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(the opposite of a concrete noun) the name of something which we experience as an idea, not by seeing, touching etc. doubt; height; geography.
active An active verb form is one like breaks, told, will help (not like is broken, was told, will be helped, which are passive verb forms). The subject of an active verb is usually the person or thing that does the action, or is responsible for what happens.
hungry. things. she’s hungry. impossible. events etc. a green apple. . which is used when we describe people. Adjectives are used in connection with nouns and pronouns.adjective a word like green.
adjective phrase .
.adjective phrase (1) any phrase which modifies a noun or pronoun. You often construct adjective phrases using participles or prepositions together with their objects: I was driven mad by the sound of my neighbour's constant piano practising.
" . the prepositional phrase "of a borrowed car" acts as an adjective modifying the noun "trunk.In this sentence." adjective phrase (2) My father-in-law locked his keys in the trunk of a borrowed car. the prepositional phrase "of my neighbour's constant piano practising" acts as an adjective modifying the noun "sound. Similarly in this sentence.
. adjective phrase (3) Here the participle phrase "dashing across the quadrangle" acts as an adjective describing the proper noun "Peter.We saw Peter dashing across the quadrangle." We picked up the records broken in the scuffle.
In this sentence. the participle phrase "broken in the scuffle" modifies the noun phrase "the records." adverb .
adverb a word like tomorrow. once. There are very many kinds of adverbs with different functions. also. see section 20 – 23. badly. . where or how something happens. when. which is used to say. there. for example.
adverb particle .
. clean up.adverb particle a word like up. sold out. tell off. used as part of a phrasal verb. out. off.
She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. .adverb phrase A prepositional phrase can also be an adverb phrase. functioning as an adverb. as in the following sentences.
the prepositional phrase "in the night sky" functions as a adverb modifying the verb "flashed." Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky.In this sentence. Giselle planted twenty tulip bulbs. ." In early October. the prepositional phrase "to the corner store" acts as an adverb modifying the verb "went. In this sentence.
the prepositional phrase "at 3:30 P." . squirrels ate the bulbs and none bloomed.M.M." acts as an adverb modifying the verb phrase "will meet. We will meet at the library at 3:30 P. In this sentence.unfortunately. In this sentence. the prepositional phrase "in early October" acts as an adverb modifying the entire sentence.
In this sentence." .The dogs were capering about the clown's feet. the prepositional phrase "about the clown's feet" acts as an adverb modifying the verb phrase "were capering.
2 a word or group of words functioning as an adverb. 1 of. . –adj. or used as an adverb. –n. pertaining to.adverbial a group of words that does the same job as an adverb.
I don’t agree (negative).affirmative an affirmative sentence is one that makes a statement – not a negative sentence or a question. . Compare I agree (affirmative).
they are in apposition and are called appositives. This picture was probably painted by a child.agent in a passive sentence. or phrases stand close together and share the same part of the sentence. an . the agent is the expression that says who (or what) an action is done by. apposition When two words. In fact. clauses.
appositive: My brother the research associate works at a large polling firm. subject complement: Jean became a magistrate. appositive: I have never met Jean the magistrate. . only without the linking verb: subject complement: My brother is a research associate.appositive is very much like a subject complement.
the is called the ‘definite article’.article A. A / an is called the ‘indefinite article’. an and the are called ‘articles’. .
anybody etc are .assertive The words some. somebody etc are used most often in affirmative sentences. somebody etc are called ‘assertive forms’ . In other kinds of sentences. anybody etc. they are often replaced by any. any. Some.
attributive adjectives placed before nouns are in ‘attributive position’. ever. a green shirt. . See also predicative.called ‘ non-assertive forms. my noisy son. other non-assertive forms are yet..
She was writing.auxiliary verb a verb like be. Where have you put it? See also modal auxiliary verbs. passive forms etc. have. . do which is used with another verb to make tenses.
The word clause is also sometimes used for structures containing participles or infinitives (with no subject or conjunction).bare infinitive the infinitive without to. I persuaded her to try a new method. Mary said that she was tired. Not knowing what to do. I telephoned Robin. . clause a part of a sentence which contains a subject and a verb. Let me go. usually joined to the rest of the sentence by a conjunction.
g. .cleft sentence a sentence in which special emphasis is given to one part (e. What I need is a beer. It was you that caused the accident. the subject or the object) by using a stricture with it or what.
family. . team.collective noun a singular word used to refer to a group.
more politely). also the structure more + adjective/adverb. faster).comparative the form of an adjective or adverb made with –er (older. . used in the same way (more useful.
full of water. You’re the right person to help. verb or preposition.complement (1) a part of a sentence that gives more information about the subject (after be. try phoning. The President appointed Bristow his confidential adviser. seem and some other verbs). down the street. adjective. (2) structure or words needed after a noun. She looks very kind. or. in some structures. . the intention to invest. about the object.
in spite of. one-eyed. verb. etc is one that is made of two or more parts. bus-driver. adjective. . get on with. preposition.compound A compound noun.
cloud. touching. raspberry. . etc. petrol.concrete noun (the opposite of an abstract noun) the name of something which we can experience by seeing.
(2) a clause or sentence containing if (or a word with a similar meaning). she would sing. If your try you’ll understand.conditional (1) a verb form made by using the modal auxiliary would (also should in the first person). I should be surprised if she knew. I would run. and often containing a conditional verb form. I should think. What would you have done if the train had been late? .
I rang because I was worried about you.conjunction a word like and. when. but. although. which can be used to join clauses together. . if. because.
.continuous the same as progressive.
are joined together into one word. . I’m. who’ll. or a verb and the word not.contraction a short form in which a subject and an auxiliary verb. can’t.
object. A co-ordinate clause does not function as a subject. See also subordinate clause. complement or adverbial in another clause. .co-ordinate clause one of two or more clauses of equal ‘value’ that make up a sentence. Shall I come to your place or would you like to come to mine? It’s cooler today and there’s a bit of a wind.
This feels soft. . feel and other verbs which link a subject to a complement which describes it. He seems unhappy. My mother is in Jersey.copular verb be. seem.
and can be used with the indefinite article a/an. which can have a plural form. idea. See also uncountable noun. dog. .countable noun a noun like car.
dangling participle the same as misrelated participle. That’s your girl-friend? definite article the. declarative question a question which has the same grammatical form as a statement. .
very. direct object see object. rather. noun phrase or pronoun that refers to a person or thing that is directly affected by the action of a verb: In ‘I met him . determiner one of a group of words that are normally used at the beginning of noun phrases. more. both. Determiners include a/an. either. this each. that/those. the. for example. Adverbs of degree are. too. quite. all. demonstrative this/these. my. direct object noun a noun. several.degree saying ‘how much’ something is true.
what came before or after.’ See also indirect speech. as a matter of fact. without any changes of tense. She looked me straight in the eye and said. ‘This is my money.g. frankly. one the other hand. in the words used by the original speaker (more or less). . pronouns etc. the word ‘him’ is the direct object. or the speaker’s attitude to what he/she is saying). —compare indirect object (OEDALE) direct speech speech reported ‘directly’.in town’. discourse marker a word or expression which shows the connection between what is being said and the rest of the ‘discourse’ (e.
by writing it in capital letters. emphasis giving special importance to one part of a word or sentence (for example by pronouncing more loudly. yourself. I wouldn’t sell this to the King himself. See also reflexive pronouns. I’ll tell him myself. ellipsis leaving out words when their meaning can be understood from the context.duration the length of time something lasts. by using do in an affirmative clause. (It’s a) Nice day. The preposition for can be used with an expression of time to indicate duration. by using special word order). . emphatic pronoun reflexive pronoun (myself. isn’t it? It was better than I expected (it would be). himself etc) used to emphasis a noun or pronoun.
in business letters.ending something added to the end of a word. -ing.g. Jack I like. -ed. never. daily occasionally. but his wife I can’t stand. frequency Adverbs of frequency say how often something happens. commence is a more formal word than start. For example. in some literary writing. fronting moving a part of a clause to the beginning in order to give it special emphasis. –er. first person see person formal the style used when talking politely to strangers. on special occasions. often. e. etc. .
future tense a verb form made with the auxiliary verb shall/will. it. gender the use of different grammatical forms to show the difference between masculine. she. . he. or between human and nonhuman. feminine and neuter. I will be needing the car this evening. I will have finished by lunchtime. Will it matter? future perfect tense a verb form made with shall/will + have + past participle. I shall arrive. who which. future progressive a verb form made with shall/will + be + …ing.
or very dead. gradable Pretty. or cold are gradable adjectives: things can be more or less pretty. hanging participle the same as misrelated participle . grammar the rules that say how words are combined. Perfect or dead are not gradable words: we do not usually say that something is more or less perfect. the earth’s gravity. very) can be used with gradable words. hard or cold.genitive the form of a noun made with ‘s or s’. hard. arranged and changed to show different meanings. birds’ nests. Adverbs of degree (like rather. Also called possessive. used to show (for instance) possession.
) See also non-identifying relative clause. idiom -n. There’s the woman who tried to steal your cat. or which are not real. (The relative clause who tried to steal your cat identifies the woman – it tells us which woman is meant. . What would you do if you had three months free? identifying relative clause a relative clause which identifies the noun it refers to – that is to say. situations which may not happen.hypothetical Conditional verbs and structures are often used to talk about hypothetical situations – that is to say. it tells us which person or thing is being talked about.
and that is not constituent of a larger expression of characteristics. or from the general grammatical rules of a language. . as kick the bucket or hang one’s head. as the table round for the round table. 2 a language.: the idiom of Bach. 4 the peculiar character or genius of a language. dialect. 5 a distinct style or character. in music.1 an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements. etc. art. or style of speaking peculiar to a people. 3 a construction or expression of one language whose parts correspond to elements in another language but whose total structure or meaning is not matched in the same way in the second language.
indefinite article a/an indirect object see object indirect object noun a noun. noun phrase or pronoun in a sentence. that refers to the person or thing that an action is done to or for: In ‘Give him the money’. . make suggestions. (OEDALE) indirect speech a structure in which we report what somebody said by making it a part of our own sentence (so that the tenses. Have a good holiday. used after some verbs.imperative the form of a verb used to give orders. ‘him’ is the indirect object and ‘money’ is the direct object. etc. Bring me a pen. word order.
when there is no special reason to speak politely or carefully. To err is human.and pronouns and other words may be different from those used by the original speaker). He said that he was tired (the original speaker’s words are reported in indirect speech). Get is used mostly in an informal style. used after another verb. infinitive the ‘base’ form of a verb (usually with to). personal letters. start is a more informal word than commence. etc. to forgive divine. I want to go home. or as the subject or object of a sentence. I’ve got a plan to start a business. Compare: He said. It’s easy to sing. ‘I’m tired’ (the original speaker’s words are reported in direct speech). informal the style used in ordinary conversation. after an adjective or noun. .
more emphatic.-ing form the form of a verb ending in –ing. Very and terribly are intensifying adverbs. there is an auxiliary verb before the subject (e. running. Can you swim?) What. In an interrogative sentence. intensifying making stronger.g. Sometimes is an adverb that can go in initial position in a sentence. initial at the beginning. who and where are interrogative words. Sometimes I wish I had never been born. finding. keeping. interrogative Interrogative words and structures are used for asking questions. firing. .
An irregular verb has a past tense and/or past participle that does not end in –ed (e. taken). swam.g. subordinate clause Some sentences consist of a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. main clause. Here comes John. come. children is an irregular plural. inversion a structure in which a verb (or part of a verb) comes before its subject. smile. go. irregular not following the normal rules. A subordinate clause acts like a .intransitive An intransitive verb is one that cannot have an object or be used in the passive. Under no circumstances are visitors allowed to feed the animals. fall.
) Wherever you go. (The subordinate clause Where she is is the subject of the main clause. well. suddenly. compare You’ll find Coca-cola anywhere. started is the main verb. (The subordinate clause Wherever you go acts like an adverb in the main clause. In the sentence Running into the room. or an object. . fast. she started to cry. manner an adverb of manner describes how something happens.g. like a subject. (The subordinate clause that I didn’t care is the direct object in the main clause.) main verb the verb which is used as the basis for the main clause in a sentence.) I told you that I didn’t care. Where she is doesn’t matter.part of the main clause (e. you’ll find Coca-cola. or an adverbial).
because of the possibility of misunderstanding. it is between the subject and the main verb.g. will. the mountains seemed very close. run fast). misrelated participle a participle which does not have a subject in the sentence. modify An adjective is said to ‘modify’ the noun it is used with: it adds to or changes its meaning. modal auxiliary verb one of the verbs can.mid-position If an adverb is in mid-position in a sentence. may. The construction is usually avoided. ought. would. . might. shall. An adverb can modify a verb (e. could. must. Looking out of the window. I definitely agree with you. should.
object or complement of a sentence. I gave him what he needed. . the first noun modifies the second.an adjective (e. In sports car. nominal relative clause a relative clause (usually introduced by what) which acts as the subject. completely ready) or other words or expressions.g.
arm. memory.g. which can be used with an article. who tried to steal my cat.) See also identifying relative clause. Birmingham) are called ‘proper nouns’. (The relative clause. who tried to steal my cat. noun a word like oil. and place-names (e. non-identifying relative clause a relative clause which does not identify the noun it refers to (because we already know which person or thing is meant).g. Personal names (e. does not identify the person – she is already identified by the name Hannah Smith. There’s Hannah Smith. . George). they are usually used without articles.non-assertive see assertive. Nouns are most often the names of people or things.
object or complement of a clause. and the direct object is a watch. The direct object refers to a person or thing affected by the action of the verb. number the way in which differences between singular and plural are shown grammatically. the dog is the direct object. .noun phrase a group of words (e. article + adjective + noun) which acts as a subject. object a noun or pronoun that normally comes after the verb. the last bus.g. in an active clause. the indirect object is me. In the sentence Ann gave me a watch. The indirect object usually refers to a person who receives the direct object. this and these are differences of number. mouse and mice. The differences between house and houses. In the sentence Take the dog for a walk.
I went to see a film. passive a passive verb form is made with be+ past participle (e. the preposition. is broken. Discouraged by his failure. Having a couple of hours to spare. will be helped – not breaks. told. participle clause a clause-like structure which contains a participle. the noun. he resigned from his job. will help. the conjunction.g. the pronoun.i participle see present participle and past participle.part of speech Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb. the adjective. and the interjection. was told. The subject of a passive verb is usually the person . the adverb. which are active verb forms). not a finite verb form.
gone. It had been raining. the last two (with had been+…ing) are past perfect progressive. past progressive tense a verb form made with was/were +…ing. she had been working. Compare: They sent Lucas to prison for five years (passive). I had forgotten. stopped. The children had arrived. past participle a verb form like broken. (The meaning is not necessarily past. They were stopping.or thing that is affected by the action of the verb. The first two examples are past perfect simple. in spite of the name. which can be used to form perfect tenses and passives. . or as an adjective.) past perfect tense a verb form made with had+ past participle. I was going.
I have forgotten. to have arrived. perfect conditional should/would have + past participle. She had failed. in grammar. perfect infinitive to have + past participle. the person spoken to (second person). we show the difference between the person speaking (first person). He would have known. I should/would have agreed. to have finished. person the way in which. perfect a verb form made with the auxiliary have+ past participle.past simple tense see simple past tense. having arrived. . to have gone.
dead tired. are and is are differences of person. 1 group of words forming a conceptual unit. 3 mode of expression. him etc. . (ODCE) phrasal verb a verb that is made up of two parts: a ‘base’ verb followed by an adverb particle. would have been repaired. The differences between am. run over. but not a sentence. in the country. group of notes forming a distinct unit within a melody. 4 Mus. you. 2 idiomatic or short pithy expression. take in. me. personal pronouns the words I.and the people or things spoken about (third person). -n. he. phrase two or more words that function together as a group. the silly old woman. fill up.
postmodifier a noun which comes after the word which it modifes. many. our.plural grammatical form used to refer to more than one person. invited in The people invited all came late. My. possessive pronoun Mine. we. See also singular. possessive a form used to show possession and similar ideas. buses. her etc are often called ‘possessive adjectives’ (although in fact they are determiners. yours. your. e. John’s. hers etc are usually called ‘possessive pronouns’. mine.g. . are. these. not adjectives). See also premodifier. thing etc. children.
g.predicative adjectives placed after a verb like be. preparatory object When the subject of a sentence is an infinitive or a clause. See also attributive. premodifier a word that comes before the noun it modifies.g. and it can be used as a preparatory object in certain structures (e. She looks happy. seem. e. . It is important to get enough sleep). we usually put it towards the end of a sentence and use the pronoun it as a preparatory subject (e. There can also be used as a kind of preparatory subject (usually in the structure there is). He made it clear that he disagreed). preparatory subject. look are in predicative position. invited in an invited audience. The house is enormous. See also postmodifier.g.
(The meaning is not necessarily present.) present perfect tense a verb form made with have/has + past participle. It has been raining.preposition a word like on. insist on. The first two examples are the present . The children have arrived. into. normally followed by a noun or pronoun. I’ve been working all day. Opening his newspaper. care for. present participle the verb-form ending in –ing. I have forgotten. She was running. of. off. prepositional verb a verb that has two parts: a ‘base’ verb and a preposition. I hate the nose of crying babies. he started to read. in spite of the name.
. to be going. we were wondering) is called progressive. progressive infinitive a form like to be going. She is staying for two weeks.perfect simple. present simple tense see simple present tense progressive A verb form made with be+…ing (e. I’m going..g. to be waiting.ing) are present perfect progressive.. the last two (with have been_. present progressive tense a verb form made with am/are/is+…ing.
these. those. organization. place. -demonstrative this. someone. their. Peter’s self.) -indefinite everyone. The word pronoun can also be used for a determiner when this ‘includes’ the meaning of a following noun which has been left out.pronoun a word like it. etc. yourself.’ (Both stands for both bottles. Brazil. ‘Which bottle would you like?’ – ‘I’ll take both. Andrew. that. the family’s). somebody. which is used instead of a more precise precise noun or noun phrase (like the cat. Marks and Spencer. and we can say that it is used as a pronoun. everybody. . proper noun a noun (normally with no article) which is the name of a particular person.
which is used in a noun phrase to show how many or how much we are talking about. It’s a nice day. yourself. several. Hoped is a regular past tense. isn’t it? reflexive pronouns myself. . regular following the normal rules. a lot. I cut myself shaving this morning. question tag an expression like isn’t it? or don’t you? (consisting of auxiliary verb + pronoun subject) put on to the end of a sentence. little. plenty. few. himself etc. See also emphatic pronoun. See also irregular. Most quantifiers are determiners. cats is a regular plural.quantifier a word or expression like many.
relative clause a clause introduced by a relative pronoun. you are. A relative pronoun is used to repeat the meaning of a previous noun. You’re a real idiot.reinforcement tag a tag which repeats (and so reinforces or strengthens) the meaning of the subject and verb. like who or which. non-identifying relative clause. whose. where and why). I like people who like me. when. it connects a relative clause to the rest of the sentence (so it acts as a conjunction and a pronoun at the same time). relative pronoun one of the pronouns who. at the same time. whom. See also identifying relative clause. Is this the child that was causing all the trouble? . which and that (and sometimes what.
’s genitive a form like John’s. the earth’s. our parents’. . ‘I’ve been invited to spend the weekend in London.reply question a question (similar in structure to a question tag) used to reply to a statement (for instance to express interest). it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. I writing. question or exclamation. and usually has at least one subject and verb. command.’ – ‘Have you. question mark or exclamation mark. A sentence consists of one or more clauses. dear?’ second person see person sentence a group of words that expresses a statement.
You heard. simple tense a tense that is not progressive.short answer an answer consisting of a subject and an auxiliary verb. I like chocolate. they have arrived. I know.’ simple past tense a past form made without an auxiliary verb. She wants. . He goes there often. I stopped. ‘Who’s ready for more?’ – ‘I am. simple present tense a present verb form made without an auxiliary verb. I went. We saw.
lose one’s cool (= ‘get upset’). bus. water. me. this. See also plural. or about an ‘uncountable’ quantity or mass. thick (= ‘stupid’). expression or special use of language found mainly in very informal speech. slang a word. . is one that is usually used by the mot educated or influential people in a country. etc. standard A standard form of a language.singular a grammatical form used to talk about one person. is. or a standard accent. split infinitive structure in which an adverb comes between to and the infinitive verb form (sometimes considered ‘incorrect’) to easily understand. thing. especially in the usage of particular groups of people. much.
In the word particular. .and is therefore considered more widely acceptable or ‘correct’ than other forms. and taught in schools. Philip stayed out all night. or sub-standard. The standard language is the one normally used for writing. In the sentence ΄Where’s the ΄new ΄secretary? there are three stresses. stress a way in which one or more parts of a word. phrase or sentence are made to sound more important than the rest (by using a louder voice and/or higher pitch). I’m not is standard English. statement a sentence which gives information. I’m cold. I ain’t is nonstandard. the main stress is on the second syllable /p ΄t kj l /.
or with a quicker pronunciation with the vowel / / or /I/ (‘weak form’). Helen broke another glass today.strong form certain words can be pronounced in two ways: slowly and carefully (‘strong form’). /k n/). was (/was/ . /hi/). 3 Logic & Gram. he (/hi??/ . It often says (in an active sentence) who or what does the action that the verb refers to. Oil floats on water. /w s/). can (/kæn/. subject a noun or pronoun that comes before the verb in an ordinary affirmative sentence. (ODCE) . noun or its equivalent about which a sentence is predicated and with which the verb agrees.
if I were you. [Latin: related to SUBJOIN] subordinate clause a clause which functions as part of another clause (e. I . that girl. subjunctive a verb form (not very common in British English) used in certain structures. –adj. wished. –n. If I were you.g. ….. or possible (e. be that as it may). as subject.subject-tag a tag which repeats or identifies the subject. It’s important that he be informed immediately. this mood or form.g. Gram. (of a modd) expressing what is imagined. object or adverbial in the main clause of a sentence). She’s an idiot.
used in the same way (e. swearword a taboo word used (usually with a change of meaning) to express strong emotion or emphasis. What I need is a drink.g.g. He already done it. I ain’t ready. I’ll follow you wherever you go. most politely). sub-standard not in the standard language. superlative the form of an adjective or adverb made with the suffix –est (e. most intelligent. oldest. fastest). and considered ‘incorrect’. also the structure most + adjective/adverb. Fuck! . main clause.thought that you understood. She don’t agree. See also clause.
saw (past). tense a verb form which shows the time of an action or event. subject tag. tag a short phrase (e.g. is not used in formal speech or writing. See also swearword. sex) which is not talked about freely. does she? See also question tag.g.taboo word a word (e. and is avoided altogether by many people. She doesn’t care. is sitting (present). .g. will go (future). auxiliary verb + pronoun subject) added on to the end of a sentence. fuck) connected with a subject (e. reinforcement tag. so that some of its vocabulary is considered shocking. third person see person.
mud. verb a word like ask. uncountable noun a noun which has no plural form and cannot normally be used with the article a/an. wake. weak form see strong form. verb phrase a verb that has several parts. be. give (a present).transitive A transitive verb is one that can have an object. See also auxiliary verb. . furniture. drive (a car). modal verb. rudeness. play. eat (a meal). Most verbs refer to actions or states. which can be used with a subject to form the basis of a clause. See also intransitive. would have been forgotten. can.
modal verbs The modal verbs are can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will and would. Dare, need, have to and used to also share some of the features of modal verbs. Modal verbs have only one form. They have no -ing or -ed forms and do not add -s to the 3rd person singular form: He can speak three languages. ∙ She will try and visit tomorrow.
Modal verbs are followed by the infinitive of another verb without to. The exceptions are ought to and used to: You must find a job.∙ You ought to stop smoking. ∙ I used to smoke but I gave up two years ago. Questions are formed without do/does in the present, or did in the past: Can I invite Mary? ∙ Should I have invited Mary? Negative sentences are formed with not or the short form -n’t and do not use do/does or did. (OEDALE) object (grammar) a noun, noun phrase or pronoun that refers to a person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb (called the direct object), or that the action is done to or for (called the indirect object) — compare subject (5) (OEDALE)
predicate noun (grammar) a part of a sentence containing a verb that makes a statement about the subject of the verb, such as went home in John went home. —compare object noun (5) (OEDALE) preposition noun (grammar) a word or group of words, such as in, from, to, out of and on behalf of, used before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time or method sentence - noun, 1[C] (grammar) a set of words expressing a statement, a question or an order, usually containing a subject and a verb. In written English sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop / period (.), a question mark (?) or an exclamation mark / exclamation point (!).(OEDALE)
subject 5[C] a noun, noun phrase or pronoun representing the person or thing that performs the action of the verb (I in I sat down.), about which sth is stated (the house in the house is very old) or, in a passive sentence, that is affected by the action of the verb (the tree in the tree was blown down in the storm) —compare object noun (4), predicate (OEDALE) Grammar. (in English and many other languages) a syntactic unit that functions as one of the two main constituents of a simple sentence, the other being the predicate, and that consists of a noun, noun phrase, or noun substitute which often refers to the one performing the action or being in the state expressed by the predicate, as He in He gave notice.
("subject." Dictionary. 10 Oct.1). <Dictionary. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.com/browse/subject>) .com http://dictionary. Inc.0. © Random House. 2006. 2006.reference.
.html#part %20of%20speech (last visited 15 October 2006). ca/academic/arts/wri tcent/hypergrammar/ partsp.uottawa. http://www.i Part of speech.
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