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Ebook Terms of Use


This book and its contents are copyrighted to Dezine Holdings Ltd. The use of this book is governed by Our Website Terms of Use
http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Site_Information/Our_Website_Terms_of_Use

as contained on this site. Without limiting the application of those terms, the following provisions apply to the use of all books on this site.

The use of these books does not imply the provision of a contracted architectural or building consultancy service to the user except where specifically agreed in writing.

Book users are encouraged to seek assistance from correctly qualified and skilled professionals and trades people before undertaking any design and/or construction work.

Book users are also encouraged to check with their local regulatory authority to determine current standards for design and/or construction.

The liability of Dezine Holdings Ltd is limited in terms of the Our Liability provisions contained in Our Website Terms of Use
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This document is the copyright of Dezine Holdings Limited, www.interiordezine.com however distribution of it is allowed and encouraged but it must be done so in its entirety and with all links intact. Not to do so is in breach of the copyright waiver granted by Dezine Holdings Limited and www.interiordezine.com

Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................... 4 Planning, Design Concepts, Ergonomics .................................................................... 11 Construction.................................................................................................................. 18 Drafting and Presentation ........................................................................................... 22 History of Furniture ..................................................................................................... 27 Fabrics and Soft Furnishings ...................................................................................... 33 Materials........................................................................................................................ 39 Color .............................................................................................................................. 47 Fittings and Fixtures .................................................................................................... 51 Lighting ......................................................................................................................... 55 History of Styles and Periods....................................................................................... 63 Project Management .................................................................................................... 67 Decorating ..................................................................................................................... 73 Money ............................................................................................................................ 77 Farewell ......................................................................................................................... 79

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Introduction
Do you want to be an Interior designer, decorator or just decorate your own home?

This ebook shows you whats required when working with Interior Design and the elements of the project. It will help you get started on a career or undertake those renovations that you would love to do but dont know where to start.

It seems that Interior Design is a complex subject that requires a huge amount of skill and knowledge to undertake. Well guess what? Thats entirely right but.

In this ebook from interiordezine.com we will show you what you need to know for the level that you want to go to. It is not necessary to have a degree in Interior Design to undertake your home renovations or even makeovers. Obviously for the more complex commercial or extended situations that may be the case but as you will find with this ebook that one size does not fit all, that you can take it to any level that you want and we will show you how.

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So what do you need? Creative flair - Youve already got it so let us show you how to let it out.

A good knowledge of design and furniture history - a bit of reading into a fascinating subject and youll be hooked .

The ability to think in three dimensions - you already do this it just needs finetuning and practice.

The ability to show your ideas - these are techniques easily learnt.

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The ability to show how to get those ideas into product - simple systems and how to form a drawing.

An eye for detail - if you are reading this, then youve probably already got that and we will show you how to use it.

A memory for products and finishes - You already have this it is just a matter of expanding it in an organized fashion.

The knowledge of the steps to take a project from conception to completion - we take care of that as you go as well as a summary.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Free_Downloads

And of course you need passion, determination and practice, but then of course you already have that and that is why you are here reading this ebook!

Within this ebook and connected to interiordezine.com you are going to find one of the largest free resources (if not the largest) on the internet for Interior Dezine and Decoration that increases daily.

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Thats no exaggeration, as we have over seven hundred pages, an extensive glossary (about a thousand entries), examples, diagrams, photos, illustrations, links, books, downloadable ebooks and forms, step-by-step processes on everything about Interior Dezine. It is growing every day, so it is definitely the place to be if you are serious about Interior Dezine and Decoration. This book is linked back to it on every page for your information source that complements each section of Interior Dezine.

Note for our branding and because of habit, you will often find design is spelt dezine throughout this book, no apologies as we are very very proud of our business, site and company therefore dezine is the word and the brand when it comes to design.

Your two dezine guides are Chris and Lee Brown, both professional and qualified designers who are here to help with any queries about the books including this one and offer tips and advice throughout the site. You can even contact us with questions and while we cant design for you (as that would defeat the purpose) we can answer many questions or show you where to look to find the answers.

Chris and Lee set up www.interiordezine.com in 2003 year after spending 20 years in the industry and researching and collating information for the last five years. You will find their knowledge invaluable and if one cant answer a question then the other will be able to.

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To use this ebook, each area of skill required for Interior Dezine is given an introduction and then there are links back to www.interiordezine.com that explain and demonstrate the subject further, as well as an excerpt from a relating ebook. These ebooks are for sale; so if you find a topic that interests you, why not pursue it further by purchasing an ebook.

So below you will find whats in this free ebook and links back to the appropriate part of the site for the topic. If you cant find an item or subject let us know, as we are here to help and will do our utmost to find the answer for you.

There are also search tools on the site for your convenience that will search the site and the Internet. Various products are also advertised on the site and you will find that the vast majority of them are relevant to the pages subject and contents.

We hope you enjoy this subject as much as we do, having spent most of our lives working in it.

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Interior Dezine - Interior Decoration What are they exactly? How do you define Interior Dezine and Decoration? The two intermix and the waters can become quite muddy. I am classed and qualified as an Interior Deziner and I work on the level of being an Interior Architect so that I can make additions to buildings and make structural alterations to the interiors of buildings on a reasonably large scale.

However when it comes to being a Decorator I am out of my league when it comes to those specializing in the field. In fact Lee my partner would know more about texture, colour and the balances that make an average room great than I would in a month of Sundays.

Luckily by design or good fortune we complement each others specialty with my skills taking on a Holistic overview for planning and flow while she covers the finer points such as finishes and ambience. I guess that sounds a little simplistic as we both have skills in both fields but one tends to gravitate towards an area of specialization. We all have our strong and weak points.

Lees theory is that Interior Decoration generally involves working with loose items that can purchased individually or specified in writing i.e. wallpaper, carpet, paint, furniture, artwork, rugs etc, where as Interior Dezine is more based around making hard changes, like moving walls, space planning, drawing new joinery and furniture layouts, i.e. kitchens and bathrooms, often requiring the services of specific contractors but Interior Dezine also incorporates the decoration fields mentioned earlier.

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So Interior Dezine covers one broad field called Spatial Dezine and it depends on how far or in which direction you take your education. The decoration side which covers a lot of items such as domestic decoration or makeovers or the design side which may incorporate large scale spaceplanning and building alteration from domestic to full commercial development. The description of the Interior Deziner is small but the field huge and all areas require a skilled practioner.

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Planning, Design Concepts, Ergonomics

http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Design_Concepts

This involves understanding the human element of planning. To make an interior work properly there may be a number of solutions to do so. Our job at this point is to identify those solutions with the skills of the interior designer so that the interior flows for the function that it was intended for.

There may be one solution or a number of options and our skill in planning and design concepts will help identify the problem and the solution. To do this we also have to have an understanding of anthropometrics and ergonomics, which is the size and limitations of the human body and how they interact with machines or in the case of the interior designer furniture. We also use this skill in designing joinery and furniture as well as being able to determine minimum comfortable spaces for particular functions.

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For example, if you were planning a series of bedrooms, do you know the sizes of a single, single king, double queen and king size bed? Not only do you need to know these basic dimensions but also available heights, how much space is required to move around a bed, how much space is required if you bend over when making a bed. Seems simple doesnt it until you realize that you only have so much space to work with. The very interesting thing is that once you have a good understanding of the human body (anthropometrics) then planning starts to become second nature. Of course to plan we have to be able to do this on a medium that can be stored or used to illustrate the plan to others such as a computer or a drafting table and paper. This means also that we have to have a very good understanding of scale and be able to apply this within the planning process.

The items that this subject covers are as follows:

Using the Brief. How to get the information you need to develop the design in a structured and logical manner.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Free_Downloads_Area/Client_brief_form

Space Planning. The system to work out relationships between the uses of spaces and how much room they actually need.

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http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Design_Articles/New_Home_Planning_1

Design Concepts. Ideas of proportion and balance, the surrounding environment and what influences and provides ideas for your design.

The links below explain to you how to use the rules of the Fibbonacci Series and The Golden Mean, tried and true rules for designing to pleasing proportions used over the centuries and also those that are commonly found in nature.
http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Construction/The_Fibonacci_series http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Construction/The_Golden_Mean http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Construction/Proportion_and_balance

An excerpt from Design Concepts, Planning and Ergonomics ebook. Ergonomics is described by the New Penguin English dictionary as a science concerned with the relationship between human beings, the machines, the equipment they use and the working environment.

The word Ergonomics is derived from Greek. The word Ergon (work) and nomos (law) It is fitting the work (by design) to the person who has to use it.

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Ergonomics is closely related to Anthropometrics, which is the measurement of the bodily form and proportions of human beings. Anthropometrics or Anthropometry the scientific study of the measurement of the human body (New Penguin English dictionary).

Essentially we are looking at and trying to define the interface between man and machine and the working environment

As interior designers, we are primarily concerned with comfortably fitting the human being into an interior. These are important subjects for us to have a fairly clear understanding and concept of. We wont study sizes of human beings down to the last millimeter but help try to develop an understanding of and an approach to furniture design and why we size and position items and fittings as we do.

In this chapter, I will explain the principals behind ergonomic design and how it is applied everyday in joinery and interiors.

Firstly lets explore the human body. When working or resting our bodies have natural positions that allow movement to be comfortable. If we use these natural positions and postures, then strain and in turn fatigue is reduced when performing these tasks.

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The golden rule is why stretch and strain when we dont have to. Always use this when thinking about the function of an application to Interior Design such as the placement of a light switch, the type of faucet or door handle, the design of a kitchen or other work or rest area.

If we follow this simple principal then when fatigue is reduced then so is the likelihood (ensuring all other principals are met such as lighting, non slip surfaces etc) of injury.

Firstly to perform all tasks we need to be able to see clearly. This doesnt just mean good lighting but also the ability to focus on the task at hand without having to bend, cast your eyes, or have your line of sight obscured unnaturally. Preferably we would like to be able to perform the task without crouching, bending, stretching or being off balance. Secondly the task should be within a relaxed arms reach i.e. unnecessarily stretched or if crouching off balance. The same is applied if sitting and for any work surface that we may be at, to be at a comfortable height and distance from the body. You need to notice that tables, chairs and cabinets all seem to be within a particular range of heights and widths. We need to be aware of these when analyzing and specifying design of furniture, fittings and space planning.

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It is no accident that door handles are usually at a particular height between 700mm and 1000mm, or where light switches are placed, the heights and widths of benches or even the widths of doorways and hallways. The human form has determined all these, and as a designer we should be acutely aware of how to accommodate the human form.

People do not come in the same shape or size but there is a range of sizes that we work to that is acceptable industry practice. We dont intend to be absolutely precise in an introductory course to Interior Design but to give you that understanding and the ability to reason why you design. Use the following links below to see the diagrams and actual sizes required.

Anthropometrics. Sizes of people.


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Essential_Design_Tools/Anthropmetric_data

Ergonomics. How people interact with objects and the sizes and shapes that work for the human body.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Essential_Design_Tools/Anthropmetric_data

Site Measuring. How to go about measuring a room and recording it, so that it can later be drawn to a scale.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Essential_Design_Tools/How_to_Site_Measure

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It is here that you will start to develop the ability to think and visualize in three dimensions on an accurate scale. This is one of the fundamental skills and abilities of the designer that puts him or her ahead of everybody else.

If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Design_Concepts

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Construction

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Construction

While Interior Design and the creative flair are the fun parts that make the interior aesthetics work, you still need a basic knowledge of how buildings and the items inside them are held together. This is the nuts and bolts side of holding the interior that you design together.

As with everything, we need to have a foundation to work from and so it is with Interior Design. If you dont have the basics in construction and the language that the building industry uses then it is like a table without legs. A step or plinth rather than a table because the correct instruction hasnt got to the person who builds it.

The construction techniques and principals will also help you formulate practical ideas when designing. You can build or design almost anything, but some things are more practical and economical than others and different techniques

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and finishes can give the desired or similar effect without the cost being prohibitive. It is up to you to decide on the constraints if any and work from that. The funny thing about construction is that it has just a few simple principles but lots and lots of ways of achieving this so it is as simple or as complicated as you want to make it.

For example. There are a number of factors that should be considered when dealing with constructing something. What it the item to do e.g. is it a Container? A Surface? Shelter? Support?

So this subject involves the following and a great deal more: The basic forces that are in play on objects such as buildings and joinery.
http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Construction/Forces_on_buildings

How building items are constructed such as, foundations, flooring, walls, ceilings and roofs.
http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Construction/Framed_members_and_structures

The composition of materials such as concrete, glass, fiberboards, timbers and how these apply to different situations and why.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Construction/Glass

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The trims applied inside a building relating in particular to an Interior Designer.


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Timber_Wood_5

The principals behind staircases and what makes them appropriate for different situations including basic rules for stair design.
http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Construction/Stairs

What joinery is, including cabinetry and doors and windows.


http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Construction/Windows

Why moisture is the buildings enemy and how in particular this relates to interior design.

The above is a small part of the construction knowledge that helps make up a competent Interior Deziner and although it can be daunting, a one step at a time method soon gets you underway to understanding construction and how that knowledge puts you ahead of your competitors.

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Basic timber framed house with a concrete floor slab and foundation.

If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Construction

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Drafting and Presentation

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Draughting_and_Presentation

This topic is about how to get your ideas across so that you can Sell the idea to the client. Collate the design for yourself and your client. Draw diagrams that accurately illustrate how an item is to be manufactured. Understand scale and use it in drawings so that the drawing is accurate at a certain scale.

It involves learning the practice of traditional drafting so that you can draw an item to scale and with your knowledge of construction produce a working drawing so that the item can be manufactured by tradespersons who are able to read such a drawing.

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Areas that need to be learnt are: Measuring an existing item, be it a room or piece of joinery

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Essential_Design_Tools/How_to_Site_Measure

Transferring those measurements to a piece of paper so that the lines drawn are accurate to a scale.

How to set up that drawing on a drawing board. The principals behind basic angles and geometry for simple technical drawing.

How to make a drawing read correctly with line weights and the application of notes and dimensions.

The filing and storage of the drawing and how to distribute it legally.

How to draw simple one-point perspectives. How to draw two point perspectives. How to render plans and perspectives for presentation.

Excerpt from Draughting and Presentation ebook For some one else to understand your designs and to construct from them, you and all those involved, need to use a common language or form of communication that can be understood by all parties.

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The old saying that a picture paints a thousand words could not be more apt for the design industry and so it is pictures that designers use as their main form of communication.

To describe how a cabinet is built in written form is nearly impossible. For example: I would like you to make me a cabinet. It needs to be 2 meters long and half a meter in depth and 90 % of a meter high. I would like it to be made of mahogany with the grain shown to be quite a deep look and vertically run. The top of the cabinet needs to protrude over the leading face by 40 mm and be also 40 mm deep and I would like it to be rounded to a diameter of 20mm. In fact make it a bullnose. The interior of the cabinet is also to be mahogany and to have three adjustable shelves inside it. Space the adjustment holes at 20 mm intervals and use chrome plated steel pegs to hold the shelves in position. Each peg should be about an inch long and not to protrude through the exterior of the cabinet. It will need to have four doors and they are to be hung on self closing hinges with chrome plated steel d handles fixed 100 mm down from the top of the cabinet.

By the time you have finished writing all this and the instructions for the rest of the project you will have produced a book that is very large as well as very confusing. It is also difficult for the person manufacturing the cabinet to see at a glance your intentions and the details that you would like. Now do not confuse this with a specification, which will be illustrated later in this ebook and is expanded on in the Project Management ebook. A specification is an outline document covering the specific industry standards and conditions of contract that are required. Many industry professionals such as quantity

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surveyors and project managers love specifications and want you as the designer to put in as much design detail and quantities as possible. They do this to make their job easier and put the responsibility on you. My advice after over twenty years in this industry is to keep the written specification to a practical minimum and retain the detail and quantities of items on your drawings. The drawings are what you as a designer have a natural ability to communicate with. Leave the word smitthing to the Lawyers and Project Managers and dont let them frighten or bully you into doing otherwise. You are the designer. Show your designs as drawings.

The drawings required for any project are usually in the following format: Sketch Plan - the initial concept plan used to identify practicality, legal and cost estimation parameters. Detailed Design - refining the design to ensure the aesthetic qualities are included and re-establish the costs, and then Working Drawings, Construction Drawings, Blueprints - the detail of methods of construction, materials and sizes, shows all the services on plans and the drawn scope of work.

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If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Draughting_and_Presentation

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History of Furniture

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_History_of_Furniture

This topic requires that you have an understanding and memory retention of furniture history. Of course the reason for knowing this history is so that you as a skilled deziner can apply it to the appropriate situation, identify pieces for your interiors and if need be, create that particular theme for the style.

With an understanding of this subject you are also able to see how and why types of furniture has developed over the centuries and apply it to your thinking in modern dezine techniques, as well as have that ability to put together an eclectic interior, traditional interior or modern and be able to justify it with firm reasoning and design resolve.

To see examples of the different styles follow these links:

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Louis 14th
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Louis_14th

Louis 15th
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Louis_15th

Louis 16th
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Louis_16th

Evolution of English Furniture (Tudor to gothic)


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Evolution_of_English_Furniture

Elizabethan
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Elizabethan

Jacobean
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Jacobean

Commonwealth
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Commonwealth_Period

Restoration
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Restoration

William and Mary


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/William___Mary

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Queen Anne
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Queen_Anne

Georgian
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Georgian_Period

Chippendale
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Chippendale

Regency
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Regency_Furniture

Hepplewhite
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Hepplewhite

Adam
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Adam

Sheraton
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Sheraton_Furniture

Victorian
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Victorian_Furniture

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Furniture history is an extensive but deeply interesting and useful subject. As an Interior Deziner you become an authority on furniture, the development and appropriateness.

Excerpt from History of Furniture ebook American Furniture When the Mayflower landed in America in 1620, furniture was not one of the priorities that the passengers had made. Therefore they arrived without it. As life was not easy on their arrival, furniture was still not a priority; they simply made do and improvised with what they had and what they could find. Shelter was their major priority, making do with tents and makeshift houses.

Once they became established and permanent houses were built in settlements, they then required furniture. In the beginning, the tools and timber fashioned the design, it was of crude design and solely functional, constructed from riven timber with the adze. This was known as Early Colonial furniture. It was generally made of softer timbers as they were easier to work with, Pine, Birch, Maple and sometimes walnut and cherry. As they were handmade, the design and construction was simple and honest, stool seats and solid timber boards as tabletops with square legs (peg), made from straight-grained logs. These items were strong and functional.

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The early design was influences by the country of origin of the settlers, but a distinctive American style gradually formed. The furniture became more refined with the use of curved scrolls and turned shapes, the cyma curve was introduced and was a very predominant form.

Toprails of furniture were decorated with it, and the turned legs, which now replaced the square legs, were more refined.

The materials available still influenced the style of construction. The mortise and tenon held together with wooden pegs and dove tail joints were the methods used for jointing the furniture as glue, nails and screws used today were not available or even heard of.

The colonial furniture that you see to day is manufactured by modern machine methods but based on the popular Early Colonial designs. The cyma recta shapes and honest construction have been retained, and incorporated into new pieces of furniture that the early settlers did not have, but are necessary for us today. Items have been rescaled to suit todays homes, and upholstery for added comfort has been added. Native timbers are still used, but the finishes have changed, originally only scrubbed, today they are stained and polished.

Colonial and Windsor chairs have very similar features, they are of crude design and honestly made products of timber. The American Colonial style had its origins in England but managed to create its own distinctive look. There are many other styles that followed Englands lead, American William and Mary, American Queen Anne, American Chippendale style. These styles were

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developed until the American Revolution ended in 1783. The Federal Style was next, encompassing the decade after 1790, it has its own name but the designs closely followed those of Adam, Hepplewhite and Sheraton.

If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_History_of_Furniture

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Fabrics and Soft Furnishings

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_soft_furnishings

This topic requires that you have a basic knowledge of the following points:

Knowledge of the types of fabrics available and the ability to recognize them.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Fabrics

An understanding of yarns and fibers, the different types available and how they are classified.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Fibres_natural_

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How fabric is made, recognize different types of weave and what they are used for.

Ways to decorate textiles or fabrics, from dye, printing and the weave.

Have a concept of the numerous fabrics and textiles available on the market and what they can be used for.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Fabrics

The different types of curtains (drapes), how they are made, headings, linings, accessories and how to hang them
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Soft_Furnishings/Curtains

The different types of window treatments available, and where they are used.

Recognize which window treatment best suits different situations.

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Be able to select fabric for a use understanding all the factors required to make it a successful choice.

Recognize the different types of windows and have sound solutions for how to decorate them effectively.

Have knowledge of decorative finishes and when to use them.


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Soft_Furnishings/Soft_Furnishing_Accessories

How to select upholstery fabric to ensure you get good performance.

Have a good eye for color, texture, pattern, tone and balance.

The topics that the Interior Designer covers are wide, and specialized as fabrics are; they are one of the main items used inside a building. Fabrics have the ability to instantly change the appearance and perception of an item such as a wall, chair or bedroom, so it is essential that the Interior Deziner has a competent working knowledge of what the fabric is, the construction, properties and where to use it.

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Excerpt from Soft Furnishings ebook Upholstery is the padding or cushioning and covering of an item of furniture. The main aims are to provide comfort to the furniture and aid in the overall shape and form of the piece.

A traditionally upholstered chair and footstool

Traditional Upholstery Traditional methods for covering seating were to start with a timber frame. Webbing was then interlaced and stretched over the base of the seat frame and steel coil springs were stitched to each intersection of webbing and attached with cord at the top. Then a layer of horsehair or coir fiber filling evenly spread followed by a Hessian covering. It was then finished with a layer of hide (e.g. leather) or a woven fabric. This combination provided great comfort to a chair. The process for more utilitarian upholstery was to omit the springs and use a thick layer of the filling.

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Traditional Upholstery Base

Modern Upholstery With the introduction of mass-produced furniture the more traditional form of upholstery has been superseded making use of advances in product and material development as well as revolutionary machinery. The simplified version today used for seating is perforated plywood or MDF board as the base attached to a timber frame (or metal or laminated ply, the list goes on) a synthetic foam or latex is used as the cushioning followed by a covering of fabric. In which there is now and endless choice of composition, from leather to polyolefin from hemp to silk.

If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

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http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_soft_furnishings

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Materials

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Materials

This topic involves what materials to use and where.


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Finishes_introduction

You will need to build an extensive knowledge of products that are traditional as well as new, knowing which to use, and where and when to use them.

For example, Types of Flooring. So, when specifying a floor, considerations that must be made are; whats available and whats appropriate for the particular situation, as well as being aesthetically pleasing. This will include the construction and wear factors so that you make an informed decision.

Carpeting
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Carpet

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Timber
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Timber_Flooring

Ceramics
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Clay_Based_Flooring

Other areas to think about are: Wall Finishes


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Wall_Hangings

Joinery Finishes

Timbers, the types and what they are used for.


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Types_of_Timber_Wood

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Paint, what it is made of and where to use different types.


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Paint

Paint Effects, the different types of paint effect can be endless covering anything from sponging to graining and 3 dimensional effects.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Decorative_Painting

Excerpt from Materials ebook This ebook will cover the majority of materials that you will come across in the world of design. It is important to have an understanding of what they are, what they are used for, when and where to use them and why. The why is important, as you must always be able to justify WHY you have selected a finish or a product to use. Because I like the look of it is not enough. This is the part of Interior Decoration that we get accessed on, as it is what the public sees. It is a complex process of continual questions that we need to ask to ensure that the product will do what we expect of it.

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Try and count how many different materials are used in this picture.

We will talk in generic terms, no brand names will be mentioned but obviously the best way to gain knowledge of these products is by assessing supplier and manufacturers information and specifications. They freely distribute these and some are happy to provide samples, so that you can physically compare different products. Be careful when checking for flame resistance. I once naively put a match to a small swatch of fabric to see if it could withstand flame. A split second later I had a hot black gooey melted fabric over my finger. It hurt and I came to the conclusion that the fabric was not what I was looking for and it wasnt specified for the project. It pays to read the back of the label for the properties and used their tried and tested information. We will go over as many interior finishes as possible, but there are always new products being released.

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Interior Finishes includes floor, walls, ceilings, internal joinery and soft furnishings. Soft Furnishings will be covered in a separate ebook as it covers a wide range of associated products. Selecting product, as discussed requires accessing the products performance capabilities. The following items should be considered: Economic and budgetary issues. Does the budget allow for the initial purchase cost of the material as well as the installation? Does the product require long-term maintenance, which may impact on the weekly household budget? Durability considerations. Will the product withstand daily wear and tear water spillage, foot traffic, pets, and children with artistic flair, furniture movement? Is the product able to be easily maintained? Is it easily broken, or scratched, prone to changing temperatures? Safety issues. Is it slippery when wet (flooring)? Is it a fire hazard? Does it have hard or sharp edges? Does it provide a surface for glare? I.e. is it highly polished and reflective. Is the product dull and dark and impede vision without the lights on? Comfort and Aesthetic considerations. Does it look great? Does it fit in with your scheme, texturally, color wise, patterned items? Does it meet the acoustic and thermal insulation requirements of the local building authority? Do the tactile properties live up to the look? I.e. is it soft to touch, silky to run your fingers over, or cool underfoot?

Keeping all these items in mind, read on to have your interior finishes and product knowledge increased. A way to remember the product and its

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properties and functions is to consider where you would put each and why as you read along.

Another excerpt You will need to have a good understanding of materials available to use in Interior Decorating and Design. There are so many more varieties of these products becoming available on a daily basis, so it is important to keep up to date with what is available in the marketplace in your area. In our practice, we have sales representatives who call on us and keep us up to date with new products. If you are working for yourself or are simply tackling your own home then Im sorry but you have to do the legwork and go and visit the stores and see what is available. You will know the basic understanding of what you are looking for and all the criteria that the product must live up to. You can now enter a store and save time by ruling out all the materials that dont fit into what you want. If there is something that looks good and you dont know anything about it ASK! That is the best way to keep learning and keep your materials and product knowledge up to date. Remember the sales people are there to sell to you, they also need to educate you to be able to understand their products and materials and how they could work in the environment that you are proposing them. You may find that they are not what you want, that doesnt matter as you have been through the exercise, have gained some knew knowledge and in future you will know where to go to get that product. If you are just beginning, this whole process can be a little overwhelming. Take a notebook and write down where you are, what products they have, what brands, note the service (if you receive good service that can save a lot of time later on when ordering product and following up etc), think about any jobs you

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have on, any products that may be suitable, or simply use this as your reference manual until you get fluent with where to go and who has what! You will find that you like some people to deal with rather that others, this is good as Interior Design and Decorating is about forming relationships, first with your client, then with your suppliers and contractors, to ensure you get a successful result. To conclude, dont be afraid to ask questions, it is the only way to learn! Do you think doctors read the manual and jump in to treating patients without asking questions from those around them with more experience NO, they take years even after graduating to be let loose on their own! So dont be shy.

Our ebook goes over your selection of products, materials and finishes. We will take a step-by-step method to allow you to make your choices and then we will go over how you then present the scheme to your client and explain.

A basic design system for creating a color scheme.


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Free_Downloads_Area/Color_Scheme_Form

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If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Materials

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Color

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_color

This is a topic that the Interior Designer and Decorator must know inside out. It is a core subject. There can be no short measures or shortcuts here and as such our ebook on this subject is very extensive. You will need to build an understanding of how colors work together to create successful schemes. There are numerous factors that influence your decisions and understanding most of the points below will set you on your way.

What color is and why it affects us so much. The personal side of Color, showing you colors and their meanings, how they can be interpreted and used to evoke mood.
http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Colour/Yellow

Basic Color Theory and the different systems.


http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Tutorials/colour

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Understanding hue, tint, tone, shade, i.e. colour definitions and the use of contrast.

The color wheel and how to use it.


http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Tutorials/colour

Present types of color schemes that are produced from the color wheel, color relationships and harmonies.
http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Colour/Yellow_Schemes

How to use colors to enhance a plain room.


http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Design_Tips___Helpful_Hints/Colour

Colors give the appearance of depth, distance, definition, hiding things, opposing contrasts.

Red
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Colour/Red Orange http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Colour/Orange Yellow http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Colour/Yellow

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Purple http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Colour/Purple Blues http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Colour/Blue Green http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Colour/Green White http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Colour/White Grey http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Colour/Grey Black http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Colour/Black Brown http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Colour/Brown

An excerpt from the Color ebook. Orange in a classroom creates a cheerful, sociable environment with minimal hostility and irritation. Dull, white, brown and black in a classroom is not stimulating or productive; the positive classroom colors are yellow, yellow green, orange and light blue.

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Some effects of color on workplace performance; people will tend to spend less time in an area that is red than one that is blue, therefore red partitions in the locker rooms and WCs could stop staff lingering in these spaces.

Changing the color of the walls in a cold workplace from blue to peach will stop workers complaining about the temperature and save the employer from having to increase the heating, therefore saving on electricity bills.

Green is a good color to use backstage for actors, as it is calming and meant to ease their nerves before their performance.

Red flatters the skin so is an ideal background color to use in rooms that are used for social functions.

If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_color

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Fittings and Fixtures

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Fittings_and_Fixtures

The interior trim of a building is where the detail is. This area of design is part of the make or break input into the design. Here you find many skimp on the detail and what could have been a fabulous interior is reduced to a plain and mundane item. This topic is about specifying the correct fitting, choosing it by aesthetics aswell as practicality and how the fitting works.

It is important to know what you are talking about when dealing with the client or with tradesmen. To speak with authority on this and make sure the fitting is correct is vital for the interior to work.

How often have you seen an item of hardware and not been able to describe it accurately to a sales person or product rep. For example with hardware an escutcheon plate, which is common in every building, is something we take for granted, but when it is not used it makes the item look unfinished and dreadful. An escutcheon plate is a simple (usually) metal surround that adds the finish to

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a hole in the door, ie key hole or other area that the bolt of a door bolt slides into. Maybe you knew this or didnt, however as an Interior Deziner these simple items have to be chosen and specified.

Other areas that are part of the hardware of an interior are listed below, so use these links for a more comprehensive look at particular items and their uses.

Door Hardware
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Fittings_and_Fixtures/Locks http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Fittings_and_Fixtures/Hinges

You also have to know about the trims that finish an interior either for a modern or traditional look. These may include items such as:

Skirtings, architraves, dados, picture rails, pelmets. Their definitions and uses are found at the following links:
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Timber_Wood_5 http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Finishes/Timber_Wood_4

Fixing Systems. How things are held together


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Fittings_and_Fixtures/Fixings

Electrical Fittings. The types and their uses in an interior.


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Fittings_and_Fixtures/Electrical

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Electricity. What it really is and what a designer should know about it.
http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/Interior_Design_Fittings_and_Fixtures/Electrical

Plumbing Fittings. The basics of a plumbing system, the fittings and what to use where.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Fittings_and_Fixtures/Plumbing

Bathroom Fittings. The internal items required in the bathroom.


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Interior_Design_Fittings_and_Fixtures/Plumbing_Sanitary_Fixtures

Excerpt from Fittings and Fixtures ebook. Types of Basins. A basin may be set into joinery; wall hung or be self-set on a pedestal. The basin set into joinery may be recessed or semi recessed. All these types of installation have their practical uses and vary in size and cost. Other constraints or attributes that a designer should be aware of when specifying a basin are the type of tap and spout fitting to be used.

Are they separate or integral? Is an over flow feature required? Is there space for soap, brushes, towels etc. or are they held elsewhere?

Never forget the colour and the style (modern or traditional), as this is not only paramount to your scheme but also will hide or show dirt.

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There are many sizes of basins and their use is of course the determining factor. The sizes displayed here should be remembered when planning. For example a basin inside the room in which the toilet is housed may only be required to wash hands and the room may be very small, so the size is very constrained. An average size may be only 250 mm deep and 450 mm wide.

If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Fittings_and_Fixtures

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Lighting

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Lighting

What is Light? Light is a form of electromagnetic energy and visible light is part of that electromagnetic spectrum. It is transmitted in waves the same as radio, radar and TV but is of a particular size or wavelength.

This is a fantastic topic. Lighting, without doing anything else to the room, can enhance a room incredibly. It can change colors without painting, make you feel alert, make you feel relaxed, create focus, create intimacy and even change the appearance of the rooms size and height.

In my experience it is one of the most important elements in Interior Design. Without it you will never get the full benefit of all the other elements that you have incorporated into your design. The link below will take you directly to www.interiordezine.com and the introduction to lighting.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Lighting

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Types of Lamps
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Lighting/lighting_the_existing_room

Types of Fittings
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Lighting/Lighting_the_New_Room

Applications and Planning. How to situate lights and the correct type to use.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Lighting/lighting_planning

Accents
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Lighting/Lighting_General_Considerations_1

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Lux, Lumen etc


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Glossary/glossary_l

Examples of Fittings and Fixtures


http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Lighting/lighting_the_existing_room

Below are some excerpts from the website glossary, which is another invaluable source of information for any part of interior design meanings and examples.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Glossary/glossary_a

Low Voltage Tungsten Halogen: Gives a crisp white light, excellent for bringing out or enhancing the colour. The effect can be softened using gold back reflectors or reflected off other areas rather than direct. Can be used in discreet areas because of the size however they need a transformer (and this has to mounted somewhere close by e.g. in the ceiling) as they usually run on a 12volt system.

Lumen: This expresses the quantity of the light. (Luminous flux) eg 1 candle gives of 1 candela of light but that light goes in all directions so the total quantity of light is measured by the amount that is given in all directions.

Lux: This is the measurement that is used to measure the illumination of a surface. (Light on the surface). Eg 1 lux is provided when a luminous flux of 1 lumen falls on each square meter.

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Excerpt from Lighting ebook. Each colour of light has its own wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum. When all the colours are combined we get a mixture recognized as white light. If this light is shone through a glass prism then the white light is separated into the colours of the spectrum.

Its important to understand this when dealing with lighting as different types of light gives off different colours or combinations of colours. The average midday sun appears to have all the colours in it while artificial light can only approximate it. (Note the different types of light that you get at varying times of the day such as early morning or dusk).

All visible artificial light is within the violet to red spectrum range however varying types of artificial light concentrate on different parts of the spectrum.

For example low-pressure sodium lamps (see types of lighting) emit their light in the narrow part of the spectrum that gives an intense orange yellow light and therefore distorts the colour of all non-yellow objects.

To conclude, when designing a harmonious and balanced environment, it is important that the correct lamp specification for the situation is selected.

How we see colour.( http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_color)

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The eye responds differently to different colours. It responds best to the green yellow area of the spectrum and less to the blue violet or red ends. (If you think about it this also relates to moods. A bright room creates a sense of well being and happiness while the dark creates a different mood all together).

To understand how colour is seen, take the view that colours are in the light and not the object. When light falls on an object its surface will absorb some colours and reflect the rest. The colours that we see are those that are reflected. E.g. green objects reflect green light but absorb the rest and blue objects blue light while absorbing the rest. Black objects absorb all light and white objects reflect all light. You will note that it is almost impossible to get a true black or a true white. (Not to be confused with mirror which forms images by reflection) If you focus on light and colour this way then you will understand the importance of illumination and how it renders and colours an object or the space it is illuminating.

Colour Appearance. Colour appearance of light is usually expressed as a cool light or warm light. Colour temperature is a way of describing the colour appearance of the lamp. Colour temperature is measured in degrees Kelvin. (Celsius is converted to Kelvin by adding 273)The coldest temperature that we know of is absolute zero and that is 273 degrees Celsius (or 0 degrees Kelvin). I.e. 100 degrees Celsius is 373 degrees Kelvin.

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Note that the colour temperature of a light source rises with its thermal temperature paradoxically, therefore the higher the temperature, the cooler the light. (The main point here is that colour temperature and thermal temperature although related are not the same thing). For example, a candles colour temperature may be 2000 degrees Kelvin and it gives a warm yellow light however some fluorescent tubes colour temperature may be at 4000 to 6000 degrees Kelvin and generate a very cool light.

Color Rendering This refers to the appearance given to an object by the light source. This is important, in interior environments much of the light is reflected back off the surrounding objects and surfaces, therefore these objects and surfaces dont have a true colour (because it is artificial light) so, knowing the light sources true colour rendering capability is important.

The international commission on illumination (CIE) has developed a colourrendering index (CRI) by averaging spectral light source from 0-100. The higher the number, the truer the colour rendition at its colour temperature. When comparing lamps, to give a fair comparison, the colour temperature must be the same.

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Light consists of two main elements,

COLOR and INTENSITY

Color is the part of the spectrum being used. (The spectrum is the range of colours from red having the longest wavelength to violet with the shortest wavelength that is produced when a beam of light is passed through a prism. Refer to the color ebook for more information)

Intensity is the amount of light being used. Within this section of design we will explore many of the elements of light including sources, fittings, types and uses and a basic system of designing lighting.

As always, in all aspects of dezine, as you think about the design of the lighting you need to be aware of all the other elements within the room and what you are trying to achieve.

Every rooms shape, size and mood are directly dependent on the type and quality of light that illuminates it. The source can be from a single incandescent bulb in a batten fitting, to a complex set of uplights, downlights and tasklights.

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If you are interested in this topic - Color, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_color

If you are interested in this topic - Lighting, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Lighting

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History of Styles and Periods

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_History_of_Styles_and_Periods

This topic covers the varying styles and themes that have evolved over the recorded history of design. It covers the classics from Egyptian, Greek and Roman proportion types of construction and decoration to modern classics such as Art Deco and Art Nouveau and completes your education of the different forms of decoration and how they have evolved and what has influenced interior design over the centuries.

With this knowledge you are able to identify different existing themes so that you are able to complement existing design, design to a traditional system or, design with eclectic flair. Eventually as you develop your own sense of whats correct and what is not, you begin to create your own original designs. By

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studying the classics and the differing styles and periods you learn what the people who originally developed those styles learnt and applied to their designs. Its similar to the foundation of a building. The more solid or well constructed it is the better to build upon and so it is with design education.

The more you learn about existing systems and styles the better you are able to design yourself because you have an increased knowledge of what works and what doesnt.

This invariably increases your design efficiency (making you faster and better than your competitors) as you are not continually on a learning curve through he whole process

So the topic covers The ability to define the different periods in history The ability to define the different styles The ability to define colloquial styles The ability to define contemporary styles and retro The ability to combine different styles and periods to create an eclectic style The ability to define individual styles - personal taste The ability to discuss using this information as reference for design

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Some examples are covered by the furniture history section of the website
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Furniture_History/Chippendale

and much much

more are to be added in the coming months.

Excerpt from History of Styles and Periods ebook. Biedermeier Style Throughout the early 19th Century this style was fashionable in Germany and Austria and to a lesser extent Scandinavia. It was contemporary with the French Empire Style, with its classical shapes and solidity. The main differences in furniture were that it was more practical, less pretentious, the use of pale timber with detailed ebony inlay and only minimal amounts of carved and gilded decoration. The interior decoration followed the same unpretentious theme; the floor was kept simple, usually bare floorboards or parquet (light timber) and the wall simply painted in bright or pale single colors.

Biedermeier decoration and furniture can be recognized by its key factors clarity, proportion and restraint. Decorative materials were marble and sandstone used for ornamentation. The dominating colors for the style were clair bois (pale wood) and black ebony inlay. As mentioned this was used for furniture but could also be seen on skirting boards, doors or other small areas. Airy light colors prevailed but vibrant contrasting colors to the pale timber could also be seen. Soft simple natural fabrics were used for drapery. Understated neo classical detail was simply columns, pilasters and urns. Again simple lines for chair legs, straight or sabre.

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If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_History_of_Styles_and_Periods

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Project Management

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Project_Management

The design process for a project, outlining the scope of work involved and how to work through it.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Free_Downloads_Area/Design_Process_Scope

In every project there are three major areas that need to be addressed. Design Cost Timeframe

As a deziner you will naturally think that design takes precedent but if the costs, timeframes and quality are not given attention, then all the time and effort put into the design may be spoilt by factors that could have been controlled.

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Depending on your view, this is often the boring part of the design process but is as equally important as the design, if smooth facilitation of the project is to take place.

There is a straightforward process to project management but the underlying rule is risk management. If you can identify all areas that are subject to risk (i.e. others assumptions and others decisions) and then plan to control or monitor and deal with those situations you will be well on your way to the basics of good project management.

So within this subject you need to identify Setting all the ingredients out and listing up where they go Defining your scope of work and responsibility Pricing and availability, getting quotes Defining what is need in a contract Defining the type of contract Which consultants to use and what they will be responsible for. When things should take place and by whom

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Free timeline (gant chart) to be read in conjunction with the Design Process article (design articles) or with the downloadable Design Process Scope.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Free_Downloads_Area/Design_Process

Excerpt from Project Management ebook.

Planning the project is the first step to gaining the tools that are needed for running the project. Note that the dezine stages and documents develop and define the project; these are the working drawings (blueprints) and specifications. They develop and define the actual work that is to be done and dictate which trades will be involved in the project.

Sketch Plan - the initial concept plan used to identify practicality, legal and cost estimation parameters

Detailed Design - refining the design to ensure the aesthetic qualities are included and re-establish the costs and then

Working Drawings, Construction Drawings, Blueprints - the detail of methods of construction, materials and sizes, shows all the services on plans and the drawn scope of work

Written Scope of Work and / or Specification - the documentation that establishes all the legal standards and local body authorities that the tradesmen are required to work and comply to. They are used to construct and accurately price from. Also includes particular finishes and an outline scope of work for each trade that is referenced back to the drawings.

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Once these documents have been produced they can then be used to define the quotations, timing, and form a contract with the main contractor or all the individual contractors.

Every step of the project must be considered and planned to ensure that nothing is missed, even having a contingency (an additional sum of money set aside in case of unforeseen events) in place for those areas such as rotten framing that may raise its ugly head.

Never rely on others without their written assurance in the form of a contract and even then the work has to be supervised and monitored so that you are aware of each and every detail that is taking place. Most of all, never rely on a verbal agreement or handshake, even with friends or recommended contractors.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Design_Tips___Helpful_Hints/How_to_get_a_quote

An option if you dont want to manage the project or you feel that it is too large or complicated, then get a professional to oversee it for you, and have them report back to you with the progress.

At the end of the day you may well find it easier as a designer to have a project manager or main contractor to do this for you, as your main skill will be design. However, you should still be able to run a construction project. Running people is very stressful and it is much more practical to get all the answers and hold accountable one person than twenty. So delegate.

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Meanwhile saying that, we are still going to go through the example to show you the areas that need attention and that you should be aware of if you are either running the project yourself or having someone else do it for you.

Contracts When you sign up to a contract you need to have the remuneration that has been quoted or agreed on and all the elements broken down as well as a description of what work is going to take place. This usually takes the form of a specification and drawings, which will establish the legal scope of work.

Ensure that everything is in writing. Too often something is included in a hearsay situation and at the end of the contract it is added to the bill. You thought that it was included in the main contract and appears as an extra. Therefore you have to explain to the client why they have to pay extra for something that they thought was included. Very embarrassing and not a position that you want to put yourself in.

Remember in project management - Assume Nothing

Points To Consider Within The Building Contract You cannot buy an item on hire purchase without a contract, they set out their costs and what you will have to pay them and when and what happens if you dont. The same theory should be applied with a building contract.

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For example - the construction and fitout could take up to six months or six years on a large project and the main contractor will want money on the way through to pay for the work as he progresses. How much and how often are two of the main questions to be agreed upon. This is covered at the beginning when you set out your contract, how many stages and how many progress claims, and how much you will hold back until all the remedial work at the end of the project is complete. Then both parties are aware of their ongoing obligations. (Note this system may be covered by specific law in your country.)

If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_Project_Management.

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Decorating

http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_How_to_design_and_decorate

This topic involves all the frilly bits of design or the finishing touches. Basically it is pulling a whole combination of topics together and making them look superb.

To be able to do this you need to be: Organized Have a good eye for balance Have a keen eye for detail Have all the designer and decorating knowledge and know how to combine the elements to create harmonious combinations of textures, colors, groupings of furniture and artwork.
http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/Essential_Design_Tools/Arranging_Artwork

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Be able to listen and interpret what people what from their room. Passionate about Interior Design and Decorating

Excerpt from our How to Interior Design and Decorate ebook.

Canopy beds add romance and spice to your bedroom.............

Often we look to have a quick makeover of a room and the bedroom is no exception. In fact its often the most fun and quick way to spice up your love life. Here we demonstrate a way of making psuedo canopy beds that are effective and look professional without costing a fortune.

The main idea is to create a visual frame around the bed and give a sense of height and grandeur while retaining that soft look all of which are gained by using a canopy bed.

This can be done in an afternoon simply by using a mosquito or insect net suspended over the bed from the ceiling. These are available at most camping stores and consist of a ring with shear netting attached to it that drapes from the

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ring over the four sides of the bed. While this is still just a mosquito net it can be used as a decorative element by positioning it at the head of the bed at the ceiling and using the netting to drape and frame the end of the bed and wall. Additional decoration can be added to the netting by stenciling patterns such as leaves or cupids on the netting.

If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com/index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_How_to_design_and_decorate

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So this is the end of the free ebook Are you and Undiscovered Interior Designer?. The lessons, links and books above show you the topics that are involved in becoming a successful Interior Designer. We hope that we have given you some insight as to what you need to be an Interior Designer. Obviously there is a lot to learn, but if you love dezine and are passionate about it, learning is fun and easy. The results will speak for themselves. You will enjoy your journey into the world of design.

Remember, that there are different specialties in Interior Design and Decoration but its all encompassed by spatial design.

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Money

MONEY

Of course there are other areas of Interior Design that we have not touched on. That is running a design business and how to make it efficient and profitable. Never fear, if you are a design professional or are thinking about setting up a design business we can help you there too!

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_How_to_Make_Loads_of_Money_from_Interior_Design

We have an ebook called How to Make Loads of Money from Interior Design, written by Chris Brown. It covers everything you need to know about how a design business runs smoothly and efficiently. It covers selling yourself, your designs, creating office systems, looking after you, the boss, marketing your business, building your business, daily running of the business, research and development of your business and much more. It is an essential tool for anyone wishing to start up a new business or wanting to streamline and create profit

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from an existing business. There are things in here that can save you time and help you to create more profit. Well worth the small investment, we guarantee changing one thing in your business will pay for the cost of the ebook in no time.

So overall this topic is fun and fascinating, taking a good hard look at getting the energy to be successful, maintaining the correct attitude and discipline, business systems, how to deal with clients, how to charge the right amount without being expensive, yearly budgets and cash flow, contracts and getting paid, and most of all how to make a substantial profit from all your hard work and risk at being in business for yourself as a company or freelance designer.

If you are interested in this topic, further reading and a comprehensive downloadable ebook are available from interiordezine.com, follow the link for more information.

http://www.interiordezine.com//index.cfm/ebooks/ebook_How_to_Make_Loads_of_Money_from_Interior_Design

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Farewell
Once again, thanks for visiting our website, www.interiordezine.com. We hope you have enjoyed your insight into the world of an interior designer. Feel free to use our site as often as you like. If you have any queries or feedback, please contact us at freeebookenquiry@interiordezine.com . Please note that at the time of publishing (November 2004), we have only three of the ebooks previewed available. Now that you are a member, we will keep you updated on when the remaining ebooks will be complete. Regards Chris and Lee Brown

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