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Lateral Behavior of Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil Subjected to Both Vertical and Horizontal Loads
Zamri H. Chik Department of Civil and Structural Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +60389216228 Jasim M. Abbas Department of Civil and Structural Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia E-mail: email@example.com Tel: +60176384641 Mohd Raihan Taha Department of Civil and Structural Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +60122356942 Qassun S. Mohammed Shafiqu Civil Engineering Department/ Nahrain University Al Zadrea, Baghdad, Iraq E-mail: email@example.com Tel: +9647705333805 Abstract A numerical investigation based on 3D finite element analysis of the behavior of single pile under pure lateral and combined loadings is presented in this paper with different water table elevations. The linear elastic model is used for modeling of the pile material while the Mohr-Coulomb model is used to simulate the surrounding soil. The pile - soil interaction composed of 16-node interface elements. Assessments are made on the lateral soil pressures with respect to pile width and depth. The results have shown that the lateral pile response influenced by the water table elevation is to significantly increase the capacity in dry soil condition and marginally decrease the capacity in fully saturated soil. It was found that the axial load intensity affects on the lateral pile response; the great lateral pile displacement occurred at vertical load increment 12 and 16 which means that the lateral response is sensitive under the influence of large amount of vertical load. Keywords: Single pile, Lateral response, Water table elevation, Combined load, 3D finite element method
. A composition of finite elements is called finite element mesh. Anagnostopoulos & Georgiadis (1993) attempted to explained the influence of vertical load on the lateral response through an experimental model supported by two-dimensional (2D) finite-element analysis. etc. 2001). Numerical Model and Constitutive Relationship Finite element analyses were performed using the software PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION version 1. These elements are generated from the 6-node triangular elements. the geometry has to be divided into elements. Therefore many investigations have been made to study the behavior of pile under pure lateral load through 3D finite element analysis (Yang et al. and (ii) normal deflection at working loads should be within the permissible limit. Certainly. In the finite element method a continuum is divided into a number of (volume) elements. The ground water table invariably fluctuates depending on the environmental condition and also affected piled foundations which are always used to transfer vertical (axial) forces which are result from the weight of superstructure. In order to perform the finite element calculations. 1. in which. According to Karthigeyan et al. B is the pile diameter or pile width. the piles not only carry axial load but also lateral (horizontal) forces. 1980. Johnson et al. 1991. The soil mass affection the pile response diminishes when the width is greater than 40B. 2007). Each element consists of a number of nodes. (2006 & 2007). The first attempt to study the lateral behavior of piles included two-dimensional finite element model in horizontal plane (Poulos & Davis. The basic soil elements of a 3D finite element mesh are represented by the 15-node wedge elements as shown in Fig. In the design of pile subjected to lateral load. there is also a need to assess the behavior of piles under simultaneous vertical and horizontal loadings because piles are commonly designed to carry combined horizontal-vertical loads. In addition. Each node has a number of degrees of freedom that correspond to discrete values of the unknowns in the boundary value problem to be solved. 2006). the soil mass dimension depends on the pile diameter and length. and Karthigeyan et al. the ultimate lateral resistance of pile is required to satisfy two criteria (Poulos & Davis. For long buildings such as bridges abutments. The 15-node wedge element is composed of 6-node triangles in horizontal direction and 8-node quadrilaterals in vertical direction. and Patra & Pise..1. The finite element method is most widely used to perform the analysis of piles under different type of loading.. The width of soil mass is taken as 40B. Other consideration includes the load intensity and its distance from the surface. 2005. (i) pile should be safe against failure. Other 3D finite element studies included the effect of various load combinations on the lateral response of piles (Trochanis et al. In this paper an analysis of pile under different water table elevation and combined loads is carried out to evaluate the lateral soil resistance with respect to pile width as well as pile depth. 2. Introduction In general. The height of soil mass is L+20B. L is the length of pile. a 3D finite element is powerful method to simulate laterally loaded piles (Tahghighi & Konagai. transmission towers. offshore structure. the water table elevation changes during different times of the year which influences the behavior of pile foundations.Lateral Behavior of Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil Subjected to Both Vertical and Horizontal Loads 195 1. 1980). 2006 & 2007). A two-dimensional analysis could only provide a very rough approximation because the problem of piles is truly three-dimensional and should be analyzed as such. in which. .
and Poisson's ratio. Below this layer is a 10m of soft silty clay followed by a layer of medium dense to dense silty sand and medium stiff silty clay of about 20m and 7m depth. In addition three parameters namely Young's modulus. namely Young's modulus. Each interface has a 'virtual thickness' assigned to it which is an imaginary dimension used to obtain the stiffness properties of the interface. interface elements are composed of six node pairs. . σ3). (2006) only depend on the principal stresses (σ1. The piles were tested vertically to assess the axial bearing capacity of the designed piles. The length of each bored pile is approximately 75m with steel casing being used for the top 30m.196 Zamri H. First include a full scale axial load and second deals with a full scale lateral load tests. and is independent of the intermediate principle stress (σ2). and the dilatancy angle. The model involves two elastic stiffness parameters. 1999). Linear elastic model (perfect-plasticity) is used to model the pile. The generalized subsoil properties consist of very soft silty clay with traces of sea shells with depth of about 20m. and (b) 3DFE mesh y Pile L+20B z x (a) 40B 40B L= pile length B= pile width (b) In order to model the pile structural material. 3. Finally Interfaces element is modeled as 16-node interface elements. 1998). c’ and the friction angle. Mohd Raihan Taha and Qassun S. compatible with the triangular side of the degenerated soil element. respectively. The failure envelope as referred by Johnson et al. The bored piles were designed to carry loads ranging from 300 to 600 kN. Mohr Coulomb’s failure surface criterion (Potts & Zdravkocic. Verification of Numerical Models Two case studies were used for verification the finite element model of the whole geotechnical structure. φ’.2m diameter which were used for the construction of a new 2. Mohammed Shafiqu Figure 1: 3D finite element mesh for soil mass and location of pile. It is primarily used for modeling of stiff structural member for example piles in the soil.2km road dual carriageway viaduct on an existing road (Jamaludin & Hussein. (b) 15-node wedge element. On the other hand. Malaysia. E. namely the cohesion intercept. The virtual thickness is defined as the virtual thickness factor times the average element size. This elasto-plastic model is based on soil parameters that are known in most practical situations is used in this study. This model used represents Hooke's law of isotropic linear elasticity used for modeling the stress-strain relationship of the pile material. Poisson's ratio. Interface elements consist of eight pairs of nodes. ν’. Jasim M. ψ’ are needed to calculate the complete σ – ε behavior. The model involves two main parameters. The first case study consists of a large diameter bored piles of 1. Chik. Mohr-Coulomb model is used to model the non-linear performance of surrounded soil. Along degenerated soil elements. Abbas. The road project is situated in Port Klang. compatible with the 8-noded quadrilateral side of a soil element. Finally the lowest layer consists of very dense fine grained sand. ν. E’. and links the West Port to Kuala Lumpur.
Table 1: Geotechnical properties of the soil layers Name γunsat γsat E ν c′ φ Soil 1 14 16 8500 0.3 1 45 Soil 4 16 18 10000 0. Also the numerical simulation is reasonably accurate for the problem of laterally loaded piles and pile – soil interaction over a wide range of deformation for 3m and 5m piles in length.3m in diameter and had a length of 3m or 5m.300 E+04 0.5m was characterized as having both components of shear strength.3 20 35 Soil 7 19 19 1. 2.3 10 21 Soil 2 16 18 10000 0. The magnitude of deflection of the piles was not the same as the field test due possibly to the variability of soil properties. This is underlain by medium dense to very dense silty sand with cemented lumps to the bottom of the borehole.35 5 25 oil 3 19 19 13000 0. 1998).300 E+04 0. The surface soil to depth of 3.35 5 25 Soil 5 17 20 14000 0.15 Unit kN/m3 kN/m3 kPa kPa - Parameter Unsaturated soil weight Saturated soil weight Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Cohesion intercept Friction angle Where:Soil 1: Very soft silty clay with traces of sea shells Soil 2: Soft silty clay Soil 3: Medium dense to dense silty sand Soil 4: Medium stiff silty clay Soil 5: Very dense fine grained sand Soil 6: Medium dense cemented silty sand layer Soil 7: Medium dense to very dense silty sand with cemented lumps Figure 2: Comparison of finite element results with field test data 1400 180 Piles 0.2 Pile No.Lateral Behavior of Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil Subjected to Both Vertical and Horizontal Loads 197 The second case study deals with lateral load in which the deflection response of bored piles in cemented sand were examined by field test on single pile under lateral load (Ismael. The comparison between the finite element results and field test data is shown in Fig.3 160 140 1000 120 800 Load (tons) Load (kN) 100 Piles 0. Comparable data were obtained between the experimental results of the three piles and the present simulation model in the case of axial test. The same load sequence as both pile tests was applied on the pile after completing the whole geotechnical model for vertical and lateral pile tests.1 Pile No.3 D x 5m long 1200 Pile No. The soil profile consists of a medium dense cemented silty sand layer to a depth 3m. All piles were 0. The pile with length 5m is highly resistance to the lateral load from the second pile length value. Properties of soil in the both cases are listed in Table 1.3 1 45 Pile 25 2 E+09 0.3 D x 3m long 80 600 60 400 40 200 Jamaludin and Hussein (1998) Presen FE Simulation 20 Present FE Simulation Ismael (1998) 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Settlem ent (m m ) 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Deflection (m m ) (a) 0 (b) 0 .3 1 31 Soil 6 18 18 1. Ground water was not encountered within the depth of the borehole. both effective parameters. The site of this load test was in Kuwait.
198 Zamri H. Results and Discussion The magnitude of the lateral load was applied in two stages i. Analysis Layout The analysis consists of modeling of single short pile using linear-elastic model with 15-node wedge elements. i. The tested pile. This section includes studying the lateral soil pressure at three levels measured from the apex of the pile (e=0L).8Vult. Finally the whole soil was considered fully saturated. Then the water table was set at the base of the pile and the middle length of the pile.2Vult in which H is the lateral load and Vult is the expected ultimate vertical pile capacity. The pile was loaded firstly under pure lateral load in two amounts.2. Jasim M. This assessment was under fully saturation soil condition. This study includes: (1) effect of changing the water table elevation due to the weather and environmental conditions on the behavior of pure laterally loaded pile. Study Methodology Laterally loaded piles usually carry vertical and lateral loads at the same time.4L). The lateral soil resistance is one of the most important factors that directly effect on the pile response under such loads. Chik. Table 2: Pile and soil properties Pile details 1200 mm D 10 m Concrete M25 25000 MPa 0. Four soil conditions were studied with respect to the ground water table. (2) effect of lateral load intensity on the behavior of pile under pure lateral load.15 Soil details Friction angle (φ) Dilation angle (ψ) Unit weight (γ) Young’s modulus (Es) Earth pressure (k0) Poisson’s ratio (ν) 300 0-100 18 kN/m3 20 MPa 0.e. These piles were embedded into a sandy soil layer. The upper part of pile is the most critical part of pile in case of laterally loaded pile (Poulos & Davis. Mohd Raihan Taha and Qassun S. where e is the distance from the pile head. Abbas. 3.2m.1. 4. (e=0. 5. This performance depends on the interaction between pile material and the surrounded soil. Then the pile was loaded with fixed lateral load (250kN) and gradually the vertical load was increased. Material Properties and Dimensions In this study. 4. (3) effect of increasing vertical loads on the lateral loaded pile response. 50kN and 250kN. The maximum axial load reached 16H or 0.5 0. This section also deals with studying the side shear stresses and lateral pile deformation shape.e. dimensions and soil properties are summarized in Table 2.2L) and (e=0. 1980) because of its greater deflection and its ability to carry higher lateral loads than the lower pars as shown in Fig. The first soil condition was taken in this study was dry soil condition. The drained soil condition was used in this study which represents the case of dissipation of pore water pressure. These started from lowest value of 4H that represent 0. Two load intensities were studied.1. The short pile assumption assume that the point of . Lateral Soil Pressure The review of existing methods for predicting the ultimate lateral resistance to pile in cohesionless soil was detailed by Zhang (2005). The cross-section of the pile is circle with a diameter of 1. 50 kN and 250 kN. circular cast in place pile was used to simulate the behavior of piles under lateral and vertical loads.3 Size Length Type of pile Grade of concrete Young’s modulus Ep Poisson’s ratio (νs) 5. Mohammed Shafiqu 4.
2D and 0. respectively. 2005) e=0.2D p p p D H e=0.Lateral Behavior of Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil Subjected to Both Vertical and Horizontal Loads 199 rotation is near to the base of pile which means that soil failure criteria will take place without fracture that occurs in the case of long pile as shown in Fig. 3a & 3b. The lateral soil distribution within the pile width was assessed three elevations as shown in Fig. 4.4D from the top of pile to show the distribution of lateral soil pressure with depth. 5. Figure 3: Failure Modes of Vertical Piles under Lateral Loads (Poulos & Davis)) H e1 Point of fracture H e1 L L Point of rotation (a) Short pile (b) Long pile According to Zhang et al. Figure 4: Distribution of earth pressure subjected to lateral load (after Zhang. The other two elevations are 0. The first elevation was close to pile tip (and/or to soil surface). (2005) the lateral soil resistance distributes uniformly between two pile sides in the opposite part of lateral load as shown in Fig.4D Figure 5: The elevations where the lateral earth pressures are evaluated Side shear stresses σxy p = Distribution of lateral soil resistance Pile H=Lateral load D .
In the case of 250 kN loading the magnitudes of lateral soil resistance were lowest in fully saturated soils and higher in the cases of dry soil condition and when the WT is at the middle of the pile length.5D 0. In the case of 250kN loading.1 0. except at the 0.2 Pile width 0.4 0.25D and from 0. Chik. Slightly increasing from the edge to about 0. 14 12 50 Lateral soil pressure Lateral soil pressure 60 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.4 0. 7 shows the lateral soil resistance under 50kN lateral loading at e=0. The lateral soil pressure increased almost uniformly from the edge reaching the maximum values at the middle of the pile (0. The lateral soil resistance with respect of pile width can be described in three parts.4 0. partially saturated and dry soil conditions.1 0.2 Pile width 0.1D 0.T.5D 0 0.5D) with no change in lateral soil pressure between them as shown in Fig.5 (a) lateral load=50kN (b) lateral load=250kN .2D 0.15D then after it increases sharply until 0.1 0.2L 70 20 Lateral soil pressure p H 60 Lateral soil pressure 15 e=0.4D 0.4D 0.2D Pile width 0. at the middle of pile depth Fully saturation soil condition 0. at the pile base W. Abbas. at the middle of pile depth Fully saturation soil condition 10 Dry soil condition p H 5 W. In fully saturated soil condition it was predicted that the pressures were lower than those in the other soil conditions and appeared to be almost uniformly distributed. Little difference in the distribution of soil pressure appeared at the edge of the pile for fully saturated soil condition.T.3 0.3D 0. the lateral soil resistance appeared to be more complex in distribution and more irregular increase from the edge to the middle of the pile. at the middle of pile depth Fully saturation soil condition 10 0 0 0. Mohammed Shafiqu The results (Fig.3D 0.5 (a) lateral load=50kN (b) lateral load=250kN Fig.4 0. at the base of pile W.5D 0.2 0.1D 0. Mohd Raihan Taha and Qassun S.T.3 0.3 Pile width 0.3D 0.2 W.2L. Jasim M.T.3 0.25D to the middle (0.1D width.5 p 40 30 p H H 20 Dry soil condition Dry soil condition W.5 D) cross section. 6b except for the case of water table at the pile base.200 Zamri H. 6a) shows a generally smooth increment of the lateral soil pressure at the surface (e=0) across the width of the pile under pure small lateral load (50 kN) for different water table elevation.1D 0.1D 0.2L 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dry soil condition W. Figure 6: Distribution of front soil pressure with pile width at e=0.T.2D 0. at the pile base W.3D 0.1 0.T. In the case of WT at the base of the pile it was observed that the pressures were higher than those in the three soil conditions above.5D 0. Figure 7: Distribution of front soil pressure with pile width at e=0. at the middle of pile Fully saturation soil condition 0 0 0.4D 0. at the pile base W.4D 0.5 0.2D 0.T.2L 25 80 e=0.T.
At 250kN loading the lateral pressure increases from the lowest value at the edge to the highest value at the pile center.1D 0.3 Pile width Dry soil Condition W.5 0 0.5 kN/m2 at the base under dry soil condition. the lateral soil resistance decreased nearly to 15% in the case of small loading (50kN) from the edge to the middle of pile.3D 0. When increasing the lateral load to 250kN. In the case of small lateral loading (50 kN) it was predicted that the pressures increased with depth in the four soil conditions with a maximum value of 68.1D 0. the soil performance changed as detailed in Fig. in the case of e = 0. 9b. The highest value occurs at the edge which means that the pressure is concentrated on both side of the pile cross section in this depth. at the pile base W.T.2 0. 9 shows the distribution of the lateral soil pressure with depth of pile under different water table elevations.Lateral Behavior of Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil Subjected to Both Vertical and Horizontal Loads 201 Finally. at the middle of pile Fully saturation soil condition p e=0. .2D 0. Figure 8: Distribution of front soil pressure with pile width at e=0. In the case when WT is at the base of pile it was noticed that at depth 0. at the middle of pile Fully saturation soil condition 0.T. Fig. at the pile base p H 10 0 W.2D 0.3D 0.4L 30 e=0.4L the lateral soil pressure started to reduce and reached the minimum at about 0.1 0.4 40 35 30 25 Lateral soil pressure 60 50 40 Lateral soil pressure 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.4L shown in Fig.5D 0.2L and thus this point can be considered as the critical point in the design as well as the fracture point (0).4 0. 9a.5 (a) lateral load=50kN (b) lateral load=250kN It is important to study the lateral soil pressure along pile depth in order to understand which part of the pile carry large soil pressure that may cause pile foundation collapse.T.4L H 20 Dry soil condition W.4D 0.3 0.4D 0. The figure show that maximum soil pressure concentrated at 0.2 Pile width 0.1 0. 8.4 0.5D 0.T.6L as shown in Fig.
2L 01 Dry soil condition W. and the soil is in fully saturated condition.T. at the base of pile W. Lateral load was fixed during this stage at 250kN. Chik. 5. at the base of pile 0. In the case of e=0 (near the surface) higher lateral soil pressure was observed when the applied vertical load is about four times horizontal load (Fig. P i l e d e p th 0.6L 0.8L 0. The lateral soil pressure increased when moving from the edge of pile to the centre cross section and as shown in Fig.2L 0. The vertical load applied started from zero (no vertical load) to 16 times the lateral load and was increased in four stages. 10.T. 12 and 16. Mohammed Shafiqu Figure 9: Distribution of front soil pressure along pile length (depth) 0 1 Dry soil condition W.6 .4 0.6L 0.T.4 0.T.6 0. at the middle of pile Fully saturation soil condition P i l e d e p th H p L H p L 0. Development of Lateral Soil Pressure The comparison between pure lateral loaded pile and pile carrying both vertical and horizontal loads was detailed in Fig. Jasim M. 10a. 10a). at the middle of pile depth Fully saturation soil condition 0. the behavior changed resulting in reduced soil pressure and even lower than pure lateral loads.8 W.2.202 Zamri H.4L 0. Mohd Raihan Taha and Qassun S.8 0. This may be due to the fact that the soil near surface is usually weak and could not carry higher loads compared to soil at deeper elevations.3.8L 0.2 L 0 -80 -60 -40 Lateral soil pressure -20 0 L0 -80 -60 -40 Lateral soil pressure -20 0 (a) lateral load=50kN (b) lateral load=250kN 5. When the ratio of vertical to horizontal load was 8. Lateral Behavior of Pile under Vertical and Lateral load This section deals with the effect of vertical load intensity on the lateral behavior of pile.2 0. The lowest values were occurred at the edges of pile cross-section.4L 0. Abbas.
At higher vertical loads (12H and 16H) the pressure increased smoothly with depth from the edge in which its value is the lowest to the ultimate magnitude at locations between 0.1D 0.5D 0. It is appeared at the vertical load of 8H. This means that the pile suffer additional lateral load at the base of pile in the same direction of applied load due to the rotation of lower part of pile.2D 0.Lateral Behavior of Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil Subjected to Both Vertical and Horizontal Loads 203 Figure 10: Distribution of front soil pressure with pile width for different vertical load intensities.5 Pile width 20 0 0 0.2L and (c) e=0.4D 0.0 H V = 12. (a) e=0.0 H 60 40 p V H 10 0 0 0.0 H V = 12.1 0.2 0. (b) e=0.25D as shown in Fig.4L (b) V p H 80 Lateral soil pressure V = 8.0 H V = 8. This was not observed when vertical load of up to 4H was applied. The distribution of lateral soil pressure with depth of pile for lateral load of 250 kN is represented in Fig. The highest values of pressure at this pile depth occurred at 0.0 H V = 4.0 H e=0.1 0.4L and in the case of zero vertical load and also four times lateral load.2L as shown in Fig.0 H 60 40 20 0 0 0.1D 0.4D 0.5D 0.3 0. One of the important phenomenon appeared is the changing in the direction of lateral soil pressure at the lower part of pile.3D 0.2D 0.0 H e=0.2L V p 50 Lateral soil pressure 40 30 20 V = 4.2D and 0.3 0. This results show the variation of the distribution along the pile length and with respect to the applied vertical loads.0 H V = 16.0 H H 80 Lateral soil pressure V = 8. .4D 0.0 H V = 16.0 H V = 4.4 0. When moving downwards to e=0.5D 0.1 0.2 0.0 H 100 V = 0.2 0. lateral load=250kN.3D 0.4L 60 V = 0.4D. 10b.3 0.2D 0.1D 0. Also the magnitude of the lateral soil pressure depends on the depth below the soil surface.0 H V = 16. 11.5 Pile width (c) The pile has special lateral soil pressure distribution when e=0.3D 0.4 0.0 H V = 12.0. the stress distributed shape closed to the linear in the region between the edge to the center of the pile width. 10c.4 0.5 Pile width (a) 100 V = 0.
2L from the surface.0 H V = 4. . • For the pile under combined loading. Dry soil condition gives higher lateral resistance than fully saturated soil condition. • For small value of pure lateral load. The highest pressure occurred when the applied vertical load is four times the horizontal load at the surface and occurred at 0. Abbas. Mohammed Shafiqu Figure 11: Distribution of front soil pressure along pile length. lateral load=250kN 0 V = 0.8L L -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Lateral soil pressure 6.2L Pile depth 0. • At high vertical loads the direction of lateral soil pressure at the lower part of pile changes. The distribution of the lateral soil resistance became more complex and irregular and generally increase from the edge to the middle of the pile under large loading.204 Zamri H. • Water table elevation influenced the lateral pile of the response.4L V H p L 0. the vertical load affects the lateral soil pressure distribution along pile width.0 H V = 16. The pile will apparently be subjected to additional to the applied lateral load.0 H 0.0 H V = 8. Jasim M. Mohd Raihan Taha and Qassun S.6L 0. Chik. Conclusions The following conclusions are drawn from the present investigation: • The lateral soil pressure in the case of pure lateral load changed with pile width and depth depending on the intensity of load and water level elevation. a small change in lateral soil pressure with pile width was predicted under different water elevation condition.0 H V = 12.
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