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Dr Peter Ridley Julien Fontan and Dr Peter Corke School of Mechanical Engineering, CSIRO Centre Manufacturing Industrial Technology, Queensland University of Technology, QCAT PO Box 883, Kenmore 4069, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane 4001, Australia, Australia, p.ridley@qut.edu.au peter.corke@csiro.au

Abstract

This paper discusses the development of a dynamic model for a torpedo shaped submarine. Expressions for hydrostatic, added mass, hydrodynamic, control surface and propeller forces and moments are derived from rst principles. Experimental data obtained from ume tests of the submarine are inserted into the model in order to provide computer simulations of the open loop behavior of the system.

Introduction

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) are nding use in a variety of oceanographic survey applications (Foresti [2001] Dhanak [2001]). These vehicles present a comparatively low cost technology for underwater exploration with a freedom of motion superior to tethered-towed submersibles. An experimental AUV (Figures 1 and 2) has been designed by Reid [2001] at Queensland University of Technology and the computer control system was installed by sta at the CSIRO, CMIT Automation Group. This AUV is torpedo shaped, approximately 1.5m long 150mm diameter. Four, independently actuated, orthogonal, stern planes are used to control its attitude. Power to the DC motor, which drives the propellor, comes from a battery supply via a current amplier, used to control the shaft speed. The mathematical dynamic model, described in this paper, provides a useful tool for the understanding and tuning of the control system which automatically controls the attitude and depth of the submarine. This work tracks similar developments described by Nahon [1993, 1998] Numerical values for the hydrodynamic coecients which are contained within the mathematical model have been evaluated, where possible, from experimental data derived from the full size AUV or a half size model, inserted into an open owing channel (ume),

Figure 2: Torpedo shaped AUV: casing removed 585mm wide . These experimental procedures, described in detail in the Appendix, have provided data regarding relationships between angle of attack () and the coecients of lift and drag (CL , CD ), moment coecient (CM ) and control surface eectiveness (CLf ), plotted in this paper.

Equations of motion

Figure 3 shows the body frame of reference in which the equations of motion are written. Origin Cb is located at the centre of buoyancy and the centre of gravity lies at the point rG =[xG ,yG ,zG ]T . The components of rG are small since the submarine is deliberately designed to

Cb

Five sets of forces/moments act on the hull: (i)Hydrostatic forces The orientation of the body frame relative to the world frame is described by Euler angles rotated in the order: roll , pitch , yaw . The static forces, weight (W) and buoyancy (B) act through the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy respectively. When resolved onto the submarine body frame, these become:

XHS = (W B) sin YHS = (W B) cos sin ZHS = (W B) cos cos KHS = yG W cos cos zG W cos sin MHS = zG W sin xG W cos cos NHS = yG W cos sin zG W sin

Ysub

Figure 3: Body coordinate system have the centre of gravity and the centre of bouyancy coincident. The following symbols are used for components in the Xsub -, Ysub - and Zsub - directions: forces = [X,Y ,Z]T moments = [K,M,N]T T velocity V = [u,v,w] angular velocity = [p,q,r]T Newtons equations of motion, for a rigid body with six degrees of freedom, relative to coordinates attached to the body at Cb , are F = maG where m=mass of the submarine and aG =acceleration of the centre of mass. Substituting aG = V + V + rG + rG t gives the following force equations in the Xsub -, Ysub and Zsub -directions:

m[u vr + wq xG (q 2 + r 2 ) + yG (pq r) + zG (pr + q)] = Xext m[v wp + ur yG (r 2 + p2 ) + zG (qr p) + xG (qp + r)] = Yext m[w uq + vp zG (p2 + q 2 ) + xG (rp q) + yG (rq + p)] = Zext (1)

(3)

(ii)Added mass inertia forces Added mass is a measure of the additional inertia created by water which accelerates with the submarine. The forces and moments created by added mass may be expressed : XA = Xu u + Xwq wq + Xqq q 2 + Xvr vr + Xrr r2 YA = Yv v + Yr r + Yura ur + Ywp wp + Ypq pq ZA = Zw w + Zq q + Zuqa uq + Zvp vp + Zrp rp KA = Kp p MA = Mw w + Mq q + Muwa uw + Mvp vp + Mrp rp + Muqa uq NA = Nv v + Nr r + Nuva uv + Nwp wp + Mpq pq + Nura ur (4) where eg. Xu = X [kg] and Kp = K [kg m2 ] etc, u p are added masses and added mass moments of intertia. Axial Xu and rolling Kp added masses were estimated from an empirical relationships by Blevins[1984] and crossow added masses (Yv , Zw =Yv , Mw , Nv =-Mw , Yr =Nv , Zq =Mw , Mq ,Nr =Mq ,) ,were evaluated numer ically using the technique by Newmann [1980]. The remaining cross-terms result from added mass coupling and can be evaluated from the added mass terms already derived.

Xwq = Zw Xvr = Yv Yura = Xu Ypq = Zq Zuqa = Xu Zrp = Yr Muwa = (Zw Xu ) Mrp = (Kp Nr ) Nuva = (Xu Yv ) Npq = (Kp Mq ) Xqq = Zq Xrr = Yr Ywp = Zw Zvp = Yv Mvp = Yr Muqa = Zq Nwp = Zq Nura = Yr

Eulers equations of motion, for a rigid body with six degrees of freedom, relative to coordinates attached to the body at Cb , are MB = HG + rG maG . The rate of change of angular momentum about the centre of gravity, HG = [I] + [I], where [I] is the [3 3] diagonal inertia matrix [Ixx ,Iyy ,Izz ] evaluated about principal axes located at the centre of gravity. Substituting again for aG , neglecting small terms (eg x2 ), gives the following moment equations in the G Xsub -, Ysub - and Zsub -directions:

Ixx p + (Izz Iyy )qr m[yG (w uq + vp) zG (v wp + ur)] = Kext Iyy q + (Ixx Izz )rp m[zG (u vr + wq) xG (w uq + vp)] = Mext Izz r + (Iyy Ixx )pq m[xG (v wp + ur) yG (u vr + wq)] = Next (2)

(5)

Cd vs alpha: V=0.5051 m/sec. 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 10

and Zsub - directions may be expressed: Xd = Xu|u| u |u| + Xuv uv + Xuw uw+ Xv|v| v |v| + Xw|w| w |w| Yd = Yuvd uv + Yv|v| v |v| Zd = Zuwd uw + Zw|w| w |w| where:

1 Xu|u| = 2 (Af ) c Xuw = Xuv = 1 Af b 2 Xw|w|d = Xv|v| = 1 Af a + 2 Yv|v| = Zw|w| = 1 Af b 2 Zuwd = Yuvd = 1 Af c 2

(10)

c 2

(11)

5 deg.

10

15

20

25

Figure 4: Hull Drag: CD versus , V=0.5m/sec. a=5.25 rad.2 , b=-0.315 rad.1 , c=0.732 (iii)Hydrodynamic forces and moments Hull forces and moments Drag is related to the uid density , submarine frontal area Af and lies in the direction of the uid velocity V. D = 1 CD Af V 2 (6) 2 CD is related to the angle of attack () through a parabolic relationship, plotted in Figure 4. CD = a2 + b + c. (7)

Lift L, acting at the centre of pressure, is generated perpendicular to the ow, as the submarine moves through the water. Relocating this force to act at the centre of buoyancy causes a pitching moment M to be created. Both lift and moment are directly proportional to the angle of attack and are plotted in Figures 5 and 6.

CL vs alpha: V=0.5051 m/sec. 2.5

1.5

0.5

It is assumed that the sway (v) and heave velocity (w) are small compared with the surge (u).Angle of attack can be expressed: in the XZ-plane as tan v = w [radians], or in the XY-plane as tan = u u [radians]. Drag force, when viewed in the XZ-plane, may be resolved into the Xsub - and Zsub - directions. Dx

1 = 2 Af CD (u2 + w2 )cos 2 1 2 Af CD (u2 + w2 )(1 ) 2 1 = 2 Af CD (u2 + w2 )sin 1 2 Af CD (u2 + w2 )

0.5

1.5 10

5 deg.

10

15

20

25

L = 1 CL Af V 2 2 M = 1 CM Af V 2 2 CL = CL CM = CM

(8)

(12)

Dz

Lift force and pitching moment, when viewed in the XZ-plane are derived from equation 12:

Zl = 1 Af CL (u2 + w2 )cos 2 Ml = 1 Af CM (u2 + w2 ) 2 (13)

Similarly, drag force, when viewed in the XY-plane, may be resolved into the Xsub - and Ysub - directions. Dx = 1 Af CD (u2 + v 2 )cos 2 2 1 2 Af CD (u2 + v 2 )(1 ) 2 =

1 2 2 Af CD (u 1 2 2 Af CD (u

1 Yl = 2 Af CL (u2 + v 2 )cos 1 Nl = 2 Af CM (u2 + v 2 )

(14)

Dy

+ v )sin + v 2 )

Expanding equations 8 and 9 , through CD , and , and neglecting terms beyond second order, reveals that the components of total drag force in the Xsub -,Ysub -

Using the expression of the angle of attack, under the assumption u w or v we have:

1 Yuvl = Zuwl = 2 Af CL 1 Muwl = Nuvl = 2 Af CM

(15)

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.01 10

6 0.2

0.1

0.1

(rad)

r

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Figure 6: Hull Moment: Cm versus , V=0.5m/sec. Slope: Cm =0.0974 rad.1 (iv) Control surface forces and moments Attitude of the vehicle is controlled by two horizontal stern planes, and two vertical rudders. Assuming diametrically opposite ns move together the empirical formula for n lift is given as:

2 Lf in = 1 CLf Sf in e ve 2 Mf in = xf in Lf in

Figure 7: Fin Lift: Lift vs r , V=0.81m/sec. NB: |slope| = 2 |Yuur | V 2 =-25 N.rad.1

5

(16)

where CLf is the rate of change of lift coecient wrt n eective angle of attack and Sf in is the n planform area. e is the eective n angle in radians. For the v+xf in r rudder e = r + and stern plane e = s u wxf in q . Eective n velocity, ve = u and xf in is u the axial position of the n post in body-referenced coordinates. These coecients enable us to obtain the hydrodynamic coecients from the equations for an individual n lift and moment: Yr = 1 CLf Sf in u2 r + uv + xf in ur 2 Zs = 1 CLf Sf in u2 s uw + xf in uq 2 1 Ms = 2 CLf Sf in xf in u2 s uw + xf in uq 1 Nr = 2 CLf Sf in xf in u2 r + uv + xf in ur (17) Finally, we can separate the equation 17 into the following sets of n lift coecients: Yuur = Yuvf = CLf Sf in Zuus = Zuwf = CLf Sf in Yurf = Zuqf = CLf Sf in xf in and n moment coecients: Muus = Muwf = CLf Sf in xf in Nuur = Nuvf = CLf Sf in xf in Muqf = Nurf = CLf Sf in x2 in f (19) (18)

3 0.2

0.1

0.1

(rad)

r

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Figure 8: Fin Turning Moment: Moment vs r , V=0.81m/sec. |slope| = 2 |Nuur | V 2 =16 Nm.rad.1

U [1980] uses the non dimensional advance ratio J = nd where U is the forward velocity, n the number of shaft revolution per unit time and d the propeller diameter. He assumes that, if there is no cavitation, the thrust and torque can be non dimensionalized so as to depend only on the advance ratio in the form: T n2 d4 Q n2 d5

= KT (J) = KQ (J)

(20) Propeller eciency is the ratio of the work done by the propeller in developing the force U T divided by the work required to overcome the shaft torque 2nQ It follows that: p = UT J KT = 2nQ 2 KQ (21)

(v) Propeller forces and moments The propeller provides forces Xprop and moments Kprop around the X axis of the body-xed frame. Newman

causing the submarine to change depth. Figure 11 shows the yaw response of the submarine to various rudder inputs. Motor torque causes the submarine to turn more tightly to port.

Nautilus trajectory in the Earthfixed frame 20 in degrees

s

15 0 10 0.5 5 1 1.5 2 1 0 =1

s

=5

s

= 1

s

z 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 pulse width modulated (%) 0.6 0.8 1

10

s = 5

Figure 9: Fin Rolling Moment: Rolling Moment vs aileron angle, V=[0.37, 0.55, 0.82] m/sec. NB: |Kuus | = |Kuur | = |slope| 4V 2 Summation of forces and moments Combining like cross-terms from equations 4, 5 10,15, 18 and 19 , we get the following hydrodynamic forces: Yuv = Yuvl + Yuvf + Yuvd Yur = Yura + Yurf Zuw = Zuwl + Zuwf + Zuwd Zuq = Zuqa + Zuqf Muw = Muwa + Muwf + Muwl Muq = Muqa + Muqf Nuv = Nuva + Nuvf + Nuvl Nur = Nura + Nurf

15

20

10

15

20 x

25

30

35

40

Figure 10: Simulated trajectory at various stern plane angles V=1.54 m/sec.

(22)

6 =1

r

=3

r

Xext = XHS + Xu|u| u |u| + Xu u + Xuv uv + Xuw uw+ Xv|v| v |v| + Xvr vr + Xw|w| w |w| + Xwq wq+ Xqq qq + Xrr rr + Xprop YHS + Yuur u rtop + rbottom + Yur ur+ Yuv uv + Yv|v| v |v| + Yv v + Ywp wp + Ypq pq + Yr r

2

y 0 2

=+3

r

Yext =

=+1

r

Zext =

ZHS + Zuus u2 sright + slef t + Zuw uw+ Zuq uq + Zvp vp + Zw|w| w |w| + Zw w + Zq q + Zrp rp KHS + Kp p + Kuur rtop + rbottom + Kuus sright + slef t + Kprop MHS + Muus u2 s + Muw uw + Muq uq+ Mvp vp + Mw w + Mq q + Mrp rp NHS + Nuur u2 r + Nur ur + Nuv uv+ Nv v + Nwp wp + Npq pq + Nr r (23)

4 x

10

12

14

Kext =

Figure 11: Simulated trajectory at various rudder angles V=1.54 m/sec., Kp =-0.543 Nm Figure 12 predicts that the roll response is marginally stable. Natural frequency of the oscillation is determined by the oset of the centre of gravity which lies slightly below the centre of buoyancy. In reality this oscillation would tend to be damped out by viscous drag between the rolling submarine and the water. This eect is not included in the model. The oset in roll angle is due to the torque from the motor. Figure 13 shows the response of the unpowered submarine as it surfaces under the action of its slightly positive buoyancy. It surfaces at a pitch angle of 5

Mext = Next =

The response of the submarine under the action of various actuator inputs has been plotted.Figure 10 shows the open loop response to inputs from the stern planes,

Roll vs time for various rudder angles 20 r = 3 degrees = 1 degree r = 1 degree r = 3 degrees

r

15

roll (degrees)

10

cilities and laboratory measurements were by QUT undergraduate students Sam Reid and Simon Chambers. The sta of the CSIRO, Automation Group of Automation Group at CMST, designed and manufactured the submarine computing and control electronics and software and also undertook eld trials of the submarine. CSIRO sponsored Julien Fontan, during 2002,as a visiting scholar from Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France).

References

0

5 time (s)

10

x(t) 15 x (m) 10 5 0 1 y (m)

10

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45

50

1 4 z (m)

10

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45

50

10

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25 time (s)

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50

Foresti G.L. [2001] Visual Inspection of Sea Bottom Structures by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics - Part B: cybernetics, Vol. 31, No. 5, October 2001. Dhanak M.R, An P. E., Holappa K. [2001] An AUV Survey in the Littoral Zone: Small Scale Subsurface Variability Accompanying Synoptic Observations of Surface Currents, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 4, October 2001. Reid S [2001], The design of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Undergraduate Thesis, Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering , Queensland University of Technology, 2001. Nahon M., [1998] A Simplied Dynamics Model for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, IEE proceedings, 1998. Nahon M, [1993], Determination of Vehicle Hydrodynamics Derivatives Using the USAF Datcom, IEEE proceedings, 1993. Blevins R. D. [1984], Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1984. Newman J.N. [1980], Marine Hydrodynamics (third edition), MIT Press, 1980. Chambers S. [2001] , Dynamics of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Undergraduate Thesis, Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering , Queensland University of Technology, 2001. Morrison A., Yoerger D. [1993] , Determination of the Hydrodynamic Parameters of an Underwater Vehicle During Small Scale, Nonuniform, 1-Dimensional Translation, IEEE proceedings, 1993

Conclusions

A rigid body dynamic model discussed in this paper has produced a set of results for the open loop behavior of the submarine under the action of rudder, stern plane and motor inputs. The next phase of the project is to implement closed loop automatic control on depth, heading and roll angle of the submarine.This will be discussed in a forthcoming paper.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the support of Queensland University of Technology, Schools of Mechanical and Civil Engineering who manufactured the submarine and provided the experimental test facilities. Design of the submarine and experimental fa-

Experimental data from which the submarines hydrodynamic coecients were derived came from tests carried out in an open owing channel (ume). Figure 14 shows a half size scale model, suspended in the channel by a vertical shaft attached to a three axis dynamometer, capable of measuring forces in the x- (drag) and y- (lift) directions and a pitching moment about the z-axis.

Figure 16: opposite vertical ns were set at various angles (f ) and the lift and yawing moment measurements were recorded. Angle of attack was held at zero degrees. CLf = Figure 14:

Fy 1 2 2 Af V

, CMf =

Mz 1 2 2 Af V L

(25)

Data for gure 9, again, was obtained by suspending the full size submarine in the ume. All four ns were oset equally to create a rolling moment, about the x-axis. Angle of attack was held at zero degrees. The bending moment on the shaft was measured and recorded.

Y X Channel

Figure 15: The angle of attack can be adjusted by rotating the shaft and setting the angle using a protractor, shown in Figure 15. Figures 4, 5 and 6 are the plots of drag, lift and moment coecients versus angle of attack obtained using this experimental procedure. CD =

Fx 1 2 2 Af V

, CL =

Fy 1 2 2 Af V

, CM =

Mz 1 2 2 Af V L

(24) where: Fx and Fy are the measured forces in the x- and y-directions,Mz is the moment measured about the zaxis, Af is the frontal cross sectional area, V is the free stream velocity, and L is the length of the submarine. Data for gures 7 and 8 was obtained by suspending the full size submarine in the ume. Diametrically

Parameter Mass Mass moment Mass moment Length Hull Radius Fin distance from Cb Location of Centre of Mass Parameter Xuu Xu Xuw Xuv Xvv Xvr Xww Xwq Xrr Xprop Yuur Yuv Yur Yvv Yv Ywp Ypq Yr Zuus Zuw Zuq Zvp Zww Zw Zq Zrp Parameter Kp Kprop Kuur Kuus Muus Muw Muq Mvp Mw Mq Mrp Nuur Nuv Nur Nv Nwp Npq Nr

Value -3.11e+0 +4.21e-1 +3.01e+1 +3.01e-2 -5.19e+1 +2.72e+1 -5.19e+1 -2.72e+1 +1.83e+0 +7.38e+0 (variable) +1.19e+1 -5.85e+1 +5.66e+0 +3.01e+0 -2.72e+1 +2.72e+1 -1.83e+0 -1.83e+0 -1.19e+1 -5.85e+1 -5.66e+0 -2.72e+1 +3.01e+1 -2.72e+1 +1.83e+0 -1.83e+0 Value -4.10e-2 -5.40e-1 (variable) +4.48e+0 +4.48e+0 -6.08e+0 +2.40e+1 -4.93e+0 +1.83e+0 +1.83e+0 -4.34e+0 +4.30e+0 -6.08e+0 -2.40e+1 -4.93e+0 -1.83e+0 +1.83e+0 -4.30e+0 -4.34e+0 Units kg/m kg kg/m kg/m kg/m kg/rad kg/m kg/rad kg/rad N kg/(m.rad) kg/rad kg/rad kg/m kg kg/rad kg/rad kg kg/(m.rad) kg/rad kg/rad kg/rad kg/m kg kg kg/rad Units kg.m2 /rad2 N.m kg/rad kg/rad kg/rad kg kg.m/rad kg.m/rad kg.m2 /rad2 kg.m2 /rad2 kg.m2 /rad2 kg/rad kg kg.m/rad kg.m2 /rad2 kg.m /rad kg.m2 /rad2 kg.m2 /rad2 Description Drag Added Mass Drag Drag Drag Added Mass Cross Term Drag Added Mass Cross Term Added Mass Cross Term Propeller Thrust Fin Lift Force Added Mass Cross-term, Fin Lift and Drag Added Mass Cross-term and Fin Lift Drag Added Mass Added Mass Cross Term Added Mass Cross Term Added Mass Fin Lift Force Added Mass Cross-term, Fin Lift and Drag Added Mass Cross-term and Fin Lift Added Mass Cross Term Drag Added Mass Added Mass Added Mass Cross Term Description Added Mass Propeller Torque Fin Rolling Moment Fin Rolling Moment Fin Lift Moment Body and Fin and Munk Moment Added Mass Cross term and Fin Lift Added Mass Cross Added Mass Added Mass Added Mass Cross Term Fin Lift Moment Body and Fin and Munk Moment Added Mass Cross term and Fin Lift Added Mass Added Mass Cross Term Added Mass Cross Term Added Mass

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