanomic groups found and studied within the reserve e.g. a sign explaining the different mammal survey methods with pictures of the prints found on the reserve. A small trail explaining the local uses of some of the plants found around base camp could also be developed.

8.2

Long Term Monitoring System

Work on the new grid system transect system began this phase. Several access trails and transects were successfully installed and this will be continued into phase 112. New standard methodologies are being developed for the monitoring system and will be included in future phase reports.

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9. Future Expedition Aims


The biodiversity programme will be continued, opportunistically re-surveying sites, and expanding the surveey areas within the reserve. Avian research will continue, including point counts and mist netting. Herpetological research will continue, collecting more data on the road effects project. GVI will continue to participate in exchanges with the Yachana Technical High School. TEFL at Puerto Rico, Rio Bueno and hopefully Puerto Salazar will continue with a defined focus for each ten week block, for each age group and the aim is to encourage students to put their learning into practise and get them conversing in English. Simple environmental lessons will be continued at the school in Puerto Rico (to be given in Spanish) and started at Rio bueno. The biggest aim for next phase is to finish wrapping up the current projects in order to continue working towards re- structuring the reserve into a grided format. This will allow for a more standardised monitoring system and several grids have now been installed alongside the project work being conducted this phase. We hope to continue this throughout phase 112.

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10. References
Mammal References Bissonette, J.A. and Rosa, S.A. (2009).Road Zone Effect in Small-Mammal

Communities.Ecology and Society 14: 27 Coffin, A.W.(2007). From roadkill to road ecology: a review of the ecological effects of roads. Journal of Transportation Geography 15:396-406. Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. (1999). USA. Emmons, L.H. (1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide, Second Edition. University of Chicago Press, USA Goosem, M. (2007).Fragmentation impacts caused by roads through rainforests.Current Science 93: 1587-1595 Pocock, Z., and Lawrence, R.E. (2005). How far into a forest does the effect of a road extend? Defining road edge effect in eucalyupt forests of south-eastern Australia.Pages 397405 in C. L. Irwin, P. Garrett, and K. P. McDermott, editors. Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Center for Transportation and Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Silveira, L., Jacomo, A.T.A. and Diniz-Filho, A.F. (2003). Camera trap, line transect census and track surveys: a comparative evaluation. Biological Conservation 114:351-353 Smithsonian Institute (1996). Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Mammals. 89-93, 158-163 Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central

Neotropics Volume 3: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press,

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Herpetology References Goosem, M. (2007).Fragmentation impacts caused by roads through rainforests.Current Science 93: 1587-1595 Jochimsen, D.M., Peterson, C.R., Andrews, K.M. and Gibbons, J.W. (2004). A Literature Review of the Effects of Roads on Amphibians and Reptiles and the Measures Used to Minimize Those Effects. Idaho Fish and Game Department, USDA Forest Service, 1-79. Schlaepfer, M.A. and Gavin, T.A. 2001. Edge Effects on Lizards and Frogs in Tropical Forest Fragments. Conservation Biology 15: 1079-1090 Whitworth, A. 2010. Herpetological Research: The Effect of Structural Habitat Change on Herpetofaunal Communities. GVI Quarterly Science Report for Phase 104, 19-26.

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11. Appendices
11.1 Avian survey sites

Map of the Yachana Reserve showing proposed mistnetting sites and point count sites. In GVI Amazon expedition 104, sampled mistnetting sites were Ridge South (01 S), East Bambosh (03 S), Buena Vista South (02 S moved to 150 metres from the road), and Buena Vista North (06 N moved to 150 metres from the road).

11.2

Avian Project Introduction

Rainforests worldwide have been suffering the effects of habitat fragmentation for decades, and its impacts on the flora and fauna of these globally significant ecosystems are severe. Although not as severe as complete habitat fragmentation, roads can significantly affect rainforest environments and expose edge effects on the plant and animal communities. Although roads are beneficial in providing access to remote areas, the effects of roads on forest ecosystems extends further into the forest than just at the
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road edges (Gossem 2007, Coffin 2007), and is said to cause internal fragmentation, a less-recognized yet potentially severe threat caused by roads in rainforest ecosystems (Gossem 2007). Roads can have a wide variety of impacts on the surrounding environments, including habitat loss and alteration, edge effects, disturbance effects such as noise pollution and chemical introduction, invasions of non-native flora, fauna and disease and road mortality, which together can create substantial barriers to the movement of a wide range of multi-taxa species and alter ecological processes (Gossem 2007). As a result, there is a high potential for loss of biodiversity of rainforest ecosystems. Avian communities are sensitive to environmental changes and habitat fragmentation within neotropical rainforests and other ecosystems worldwide. Certain groups of birds are reluctant to cross open roads, even if the road itself has minimal traffic. Amazonian understory birds, especially those that move in mixed flocks and certain insectivorous species, tend to avoid canopy gaps in general and in many cases avoid edge habitats (Gossem 2007). Edge effects result in increased light intensity, temperature and moisture stress, which can be expected along the edges of roads in rainforests. They ultimately change the composition of vegetation along the roadsides to generalist, successional species, and therefore affecting the avifaunal communities that inhabit the roadside edges (Gossem 2007). A study in Colorado showed that bird species composition was altered adjacent to trails in two ecosystems, one of which was forest habitat (Miller et al. 1998). Also, generalist species were found to be more abundant near trails and specialist species showed to be less common (Miller et al. 1998). In neotropical regions, many of the species present in the forests are shy understory birds such as antbirds and manakins, which are dependent on the presence of food resources and specific ecological habitats. There is a good possibility that roads through small reserves have created unnatural territory boundaries in which many of these species will not cross, thereby limiting the distributions of these specialist species. The purpose of this is to determine if the road through the Yachana Reserve has any impacts on the avian communities present, through mistnetting and point count survey
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methods.

Previously, mistnetting has been carried out on the

Yachana Reserve to investigate the impacts of disturbed versus less-disturbed habitat on avian communities. Point counts on the Yachana Reserve have also looked at similar trends, focusing on the different habitats and their influences on the birds present on the reserve. This study is planned to be carried out over a period of 6 months in order to gather all the data necessary to produce significant results and build a larger picture of the impacts of the road through the reserve on its avian communities. In addition to the main goals of this project, there is interest in testing the methods for training non-specialist participants for point count surveys. Recent years have seen a large increase in the number of people undertaking volunteering work in the developing countries as an alternative to study or employment, and conservation-based projects are among the most popular (Year Out Group 2010). Therefore determining the capacity of these volunteers to undertake a point count methodology would have wider applications which are expected to continue to expanding. It is hoped that by applying the correct model to the data collected and teaching volunteers to a high enough level a viable analysis of the differing avian assemblages can also be conducted. Previously on the Yachana Reserve (previous 6 months), volunteers have been trained using audio cues; in this study, we are introducing methods of training involving visual and audio cues to test the effectiveness of the two methods. Aims To determine if there are impacts of the road on the distribution and movements of avian communities of the Yachana Reserve. To gain more information about the distribution of understory and canopy bird species on the reserve through a multi-methodology study. Investigate the capacity of untrained volunteers to learn sufficient bird calls in order to act as independent observers in a point count methodology. To test and identify effective methods of training non-specialist observers for point count survey techniques, which can serve useful to avian conservation projects using non-specialist observers. Objectives
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Produce an avian report on the impacts of road disturbance and corresponding edge effects, which can serve as an advisory for future development on small reserves for conservation monitoring purposes.

Correlate the results found for bird communities with the coinciding mammal, amphibian and butterfly projects to produce a multi-taxa assessment of the impact of the road through the Yachana Reserve.

Monitor the patterns of observer improvement with training and quantitatively analyze the effectiveness of various training techniques in using volunteers for point count surveys, over a time gradient. 11.3 Mistnetting Methodology

Eight (8) mistnetting sites were chosen with respect to the other proposed sites and the proximity to the road through the Yachana Reserve. The placement of the sites consists of 4 sites on the north side of the road and 4 corresponding sites on the south side of the road. Each mistnetting site has a 500 m buffer to adjacent sites on the same side of the road. Each site is 150 m from the road, therefore each north-south site set has a 350 m overlap over the road zone. Each site has an array of 4 to 6 12x2.5m mistnets, distributed at least 30m from adjacent nets in a random pattern as the contours of the area allow. The mistnets were opened for a period of 4 consecutive days (weather permitting) at each site, one site at a time. Four (4) sites are surveyed in a 10-week expedition period, surveying all mistnetting sites over a period of 6 months. The mistnets were opened at sunrise (approximately 6:00 am) and remained open for approximately 4.5 5 hours a morning. Seventy (70) net hours (hours open x number of nets) were targeted for each 4day session (standard for a 4-net array). During the open period, the nets were checked in sequence every 25 minutes to ensure that birds caught were not tangled in the nets for an excessive amount of time. When checked, any birds caught were removed by trained and capable staff and placed into a bird bag to minimize stress of the birds until processed. Birds caught were processed at an adjacent station. Birds were identified to species. If it were possible, the birds caught were banded with an aluminum butt-end band (hummingbirds were excluded due to size
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and others were limited to band sizes available). This allows for monitoring of recaptures. processing. Birds were weighed, measured, aged and sexed where possible. The processed birds were released over 50m away from the net sites after All standard mistnetting procedures and protocols were observed and monitored by trained staff on the project. Mistnetting has been found to be generally less efficient than point counts (Blake and Loiselle 2001; Barlow et al. 2007); however it offers a method free from observer bias. It is also a useful and standardized technique to compare understory avifaunal communities composed of non-vocal and secretive species (Blake and Loiselle 2000). 11.4 Point Count Methodology

Point count surveys were conducted along various linear transects chosen on the north side of the road that runs through the Yachana Reserve. Points were set at 0m, 150m, 300m, 450m, and 600m along each transect; 0m is located at the road and the points continue northward along the transect. This will account for independence of understory birds recorded. Five (5) points were surveyed each morning (weather permitting). The counts were a duration 10 minutes at each site, with a 3 minute settle period upon arrival at each site prior to beginning each count. Point count surveys took place in just after sunrise (approximately starting around 6:15 am) and finishing by mid-morning, during the most active period of the day for avian activity. All birds seen and heard were recorded staff and volunteers collectively. Total species recorded for each point were tallied at the end of each survey day. In Expedition phase 111, 8 point counts were conducted along 5 transects that run from the road north into the reserve, to 600m. Three transects were walked in both directions, 0m 600m and 600m 0m during the survey period. No volunteer learning aspects were continued during this expedition phase, as the results obtained in the previous expedition 104 were sufficient for this project.

11.5

Butterfly Project Introduction

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The effects of fragmentation and development within forest landscapes have been reasonably well documented due to their many impacts including alteration of habitat, spread of disease, and population decline. However, the development and construction of roads are a basic requirement of growing communities and will continue to impact tropical rainforests (Goosem, 2007). Road systems sharply define and fragment forest ecosystems, resulting in changes to plant species composition and structure from road edges to the surrounding interior (Bennett, 1991). The presence of roads and trails opens up the forest canopy, creating light gaps, modifying plant communities and resources available for other species. Despite being a part of the most diverse taxon in the neotropics, little is known about distribution and factors influencing diversity of butterflies (Murray, 1997). It is necessary to understand impacts on butterflies as its dependence of the larval stage on a specific host plant, combined with adult pollinating roles make important ecological indicators (Ehrlich and Raven, 1965). Butterfly communities have shown to be sensitive to environmental variables, such as sunlight, gaps and edges (Ramos, 2000). The aims of this study are: To determine if there are any edge effects caused by the road that significantly impact butterfly distribution in the Yachana Reserve To better understand butterfly distribution in the Yachana Reserve To correlate results with other taxa assessments made in the reserve

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11.6

Butterfly Project Methods

Trap design The main body of the traps consisted of a cylinder of netting on average 1m in length, 0.25m in diameter. The netting had a closed top to prevent captured individuals from escaping and was created with a Velcro-fastened slit along the side to allow removal of butterflies. Approximately 0.1m below the netting, a 25cm diameter tray was hung. Durable string was attached to the top of the traps, with which to hang them from trees Bait Fermented mashed banana was prepared as bait following the methods of DeVries and Walla (1999). Bait was placed in small bowls, covered in mesh netting and placed in the tray hung below the trap. Traps were rebaited every three days. Survey sites Two transects extending from the road northwards for 400m were marked on a GPS. These were then cut in the forest by lightly clearing a passable transect using machetes and were marked using marking tape. During the first 9 day sampling period, on each transect, ground and aerial traps were hung at 0m, 100m, 200m, 300m, 400m from the road. From the second sampling period onwards, a ground and an aerial trap were included at 50m. The ground traps were hung at a height of 1-1.5m and the aerial traps were hung at a height of 10-15m. Identification and marking Two sampling periods were run for 9 consecutive days, a total of 18 sampling days. All butterflies captured were identified by GVI volunteers and staff using identification plates. Captured individuals were marked on the upper wings, using a non-toxic marking pen, with a spot code in order to monitor recaptures. Butterflies were not marked if they were deemed to be too small (e.g. smaller than Tigridia acesta), their wings showed dramatic effects of wear (i.e. If there are pieces of wing missing) to prevent further damage to the wings, or if their wings were transparent to avoid disrupting camoflauge/disguise. Despite this, it was still be possible to differentiate between recaptures and newly-caught individuals and hence avoid any pseudo-replication. After the 9 days of sampling, the traps
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were closed. The traps opened again for another 9 days of sampling after 27 days. The traps were removed after each monitoring period.

11.7

Mammal Project Introduction

The effects of fragmentation within the forest landscape has been reasonably well documented in the past, rising to an overwhelming agreement that it is one of many major driving forces towards habitat loss, population declines and extinction. It has been documented as a severe threat to tropical rainforests by Goosem (2007), however still continues today at an unprecedented rate all over the world. Although not as severe as forest habitat fragmentation caused by neighbouring agriculture, residential and other anthropogenic landscapes, roads still affect rainforest habitats and expose similar edge effects on surrounding plant and animal communities. Not only do roads provide access to remote areas (Goosem, 2007, and Coffin, 2007) and cause more noticeable impacts such as wildlife mortality and injuries through collisions with vehicles (Bisonette and Rosa, 2009), the effect of roads extends much further beyond its physical boundaries into the forest landscape (Goosem, 2007; Bisonette and Rosa, 2009; Pocock and Lawrence, 2005; Coffin, 2007). Roads can be considered as being agents of change that have both primary, or indirect effects, as well as secondary, or indirect effects on the biota (Coffin, 2007). This may entail the displacement of particular species and the reduction of core habitat unaffected by roads. They have been documented to cause internal fragmentation (Goosem, 2007), habitat loss, habitat alteration, facilitation of the spread of exotic flora and fauna species, altered microclimates and vegetation structure, and loss of connectivity (barrier effect) which restricts the movement of individuals (Goosem, 2007; Bisonette and Rosa, 2009; Kindlemannet et al, 2007; Pocock and Lawrence, 2005). These effects have all been associated with altering rainforest faunal habitats, and therefore may affect mammal abundance, diversity and species composition. Mammals, of course, are not the only affected taxa, and the full extent of road impacts could be assessed across multi-taxa studies.

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It is the interest of this study to determine if this minor road has any impact on the adjacent rainforest non-flying mammal communities in the Yachana Reserve. Aims of the study 1. To determine if there are any edge effects caused by the road that significantly impacts the distribution of mammal species in the Yachana Reserve. 2. To increase knowledge about mammals within the Yachana Reserve. 3. To correlate results with other taxa assessments made in the reserve.

11.8

Mammal Project Methods

This mammal project began at the beginning of this expedition in October 2010. Two sites were set up and surveyed (Sites 1 and 3), spaced 1500m apart along the road which runs through the reserve. Each site consisted of five 500m long transects placed at 0, 25, 150, 350 and 700 metres from the road, following the road contours. Sand pads were constructed within these sites, and these methods will be further discussed in the Sand Pads section. Visual Encounter surveys Ten visual encounter survey (VES) transects were also set up across the two sites. Each transect had a thin trail cut along it and marked with coloured plastic tape for navigation, distance and pacing purposes. During Expedition 111 eleven visual encounter surveys were undertaken between the dates 21st January to 8th March 2011. Nocturnal visual encounter surveys were completed along these transects within the hours 2000-2300 walking at a pace of approximately 300m/hr. Each transect was searched by four observers and visual and audio signs of mammals were recorded.

Sand Pads
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One site was sand padded at a time due to limited resources. Each site contained 10 sand pads; two pads per 0m, 25m, 150m, 350m and 700m transect. On each transect, one sand pad was placed 100m in from each end (east and west) to minimise disturbance from access trails skirting the edges of the transect sites. Sand pads were circular with a one metre diameter with sand overlain on top of black plastic sheeting to aid containment, and a bait lure of mashed sardines in a tomato sauce and water solution was poured onto the centre of the pad (Smithsonian Institute, 1996). A clear plastic tarp 1x2 metres was hung from nearby trees approximately 1.5 to 2 metres off the ground directly above each sand pad to protect the pad and any prints from rainfall. Sand pads were baited at every set up session and daily check between 0700 and 1100 with the exception of the very last check when they were packed up. Sand was levelled off and maintained after each check. When prints were detected photograph and wax moulds were taken of the tracks, and also sketches drawn to show shapes and measurements.

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11.9

Yachana Reserve Species List

** new species added during phase 111 ( ) audio observations only CLASS AVES Order Tinamiformes Tinamidae Crypturellus bartletti Crypturellus cinereus Crypturellus soui Crypturellus undulatus Crypturellus variegatus Tinamus major Tinamous Bartlett's Tinamou Cinereous Tinamou Little Tinamou Undulated Tinamou Variegated Tinamou Great Tinamou

Order Ciconiformes Ardeidae Ardea cocoi Bubulcus ibis Butorides striatus Egretta caerulea Egretta thula Tigrisoma lineatum Cathartidae Cathartes aura Cathartes melambrotus Coragyps atractus Sarcoramphus papa Herons and Egrets Cocoi Heron Cattle Egret Striated Heron Little Blue Heron Snowy Egret Rufescent Tiger-Heron American Vultures Turkey Vulture Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Black Vulture King Vulture

Order Falconiformes Accipitridae Elanoides forficatus Kites, Eagles, Hawks Swallow-tailed Kite 60

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Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea Leptodon cayanensis Harpagus bidentatus Accipiter superscilious Accipiter bicolor Buteo magnirostris Buteo polyosoma Leucopternis melanops Leucopternis albicollis Geranospiza caerulescens** Spizaetus tyrannus Spizaetus ornatus Pandionidae Pandion haliaetus Falconidae Daptrius ater Ibycter americanus Milvago chimachima Herpetotheres cachinnans Falco rufigularis Micrastur gilvicollis Micrastur semitorquatus Gray-headed Kite Double-toothed Kite Tiny Hawk Bicolored Hawk Roadside Hawk Variable Hawk Black-faced Hawk White Hawk Crane Hawk** Black Hawk-eagle Ornate Hawk-eagle Osprey Osprey Falcons and Caracaras Black Caracara Red-throated Caracara Yellow-headed Caracara Laughing Falcon Bat Falcon Lined Forest-Falcon Collared Forest-Falcon

Order Galliformes Cracidae Ortalis guttata Penelope jacquacu Nothocrax urumutum Odontophoridae Odontophorus gujanensis Curassows, Guans, and Chachalacas Speckled Chachalaca Spix's Guan Nocturnal Curassow New World Quails Marbled Wood-Quail 61

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Order Gruiformes Rallidae Anurolimnatus castaneiceps Aramides cajanea Eurypygidae Eurypyga helias Rails, Gallinules, and Coots Chestnut-headed Crake Gray-necked Wood-Rail Sunbittern Sunbittern

Order Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Actitis macularia Tringa solitaria Recurvirostridae Hoploxypterus cayanus Sandpipers, Snipes and Phalaropes Spotted Sandpiper Solitary Sandpiper Plovers and Lapwings Pied Plover

Order Columbiformes Columbidae Claravis pretiosa Columba plumbea Geotrygon montana Leptotila rufaxilla Pigeons and Doves Blue Ground-Dove Plumbeous Pigeon Ruddy Quail-Dove Gray-fronted Dove

Order Psittaciformes Psittacidae Ara ararauna Ara severa Amazona farinosa Amazona ochrocephala Brotogeris cyanoptera Aratinga leucophthalmus Aratinga weddellii Parrots and Macaws Blue-and-Yellow Macaw Chestnut-fronted Macaw Mealy Amazon Yellow-crowned Amazon Cobalt-winged Parakeet White-eyed Parakeet Dusky-headed Parakeet 62

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Maroon-tailed Parakeet Pyrrhura melanura Pionites melanocephala Pionopsitta barrabandi Pionus menstruus Pionus chalcopterus Black-headed Parrot Orange-cheeked Parrot Blue-headed Parrot Bronze-winged Parrot

Order Cuculiformes Opisthocomidae Opisthocomus hoazin Coccyzidae Piaya cayana Piaya melanogaster Crotophagidae Crotophaga ani Crotophaga major Hoatzin Hoatzin Cuckoos Squirrel Cockoo Black-bellied Cuckoo Anis Smooth-billed Ani Greater Ani

Order Strigiformes Strigidae Megascops choliba Megascops watsonii Glaucidium brasilianum Lophostrix cristata Pulsatrix perspicillata Typical Owls Tropical Screech-Owl Tawny-bellied Screech-owl Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Crested owl Spectacled owl

Order Caprimulgiformes Nyctibiidae Nyctibius aethereus Nyctibius grandis Nyctibius griseus Caprimulgidae Potoos Long-tailed Potoo Great Potoo Common Potoo Nightjars and Nighthawks 63

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Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis Nyctiphrynus ocellatus Ocellated Poorwill

Order Apodiformes Apodidae Chaetura cinereiventris Streptoprocne zonaris Trochilidae Glaucis hirsuta Phaethornis bourcieri Phaethornis hispidus Phaethornis malaris Phaethornis ruber Thrrenetes niger Eutoxeres condamini Heliothryx aurita Amazilia franciae cyanocollis Amazilia fimbriata Anthracothorax nigricollis Campylopterus largipennis Campylopterus villaviscensio Eriocnemis vestitus Thalurania furcata Floriduga mellivora Heliodoxa aurescens Swifts Grey-rumped Swift White-collared Swift Hummingbirds Rufous -breasted Hermit Straight-billed Hermit White-bearded Hermit Great-billed Hermit Reddish Hermit Pale-tailed Barbthroat Buff-tailed Sicklebill Black-eared Fairy Andean Emerald Hummingbird Glittering-throated Emerald Black-throated Mango Grey-breasted Sabrewing Napo Sabrewing Glowing Puffleg Fork-tailed Woodnymph White-necked Jacobin Gould's Jewelfront

Order Trogoniformes Trogonidae Pharomachrus pavoninus Trogons and Quetzals Pavonine Quetzal 64

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Black-tailed Trogon Trogon melanurus Trogon viridis Trogon collaris Trogon rufus Trogon violaceus Trogon curucui Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Collared Trogon Black-throated Trogon Amazonian Violaceous Trogon Blue-crowned Trogon

Order Coraciiformes Motmotidae Baryphthengus martii Electron platyrhynchum Momotus momota Cerylidae Chloroceryle amazona Chloroceryle americana Chloroceryle inda Megaceryle torquata Motmots Rufous Motmot Broad-billed Motmot Blue-crowned Motmot Kingfishers Amazon Kingfisher Green Kingfisher Green-and-rufous Kingfisher Ringed Kingfisher

Order Piciformes Galibulidae Jacamerops aureus Galbula albirostris Bucconidae Notharchus macrorynchos Bucco macrodactylus Nystalus striolatus Malacoptila fusca Monasa flavirostris Monasa morphoeus Monasa nigrifrons Chelidoptera tenebrosa Jacamars Great Jacamar Yellow-billed Jacamar Puffbirds White-necked Puffbird Chestnut-capped Puffbird Striolated Puffbird White-chested Puffbird Yellow-billed Nunbird White-fronted Nunbird Black-fronted Nunbird Swallow-winged Puffbird 65

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New World Barbets Capitonidae Capita aurovirens Capita auratus Eubucco bourcierii Ramphastidae Pteroglossus azara Pteroglossus castanotis Pteroglossus inscriptus Pteroglossus pluricinctus Ramphastos vitellinus Ramphastos tucanus Selenidera reinwardtii Picidae Dryocopus lineatus Campephilus melanoleucos Campephilus rubricollis Celeus elegans Celeus flavus Celeus grammicus Chrysoptilus punctigula Melanerpes cruentatus Picumnus lafresnayi Veniliornis fumigatus Veniliornis passerinus Scarlet-crowned Barbet Gilded Barbet Lemon-throated Barbet Toucans Ivory-billed Aracari Chestnut-eared Aracari Lettered Aracari Many-banded Aracari Channel-billed Toucan White-throated Toucan Golden-collared Toucanet Woodpeckers and Piculets Lineated Woodpecker Crimson-crested Woodpecker Red-necked Woodpecker Chestnut Woodpecker Cream-coloured Woodpecker Scaly-breasted Woodpecker Spot-breasted Woodpecker Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Lafresnaye's Piculet Smoky-brown Woodpecker Little Woodpecker

Order Passeriformes Furnariidae Ancistrops strigilatus Phylidor erythropterum Ovenbirds Chestnut-winged Hookbill Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner

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Ruddy Foliage-gleaner Automolus rubiginosus Automolus ochrolaemus Philydor pyrrhodes Xenops minutus Sclerurus caudacutus Sclerurus mexicanus Sclerurus rufigularis Dendrocolaptidae Dendrocolaptes picumnus Dendrocolaptes certhia Dendrexetastes rufigula Dendrocincla fuliginosa Glyphorynchus spirurus Lepidocolaptes albolineatus Xiphorhynchus guttatus Xiphorhynchus ocellatus Xiphorhynchus picus Thamnophilidae (Cymbilaimus lineatus Frederickena unduligera Thamnophilus schistaceus Thamnophilus murinus Megastictus margaritatus Thamnomanes ardesiacus Myrmotherula menetriesii** Myrmotherula brachyura Myrmotherula axillaris Myrmotherula hauxwelli Myrmotherula longipennis Myrmotherula obscura Myrmotherula ornata Hersilochmus dugandi Cercomacra cinerascens Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner Cinammon-rumped Foliage-gleaner Plain Xenops Black-tailed Leaftosser Tawny-throated Leaftosser Short-billed Leaftosser Woodcreepers Black-banded Woodcreeper Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper Plain Brown Woodcreeper Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Lineated Woodcreeper Buff-throated Woodcreeper Ocellated Woodcreeper Straight-billed Woodcreeper Typical Antbirds Fasciated Antshrike) Undulated Antshrike Plain-winged Antshrike Mouse-colored Antshrike Pearly Antshrike Dusky-throated Antshrike Gray Antwren Pygmy Antwren White-flanked Antwren Plain-throated Antwren Long-winged Antwren Short-billed Antwren Ornate Antwren Dugand's Antwren Gray Antbird 67

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Warbling Antbird Hypocnemis cantator Hypocnemis hypoxantha Hylophlax naevia Hylophylax poecilinota Dichrozona cincta Schistocichla leucostigma Myrmeciza hyperythra Myrmeciza immaculata Myrmeciza melanoceps Pithys albifrons Gymnopithys leucapis Phlegopsis erythroptera Phlegopsis nigromaculata Myrmornis torquata Formicariidae Formicarius analis Chamaeza nobilis Myrmothera campanisona Yellow-browed Antbird Spot-backed Antbird Scale-backed Antbird Banded Antbird Spot-winged Antbird Plumbeous Antbird Sooty Antbird White-shouldered Antbird White-plumed Antbird Bicoloured Antibird Reddish-winged Bare-eye Black-spotted Bare-eye Wing-banded Antbird Antthrushes and Antpittas Black-faced Antthrush Striated Antthrush Thrush-like Antpitta

Conopophagidae Conopophaga aurita**

Gnateaters Chestnut-belted Gnateater**

Tyrannidae Zimmerius gracilipes Tyrannulus elatus Mionectes oleagineus Leptopogon amaurocephalus Hemitriccus zosterops Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Tolmomyias poliocephalus

Tyrant Flycatchers Slender-footed Tyrannulet Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Sepia-capped Flycatcher White-eyed Tody-tyrant Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher Olivaceous Flatbill Gray-crowned Flatbill

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Olive-faced Flatbill Tolmomyias viridiceps Platyrinchus coronatus Terenotriccus erythrurus Myiobius barbatus Contopus virens Ochthornis littoralis Colonia colonus Attila spadiceus Rhytipterna simplex Myiarchus tuberculifer Myiarchus ferox Pitangus sulphuratus Megarynchus piangu Myiozetetes similis Myiozetetes granadensis Myiozetetes luteiventris Conopias cinchoneti Conopias parva Myiodynastes maculatus Myiodynastes luteiventris Legatus leucophaius Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus Tyrannus melancholicus Tyrannus tyrannus Tyrannus savana Pachyramphus marginatus Pachyramphus viridis Tityra inquisitor Tityra semifasciata Tityra cayana Cotingidae Ampelioides tschudii Golden-crowned Spadebill Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Whiskered Flycatcher Eastern Wood-Pewee Drab Water-Tyrant Long-tailed Tyrant Bright-rumped Attila Grayish Mourner Dusky-capped Flycatcher Short-crested Flycatcher Great Kiskadee Boat-billed Flycatcher Social Flycatcher Gray-capped Flycatcher Dusky-chested Flycatcher Lemon-browed Flycatcher Yellow-throated Flycatcher Streaked Flycatcher Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Piratic Flycatcher Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher Tropical Kingbird Eastern Kingbird Fork-tailed Flycatcher Black-capped Becard White-winged Becard Black-crowned Tityra Masked Tityra Black-tailed Tityra Cotingas Scaled Fruiteater 69

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White-browed Purpletuft Iodopleura isabellae Lipaugus vociferans Cotinga cayana Cotinga maynana Gynnoderus foetidus Querula purpurata Pipridae Pipra erythrocephala Dixiphia pipra Lepidothrix coronata Chiroxiphia pareola Manacus manacus Machaeropterus regulus Chloropipo holochlora Tyranneutes stolzmanni Corvidae Cyanocorax violaceus Vireonidae Vireo olivaceus Turdidae Catharus minimus Catharus ustulatus Turdus albicollis Turdus lawrencii Hirundinidae Tachycineta albiventer Atticora fasciata Neochelidon tibialis Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Screaming Piha Spangled Cotinga Plum-throated Cotinga Bare-necked Fruitcrow Purple-throated Fruitcrow Manakins Golden-headed Manakin White-crowned Manakin Blue-crowned Manakin Blue-backed Manakin White-bearded Manakin Striped Manakin Green Manakin Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin Crows, Jays, and Magpies Violaceous Jay Vireos Red-eyed Vireo Thrushes Gray-cheeked Thrush Swainson's Thrush White-necked Thrush Lawrence's Thrush Swallows and Martins White-winged Swallow White-banded Swallow White-thighed Swallow Southern Rough-winged Swallow 70

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Wrens Troglodytidae Donacobius atricapillus Campylorhynchus turdinus Cyphorhinus arada** Musician Wren** Henicorhina leucosticta Microcerculus marginatus Thryothorus coraya Polioptilidae Microbates cinereiventris Parulidae Dendroica aestiva Dendroica striata Dendroica fusca Wilsonia canadensis Basileuterus fulvicauda Thraupidae Cyanerpes caeruleus Chlorophanes spiza Dacnis lineata Dacnis flaviventer Hemithraupis flavicollis Euphonia laniirostris Euphonia rufiventris Euponia xanthogaster Euphonia chrysopasta Euphonia minuta Tangara callophrys Tangara velia Tangara chilensis White-breasted Wood-wren Southern Nightingale-Wren Coraya Wren Gnatcatchers and Gnatwrens Tawny-faced Gnatwren New World Warblers Yellow Warbler Blackpoll Warbler Blackburnian Warbler Canada Warbler Buff-rumped Warbler Tanagers Purple Honeycreeper Green Honeycreeper Black-faced Dacnis Yellow-bellied Dacnis Yellow-backed Tanager Thick-billed Euphonia Rufous-bellied Euphonia Orange-bellied Euphonia White-lored Euphonia White-vented Euphonia Opal-crowned Tanager Opal-rumped Tanager Paradise Tanager 71 Black-capped Donacobius Thrush-like Wren

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Tangara gyrola** Tangara nigrocincta Tangara mexicana Tangara schrankii Tangara xanthogastra Tangara gyrola** Creugops verticalis Tersina viridis Thraupis episcopus Thraupis palmarum Ramphocelus carbo Ramphocelus nigrogularis Piranaga olivacea Piranaga rubra Habia rubica Tachyphonus cristatus Tachyphonus luctuosus** Tachyphonus surinamus Lanio fulvus Cissopis leveriana Cardinalidae Cyanocompsa cyanoides Saltator grossus Saltator maximus Emberizidae Ammodramus aurifrons Oryzoborus angloensis Fringillidae Carduelis psaltria Icteridae

Bay-headed tanager** Masked Tanager Turquoise Tanager Green-and-gold Tanager Yellow-bellied Tanager Bay-headed Tanager** Rufous-crested Tanager Swallow-Tanager Blue-gray Tanager Palm Tanager Silver-beaked Tanager Masked Crimson Tanager Scarlet Tanager Summer Tanager Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Flame-crested Tanager White-shouldered tanager** Fulvous-crested Tanager Fulvous Shrike-Tanager Magpie Tanager Saltators, Grosbeaks etc Blue-black Grosbeak Slate-colored Grosbeak Buff-throated Saltator Emberizine Finches Yellow-browed Sparrow Lesser Seed-Finch Cardueline Finches Lesser Goldfinch American Orioles, and Blackbirds 72

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela Cacicus solitaries Clypicterus oseryi Psarocolius angustifrons Psarocolius decumanas Psarocolius viridis Molothrus oryzivorous Icterus croconotus Gymnomystax mexicanus CLASS MAMMALIA Order Marsupialia Didelphidae Caluromys lanatus Chironectes minimus Didelphis marsupialis Marmosa lepida Micoureus demerarae Philander andersoni Opossums Western Woolly Opossum Water Opossum Common Opossum Little Rufous Mouse Opossum Long-furred Woolly Mouse Opossum Andersons Gray Four-eyed Opossum Solitary Cacique Casqued Oropendola Russet-backed Oropendola Crested Oropendola Green Oropendola Giant Cowbird Orange-backed Troupial Oriole Blackbird

Order Xenarthra Myrmecophagidae Cyclopes didactylus Megalonychidae Choloepus diadactylus Dasypodidae Cabassous unicinctus Dasypus novemcinctus Anteaters Silky Anteater Two-toed sloths Southern Two-toed Sloth Armadillos Southern Naked-tailed Armadillo Nine-banded Armadillo

Order Chiroptera Carollinae Carollia brevicauda Carollia castanea Carollia perspicullatus Short-tailed Fruit Bat 73 Short-tailed Fruit bats

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Little Fruit Bat Rhinophylla pumilio Desmodontinae Desmodus rotundus Emballonuridae Saccopteryx bilineata Glossophaginae Glossophaga soricina Lonchophylla robusta Stenodermatidae Artibeus jamaicensis Artibeus lituratus Artibeus obscurus Artibeus planirostus Chiroderma villosum Sturrnia lilium Sturnria oporaphilum Uroderma pilobatum Vampyrodes caraccioli Phyllostominae Macrophyllum macrophyllum Mimon crenulatum Phyllostomus hastatus Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans Order Primates Callitrichidae Saguinus nigricollis Cebidae Allouatta seniculus Aotus vociferans Cebus albifrons Order Carnivora Procyonidae Red Howler Monkey Noisy (Grey-necked) Night Monkey White-fronted Capuchin Carnivores Raccoons and Allies 74 Black-mantled Tamarin Vampire bats Common Vampire Bat Sac-winged/Sheath-tailed Bats White-lined Bat Long tongued bats Long-tongued Bat Spear-nosed Long-tongued Bat Neotropical Fruit bats Large Fruit-eating Bat Large Fruit Bat Large Fruit Bat Large Fruit Bat Big-eyed Bat Hairy-legged Bat Yellow-shouldered Fruit Bat Tent-making Bat Great Stripe-faced Bat Spear-nosed Bats Long-legged Bat Hairy-nosed Bat Spear-nosed Bat Vespertilionid Bats Little Brown Bat Monkeys

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

South American Coati Nasua nasua Potos flavus Mustelidae Eira barbara Lontra longicaudis Felidae Herpailurus yaguarundi Leopardus pardalis Puma concolor Order Artidactyla Cervidae Mazama americana Odocoileus virginianus Tayassuidae Tayassu tajacu Kinkajou Weasels and Allies Tayra Neotropical Otter Cats Jaguarundi Ocelot Puma Even-toed Ungulates Deer Red Brocket Deer White-tailed Deer Peccaries Collared Peccary

Order Rodentia Echimyidae Dactylomys dactylinus Nectomys squamipes Proechimys semispinosus Sciuridae Sciurus sp. Sciurillus pusillus Dasyproctidae Dasyprocta fuliginosa Myoprocta pratti Agoutidae Agouti paca Erethizontidae Coendou bicolor Hydrochaeridae

Rodents Amazon Bamboo Rat Water Rat Spiny Rat Squirrels Amazon Red Squirrel Neotropical Pygmy Squirrel Agoutis Black Agouti Green Acouchy Paca Paca Porcupines Bi-color Spined Porcupine Capybara 75

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Capybara Hydrochaeirs hydrochaeirs Order Lagomorpha Leporidae Silvagus brasiliensis CLASS ANAPSIDA Order Testudines Testudinidae Chelonoidis denticulata CLASS DIAPSIDA Lizards Gekkonidae Gonatodes concinnatus Gonatodes humeralis Pseudogonatodes guianensis Thecadactylus solimoensis** Gymnophthalmidae Alopoglossus striventris Arthrosaura reticulata reticulata Cercosaurra argulus Cercosaura ocellata Leposoma parietale Neusticurus ecpleopus Prionodactylus oshaughnessyi Bachia trisanale Iguanas Hoplocercidae Enyalioides laticeps Polychrotidae Anolis fuscoauratus Anolis nitens scypheus Anolis ortonii Anolis punctata Anolis trachyderma Scincidae GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 76 Slender Anole Yellow-tongued Forest Anole Amazon Bark Anole Amazon Green Anole Common Forest Anole Amazon Forest Dragon Common Forest Lizard Common Streamside Lizard White-striped Eyed Lizard Stacys Bachia Black-bellied Forest Lizard Reticulated Creek Lizard Elegant-eyed Lizard Collared Forest Gecko Bridled Forest Gecko Amazon Pygmy Gecko Turnip-tailed Gecko** Tortoises and Turtles Tortoises Yellow-footed Tortoise Brazilian Rabbit Rabbits and Hares

Black-spotted Skink Mabuya nigropunctata Tropiduridae Tropidurus (Plica) plica Tropidurus (plica) umbra ochrocollaris Teiidae Kentropyx pelviceps Tupinambis teguixin Snakes Colubridae Atractus elaps Atractus major Atractus occiptoalbus Chironius fuscus Chironius scurruls Clelia clelia clelia Dendriphidion dendrophis Dipsas catesbyi Dipsas indica Drepanoides anomalus Drymoluber dichrous Helicops angulatus Helicops leopardinus Imantodes cenchoa Imantodes lentiferus Leptodeira annulata annulata Leptophis cupreus Liophis miliaris chrysostomus Oxybelis aeneus Liophis reginae Oxyrhopus formosus Oxyrhopus melanogenys Oxyrhopus petola digitalus Pseudoboa coronata Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis Pseustes sulphureus Siphlophis compressus Spilotes pullatus Tantilla m. melanocephala Xenedon rabdocephalus Earth Snake sp3 Earth Snake Earth Snake sp2 Olive Whipsnake Rusty Whipsnake Mussarana Tawny Forest Racer Ornate snail-eating Snake Big-headed Snail-eating Snake Amazon Egg-eating Snake Common Glossy Racer Banded South American Water Snake Spotted Water Snake Common Blunt-headed Tree Snake Amazon Blunt-headed Tree Snake Common Cat-eyed Snake Brown Parrot Snake White-lipped Swamp Snake Brown Vine Snake Common Swamp Snake Yellow-headed Calico Snake Black-headed Calico Snake Banded Calico Snake Amazon Scarlet Snake Common Bird Snake Giant Bird Snake Red Vine Snake Tiger Rat Snake Black-headed Snake Common False Viper 77 Forest Whiptail Golden Tegu Collared Tree Runner Olive Tree Runner

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Giant False Viper Xenedon severos Xenoxybelis argenteus Viperidae Bothriopsis taeniata Bothriopsis bilineata bilineata Bothrops atrox Bothrocophias hyoprora Lachesis muta muta Boidae Boa constrictor constrictor Boa constrictor imperator Corallus enydris enydris Epicrates cenchria gaigei Elapidae Micurus hemprichii ortonii Micrurus langsdorfii Micrurus langsdorffi ornitassimus** Micrurus lemniscatus Micrurus spixii spixxi Micurus surinamensis surinamensis Leptomicrurus scutiventris Crocodilians Alligatoridae Paleosuchus trigonatus CLASS AMPHIBIA Order Gymnophiona Typhlonectidae Caecilia aff. tentaculata Order Caudata Plethodontidae Bolitoglossa peruviana Order Anura Bufonidae Salamanders Lungless Salamanders Dwarf Climbing Salamander Frogs and Toads Toads 78 Caecilians Caimans Smooth-fronted Caiman Orange-ringed Coral Snake Langsdorffs Coral Snake Ornate Coral Snake** Eastern Ribbon Coral Snake Central Amazon Coral Snake Aquatic Coral Snake Pygmy Black Coral Snake Red-tailed Boa Common Boa Constrictor Amazon Tree Boa Peruvian Rainbow Boa Speckled Forest Pit Viper Western Striped Forest Pit Viper Fer-de-lance Amazonian Hog-Nosed Lancehead Amazon Bushmaster Green-striped Vine Snake

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Cane Toad Rhinella marina Rhinella complex margaritifer Rhinella dapsilis Dendrophryniscus Dendrophryniscus minutus Centrolenidae Centrolene sp. Cochranella anetarsia Cochranella midas Cochranella resplendens Dendrobatidae Ameerega bilinguis Ameerega ingeri Ameerega insperatus Ameerega parvulus Allobates zaparo Colostethus bocagei Colostethus marchesianus Dendrobates duellmani Hylidae Cruziohyla craspedopus cf. Sphaenorhychus carneus Dendropsophus bifurcus Dendropsophus marmorata Dendropsophus rhodopeplus Dendropsophus triangulium Hemiphractus aff. scutatus Hyla lanciformis Hyla marmoratus Hylomantis buckleyi Hylomantis hulli Hypsiboas boans Hypsiboas calcarata Hypsiboas punctatus Hypsiboas geographica Hypsiboas cinerascens Osteocephalus cabrerai complex Osteocephalus cf. deridens GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 79 Gladiator Tree Frog Convict Tree Frog Common Polkadot Tree Frog Map Tree Frog Rough-skinned Tree Frog Forest Bromeliad Tree Frog Ucayali Rocket Frog Duellmans Poison Frog Tree Frogs Amazon Leaf Frog Pygmy Hatchet-faced Tree Frog Upper Amazon Tree Frog Neotropical Marbled Tree Frog Red Striped Tree Frog Variable Clown Tree Frog Casque-headed Tree Frog Rocket Tree Frog Sanguine Poison Frog Ruby Poison Frog Crested Forest Toad Sharp-nosed Toad Leaf Toads Orange-bellied Leaf Toad Glass Frogs Undescribed Glass Frog Glass Frog Glass Frog Glass Frog Poison Frogs

Common Bromeliad Tree Frog Osteocephalus leprieurii Osteocephalus planiceps Trachycephalus resinifictrix Phyllomedusa tarsius Phyllomedusa tomopterna Phyllomedusa vaillanti Scinax garbei Scinax rubra Trachycephalus venulosus Microhylidae Chiasmocleis bassleri Leptodactylidae Edalorhina perezi Engystomops petersi Leptodactylus andreae Leptodactylus knudseni Leptodactylus pentadactylus Leptodactylus mystaceus Leptodactylus rhodomystax Leptodactylus wagneri Lithodytes lineatus Oreobates quixensis Vanzolinius discodactylus Strabomantidae Pristimantis acuminatus Pristimantis aff peruvianus Pristimantis altamazonicus Pristimantis conspicillatus Pristimantis lanthanites Pristimantis malkini Pristimantis martiae Pristimantis ockendeni complex Pristimantis sulcatus Pristimantis variabilis Hypnodactylus nigrovittatus Strabomantis sulcatus Ranidae Moustached Jungle Frog Wagneris Jungle Frog Painted Antnest Frog Common big-headed Rain Frog Dark-blotched Whistling Frog Rain Frogs Green Rain Frog Peruvian Rain Frog Amazonian Rain Frog Chirping Robber Frog Striped-throated Rain Frog Malkini's Rain Frog Marti's Rain Frog Carabaya Rain Frog Broad-headed Rain Frog Variable Rain Frog Black-banded Robber Frog Broad-headed Rain Frog True Frogs 80 Flat-headed Bromeliad Tree Frog Amazonian Milk Tree Frog Warty Monkey Frog Barred Monkey Frog White-lined Monkey Tree Frog Fringe-lipped Tree Frog Two-striped Tree Frog Common Milk Tree Frog Sheep Frogs Bassler's Sheep Frog Rain Frogs Eyelashed Forest Frog Painted Forest Toadlet Cocha Chirping Frog Rose-sided Jungle Frog Smoky Jungle Frog

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

Neotropical Green Frog Rana palmipes CLASS ARACHNIDA Araneae Nephila clavipes Ancylometes terrenus CLASS INSECTA Order Grylloptera Panacanthus cuspidatus Order Hemiptera Dysodius lunatus Order Coleoptera Euchroma gigantea Homoeotelus d'orbignyi Scarabaeidae Canthon luteicollis Deltochilum howdeni Dichotomius ohausi Dichotomius prietoi Eurysternus caribaeus Eurysternus confusus Eurysternus foedus Eurysternus inflexus Eurysternus plebejus Order Lepidoptera Papilionidae Battus belus varus Battus polydamas Papilio androgeus Papilio thoas cyniras Parides aeneas bolivar Parides lysander Parides pizarro Parides sesostris Pieridae Appias drusilla Dismorphia pinthous GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 81 Giant Ceiba Borer Pleasing Fungus Beetle Lunate Flatbug Spiny Devil Katydid Golden Silk Spider Giant Fishing Spider

Eurema cf xanthochlora Perrhybris lorena Phoebis rurina Lycaenidae Celmia celmus Janthecla sista Thecla aetolius Thecla mavors Riodinidae Amarynthis meneria Ancyluris endaemon Ancyluris aulestes Ancyluris etias Anteros renaldus Calospila cilissa Calospila partholon Calospila emylius Calydna venusta Cartea vitula Emesis fatinella Emesis lucinda Emesis mandana Emesis ocypore Eurybia dardus Eurybia elvina Eurybia franciscana Eurybia halimede Eurybia unxia Hyphilaria parthenis Isapis agyrtus Ithomiola floralis Lasaia agesilaus narses Lasaia pseudomeris Leucochimona vestalis Livendula amaris Livendula violacea Lyropteryx appolonia Mesophthalma idotea Mesosemia loruhama Mesosemia latizonata GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 82

Napaea heteroea Nymphidium mantus Nyphidium nr minuta Nymphidium lysimon Nymphidium balbinus Nymphidium caricae Nymphidium chione Pandemos pasiphae Perophtalma lasus Pirascca tyriotes Rhetus arcius Rhetus periander Sarota chrysus Sarota spicata Setabis gelasine Stalachtis calliope Stalachtis phaedusa Synargis orestessa Nymphalidae Nymphalinae Anartia amathae Anartia jatrophae Baeotus deucalion Eresia eunice Eresia pelonia Eresia (Phyciodes) plagiata Historis odius Historis acheronta Metamorpha elisa Metamorpha sulpitia Siproeta stelenes Smyrna blomfildia Tigridia acesta Colobura annulata Colobura dirce Biblidinae Biblis hyperia Callicore cynosura Catonephele acontius Catonephele antinoe GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 83

Catonephele esite Catonephele numilia Diaethria clymena Dynamine aerata Dynamine arthemisia Dynamine athemon Dynamine gisella Ectima thecla lerina Eunica alpais Eunica amelio Eunica clytia Eunica volumna Hamadryas albicornus Hamadryas arinome Hamadryas chloe Hamadryas feronia Hamadryas laodamia Nessaea obrina Nessaea batesii Nessaea hewitsoni Nica flavilla Panacea prola Panacea regina Paulogramma peristera Phrrhogyra amphiro Pyrrhogyra crameri Pyrrhogyra cuparina Pyrrhogyra cf nasica Pyrrhogyra otolais Temenis laothoe Charaxinae Agrias claudina Archaeoprepona amphimachus Archaeoprepona demophon Archaeoprepona demophon muson Archaeoprepona licomedes Consul fabius Hypna clytemnestra Memphis phantes Memphis arachne Memphis oenomaus GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 84

Memphis philomena Memphis offa Prepona eugenes Prepona dexamenus Prepona laertes Prepona pheridamas Zaretis isidora Zaretis itys Coenophlebia fabius Cyrestinae Marpesia berania Marpesia crethon Marpesia petreus Apaturinae Doxocopa agathina Doxocopa griseldis Doxocopa laurentia Doxocopa linda Limenitidinae Adelpha amazona Adelpha cocala Adelpha cytherea Adelpha erotia Adelpha iphicleola Adelpha iphiclus Adelpha lerna Adelpha melona Adelpha mesentina Adelpha naxia Adelpha panaema Adelpha phrolseola Adelpha thoasa Adelpha viola Adelpha ximena Satyrinae Haeterini Cithaerias aurora Cithaerias menander GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 85 Satyrs and Woodnymphs

Cithaerias pireta Haetera macleannania Haetera piera Pierella astyoche Pierella hortona Pierella lamia Pierella lena Pierella lucia Euptychiini Caeruleuptychia scopulata Chloreuptychia agatha Chloreuptychia herseis Euptychia binoculata Euptychia labe Euptychia myncea Euptychia renata Hermeuptychia hermes Magneuptychia analis Magneuptychia libye Magneuptychia ocnus Magneuptychia ocypete Magneuptychia tiessa Pareuptychia hesionides Pareuptychia ocirrhoe Taygetis cleopatra Taygetis echo Taygetis mermeria Taygetis sosis Morphini Antirrhea hela Antirrhea philoctetes avernus Morpho achilles Morpho deidamia Morpho helenor Morpho menelaus Morpho peleides Morpho polycarmes Brassolini Bia actorion Caligo eurilochus Caligo idomeneus idomeneides Caligo illioneus GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 86 Common Brown Morpho Sosis Satyr Morphos Cleopatra Satyr Echo Satyr

Caligo teucer Caligo placidiamus Catoblepia berecynthia Catoblepia cassiope Catoblepia generosa Catoblepia soranus Catoblepia xanthus Catoblepia xanthicles Opsiphanes invirae Heliconinae Acraeini Actinote sp. Heliconiini Dryas iulia Eueides eunice Eueides isabella Eueides lampeto Eueides lybia Heliconius erato Heliconius hecale Heliconius melponmene Heliconius numata Heliconius sara Heliconius xanthocles Heliconius doris Philaethria dido Danainae Danaini Danaus plexippus Ithomiini Aeria eurimidea Ceratinia tutia Hypoleria sarepta Hyposcada anchiala Hyposcada illinissa Hypothyris anastasia Hypothyris fluonia Ithomia amarilla Ithomia salapia Mechanitis lysimnia GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011 87 Passion Vine Butterflies

Mechanitis mazaeus Mechanitis messenoides Methona confusa psamathe Methone cecilia Oleria gunilla Oleria ilerdina Oleria tigilla Tithorea harmonia

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, January-March 2011

88