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NATIONAL TRAINING MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STUDIES

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL TRAINING AUTHORITY

NFF3113 REINFORCED CONCRETE AND FORMWORK (RESIDENTIAL)


DEVELOPED IN COLLABORATION BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND TAFE QUEENSLAND WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL TRAINING AUTHORITY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Produced by the Construction Curriculum Consortium, TAFE Queensland. Managing Agent : Recognition Directorate, Vocational Education, Training And Employment Commission (VETEC)

Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) 1997


All rights reserved. This work has been produced initially with the assistance of funding provided by the Commonwealth Government through ANTA. This work is copyright, but permission is given to trainers and teachers to make copies by photocopying or other duplicating processes for use within their own training organisation or in a workplace where the training is being conducted. This permission does not extend to the making of copies for use outside the immediate training environment for which they are made, nor the making of copies for hire or resale to third parties. For permission outside these guidelines, apply in writing to Australian Training Products Ltd.(formerly ACTRAC Products Ltd). The views expressed in this version of the work do not necessarily represent the views of ANTA. ANTA does not give warranty nor accept any liability in relation to the content of this work.

Published by Australian Training Products Pty (formerly ACTRAC Products Ltd), Australian National Training Authority. GPO Box 5347BB, MELBOURNE, Victoria 3001, Australia Telephone +61 03 9630 9836 or 9630 9837; Facsimile +61 03 9639 4684 First Published October 1997 DP2120N69LRG Printed by Document Printing Australia

NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION STUDIES RESOURCE PROJECT

STAGE 3

BASIC INDUSTRY SKILLS

LEARNING PACKAGE

NFF3113 REINFORCED CONCRETE AND FORMWORK (RESIDENTIAL)


Book 1 of 2

PUBLISHED:

1997

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The writers of this learning package wish to acknowledge the following organisations for their assistance. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia Standards Australia AUTHOR: David Harris Moreton Institute of TAFE Brisbane, Queensland INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER: Construction Curriculum Consortium TAFE Queensland

This learning package was developed as part of the AVTS Training Program in Construction Studies. This project was managed by the Construction Curriculum Consortium, TAFE Queensland. For further details contact:

Noel Ryan Manager Construction Curriculum Consortium Yeronga Institute of TAFE PO Box 6045 FAIRFIELD GARDENS QLD 4103 Telephone: Facsimile: (07) 3892 0457 (07) 3892 0457

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 15 OVERVIEW.................................................................................................................... 18 WHAT IS PROVIDED? ................................................................................................. 20 WHAT YOU PROVIDE?............................................................................................... 20 HOW TO USE THIS PACKAGE.................................................................................. 21
GETTING TO KNOW THE PACKAGE.......................................................................... 22 KEY TO SYMBOLS .............................................................................................................. 23

MODULE INFORMATION: FROM THE TRAINING SPECIFICATION ................ 25 ASSESSMENT INFORMATION.................................................................................. 27 ASSESSMENT SPECIFICATION ................................................................................ 28 ASSESSMENT TASKS ................................................................................................. 31
ASSESSMENT TASK 1:........................................................................................................ 31 ASSESSMENT TASK 2:........................................................................................................ 32 ASSESSMENT TASK 3:........................................................................................................ 34 ASSESSMENT TASK 4:........................................................................................................ 35 ASSESSMENT TASK 5:........................................................................................................ 37 ASSESSMENT TASK 6:........................................................................................................ 39

BOOK 1 OF 2..................................................................................................................41 SECTION 1 - CONCRETE FOR RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION........................41


INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................41 CONCRETE AS A BUILDING MATERIAL........................................................................42 1, CONCRETE .................................................................................................................... 43 2. CEMENTS..................................................................................................................... ..46 3. AGGREGATES ..............................................................................................................49 4. PROPORTIONING OR MATERIALS..........................................................................50 5. ADDITIVES AND ADMIXTURES ..............................................................................55 6. MIXING AND TRANSPORTATION ...........................................................................56 7. TESTING CONCRETE ..................................................................................................61 EXERCISE 1: CONCRETE AS A BUILDING MATERIAL ...............................................69 DEMONSTRATION ...............................................................................................................72 ACTIVITY 1: CONCRETE TESTING ..................................................................................73 8. REINFORCED CONCRETE..........................................................................................75 SITE VISIT ..................................................................................................................... .........90 EXERCISE 2 REINFORCED CONCRETE...........................................................................91 9. CALCULATIONS AND COSTING OF CONCRETE AND REINFORCEMENT IN A SIMPLE SLAB................................................................................................................94 ACTIVITY 2: QUANTITIES AND COSTING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE............101 10. SLAB TYPES..............................................................................................................103 SITE VISIT ............................................................................................................................116 EXERCISE 3: CONCRETE SLAB TYPES .........................................................................117 ACTIVITY 3: SKETCH MAJOR DETAILS OF FOUR (4) FLOOR SLAB SYSTEMS..119 SUMMARY ...........................................................................................................................120

BOOK 2OF 2 ................................................................................................................ 123 SECTION 2 - REINFORCED CONCRETE FORMWORK PRACTICE IN RESIDENTIAL AND MINOR WORKS CONSTRUCTION .................................... 125
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 125 SITE PREPARATION FOR SLAB...................................................................................... 126 1. SETTING OUT............................................................................................................. 127 2. PREPARATION OF SUBGRADE.............................................................................. 129 3. ESTABLISH LEVELS................................................................................................. 130 4. CONSTRUCT SUB-BASE .......................................................................................... 130 5. INSTALLATION OF SERVICES AND DRAINAGE PIPES ................................... 132 6. EXCAVATION OF TRENCHES................................................................................ 133 EXERCISE 4: SITE PREPARATION FOR SLABS ON GROUND ................................. 134 FORMWORK TO SLAB ON GROUND ............................................................................ 136 7. CONSTRUCT FORMWORK ..................................................................................... 136 TERMITE PROTECTION, VAPOUR BARRIER AND REINFORCING STEEL TO SLAB ON GROUND............................................................................................................ 141 8. TERMITE PROTECTION........................................................................................... 141 9. INSTALLATION OF VAPOUR BARRIER............................................................... 142 10. REINFORCEMENT TO SLAB ON GROUND ....................................................... 145 EXERCISE 5: FORMWORK, TERMITE PROTECTION, VAPOUR BARRIER AND REINFORCING TO SLABS ON GROUND....................................................................... 148 CONCRETE TO SLAB ON GROUND............................................................................... 151 11. CONCRETE PLACING AND FINISHING.............................................................. 151 EXERCISE 6: CONCRETE TO SLABS ON GROUND.................................................... 172 SITE VISIT..................................................................................................................... ....... 175 DEMONSTRATION ............................................................................................................ 175 ACTIVITY 4: CONCRETE SLAB ON GROUND CONSTRUCTION ............................ 176 SUSPENDED CONCRETE SLABS.................................................................................... 178 12. FORMWORK TO LINTELS SUSPENDED SLABS AND BEAMS (TO ONE LEVEL)............................................................................................................................. 178 13. FORMWORK TO STAIRS - STRAIGHT FLIGHT (TO ONE LEVEL)................ 198 14. REINFORCEMENT AND CONCRETE TO SUSPENDED SLABS AND STAIRS (TO ONE LEVEL)............................................................................................................ 212 SITE VISIT............................................................................................................................ 214 SUMMARY........................................................................................................................... 215 EXERCISE 7: FORMWORK TO SUSPENDED SLABS AND STAIRS ......................... 217 ACTIVITY 5: FORMWORK - SUSPENDED SLABS, AND STAIRS............................. 221 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... 224 ANSWERS ............................................................................................................................ 225 EXERCISE 1: CONCRETE AS A BUILDING MATERIAL............................................. 225 EXERCISE 2: REINFORCED CONCRETE....................................................................... 229 EXERCISE 3: CONCRETE SLAB TYPES ........................................................................ 233 EXERCISE 4: SITE PREPARATION FOR SLABS ON GROUND ................................. 235 EXERCISE 5: FORMWORK, TERMITE PROTECTION, VAPOUR BARRIER AND REINFORCING TO SLABS ON GROUND....................................................................... 237 EXERCISE 6: CONCRETE TO SLABS ON GROUND.................................................... 241 EXERCISE 7: FORMWORK TO SUSPENDED SLABS AND STAIRS ......................... 245

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page

Figure 1 EFFECTS OF ADDING WATER TO CONCRETE ......................................44 Figure 2 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SPECIFIED IN AS3972 (SUMMARY)..................................................................................................................48 Figure 3 GRADING - RANGE OF PARTICLE SIZE IN AGGREGATE....................49 Figure 4 ALL VOIDS FILLED IN GOOD CONCRETE ..............................................50 Figure 5 1 CUBIC METRE.............................................................................................52 Figure 6 CONCRETE PROPORTIONS 4:2:1 MIX ......................................................53 Figure 7 DIMENSIONS OF A TYPICAL 5 CUBIC METRE CONCRETE TRUCK.58 Figure 8 SOME EXAMPLES OF ON-SITE TRANSPORT .........................................59 Figure 9 EQUIPMENT READY FOR TAKING SAMPLE..........................................61 Figure 10 OBTAINING SAMPLE .................................................................................63 Figure 11 FILLING AND COMPACTING CONE........................................................63 Figure 12 MEASURING THE SLUMP .........................................................................64 Figure 13 EXAMPLES OF SLUMP...............................................................................65 Figure 14 TYPICAL RANGE OF SLUMPS..................................................................65 Figure 15 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED TO MOULD SPECIMEN ................................66 Figure 16 MOULD LEVELLED OFF, TAGGED AND LATER STRIPPED .............67 Figure 17 STRESSES IN CONCRETE..........................................................................76 Figure 18 SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM OR SLAB...................................................78 Figure 19 FIXED ENDED BEAM .................................................................................78 Figure 20 SIMPLE CANTILEVERED BEAM OR SLAB............................................78 Figure 21 TWO-SPAN BEAM OR SLAB.....................................................................79 Figure 22 STRESSES IN RETAINING WALLS ..........................................................79 Figure 23 STRESSES IN COLUMNS ...........................................................................79 Figure 24 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENTS OF COLUMN REINFORCEMENT .........80 Figure 25 VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL SHEAR..................................................81 Figure 26 REINFORCING TO RESIST SHEAR (DIAGONAL TENSION)...............81 Figure 27 PLAIN AND DEFORMED REINFORCING BARS....................................83

Figure 28 PLAIN OR ROUND BAR (REFERENCE R) .............................................. 83 Figure 29 DEFORMED BAR (REFERENCE Y).......................................................... 83 Figure 30 FABRIC REINFORCEMENT SPECIFICATIONS ..................................... 84 Figure 31 DEFORMED BAR (REFERENCE S) .......................................................... 85 Figure 32 SQUARE MESH............................................................................................ 86 Figure 33 RECTANGULAR MESH.............................................................................. 86 Figure 34 VARIOUS REINFORCEMENT SUPPORTS AND SPACERS ................. 87 Figure 35 TRENCH MESH............................................................................................ 88 Figure 36 MESH SUPPORTED TO ENSURE SPECIFIED AND UNIFORM COVER88 Figure 37 MINIMUM BAR LAP ................................................................................... 89 Figure 38 MINIMUM LAP OF FABRIC....................................................................... 89 Figure 39 DIVIDE FLOOR PLAN INTO SECTION.................................................... 94 Figure 40 FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS OF SLAB ON GROUND ...................... 95 Figure 41 MEASURE OF VOLUME ............................................................................ 97 Figure 42 FLOOR AND EDGE BEAM DETAIL ......................................................... 98 Figure 43 TO CALCULATE AVERAGE WIDTH OF BEAM.................................... 99 Figure 44 TOTAL BEAM LENGTH ............................................................................. 99 Figure 45 CONCRETE SLAB/FOOTING ACTIVITY............................................... 102 Figure 46 TIMBER FRAMED FLOOR STRUCTURE.............................................. 103 Figure 47 CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB ....................................................................... 103 Figure 48 FOUNDATION AND FOOTING DETAIL................................................ 104 Figure 49 TYPICAL RAFT SLAB............................................................................... 105 Figure 50 EXAMPLES OF ALTERNATIVE CONSTRUCTION DETAILS ........... 106 Figure 51 FLOOR LINE MINIMUM HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND LINE............... 106 Figure 52 LEVEL PLATFORM MUST BE PROVIDED........................................... 107 Figure 53 TYPICAL WAFFLE POD FLOOR SYSTEM............................................ 108 Figure 54 VIEW SHOWING RIBS AND VOIDS ...................................................... 109 Figure 55 PICTORIAL VIEW OF A SUSPENDED CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB.. 110 Figure 56 SUSPENDED SLAB OVER CAR AREA.................................................. 110 Figure 57 SUSPENDED FLOOR ON CUT AND FILLED PLATFORM ................. 111 Figure 58 ACCESS AVAILABLE TO SERVICES .................................................... 112 Figure 59 PICTORIAL VIEWS OF PIER AND BEAM CONSTRUCTION ............ 113

Figure 60 PIER AND BEAM USED WITH A RAFT SLAB .....................................114 Figure 61 VARIATIONS OF PIER AND BEAM SYSTEMS ....................................114 Figure 62 BUILDING LINE AND SETBACKS..........................................................127 Figure 63 IDENTIFY ALL SURVEY PEGS ...............................................................128 Figure 64 PROFILE (HURDLE) REFERENCE POINTS...........................................128 Figure 65 ELEMENTS OF TYPICALCONCRETE FLOOR ON THE GROUND ..129 Figure 66 REMOVE THE TOP SOIL ..........................................................................129 Figure 67 SOME EXAMPLES OF DATUM POINTS................................................130 Figure 68 SUB-BASE PREPARATION ......................................................................131 Figure 69 COMPACTING SUB-BASE BY VIBRATING ROLLER.........................131 Figure 70 SECTION SHOWING SUB-BASE AND SAND BED..............................132 Figure 71 INSTALL AND SEAL SERVICE AND DRAIN PIPES...........................132 Figure 72 MARK OUTSIDE EDGE OF FOOTING WITH LIME OR SAND ..........133 Figure 73 SET UP STRING LINE TO FLOOR LEVEL AND BUILDING LINE.....136 Figure 74 SET UP EDGE BOARD TO LINE AND LEVEL.....................................137 Figure 75 FIRMLY FASTEN EDGE BOARDS TO PEGS ........................................138 Figure 76 PLAN VIEW AT CORNER.........................................................................138 Figure 77 SECTIONAL VIEW OF FINISHED FORMWORK ..................................139 Figure 78 MARK POSITION OF ENDS OF OUTRIGGERS ON REBATE BOARD139 Figure 79 NAIL OUTRIGGERS TO REBATE BOARD AT MARKED POSITIONS139 Figure 80 REBATE BOARD FIXED INTO POSITION.............................................140 Figure 81 RAFT SLAB SHOWING CONTINUOUS CHEMICAL SOIL BARRIER142 Figure 82 FINAL TRIM TO SUB-BASE.....................................................................143 Figure 83 VAPOUR BARRIER IN PLACE ................................................................144 Figure 84 TRENCH MESH LAID IN EDGE BEAM..................................................145 Figure 85 TRENCH MESH SUPPORTED ON TRENCH MESH SUPPORTS........145 Figure 86 DETERMINE DIRECTION OF FABRIC...................................................146 Figure 87 ENSURE COVER IS TO SPECIFICATION ..............................................146 Figure 88 SLAB REINFORCEMENT IN PLACE ......................................................147 Figure 89 CONCRETE TRANSIT MIXER .................................................................151 Figure 90 VARIOUS METHODS OF PLACEMENT ................................................152 Figure 91 AVOID DELAYS WHILSTPLACING CONCRETE ................................153

Figure 92 ENSURE SLUMP IS CORRECT................................................................ 154 Figure 93 FALLING CONCRETE TENDS TO SEGREGATE ................................ 154 Figure 94 ALWAYS KEEP A WET EDGE ................................................................ 154 Figure 95 USE A VIBRATOR TO COMPACT CONCRETE ................................... 155 Figure 96 COMPACT CONCRETE AS SOON AS IT IS PLACED ......................... 155 Figure 97 USING A MECHANICAL .......................................................................... 156 Figure 98 INTERNAL VIBRATOR............................................................................. 157 Figure 99 INSERTING AND EXTRACTING THE VIBRATOR.............................. 157 Figure 100 VIBRATE IN A DEFINITE PATTERN ................................................... 158 Figure 101 VIBRATE TO LOWER ............................................................................. 158 Figure 102 KEEP VIBRATOR CLEAR OF FORMWORK FACE ........................... 159 Figure 103 KEEP VIBRATOR CLEAR OF REINFORCEMENT............................. 159 Figure 104 DON'T USE VIBRATOR TO SPREAD CONCRETE ............................ 159 Figure 105 LASER LEVEL SENSOR ADJUSTED ON STAFF .............................. 160 Figure 106 ESTABLISHING LEVEL PADS WITH LASER..................................... 161 Figure 107 FORMING A WET SCREED USING LEVEL PADS FOR HEIGHT ... 162 Figure 108 SCREEDING AND THENBULLFLOATING CONCRETE................... 163 Figure 109 WATER SURFACING (BLEEDING) FOLLOWING INITIAL FINISHING ................................................................................................................... 164 Figure 110 APPLYING A FLOAT FINISHTO CONCRETE PAVING .................... 165 Figure 111 TROWELLING WITH A TROWELLING MACHINE.......................... 165 Figure 112 USING A HAND TROWEL ..................................................................... 166 Figure 113 GROOVE TO CONTROL SHRINKAGE CRACKS............................... 166 Figure 114 USING JOINTING TOOL......................................................................... 167 Figure 115 FLEXIBLE FILLER IN CUT CONTROL JOINT .................................... 167 Figure 116 USING AN EDGING TOOL..................................................................... 168 Figure 117 RETAIN MOISTUREAS LONG AS YOU CAN.................................... 169 Figure 118 CURING WITH CONTINUOUS PLASTIC SHEET............................... 169 Figure 119 CURING BY CONTINUOUS WATER SPRAYING.............................. 170 Figure 120 SPRAY ON CURING COMPOUND ....................................................... 170 Figure 121 STEEL TWO-PIECE FORMS.................................................................. 181 Figure 122 STEEL PANEL CLAMPED TOGETHER AND TO RUNNERS OR SOLDIERS.................................................................................................................... 182

Figure 123 STEEL TRANSITION PIECES.................................................................182 Figure 124 DEFECTS IN FORMWORK.....................................................................184 Figure 125 CUT AWAY VIEW OF SHOWING BEARING OF FUTURE CONCRETE LINTEL...................................................................................................186 Figure 126 LINTEL FORMWORK - TIMBER CONSTRUCTION, SUPPORT AND BRACING .....................................................................................................................187 Figure 127 TIMBER FORMWORK SUPPORTED ON UNIT SCAFFOLDING .....188 Figure 128 PATENT METAL FORMWORK SUPPORTED ON UNIT SCAFFOLDING............................................................................................................189 Figure 129 FLOOR AND BEAM FORMWORK SUPPORTED FROM FLOOR BELOW .........................................................................................................................190 Figure 130 PICTORIAL VIEW OF SECTION OF FLOOR FORMWORK SUPPORTED BY SCAFFOLDING.............................................................................190 Figure 131 FORMWORK SUSPENDED FROM U-BEAM ......................................191 Figure 132 USE OF FLOOR CENTRES......................................................................191 Figure 133 ADJUSTABLE STEEL PROPS AND A VARIETY OF HEADS..........192 Figure 134 FLOOR CENTRE SUPPORT AT WALLS ..............................................193 Figure 135 COMPOSITE SLAB STRUCTURAL FLOOR DECKING .....................193 Figure 136 RESHORING OR BACK PROPPING......................................................196 Figure 137 VARIOUS STAIR PLANS (INFORMATION ONLY)............................202 Figure 138 INITIAL SET OUT ON WALL .................................................................203 Figure 139 SET OUT CONSTRUCTION DETAILS ON WALL ..............................204 Figure 140 STAIR FORMWORK WHERE THERE IS NO ADJACENT WALL...205 Figure 141 PART SECTIONAL ELEVATION SHOWING ADJUSTABLE STEEL PROPS ...........................................................................................................................207 Figure 142 USE OF WALL STRING TO SUPPORT ENDS OF RISER BOARDS .208 Figure 143 USE OF CUT WALL STRING AND STIFFENER .................................209 Figure 144 STAIR INTERSECTION WITH R.C. BEAM ..........................................211 Figure 145 STAIR INTERSECTION WITH ENCASED U-BEAM SHOWING SUSPENDED FORMWORK.......................................................................................212

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CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK ALL STREAMS STAGE 4 (& BEYOND) SPECIALISED SKILLS
Advanced Technical Skills Supervisory Skills Management Skills Para-professional Skills Professional Skills

(Currently under development)

BASE TRADE

STRUCTURES

FIELD OF WORK SKILLS


FITOUT AND FINISH

z z z
SERVICES (NON-TRADE)

OFF-SITE

CIVIL OPERATIONS

z z

z z z

z z z z

z z z

z z

SERVICE TRADES

BASIC STREAM SKILLS


CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES FITOUT & FINISH SERVICES

BASIC INDUSTRY SKILLS


CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES FITOUT & FINISH SERVICES

Currently Under Development

INCORPORATING INDUSTRY INDUCTION


Endorsed by Standards Committee 13/12/95

Every stage produces a range of practical skills

NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential) is a module intended for use by those completing Stage 3 of a specific, FIELD OF WORK within a SKILL STREAM of the National Construction Industry Competency Framework. The theoretical components of this package will enable you to complete the practical requirements of this module. All set tasks, including the activities and demonstrations, will show how the theory or content can be applied in a practical manner in on-site or simulated on-site conditions. Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential) is a module which deals with the knowledge and skills required to prepare for and place concrete for footings, retaining walls, slabs and stairs (to one level) of residential buildings and so includes specific details on: concrete as a building material; reinforcement; measuring and ordering; footings and slab types; site preparation; setting out; formwork; termite protection; waterproof membrane; concrete placement; concrete finishing; and concrete curing.

Six Assessment Tasks meet the requirements of the eight learning outcomes: Assessment Task 1 List the types of concrete commonly used in the construction industry and explain how they are used. Explain the types and uses of various additives. Identify the principles of good concrete. Select ingredients to produce concrete.

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NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

INTRODUCTION

Assessment Task 2 Calculate the quantities of concrete and other materials for a given project. Select proportions and batch up a sample quantity of concrete to the specified mix and slump requirements. Carry out slump test on concrete. Prepare test cylinders for compression testing.

Assessment Task 3 Identify four concrete slab types that are commonly used in house construction. Sketch examples of pier and beam systems, raft slabs, suspended slabs and waffle pod slabs. Explain when it is necessary to use a pier and beam system. List advantages and disadvantages of using raft slabs, suspended slabs and waffle pod systems.

Assessment Task 4 Discuss methods of compaction and testing of fill under concrete slabs. Erect formwork to edge of slab. Prepare for edge thickening and internal beams. Place and screed bedding sand. Discuss termite protection methods. Install vapour barrier.

Assessment Task 5  Erect formwork for: - small suspended concrete floor slab. - low concrete retaining wall Strip formwork from finished concrete. Prepare and install reinforcing to: - L shaped strip footing. - small concrete slab. - small suspended floor slab.

Assessment Task 6 Select tools and equipment used for concreting. Place and compact concrete. Screed concrete to specified levels and gradients. Finish a small concrete slab to a smooth finish using a steel float. Identify the most appropriate methods of curing concrete slabs and other basic concrete works. Cure concrete.

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Australian National Training Authority

NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

INTRODUCTION

This learning package has therefore been developed with two sequential sections, each section being closely aligned with the three Assessment Tasks: SECTION 1: This contains learning resource material, self-checks required for the successful completion of the Assessment Criteria as shown in the Assessment Specifications for Tasks 1, 2 and 3. In a similar manner, this section contains the information as well as practical work that will help you successfully complete Tasks 4, 5 and 6.

SECTION 2:

As well as self-check exercises and practical activities, your instructor will schedule additional oral and/or written tests which may be similar to the self-check exercises. These tests will satisfy specific Assessment Criteria in the Assessment Tasks and will apply to your work environment. When you have achieved all the Assessment Criteria in Assessment Tasks 1 to 6, and your work has been checked and certified by your instructor, you will have successfully completed the eight Learning Outcomes which make up the total off-the-job component of the whole module NFF3113 - Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential).

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NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW

NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential) - A Stage 3 Module The overall competencies for this module are summed up in the purpose statement:

PURPOSE:

To develop the skills and knowledge required to set up, form up, place and fix steel reinforcement, place and finish concrete for strip footings, slabs on ground and small suspended slabs and stairs (to one level) of residential buildings.

In the next section on Module Details, you will find specific details about the Training Specification and how you will be assessed In general terms, Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential) covers: The Skills/Competencies required for this module Carry out tests on concrete: < perform slump tests < mould samples (cylinders) for compressive strength tests The Theory/Content required to achieve these skills/competencies Concrete Cement Aggregate Proportioning Materials Additives and Admixtures Mixing and Transportation Testing Concrete

Select appropriate steel reinforcement for footings, slabs on ground, floors, beams and stairs Calculate quantities and cost reinforced concrete in slabs on ground Illustrate by sketches four (4) concrete floor slab systems

Reinforced Concrete

Calculations and Costing of Concrete and Reinforcement in a simple slab Slab Types

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Australian National Training Authority

NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

INTRODUCTION

Prepare for and construct a concrete slab on ground

Setting Out Preparation of Subgrade Establish Levels Construct Sub-Base Installation of Services and Drain Pipes Excavation of Trenches Construct Formwork Termite Protection Installation of Vapour Barrier Reinforcement of Slab on Ground Concrete Placing and Finishing

Construct formwork for small suspended concrete floor slab Construct formwork for straight flight suspended stairs Fix reinforcement and place concrete to suspended floor and stairs

Formwork to Lintels, Suspended Slabs and Beams (to one level) Formwork to Stairs - Straight Flight (to one level) Reinforcement and Concrete to Suspended Slabs and Stairs (to one level)

When you have successfully achieved all the Assessment Criteria for the six Assessment Tasks, you will have completed the requirements for this module.

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NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS PROVIDED?

You will be provided with the essentials to successfully complete this module, including: a learning package; sets of relevant plans and specifications; materials, tools and equipment; access to work sites; and appropriate protective equipment.

WHAT YOU PROVIDE?

appropriate personal protective clothing etc - to be advised by your instructor.

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Australian National Training Authority

NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

INTRODUCTION

HOW TO USE THIS PACKAGE

This package has been designed so that you can work and learn at your own pace, incorporating into your own learning program. demonstrations of practical skills by your instructor or experienced tradesperson; planned and supervised practical application of your knowledge and skills; instruction in, and application of, safe working practices; and personal progress indicators through self-check exercises and practical activities.

It is suggested that you work through the three sections as they are presented. By all means, fast-track any aspects/areas where you feel confident. Self-Check Exercises have been included so that you can measure your own progress. These exercises, however, are not part of the formal assessment of competency. Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential) has a nominal duration of 48 hours, but you may take more or less time working at your own pace.

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NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

INTRODUCTION

GETTING TO KNOW THE PACKAGE


Here is a strategy which may help you become familiar with the contents of this package. Survey Scan the whole package Read the contents page and the introduction, then flip through the pages - glance at the headings. Notice that there are set tasks to be completed. The content relates to these tasks. Ask Read Ask about any topics, terms or details that are not clear to you at this stage. Read through the material, but do it actively. Jot down points, underline or highlight. Link the information with what you know already. Let the headings and sub-headings help you organise information. Remember that you will need the content to complete the tasks. Review At various stages, you will be directed to review the main points or complete a Self-Check Exercise to indicate how you are progressing. Make your own notes as well. Instructor Throughout this package, you will be required to attend practical demonstrations and receive instruction in the use of materials, tools and equipment. Ask your instructor if you have any problems with: < < < interpretation of content; procedures or processes; or availability of resources

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Australian National Training Authority

NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

INTRODUCTION

KEY TO SYMBOLS
Symbols are placed in the left hand margin to draw attention to the type of information commencing at that point. The symbols used in this package are:

Read READ

This is the essential information for the module.

DEMONSTRATION

Instructor Demonstration

At times, your instructor will give practical advice and demonstrate the use of tools/equipment.

SELF-CHECK

Self-Check Exercise

These are your progress indicators. Typical answers are also included.

PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

Practical Activity

The five activities allow for the application of the theory components.

Site Visit SITE VISIT

Your instructor will schedule visits to appropriate sites.

WARNING

Warning

You are to take particular notice for your own and other safety

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NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

MODULE DETAILS

MODULE INFORMATION: from the Training Specification


MODULE TITLE REINFORCED CONCRETE AND FORMWORK (RESIDENTIAL) 48 Hours

Nominal Duration

Module Number Purpose

NFF3113 To develop the skills and knowledge required to set up, form up, place and fix steel reinforcement, place and finish concrete for strip footings, slabs on ground and small suspended slabs and stairs (to one level) of residential buildings. National Building and Construction Industry Competency Standards: FF2044 ST2044 ST2045 ST2047 Erect and strip formwork Erect and strip formwork Carry out steel fixing Carry out concrete work

Relationship to Competency Standards

Pre-requisites

Basic Stream Skills - Fitout and Finish/Structures

A trainee may seek recognition through the R.P.L. process for competencies already held. Summary of Content Types of concrete and concrete materials Proportioning/mixing and testing concrete Concrete tools and equipment Slab types Site preparation for slab on ground Select and fix steel reinforcement Erect formwork for concrete slabs and retaining walls Concrete placing, finishing and curing

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NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

MODULE DETAILS

Delivery

Delivery methods must provide for the demonstration of competence in skills specified in all learning outcomes, either in on-site or simulated on-site conditions. Relevant material from the Cement and Concrete Association of Australia - Guide to Concrete Construction - Concrete Practice on Building Sites The following Australian Standards: AS1012 (Methods of testing concrete) AS1302 (Steel reinforcing bars for concrete) AS1303 (Steel reinforcing wire for concrete) AS1304 (Welded wire reinforcing fabric for concrete) AS2870 (Residential slabs and footings) AS3600 (Concrete structures) AS3610 (Formwork for concrete) AS3799 (Liquid membrane forming curing compounds for concrete) AS3660.1 (Protection of buildings from subterranean termites) Formwork - A Practical Approach Peter S McAdam, First edition, Stuarts Publications. ISBN 0 646 13694 1 DCI Guide for Domestic Construction - DC1.3 Footings and Slabs Richard Adams, Universal Text, Brisbane.

Suggested Learning Resources

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Australian National Training Authority

NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT INFORMATION
NFF3113 - Reinforced Concrete and Framework (Residential) is a module in the National Construction Industry Competency Framework. The program focuses on the achievement of learning outcomes measured against assessment criteria based on National Competency Standards. All learning outcomes must be successfully achieved if you are to be awarded competence in this module. Your assessment will be recorded as: Competent; or Not Yet Competent.

You will have completed the learning outcomes when you have successfully achieved all the Assessment Criteria in Assessment Tasks 1 to 6. One or more of the following assessment methods will be used: supervised assessment in the demonstration of techniques; practical activities, allowing for demonstrations of your ability in construction and erecting formwork, fixing reinforcing steel and placing and finishing concrete of residential specifications.

All projects are to be carried out on-site or in simulated on-site conditions.

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NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT SPECIFICATION
MODULE TITLE Module Number Purpose of the Assessment REINFORCED CONCRETE AND FORMWORK (RESIDENTIAL) NFF3113 To demonstrate the skills and knowledge required to identify materials and tools used in the fixing of reinforcement mesh, placing and finishing concrete to strip footings and suspended slabs and associated formwork for residential buildings. To calculate concrete quantities and reinforcement requirements. Instructions for the Assessee The following procedures could be carried out in one of more projects: Assessment Task 1 List the types of concrete commonly used in the construction industry and explain how they are used. Explain the types and uses of various additives. Identify the principles of good concrete. Select ingredients to produce concrete.

Assessment Task 2 Calculate the quantities of concrete and other materials for a given project. Select proportions and batch up a sample quantity of concrete to the specified mix and slump requirements. Carry out slump test on concrete. Prepare test cylinders for compression testing.

Assessment Task 3 Identify four concrete slab types that are commonly used in house construction. Sketch examples of pier and beam systems, raft slabs, suspended slabs and waffle pod slabs.

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Explain when it is necessary to use a pier and beam system. List advantages and disadvantages of using raft slab, suspended slab and waffle pod systems.

Assessment Task 4 Discuss methods of compaction and testing of fill under concrete slabs. Erect formwork to edge of slab. Prepare for edge thickening and internal beams and screed bedding sand. Discuss termite protection methods. Install vapour barrier.

Assessment Task 5 Erect formwork for: - small suspended concrete floor slab. - small straight flight of stairs. Strip formwork from finished concrete. Prepare and install reinforcing to: - L shaped strip footing - small concrete slab - small suspended floor slab.

Assessment Task 6 Guidelines for the Assessor Select tools and equipment used for concreting. Place and compact concrete. Screed concrete to specified levels and gradients. Finish a small concrete slab to a smooth finish using a steel float. Identify the most appropriate methods of curing concrete slabs and other basic concrete works. Cure concrete.

This is a supervised assessment. This is an assessment of the final product however some observation of the process will be involved, this is detailed on the checklist.

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Learning Outcome NFF3113.1 NFF3113.2 NFF3113.3 NFF3113.4 NFF3113.5 NFF3113.6 NFF3113.7 NFF3113.8

Assessment Task 1 Yes

Assessment Task 2

Assessment Task 3

Assessment Task 4

Assessment Task 5

Assessment Task 6

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

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MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT TASKS ASSESSMENT TASK 1:


List the types of concrete commonly used in the construction industry and explain how they are used. Explain the types and uses of various additives. Identify the principles of good concrete. Select ingredients to produce good quality concrete.

The procedures above could be carried out in one or more projects. Assessment Task 1 incorporates Learning Outcome: 1. Types of Concrete and Concrete Materials.

Item 1.

Assessment Criteria Concrete types commonly used in construction are listed and the application of each is explained in accordance with AS1379 and AS3600. Additives commonly used in concrete construction are listed and the purpose for their use explained in accordance with AS1478. Design principles of good concrete are stated in accordance with AS3600. Appropriate ingredients selected to produce good quality concrete, reference AS2758.1. Various types of concrete mixing and transportation equipment are identified and the main purpose of each is explained.

Achieved

2.

3. 4. 5.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted. Items 5 must be performed fully. Items 1 to 4 must be performed within the given tolerances.

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MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT TASK 2:
Calculate the quantities of concrete and other materials required for a given project. Select proportions and batch up a small quantity of concrete to the specified mix and slump requirements. Carry out slump test on concrete. Prepare test cylinders for compression testing.

The above procedures could be carried out in one or more projects. Assessment Task 2 incorporates Learning Outcome: 2. Proportioning/Mixing Concrete.

Item 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Assessment Criteria Materials selected and checked against specifications/instructions. Tools and equipment selected in accordance with the requirements of the project and checked for safe operation. Personal protective equipment correctly selected and used safely. Safety hazards identified and correct procedures adopted to reduce hazards to self and others. Concrete volumes for specified projects calculated within + 5%. Quantities of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and cement at specified mix proportions are calculated for given projects within + 2%. Steel reinforcing quantities for specified concrete projects are calculated within + 5%. Cost concrete and steel reinforcing without error. Concrete batched to a specified mix proportion in accordance with AS3600-2. Slump test on concrete prepared in item 9 is carried out in accordance with AS1023.3 and AS1379.

Achieved

7. 8. 9. 10.

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11. 12. 13. 14.

Test cylinder samples prepared for compression testing in accordance with AS1012. Reusable materials stacked and stored safely. Waste materials disposed of in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Tools and equipment safely cleaned, maintained and stored correctly.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted. Items 1 to 4 and 12 to 14 must be performed fully. Items 5 to 11 must be performed within the given tolerances.

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MODULE DETAILS

ASSESSMENT TASK 3:
Identify four concrete slab types that are commonly used in house construction. Sketch examples of pier and beam systems, raft slabs, suspended slabs and waffle pod slabs. Explain when it is necessary to use a pier and beam system. List advantages and disadvantages of using raft slab, suspended slab and waffle pod systems.

The above procedures could be carried out in one or more projects. Assessment Task 3 incorporates Learning Outcome: 4. Slab Types

Item 1. 2. 3.

Assessment Criteria Personal protective equipment correctly selected and used safely. Four concrete slab types identified and the most appropriate application of each is explained, to comply with AS2870.1. Examples of pier and beam systems, raft, suspension and waffle pod slabs are sketched. Sketches must be in proportion and correct in major detail. Conditions for use of pier and beam system explained. Advantages and disadvantages of raft slab, suspended slab and waffle pod systems listed.

Achieved

4. 5.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted. Items 1, 4 and 5 must be performed fully. Items 2 and 3 must be performed within the given tolerances.

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ASSESSMENT TASK 4:
Discuss methods of compaction and testing of fill under concrete slabs. Erect formwork to edge of slab. Prepare for edge thickening, internal beams and screed bedding sand. Discuss termite protection. Lay vapour/membrane barrier.

The above procedures could be carried out in one or more projects. Assessment Task 4 incorporates Learning Outcome: 5. Site Preparation for Slab on Ground.

Item 1. 2.

Assessment Criteria Materials selected and checked against specifications/instructions. Tools and equipment selected in accordance with the requirements of the project and checked for safe operation. Personal protective equipment correctly selected and used safely. Safety hazards identified and correct procedures adopted to reduce hazards to self and others. Sub-grade to slab inspected and appropriate test procedures discussed. Methods of compaction to fill under slab discussed. Set out for slab to be within a tolerance of 5mm. Edge thickening and thickening of slab for internal beams is prepared to specifications and AS2870.1. Edge formwork to slab/openings is erected to comply with AS2870.1. Bedding materials laid in accordance with given specifications to the required levels. The need for termite protection and appropriate methods discussed, to comply with AS2057.

Achieved

3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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12. 13. 14. 15.

Vapour barrier installed with joints lapped minimum 200 and all joints and plumbing protrusions taped securely. Reusable materials stacked/stored safely. Waste materials disposed of in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Tools and equipment cleaned, maintained and stored correctly.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted. Items 1 to 4 and 13 to 15 must be performed fully. Items 7 and 12 must be performed within the given tolerances.

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ASSESSMENT TASK 5:
  Erect formwork for: - small suspended concrete floor slab. - small straight flight of stairs. Strip formwork. Prepare and install reinforcing to: - L shaped strip footing. - small concrete slab. - small suspended floor slab.

The above procedures could be carried out in one or more projects. Assessment Task 5 incorporates Learning Outcomes: 6. 7. Select and Fix Steel Reinforcement. Erect Formwork for Concrete Slabs and Stairs.

Item 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Assessment Criteria Materials selected and checked against specifications/instructions. Tools and equipment selected in accordance with the requirements of the project and checked for safe operation. Personal protective equipment correctly selected and used safely. Safety hazards identified and correct procedures adopted to reduce hazards to self and others. The effect of the pressure of concrete on formwork is explained. Factors that determine when formwork should be stripped are stated. All sets out and completed formwork are in accordance with plans and specifications, AS3610 and AS2870.1. Erected formwork and formwork support system inspected for safety and quality of work in accordance with AS3610 supplement. 1. Erection sequence to be followed, no error. Formwork progressively stripped to the requirements of AS3600 and/or project specifications

Achieved

9. 10.

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11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Types of steel reinforcement identified, AS1302, 1303 and 1304. Appropriate steel reinforcement selected according to project plan and specification requirements. Reinforcement placed ensuring correct joining, lapping and concrete cover according to plans and specifications. Reusable materials stacked/stored safely. Waste materials disposed of in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Tools and equipment cleaned, maintained and stored correctly.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted. Items 1 to 6 and 14 to 16 must be performed fully. Items 7 to 13 must be performed within the given tolerances.

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ASSESSMENT TASK 6:
Select tools and equipment used for concreting. Place and compact concrete. Screed concrete to specified levels and gradients. Finish a small concrete slab to a smooth finish using a steel float. Identify the most appropriate methods of curing concrete slabs and other basic concrete works. Cure concrete.

The above procedures could be carried out in one or more projects. Assessment Task 6 incorporates Learning Outcomes: 3 8. Concrete Tools and Equipment Concrete Placing, Finishing and Curing.

Item 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Assessment Criteria Materials selected and checked against specifications/instructions. Tools and equipment selected in accordance with the requirements of the project and checked for safe operation. Personal protective equipment correctly selected and used safely. Safety hazards identified and correct procedures adopted to reduce hazards to self and others. Concrete placed with no evident segregation. Concrete placed into location to levels as indicated by markers, level pegs or lines. Levels checked using appropriate levelling equipment. Placed concrete is consolidated using vibration method appropriate to the task. Consolidated concrete is free of evidence of over compaction. Consolidated concrete contains a minimum amount of voids due to under compaction.

Achieved

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11. 12. 13. 14.

Screeding to within a tolerance of 1mm per metre. Floated surface is free of voids. Steel trowelled surface is smooth and in accordance with engineers or architects specifications. Curing method chosen has taken into account the advantages and disadvantages of the addition of moisture and the retention of moisture method of curing concrete. Curing controlled to obtain completed job to plan, specifications and regulations. All work complies with AS3600 and AS3799. Reusable materials stacked/stored safely. Waste materials disposed of in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Tools and equipment cleaned, maintained and stored correctly.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted. Items 1 to 4 and 17 to 19 must be performed fully. Items 5 to 16 must be performed within the given tolerances.

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SECTION 1

Book 1 of 2 SECTION 1 - CONCRETE FOR RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION

READ

INTRODUCTION
This first section of this package deals with two main aspects:

concrete as a building material: and slab and footing types.

These two areas include the essential information you will need to complete Assessment Task(s) 1, 2 and 3 which addresses learning outcomes: 1. List the types of concrete and additives commonly used in the construction industry and explain the application of each. Identify various types of concrete mixing equipment and describe the operation, purpose and suitability for each in a given situation. Calculate material quantities for reinforced concrete and prepare slump tests and samples for quality assurance. Identify the basic requirements and functions of a slab when constructed using slab on ground, pier and beam, raft, suspended or waffle pod system and tilt slabs (simple casts).

2.

4.

The information presented in this section will allow you to cover the following operations:

the identification of the principles and properties of good concrete; the proportioning of mixes and the batching of concrete; the identification of commonly used concrete admixtures; the selection of mixing and transportation methods; the preparation of slump tests, and compression cylinders for testing; the identification of reinforcement for concrete; the measuring and calculation of quantities and the costing of materials; and the identification and sketch presentation of a variety of slab and footing alternatives.

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The details required for the above operations will be presented under ten topics:

Concrete Cements Aggregates Proportioning of Materials Additives and Admixtures Mixing and Transportation Testing Concrete Reinforced Concrete Calculations and Costing of Concrete and Reinforcement in a Simple Slab Slab Types

CONCRETE AS A BUILDING MATERIAL


Before commencing this unit on CONCRETE, previous material on this topic should be revisited and some time taken to revise the basic principles and terminology. This material will be found in the Stage 1 (Basic Industry Skills) Module NBC1006 Basic Construction Materials: Section 2. More detailed information in respect to Concrete Practice and Technology is available in publications produced by the Cement and Concrete Association of Australia. An office of this association is situated in the capital city of your State and should be contacted in regard to the following publications:

Concrete Practice on building sites Concrete Basics: A Guide to Concrete Practice Guide to Concrete Construction

Acknowledgment is made of the Cement and Concrete Association of Australia and the Standards Association of Australia for significant elements of the technical content of this package. Copyright clearance has been provided for the use of some text and figures noted throughout the package.

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1,

CONCRETE

Principles and Properties Concrete is a mixture of binding agent and inert (chemically inactive) filler or aggregate. Normally the binding agent is a mixture of Portland cement and water, although other types of cement may be used in special circumstances. Aggregate generally consists of either natural sands and gravels or of rock crushed to the required sizes. When first mixed, properly made fresh concrete is a workable, cohesive, plastic material which can be placed and moulded as required. After placing, it hardens to a dense, durable and strong homogeneous (uniform) mass, capable of carrying large loads in compression. These characteristics are vital when concrete is used either as a structural element, as a finishing surface material or as fire protection. Though strong in compression concrete is weak in tension, such tensional strength as it has, being readily destroyed by sudden load. To strengthen concrete where it is in tension, reinforcing steel is introduced, leaving the concrete to care for the compression loads unaided.
The performance of concrete, in both the plastic (wet) and hardened state, depends upon the quality and quantity of cement, aggregate, water and admixture used for each separate batch. In addition, and of equal importance, is how these materials are mixed, and how the resulting concrete is transported reinforced, placed, finished and cured. In summary, the properties of concrete can be described under two headings:

Plastic - state properties. Hardened - state properties.

Properties in Plastic - State


Concrete, when first mixed and in its plastic or wet state, should be able to be placed in voids or formwork and compacted with relative ease. Three properties determine this condition:

< < <

workability; cohesiveness; and consistency.


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Figure 1

EFFECTS OF ADDING WATER TO CONCRETE

Source:

Guide to Concrete Construction Figures 1, 2 and 1.3. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia.

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<

Workability

The term workability is used to describe the ease with which a concrete mix can be placed, and compacted as completely as possible, using the lowest possible water : cement ratio. Adjustment to workability made by the addition of water must always be accompanied by an addition of cement.

<

Cohesiveness

The higher the water content in the mix, the greater the risk of segregation and/or bleeding (water rising to the surface during handling). The measure of the ability of concrete to resist the segregation (separation) of its individual components during transportation, handling, placing and compacting is known as its cohesiveness.

<

Consistency

The term used to describe the ease with which concrete will flow or its degree of wetness, is consistency. The practical test used to measure the consistency of concrete and the similarity of different batches is called the Slump Test: This testing process will be explained later in this unit. It should be noted that concretes with the same slump, that is the same consistency, may have a varying degree of workability.

Properties in Hardened - State

The three main properties of concrete as a structural material are its:

< < < <

strength; durability; and impermeability. Strength

The ability of concrete to withstand high crushing loads is called its compressive strength. Compressive strength is the main consideration of concrete and forms the basis of mix designs. Compressive strength is determined by crushing specimens of test cylinders until they collapse, and measuring the load required. It is a measure of the ability of concrete to resist crushing and depends greatly on the water/cement ratio which varies according to the type of cement used and the

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ultimate function of the building or structural member. Some strength ratings are 20, 25, 32, 40 and 50 MPa, with 20MPa, the usual domestic requirement. As indicated earlier in this unit, concrete is relatively weak in tension and will crack fairly readily if stretched or bent. It has, however, some tensile strength, which is evident in its use unreinforced in pavements and other light load slabon-ground applications. In structural situations, where concrete will be subjected to tension and bending, reinforcing steel will normally be introduced to withstand the inherent stresses.

<

Durability

Durability is the term given to the ability of concrete to resist weathering and chemical attack. Damage is caused largely by penetration of water or chemical solutions into the concrete and is not confined to action on the surface. Durability is improved by lowering water/cement ration.

<

Impermeability

Good concrete should be impermeable or resistant to the penetration of water, particularly where exposed to weather or other severe conditions. Permeability is dependent on the amount of mixing water used and the maturity of the concrete. NOTE: The strength, durability and impermeability of concrete are ALL improved by: the use of an appropriate water - cement ratio; full and careful compaction; and adequate curing.

2.

CEMENTS

Types of Cement Cement is the term used to describe the binding agent in concrete. Although each manufacturer uses a trade name, Portland cements are made in Australia to comply with the requirements of AS3972. Portland cements are hydraulic, that is they depend upon water rather than air for strength development. When water is added to cement a chemical reaction begins immediately and continues while water is present. Cements stiffen firstly and later develops strength.

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In broad terms, setting means stiffening only, and hardening means useful strength development. Only a small quantity of water is required to hydrate cement and additional water evaporates leaving voids, which reduce the density, strength and durability of the end product. Five types of cement complying with the requirements of AS3972 are presently manufactured in Australia. Two of these are classified as General Purpose and the remaining three as Special Purpose. They are: Type GP - General Purpose Portland Cement. Type GB - General Purpose Blended Cement. Type HE - High Early Strength Cement. Type LH - Low Heat Cement. Type SR - Sulphate Resisting Cement.

Type GP - General Purpose Portland Cement

Ordinary or normal Portland cement, intended for use in all types of building and construction. Type GB - General Purpose Blended Cement

As the name implies this cement contains a quantity of slag, fly ash, or both blended with the Portland cement. Like type GP this cement is intended for use in all types of general building and construction. Type HE - High Early Strength Cement

Used where early strength is a requirement, for example, where formwork has to be stripped as soon as possible or early strength is required so that further construction can proceed. Type LH - Low Heat Control

Designed for use where rise in temperature must be limited to avoid thermal stresses, for example, in mass concrete construction or in very hot weather. Type SR - Sulphate Resistant Cement

This is intended primarily for use where high resistance to sulphates is required, for example, in marine construction or soils or areas containing sulphate. The physical and chemical properties of these five types of cement are listed in Figure 2 which is a summary of Table 1 from AS3972.

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AS3972 Requirement GP Physical Properties: Setting Time Max (h) Min. (minutes) Soundness Max. Expansion (mm) Compressive Strength (MPa) Min. in 3 days Min. in 7 days Min. in 28 days Heat of Hydration (J/g) Max. at 7 days Max. at 28 days Figure 2
(SUMMARY)

GB

Type of Cement HE LH

SR

10 45

10 45

10 45

10 45

10 45

25 40

15 30

20 30 -

10 30

20 30

280 320

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SPECIFIED IN AS3972

Source:

Guide to Concrete Construction. Table 2.1 Cement and Concrete Association of Australia.

Some other cements produced for specific and limited use are: Off White and White Portland Cement

Used in the production of architectural concrete and concrete products. Coloured

Also used in the production of special concrete products and for concrete pavements. Masonry Cement

For use as mortar in brick, block and stone masonry construction. Oil Well Cement

Oil well cement is used in the petroleum industry to grout oil and gas wells. High Alumina Cement (HAC)

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Used where high early strength and/or resistance to very high temperatures are required, for example refractory concrete construction. 3. AGGREGATES

Course and Fine Aggregates The term aggregate is given to natural sands, gravel and rocks, crushed and uncrushed that are used in the production of good concrete. Concrete aggregates are generally made up of stones or particles having different sizes, ranging from the maximum permissible to fine sand particles. The aggregate grading significantly influences the water demand and workability of the concrete hence affects the control of concreting operations on the job. Ultimately, it may affect the strength and other properties of the hardened concrete. Hence, it is extremely important either that aggregate gradings be uniform during the currency of a project of that the concrete mix be adjusted when changes occur in the grading.

Figure 3

GRADING - RANGE OF PARTICLE SIZE IN AGGREGATE

Course and fine aggregate make up approximately 80% of the volume of concrete. For general building and construction work course aggregate would normally be from 20mm down to 7mm, well graded. The fine aggregate which constitutes less than half of the volume, would be 5mm and under but not contain fine powdery particles. Water

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Water should be equal to good quality drinking water, otherwise it is detrimental to the making of good concrete. 4. PROPORTIONING OR MATERIALS

Course aggregate contains approximately 50% of voids (spaces). Fine aggregate is used to fill these voids, therefore, fine aggregate required equals half of the course aggregate. Fine aggregate contains approximately 30% voids and cement is used to fill these voids. Therefore, cement content equals 30% of the fine aggregate quantity. Experiments show, however, that in order to coat all surfaces with cement a further 20% is required, thus making 50% of cement to fine aggregate. From the figures above we obtain a mix of 4 : 2: 1 or 4 parts course, 2 parts fine and 1 part cement or 4 : 2 : 1 is considered a good general mix. Accurate proportioning is a major factor in concrete strength. Ideally concrete, when mixed, should be such that the cement fills the voids in the sand, and the sand fills the voids in the gravel. From this it should be realised that if a hole is to be filled with concrete the volume of the hole will be the quantity of course aggregate (gravel) required, as there is little increase in bulk with the addition of sand and cement. For example: A hole 3000 mm x 1000 mm x 2000 mm has a volume of 6m3. Therefore, the amount of course aggregate required would be 6m 3. Figure 4 shows the sand occupying the voids (spaces) formed by the gravel. It also shows the voids between the sand grains which in turn are filled with cement.

Figure 4 ALL VOIDS FILLED IN GOOD CONCRETE

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Site Mixed Concrete Site mixing of concrete in a simple tilting drum mixer, should only be considered for minor works. The correct proportioning of cement, sand, gravel and water are vitally important. A gauge box or bucket should be used to measure the volumes of each type of material. A mix to gain concrete approximately equal to grade 20 i.e. 20MPa concrete would be 3 : 2 : 1. That is: 3 measures of course aggregate (20mm gravel); 2 measures of fine aggregate; 1 measure of Type GP cement; and Water to the proportion of 22 litres per bag (40kg) of cement.

Concrete Properties by Volume Volume is important in relation to concrete, as before any quantities of materials can be obtained, the volume (amount) of the required concrete must be known. Volume is the cubic content and is calculated as cubic metres, i.e. Volume = Length x Breadth x Thickness or the area of the base multiplied by the perpendicular height.

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<

Cubic Measurement

1 000 x 1 000 x 1 000 mm =1 000 000 000 mm3 =1 m3

Figure 5

1 CUBIC METRE

NOTE:

1 tonne of cement contains 25 bags. 1 bag of cement has a mass of 40 kg. 1 bag of cement has a volume of 0.026 m3 For practical purposes in volume proportioning we will use 38 bags of cement to the cubic metre.

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Figure 6

CONCRETE PROPORTIONS 4:2:1 MIX

Therefore, for 1 cubic metre of concrete using a 4 : 2 : 1 proportion mix by volume we will require: coarse aggregate 1 m3 fine aggregate 0.5 m3 cement 0.25 m3

9.5 bags of cement.

This information could be useful for ordering purposes.

Calculations Example 1 A concrete floor 5 600 mm long 4 500 wide and 150 mm thick would have a cubic content of: Volume = length x breadth x thickness = 5 600 x 4 500 x 150 mm = 5.6 x 4.5 x .150 m = 3.780 m3 rounded to the next 0.2 m3 = 3.8 m3

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Using a mix in the proportion of 4 : 2 : 1 the quantities of materials required would be: coarse aggregate = fine aggregate cement 3.8 m3 = 3.8 2 = = Example 2 A trench 106 metres long has been excavated for the footings of a brick dwelling. The footing is 450mm wide by 250mm deep, and the concrete to be used is to be volume mixed in the proportion of 3: 2 : 1. Find the total cost of all materials when coarse aggregate is $25.00/m3, fine aggregate $15.00/m3 and cement $10.00 bag. NOTE: Volume Work to the next 0.2m3 of concrete and the next whole bag of cement. = 3.8 4 .95 x 38 = 37 bags = .95 m3 1.9 m3

length x width x depth = 106 000 x 450 x 250 mm = 106 x .450 x .250 m = 11.925 m3 rounded to the next 0.2 m3 = 12 m3 When the mix is in the proportion of 3: 2: 1, simplified it means that there will be 2/3 as much fine aggregate required as there is coarse aggregate and 1/3 the quantity of cement as there is coarse aggregate. Costing Course aggregate Fine aggregate Cement or = = = 38 x 4 12m3 @ $25/m3 2 /3 x 12 = 8m3 $15/m3 1 /3 x 12 = 4m3 = 152 bags @ $10/bag = = = $ 300.00 $ 120.00 $1520.00 $1940.00

Total Cost

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5.

ADDITIVES AND ADMIXTURES

Almost all pre-mixed concrete supplied for domestic construction contains some admixtures added by the concrete supplier whether specified or not. Depending upon requirements of the job, admixtures are used to modify the workability or setting time of concrete without impairing its final performance. The admixtures most often used, and the effects they produce are as follows: Air-Entraining Admixtures

Air-entraining admixtures generate tiny bubbles in concrete during mixing. These air bubbles improve workability especially when undesirably fine aggregate is used to make concrete. Air-entrainers are also used to enhance the durability of concrete subject to cycles of freezing and thawing. Upon drying, the bubbles caused by the air-entrainer remains as tiny voids in the concrete but do not affect strength or finished appearance. Set-Retarding Admixtures

Set-retarding admixtures increase the setting time of concrete allowing longer delivery, placement and finishing times which is especially useful in hot weather. Used in recommended doses the performance of concrete is not affected. If excessive doses of retarding admixtures are used resulting in longer than anticipated setting times, the strength of the concrete need not be affected provided the concrete is cured for longer than normally necessary. Set-Accelerating Admixtures

Set-accelerating admixtures speed the finishing time plus the setting and/or rate of early strength development in concrete. One of the common set-accelerators available is calcium chloride but it promotes corrosion of embedded metal, so must not be used for reinforced concrete. Other alternatives are available. Water-Reducing Admixtures

Water-reducing admixtures do not affect the setting time, strength or durability of concrete but they do improve its workability of fluidity and are often described as plasticisers. Superplasticisers are a new development of these admixtures which produce flowing concrete - which has exceptional fluidity allowing easier placement.

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Vibration of superplasticised concrete is still essential for complete compaction. Combined water-reducing and set-retarding admixtures and combined water-reducing and set-accelerating admixtures each perform the functions implicit in their names. Fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag is occasionally added to concrete by pre-mix suppliers as an admixture. This affects the performance of that concrete in a similar way to the use of blended cement. The correct use of suitable admixtures imparts desirable characteristics to concrete which cannot otherwise be achieved as readily or economically. They are used to counteract specific problems such as: variation of setting time with temperature; reduction of water/cement ratio; workability control for pumped concrete. NOTE: The use of admixtures does not remove the need for proper mix design with adequate cement content nor the need to control the concreting operation. Indeed it usually makes these factors more important.

It is wrong to guess that mixing two or more admixtures will have an additive effect on the characteristic of the mix. If, for some unusual reason, more than one admixture is specified it is recommended that a sample batch of concrete be made to check on their combined effects. Source: Construction Note: Concrete - The Material. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia

6.

MIXING AND TRANSPORTATION Mixing Methods

With quality assurance a major consideration, and to ensure compliance with the requirements of the specification most structural concrete for building and construction projects today is produced at central batching plants. This procedure ensures increased control over the proportioning and batching process. Split-drum mixers and continuous mixers are incorporated into some central plant systems to handle the mixing of large volumes of special mix concrete, for example, concrete using very large aggregate and dry mixes for roller compaction on roads respectively. The great bulk of concrete used in the industry, however, is mixed in the inclined-drum mixers mounted on trucks, commonly called the transit mixer.

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These mixers receive accurately batched materials from the central batching plant and, operating at mixing speed, mix the concrete en-route to the site. The complex blade and fin system operates in such a way that, when the direction of rotation of the drum is reversed, the mixed concrete discharges continuously from the drum. As indicated earlier, site mixing of concrete in simple tilt-drum mixers, should be limited to small minor works projects of a low-structural nature, for example, garden wall footings, pavement and patching. Transportation to Site

Concrete delivery by transit-mix truck can ensure a good quality mix. It is most important, for economy and speed, to place the mixed concrete in its final position within 1 hours of the time of mixing unless special admixtures are provided in it or other precautions are taken. Excessive or incorrect on-site handling of fresh concrete can cause separation of the aggregates from the cement paste, a process known as segregation, which greatly reduces the performance of the hardened concrete. To permit pre-mix trucks to discharge their loads directly into the prepared, permanent position for the concrete a site must be well planned. The location of excavated soil, building materials, building set-out pegs (hurdles or profiles) and site huts should be determined so as to allow truck access. On sites where a large pre-mix truck can get close to two or three sides of a small building job, the delivery chute (which permits the placement of fresh concrete up to four metres from the truck) and shovels can ensure satisfactory, direct concrete placement. On restricted sites where a truck can discharge concrete only on one side, then concrete incorporating a superplasticiser admixture should be used. This superplasticised concrete flows easily and with little effort can be pushed with shovels up to ten metres from the point at which it drops from the truck chute. The use of superplasticised concrete does not eliminate the need for correct compaction after placement. Concrete containing a superplasticiser cannot be used for ramps or for driveway pavements on sloping ground - a still mix with a slump of 50 to 60mm is recommended for such situations.

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Figure 7

DIMENSIONS OF A TYPICAL 5 CUBIC METRE CONCRETE TRUCK

Transportation On Site

A variety of on-site methods of concrete transport between a transit-mix truck and the point of placement are available. Means of Transport Pumping Small tip-truck Crane with hopper or bucket Front-end loader Powered dumper or buggy Bobcat loader Powered three-wheel barrow Manual two-wheel barrow Conventional wheelbarrow Load in M3 Continuous 1-2 -2 -1 -1 1 /10 1 /8 - 1/6 1 /15 - 1/10 1 /20

The advantage of powered on-site transport is significant when it is considered that a pre-mix truck may deliver between four and six cubic metres of concrete. For five cubic metres 100 wheelbarrow trips would be necessary, causing costly delays.

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Figure 8 SOME EXAMPLES OF ON-SITE TRANSPORT

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Transportation by Pumping

Where direct delivery from the pre-mix truck or the listed on-site transport is not possible because the site is elevated or for two-storey construction, a pump can deliver concrete to its point of placement. The largest, most modern pumps can push concrete considerable distances vertically and horizontally - however, the smaller type of pump with a steel pipeline which is assembled for each job is adequate for most building projects. It would be reasonable to expect such a pump to push concrete at least 200m horizontally - or 150m horizontally with a 10m rise; however, many factors may reduce the maximum pumpable distance. When using a pump as part of a concrete delivery and placement method the following points should be kept in mind:

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The pre-mix supplier must be told that the concrete ordered is intended to be pumped at the site. The required mix for pump delivery may be achieved with additional cement and water in the mix - this is a good approach since the extra cement paste helps the flow of concrete in the pump pipe. Extra slump or improved pumpability may also be achieved by the careful use of a plasticising or air-entraining admixture. The pump operator must not be allowed to add extra water to the mix. (Some mixes may be delivered with the intention of adding a little extra water - but this should be carefully monitored.) Concrete should be mixed for a minimum of 15 minutes before being pumped - so, if the pre-mix plant is near the building site, additional mixing should be done in the pre-mix truck before pumping is commenced. The site should be planned to allow the most direct possible line from the pump to the point of concrete placement. One right angle bend in a pump pipe could reduce pump distance by 20 metres. The minimum reinforcement should be F72 fabric supported on bar chairs at a maximum of one metre centres - lesser steel size tends to deform under the increased loads imposed by pumping operations and pipes. The concrete must not be allowed to free fall (drop) for more than one metre because it will damage formwork and reinforcement as well as causing segregation of the concrete. Enough men and tools must be available to handle the increased, near constant rate of concrete delivery achieved by pumping. Facilities must be provided to quickly clean the dismantled pipes and dispose of waste materials. Waste concrete from pipes must not be allowed to drain down gutters since it may cause blockages in stormwater drains. Construction Note: Concrete - Placement and Finishing. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia.

Source:

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7.

TESTING CONCRETE

Standard procedures have been established to test concrete delivered to building and construction sites. The two most common tests will be dealt with in this learning package, they are: the slump test; and the compressive strength test.

Slump Testing

The Slump test is a practical test used for checking the consistency of concrete and the similarity of different batches. This test keeps a check on quality and helps maintain uniform mixes over a period of time. A consistent slump usually means that the concrete is under control. If the results vary it means that something else has varied, usually the water. Variation in water content of the concrete usually results in variable strengths. Other factors which can affect the slump are the grading and the particle shape of the aggregate and the cement content.

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Equipment

Equipment for the slump test includes a standard slump cone, a bullet pointed steel rod, a rule, a bucket in which to sample the concrete and a scoop. A level, non-absorbent surface should be available on which to make the test.

Figure 9 EQUIPMENT READY FOR TAKING SAMPLE

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The slump cone is 300mm high, 200mm diameter at the bottom and 100mm diameter at the top. It should be made from 1.5mm galvanised sheet metal and be fitted with foot rests at the bottom and handles by which it can be lifted. The tamping rod is 600mm long, 15mm diameter and bullet pointed. Before starting the test all equipment must be clean and the inside of the slump moistened. A slump test is taken from the mix (batch) near the beginning of the discharge not at the beginning.

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Making the Slump Test

To make the test the following procedure should be carried out: place the cone, large end down on a non-absorbent, level, firm and clean base - cone must be clean and wet; obtain a representative (typical) sample - this should be done as recommended in AS1012.1.

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Figure 10

OBTAINING SAMPLE

hold cone firmly by placing a foot on each footpiece; using scoop, place concrete from sample into the cone to one third volume (1/5 of cone height) and compact by rodding 25 times. The strokes should be distributed over the surface uniformly;

Do not work the rod up and down continuously in the one place. add more mix to two thirds volume ( the cone height) and rod this layer another 25 times, the rod being allowed to penetrate to the layer beneath; fill cone to the top and rod as before, 25 times just penetrating the second layer. Surplus concrete should be struck off the top of the cone;

Figure 11

FILLING AND COMPACTING CONE

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remove the cone slowly without disturbing the sample, allowing the concrete to subside; with the cone in the upturned position beside the sample place the rod across the top of the cone and measure the average distance of slump.

Figure 12

MEASURING THE SLUMP

If in subsiding, the concrete cone shears or collapses, the test should be repeated, using a fresh portion of the sample. If the concrete again shears or collapses, this fact should be recorded as it indicates a lack of cohesiveness in the mixture.

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Figure 13 Source:

EXAMPLES OF SLUMP

Guide to Concrete Construction, Figure 1.6 Cement and Concrete Association of Australia

Figure 14 shows typical acceptable ranges of slump for various elements of construction using general purpose cement concrete.

Element Mass concrete Plain footings, caissons and substructure walls Pavements and slabs Beams Reinforced footings Columns Reinforced walls Figure 14
14 TYPICAL RANGE OF SLUMPS

Typical range of slump (mm) 30-80 50-80 50-80 50-100 50-100 50-100 80-120

Source:Guide to Concrete Construction: Table 1.1 Cement and Concrete Association of Australia

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Source:

Compressive Strength Testing Basic Guide to Concrete Construction. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia.

The strength of concrete is determined by making specimens, curing them and then crushing them to determine their strength. The preparation of the specimen is a most important phase of the test for badly prepared specimen will nearly always give a low result. Concrete test specimens should be carefully prepared in the manner specified in Australian Standard AS1012, Part 8, Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens. Compressive test specimens are normally cylinders 150mm diameter and 300mm high (see Figure 15) although other sized cylinders and 100mm and 150mm cubes are sometimes used. These different sizes and shapes will give different compressive stresses at failure even though the same concrete is used. Cylinder moulds should be made of metal and should be rigid enough to hold their shape during preparation of the specimen. They should be fitted with a base plate which can be fixed securely to the mould to prevent leakage, and a cover plate which is attached to the top of the mould.

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Moulding the Specimen

The tools required are the same as for the slump test except for two cylinder moulds. (300mm high x 150mm diameter).

Figure 15 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED TO MOULD SPECIMEN

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To mould the specimen a sample is obtained in accordance with AS1012 Part 1 and as follows: the cylinder mould must be clean and lightly coated with form oil; collect a sample of the concrete (not the one used for the slump test); fill and compact the moulds as for the slump test using the 15mm diameter bullet nosed rod. With coarser concretes it may be necessary to rod the concrete more, or use a small internal vibrator filling the mould in two equal layers; level off the top and finish with a wood float; attach the cover plate and tie an identification tag to the mould and put in a cool dry place to set.

Figure 16 STRIPPED

MOULD LEVELLED OFF, TAGGED AND LATER

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Storing and Crushing the Specimen

Field specimens should be stored undisturbed in their moulds, with cover plates fitted at a storage temperature between 13C and 33C. The cylinders should be carefully taken from their moulds after 48 hours and the side of the cylinder specimen marked with waterproof crayon or paint to show the date of casting and the identification reference number. The concrete cylinder should then be delivered to the laboratory for controlled curing and crushing for test at the specified time, for example 7, 14 or 28 days. During transportation the cylinder should be kept moist by wrapping in wet hessian, using a bed of wet sand or other similar means.

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Testing the Specimen

To ensure correct results when the specimen is tested the end of the cylinder must be at right angles to the long axis and quite flat. It is necessary therefore to cap at least the top surface of the cylinder. Capping is carried out in the laboratory with either molten sulphur or cement paste. Sulphur caps are commonly used as they can be tested within two hours. Testing cylinders is a laboratory procedure which should be carried out by experienced operators on a reliable clean testing machine. The cylinders are measured, capped, cleaned then loaded at a standard rate whilst still wet. The 28 day compressive strength is an important factor governing the design of structures and is usually of prime importance in specification controls. The pressure to crush the specimen is measured in Mega Pascals (MPa) Compressive Strength = where P A 1 Mega Pascal = = = P Mega Pascals A Force (Newtons) Area (sq. millimetres) 1 N/mm2

It is essential that the sampling, moulding, curing and testing of concrete specimens be carried out strictly in accordance with the methods given in the Australian Standards. Each specimen should be readily identifiable and clearly marked so that the results obtained will be of significance. Typical strengths range from 20MPa for domestic construction to 40MPa and higher for high strength structures. Standard grades of concrete are 20, 25, 32, 40 and 50 MPa. Source: Basic Guide to Concrete Construction. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia.

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SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 1:
1.

CONCRETE AS A BUILDING MATERIAL

Concrete is a mixture of binding agent and aggregate. The building agent is a mixture of Portland ____________________ and __________________ .

2.

Concrete is generally _____________________ in compression and weak in ________________________

3.

To improve the performance of concrete in tension in its hardened state, ______________________ ___________________ is introduced.

4.

Good quality concrete has three properties, in its plastic or wet state, that enable it to be easily placed into moulds or forms and compacted with relative ease. They are: (i) ______________________________________________________________ (ii) ______________________________________________________________ (iii) _____________________________________________________________ _

5.

In its hardened state, good concrete develops three other quite different properties which make it a successful building material. These three properties are: (i) ____________________________________________________________ __ ____________________________________________________________ __

(ii)

(iii) ____________________________________________________________ __

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6.

The ultimate strength and performance of concrete as a structural material, is improved by three things at the initial stage of placement. These are: (i) ________________________________________________________

(ii) ________________________________________________________ (iii) ___________________________________________________________

7.

Aggregates for general purpose concrete are usually: Course Well graded, from ________mm down to 7mm; and Fine Well graded ________mm and under but not containing fine powdery particles.

8.

Concrete mixed on site by volume proportioning requires careful measuring. To gain a concrete equivalent to 20 MPa the following proportions would be necessary. Course Aggregate : Fine Aggregate : Cement _______________ : ____________ : 1

9.

Calculate the total cost of all materials required, for site mixed concrete of 3 : 2: 1 proportions, for a concrete slab 8m long x 5m wide x 150mm thick. Given the following material costs: Course Aggregate: Fine Aggregate: Cement: $30/m3 $20/m3 $10/bag

10.

List the names of the two admixtures used with concrete to produce the following results: (i) improved workability ___________________________________________________________ (ii) slowing down of setting process _________________________________________________________

__

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11.

List the acceptable range of slump for concrete used in the following positions: Mass Concrete footings Pavement and slabs Columns Reinforced footings ________mm to 80 mm 50 mm to _______mm 50 mm to _______mm _________mm to 100 mm

12.

Concrete for domestic construction unless specified otherwise should be ____________MPa compressive strength concrete.

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DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor will demonstrate the practical process of obtaining representative (typical) samples of concrete for testing purposes from both site mixed and transit mixed concrete batches. In addition, your instructor will demonstrate the procedures necessary for the preparation of equipment and tools, slump cones and cylinder moulds prior to taking concrete samples. Then, your instructor with your assistance will proceed step-by-step through the processes of: (i) (ii) making a slump test; and moulding a specimen for a compressive strength test.

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PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 1:

CONCRETE TESTING

Following the procedures described in: Topic 4 Proportioning of Materials; and Topic 7 Testing Concrete,

carry out the following processes. 1. Using approved aggregates and gauge boxes prepare a batch of concrete using the proportions of 3 : 2 : 1 and water in the proportion of 22 litres per bag (40kg) of cement. Take a sample of the prepared concrete: (i) Carry out a Slump Test as described in detail under Topic 7 Slump Testing record the result; and using a trowel examine the sample for workability, cohesiveness and consistency.

2.

(ii) Add a measured quantity of water to the sample and remix, thus altering the water/cement ratio of the sample. Carry out a second Slump Test using the prepared sample (with added water) record the result; and using a trowel examine the sample for workability, cohesiveness and consistency.

Discuss the two results and the variation of workability, cohesiveness and consistency of the test samples with your Instructor, noting the effects of water/cement ratio. 3. Take a further sample of the originally proportioned and prepared concrete and mould compressive Test Specimens (Cylinders) for: (i) a sample from the original 3 : 2: 1 batch; and (ii) a sample from a batch having a measured quantity of water added similar to that added for the slump test.

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The procedures given in Topic 7 Compressive Strength Testing are to be followed in detail. The cylinders are to be stored, cured and delivered to the laboratory for subsequent crushing in 28 days. The results of the two cylinder tests are to be acquired and the effects of added water (altered water/cement ratio) discussed with your instructor.

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READ

8.

REINFORCED CONCRETE

Before proceeding with this topic on Reinforced Concrete you should refer back to and revise material included in your Basic Industry Skills learning resource package for the Module NBC1006 Basic Construction Materials. Section 2, Topic 3 of Module NBC1006 - Types and Uses of Reinforcement in Concrete covered a basic introduction to stresses found in structural concrete and the use of reinforcement in simple footings and slabs-on-ground. Some of this material will be repeated in this unit, and extended to meet the requirements of the learning outcomes of this Module NFF3113. Stresses in Concrete The principal types of stress which develop in concrete members are: compression; tension; and shear.

In designing concrete members it is often found that more than one type of stress is likely. There could even be the combination of all three - compression, tension and shear. Compressive stresses tend to cause the concrete to crush. This is generally resisted by the concrete. Tensile stresses tend to cause the concrete to stretch. These stresses are resisted by reinforcing steel. Shear stresses tend to cause sliding between adjacent sections of concrete. These stresses are carried by both the concrete and the steel.

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Figure 17 Source:

STRESSES IN CONCRETE

Basic Guide to Concrete Construction. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia.

Steel Reinforcement As mentioned at the commencement of this package, concrete is normally used for its ability to resist compression, that is, crushing loads. Though strong in compression concrete is weak in tension, such tensional strength as it has, being readily destroyed by a sudden load. A timber beam or joist is subjected to three different stresses when loaded. The upper half of the beam is in compression, the lower half in tension and a shearing stress is transmitted when the beam is deflected (bent). Similar conditions apply to a concrete beam, therefore, concrete being weak in tension, it is the object of reinforcement to strengthen the concrete where it is in tension, leaving it to care for the compression loads unaided.

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The basic fact which makes it possible to combine steel and concrete is that the latter contracts on setting. If a steel rod be embedded in a mass of wet concrete it will be found that is cannot be withdrawn after the concrete has set. A steel rod, placed in the surface of wet concrete, will resist removal when the concrete has set, but it can be removed by a sharp blow. In the first case the concrete grips the steel, whilst in the second it only adheres. The grip depends upon the quality of the concrete and the condition of the surface of the rod (whether it is rough or smooth). A polished rod is less gripped than one of commercial mild steel, with its rough and lightly rusted surface, whilst an oily surface is lightly held. Specially shaped bars with raised ribs or projections are used to increase that grip. Steel and concrete combine together successfully because: concrete bonds, firmly to steel reinforcement, counteracting tensile stresses of concrete; concrete and steel expand and contract a similar amount; and concrete has a high resistance to fire and protects the steel reinforcement. Therefore, reinforced concrete is able to meet many more loading conditions than plain concrete and be used to limit deflection and to reduce the size of cracks should they occur. Designing and detailing reinforcement is the job of a design engineer, however, it is important that those who supervise the placing and fixing of reinforcement on site understand the basic principles of reinforced concrete, handling and correct fixing procedures according to job drawings.

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Design of Reinforced Concrete The following figures show where reinforcement should be placed to resist tensile cracking. Diagrams from: Basic Guide to Concrete Construction. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia. Floor Slabs or Beams

Figure 18 OR SLAB

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

Figure 19

FIXED ENDED BEAM

Figure 20 SIMPLE CANTILEVERED BEAM OR SLAB

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Figure 21 Retaining Walls

TWO-SPAN BEAM OR SLAB

The earth pressure behind a retaining wall and soil pressure under the footing, tend to cause the wall to load as shown. Reinforcement is placed to resist tensile stresses as shown.

Figure 22 STRESSES IN RETAINING WALLS Columns

Columns under load, can bend in any direction, depending on how connecting beams are loaded. Reinforcement is placed near the outer faces on all sides as shown in Figure 24.

Figure 23

STRESSES IN COLUMNS

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Lateral reinforcement in the form of ties or helices is required in columns to:

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hold the main reinforcement firmly in position during concreting; and prevent lateral bursting of the column under high axial compression.

From an examination of the examples in Figures 18 to 22 it will be apparent that reinforcement is generally placed on the convex side of the deflected shape of the member.

Figure 24 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENTS OF COLUMN REINFORCEMENT Shear Reinforcement

Shear stresses may be of two general types, that is, vertical shear stress and horizontal shear stress. Vertical shear stresses occur near supports as a result of heavy loads, tending to cause the central section to slide vertically downwards against end section members, as shown in Figure 25(a). Horizontal shear stresses result from the tendency of the beam to bend under load and split into horizontal laminations as shown in Figure 25(b).

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Figure 25

VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL SHEAR

To prevent this diagonal cracking at the ends of beams or adjacent to any support, it is often necessary to either bend up some if the tensile reinforcement or to use stirrups as indicated in Figure 26.

Figure 26 REINFORCING TO SHEAR (DIAGONAL TENSION)

RESIST

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Reinforcement For Concrete The reinforcement in reinforced concrete is either steel bars or steel wires welded together to form a fabric or mesh. Reinforcement to beams, suspended floors, walls and columns is, in the main, steel bars fabricated on site to engineered details. Wire fabric is generally used for floors on ground and when specified for other positions, such as, some suspended floor systems and walls. Steel or glass fibres are used as reinforcement for special purpose concrete. The most common applications being for large pavement areas and architectural cladding respectively.

Types of Reinforcement

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Bars and Rods

Reinforcing bars are manufactured to comply with the requirements of AS1302 and are available in plain and deformed bars. See Figures 27, 28 and 29. Deformed bars have ribs or deformations rolled onto the surface of the rod during manufacture. These ribs increase the bend or anchorage of the bar in the concrete. Reinforcing steel is available in the grades and diameters shown below in Figure 27.

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Steel Grade MPa 250 250 250 250 250 Steel Grade MPa 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 250 Figure 27

Bar Type R - Mild Steel R - Mild Steel R - Mild Steel R - Mild Steel R - Mild Steel Bar Type Y - High Tensile Y - High Tensile Y - High Tensile Y - High Tensile Y - High Tensile Y - High Tensile Y - High Tensile S - Mild Steel

Plain Bar Diameter mm 6 10 12 16 20 Deformed Bar Diameter mm 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 12

Stock Length m 6 6 6 6 6 Stock Length m 6, 9 6, 9, 12 9, 10, 12 9, 10, 12 9, 10, 12 10, 12 10,12 6

Ordering Identification R6 R10 R12 R16 R20 Ordering Identification Y12 Y16 Y20 Y24 Y28 Y32 Y36 S12

PLAIN AND DEFORMED REINFORCING BARS

The mild- steel 250R plain bar is used for fitments (ligatures or stirrups), ties or similar applications, in diameters of 12mm or less.

Figure 28 PLAIN OR ROUND BAR (REFERENCE R)

High tensile 400Y deformed bars are the rod reinforcement used generally for reinforcing concrete in the building and construction industry.

Figure 29 DEFORMED BAR (REFERENCE Y)

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Reference No. F81 F41 F102 F92 F82 F72 F62 F52 F42

Square Mesh Longitudinal Wire Size mm Pitch mm 8 100 4 100 10 9 8 7 6 5 4

Transverse Wire Size mm Pitch mm 8 100 4 100 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

200 200 200 200 200 200 200 Rectangular Mesh Reference Longitudinal Wire No. Size mm Pitch mm F1218 12 100 F1118 11 100 F1018 10 100 F918 9 100 F818 8 100 F718 7 100 Trench Mesh Reference Longitudinal Wire No. Size mm Pitch mm 12TM 12 100 11TM 11 100 8TM 8 100 Trench Mesh is available in 3, 4 or 5 wire widths. Figure 30
FABRIC REINFORCEMENT SPECIFICATIONS

Transverse Wire Size mm Pitch mm 8 200 8 200 8 200 8 200 8 200 8 200 Transverse Wire Size mm Pitch mm 5 300 5 300 5 300

The 250S bars (mild steel) are no longer in common use for general construction, but are available in 12mm diameter for situations where pre-bending may not be possible or practicable, for example, for the construction of in-ground swimming pool.

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Figure 31 S)

DEFORMED BAR (REFERENCE

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Reinforcing Fabric/Mesh

Reinforcing fabric is manufactured as a mesh or grid of steel wires welded together at regular intervals in either a square or rectangular pattern. The fabric is manufactured with various diameter, longitudinal (lengthwise) and transverse (cross) wires. In square patterned fabric the transverse wires are the same diameter as the longitudinal wires, whereas the transverse wires of rectangular patterned fabric remain standard, 8mm diameter at 200mm pitch (spacing), irrespective of the diameter of the longitudinal wire. Wire diameters vary from 4mm to 10mm in square fabrics and from 7mm to 12mm for rectangular fabrics. Reinforcing fabric is available in rolls 2.4m wide and sheets of 2.4m wide x 6m long in both plain and ribbed wire. The chart shown in Figure 31 opposite gives a full list of reinforcing fabric available. The reference numbers given in Figure 31 are understood as follows: Square Mesh, for example F62: - F means fabric; - the first number is the diameter of the wires; and the second number x 100 is the centre to centre spacing (or pitch) of the wires each way.

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Figure 32

SQUARE MESH

Rectangular Mesh, for example F718: - F means fabric; - the first number is the diameter of the first or main (longitudinal) wire; - the second number x 100 is the centre to centre spacing of the wire; and the third number is the diameter of the cross (transverse) wire at 200mm centre to centre spacing.

Figure 33

RECTANGULAR MESH

Trench Mesh, for example 3-8TM: (Refer Figure 35) the first number is the number of wires; the second number (or numbers) is the wire size; and TM means trench mesh.

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Figure 34

VARIOUS REINFORCEMENT SUPPORTS AND SPACERS

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Figure 35

TRENCH MESH

Trench mesh is available in 6 metre lengths.

Reinforcement Supports To obtain maximum strength, all reinforced concrete must have the reinforcement in the correct position. The term cover is the distance from the closest part of the reinforcement to the surface of the concrete. To achieve the correct cover, a variety of supports, chairs or spacers are available, including those shown on the opposite page, Figure 34. The specified concrete cover is essential in order to protect the reinforcement from either rusting or chemical attack. In some cases, usually building, structural members it is also required to give fire protection.

Figure 36 MESH SUPPORTED TO ENSURE SPECIFIED AND UNIFORM COVER

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Care must be taken to ensure that reinforcement supports do not damage the plastic membrane for slab on ground construction. Adequate base plates must be used.

Lapping or Splicing of Reinforcement


It is important to ensure that where lengthening of reinforcement is required such laps or splices are made strictly in accordance with the design engineers detail drawings or recommendations. As a general rule of thumb method when calculating quantities of reinforcing steel the following minimum could be used: (i) Bars used in footings and beams - 500mm lap

Figure 37 (ii)

MINIMUM BAR LAP

Fabric sheets - one full spacing of wires

Figure 38

MINIMUM LAP OF FABRIC

(iii)

Trench Mesh - 500mm lap of main wires.

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SITE VISIT

At this stage, it would be to your advantage to visit a building site where preparation has been made for the installation of concrete to a slab on ground or suspended floor construction. It would be good to be able to observe the reinforcing steel supported on chairs or spacers and firmly tied in position, taking special note of the positioning of the reinforcement, the supporting methods adopted and the cover. In addition, attention should be given to the concrete transportation methods planned, and if possible, delay your stay on the site to observe the sampling, slump testing and cylinder moulding process from a transit mixed batch of concrete under on-site conditions.

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EXERCISE 2
1.

REINFORCED CONCRETE

The principal types of stress which develop in concrete members are: compression; tension; and shear

Compressive stress tends to cause the concrete to ______________________ . Tensile stress tends to cause the concrete to _______________________ . Shear stress tends to cause ___________________________ between sections of the concrete.

2.

The reinforcement used in reinforced concrete is either ________________________ bars or steel wires welded to form a ___________________ or mesh.

3.

In reinforced concrete construction, the steel reinforcement is required to: (a) help the concrete to withstand tensile forces. (b) increase the weight of the concrete. (c) help the concrete to withstand compressive forces.

4.

Concrete bonds or adheres to the reinforcing so the reinforcing can do its job properly. Steel reinforcing which has clay, oil or flaking rust on it. (a) bonds well to the concrete. (b) slightly improves the bond. (c) will not bond properly to the concrete.

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5.

What is the approved method of supporting reinforcing steel to maintain cover for a slab on the ground? (a) bar chairs and bases (b) plastic tip bar chairs (c) broken brick or stone

6. Steel bars and sheets or strips of fabric are commonly used for concrete reinforcing. (i) The current deformed bars are referenced as: (a) (b) (c) R bars C bars Y bars

(ii) The reference for sheet mesh with 8mm diameter wires at 200mm centres is (a) (b) (c) F818 F82 FM82

(iii) The reference for trench mesh with 4 wires of 11mm diameter is (a) (b) (c) TM11-1 TM4-11 4-11TM

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7.

Which of the 3 diagrams show the minimum acceptable lap for sheet mesh reinforcing?

8.

On each of the following diagrams indicate how reinforcement should be placed to best resist the tensile and shear stresses which would occur in the concrete beams.

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9. CALCULATIONS AND COSTING OF CONCRETE AND REINFORCEMENT IN A SIMPLE SLAB Reinforcement There are a number of points to be considered when calculating quantities of steel reinforcement for a project: (i) To work out (calculate) how much steel reinforcing is required, you need a plan of the slab and vertical sections showing details.

(ii) It is much easier to work out the reinforcing in rectangular shaped sections. Therefore, if the plan is a shape other than square or rectangular, mark it out into either square or rectangular sections.

Figure 39 DIVIDE FLOOR PLAN INTO SECTION (iv) To calculate the number of strips (lengths) of trench mesh required, find the total length of the perimeter of the edge thickening/beam, then divide this by the effective length of the strip (length minus lap) (see example following).

(v)

To calculate the number of sheets of fabric mesh for the slab, divide the length of the slab by the effective width of the sheet (see example). Similarly, divide the width of the slab by the effective length of the sheet.

(vi) An alternative method of calculating the number of sheets of fabric is to find the area of the slab and divide it by the effective area of a sheet. Use which ever method you find easier, with minimum amount of waste.
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NOTE: Example

For items (iv), (v), and (vi) your answer must be in full sheets.

Calculate the quantity of steel reinforcing required for the floor slab shown. Your answer to be full sheets (slab fabric) and full strips (trench mesh) (fabric mesh sheets are 6m x 2.4m and the trench mesh strips 6m long).

Figure 40

FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS OF SLAB ON GROUND

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Procedure to Calculate Quantity and Cost of Trench Mesh Step 1 beam The number of strips = total length of edge effective length of

strips Step 2 Total length of edge beam = = = = = = = = = = perimeter of slab 2L + 2W 2 x 9.6 + 2 x 6 19.2 + 12 31.2 31.2 metres length of strip - lap 6.0 - 0.5 5.5 metres total length of edge effective length of strip = = Step 5 31.2 5.5 5.67

i.e. total length of edge beam/thickening Step 3 Effective length of trench strips

Step 4 beam

No. of strips (trench mesh)

Take answer up to full sheet (whole number) Total No. of strips of 4-11TM = 6 sheets

Step 6

Total Cost of 4-11TM Trench Mesh = = =

No. of sheets x cost per sheet/strip 6 x $33.95/strip $203.70

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Procedure to Calculate Quantity and Cost of Fabric Step 1 Note: the width of the floor is 5.7 metres (6.0 - 2 x 0.150, rebates) The length of the sheets = 6 metres one length of sheet will be sufficient across the floor width

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Step 2

The effective width of the sheet

= = = =

effective width Step 3 The number of sheets

width of sheet - lap (1 space) 2.4 - 0.2 2.2 metres length of floor rebates effective sheet cover 9.6 - 0.3 2.2 9.3 2.2 4.23 sheets

= = = Step 4

Now, we also require a strip of F62 (bottom reinforcement.) for the internal thickening (Section B-B) We need a strip of 400mm wide which would be obtained from the remainder of the 5th sheet. So the total quantity of F62 fabric reinforcing = 5 sheets Total Cost of F62 fabric reinforcing = = = No. of sheets x cost of sheet 5 x $58.75 $293.75

Step 5

Concrete To calculate the amount (volume) of concrete required, you must work out the volume (space) within the formwork.

Figure 41 MEASURE OF VOLUME

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Therefore, Volume = L x W x T and the answer should be in cubic measurement, that is m3 (metres cubed). Now, substitute the letters with dimensions, e.g. L = 4.0m, Volume W = = = = = = 3.0m and T = 200mm (0.2m) L x W x T 4.0m x 3.0 x 0.2 12 x 0.2 2.4 m 2.4m3

Answer

When calculating the volume of a slab on ground it is much easier to work it out in sections. For example, work out the slab, the edge beam and then any internal beams (see example). Example

Calculate the quantity of concrete required for the slab-on-ground shown in Figure 40. The answer is to be to the next 0.2m3.

<

Work out the Volume of the Slab The length and width of the slab are found by reducing the overall dimensions by the width of the rebate each end. For example, the length of the slab is 9600 - (2 x 150) = 9300mm or 9.3m

Figure 42

FLOOR AND EDGE BEAM DETAIL

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Volume of Slab

= = = =

L x W x T (9.6 - 0.3) x (6.0 - 0.3) x 0.1 9.3 x 5.7 x 0.1 5.301m3

NOTE:

Do not round this answer up to the nearest 0.2m3 Work out the Volume of the Edge Beam

<

Let us first look at determining the width of the edge beam. (Section A-A, Figure 40). Halve the width of the sloping edge, i.e. (200 2 = 100mm) and add this to the 400mm main beam width. Therefore we can say the width of the beam is 500mm.

Figure 43 TO CALCULATE WIDTH OF BEAM

AVERAGE

The length of the edge beam is obtained by adding together the lengths of beams 1, 2, 3 and 4 as in Figure 44. Lengths of beams 3 and 4 being the overall width of the building minus the width of beams 1 and 2.

Figure 44

TOTAL BEAM LENGTH

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the total length of the beam is: (2 x 9.6) + (2 x 5.0) = = 19.2 + 10.0 29.2 metres

Therefore, Volume of Edge Beams

= = =

L x W x T (depth) 29.2 x 0.5 x 0.2 2.92m3

<

Work out the Internal Beam (Thickening) Refer to Section B-B, Figure 40. The length of this beam is the same as edge beams 3 and 4, i.e. 5.0m. The width is 600mm, i.e. 500mm width at bottom of thickening plus 2 x 50mm (average widths of splays). Therefore, Volume of Thickening Beam

= = =

L x W x T 5.0 x 0.6 x 0.1 0.3m3

Total Volume of Concrete in Project equals Volume of slab + volume of edge beam + volume of internal thickening = 5.301 + 2.92 + 0.3 = 8.521m3 3 Now, raise quantity to the next 0.2m Total Volume = 8.6m3 Note: In practice a further percentage may need to be added to allow for wastage and/or irregularities in excavation trimming.

<

Cost of Calculated Volume of Concrete Cost of Concrete = = = Volume x Cost/m3 (20MPa) 8.6 x $130/m3 $1118.00

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PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 2: CONCRETE

QUANTITIES AND COSTING OF REINFORCED

Using the guidelines given in Topic 9 Calculations and Costing of Concrete and Reinforcement in a Simple Slab, calculate the quantity of steel reinforcing and concrete in the slab-on-ground detailed on the next page. When you have calculated the quantity of materials, cost them using the following material costs. Material Costs: 4-12TM: F82 Mesh: Transit Mixed: cost delivered on site $45.20 per 6m length cost delivered on site $88.60 per sheet of 6m x 2.4m 20MPa Concrete $138.60 per m3

NOTE: Calculate the concrete required to the next 0.2m3. NOTE: When you have completed this activity discuss the working and answers with your instructor.

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Figure 45

CONCRETE SLAB/FOOTING ACTIVITY

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READ

10.

SLAB TYPES

Concrete Floors Concrete floors or floor slabs are an alternative method of construction to the timber or steel framed and timber clad floors.

Figure 46 TIMBER FRAMED FLOOR STRUCTURE Concrete floors can be constructed on the ground, above the ground or below the ground surface level. This is one of the criteria which determines the type of floor slab to be used.

Figure 47 CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB

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The ground that supports the floor and or footings is knows as the foundation.

Figure 48 FOUNDATION AND FOOTING DETAIL Because the foundation and soil conditions are different from place to place, the type of floor slab used will also differ to suit the conditions. All concrete footings and slabs should be designed by an engineer and must comply with the requirements of AS2870-1990 Residential Slabs and Footings - Construction.

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Types of Floor Slabs There are four main types of concrete floor slabs that are commonly used for residential construction. They are: Raft Slab Waffle Pod Slab Suspended Slab Pier and Beam Slab

Raft Slab Construction

The raft slab, commonly called slab on ground, is a flat reinforced concrete floor combined with reinforced concrete edge and internal beams or thickenings. It is a concrete floor and footings in one. It is all concreted (poured or cast) at the same time (integrally). The slab is placed (poured) on a plastic waterproof membrane (vapour barrier) which sits on a levelled and compacted layer of sand (sand fill). The layer of sand is placed over compacted granular material (e.g. gravel). The sand prevents the plastic membranes from damage from the granular material. With this type of construction, the floor helps the beams (or thickenings) to support the building.

Figure 49

TYPICAL RAFT SLAB

The beams or thickenings are increased or decreased in size and shape according to the load (weight) of the building and the type of foundation. The floor thickness may also need to be increased. The minimum floor thickness is 100mm.

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The raft slab (slab on ground) is suitable where stable foundations (class A and S of AS2870) and moderately reactive clay foundations (class M) occur.

Figure 50

EXAMPLES OF ALTERNATIVE CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

<

Some Advantages of Using Raft Slab Construction Some of the advantages of using raft slab construction instead of other types are: cheaper to construct: requires less excavating, less labour and less materials; quicker to construct: less labour, less time because the footings are part of the floor; - good insulating properties: no air space under; low level floor (floor a minimum distance above ground line): excellent for entry/exit of elderly and young. -

Figure 51 FLOOR LINE MINIMUM HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND LINE

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Some Disadvantages of Using Raft Slab Construction - the site where the building is to be constructed must be level. it is not suitable for foundations which are extremely reactive (class E of AS2870) or problem (class P) or filled sites (other than class A).

Figure 52 LEVEL PLATFORM MUST BE PROVIDED Waffle Pod System

The waffle pod slab system is a flat concrete floor combined with edge beams and internal rib walls (both directions) underneath the slab. The whole lot is reinforced concrete. This type of floor system is used where extremely reactive clay (class M and E of AS2870) foundations occur. Class E foundations are very unstable as they can expand and contract a large amount due to the moisture content of the foundation material. The ribs (walls) and the edge beam sit on the foundation. The ribs are formed by using special formwork, e.g. Waffle Pods to create a space or void between the foundation and the underside (soffit) of the floor. The waffle pods are permanent, that is they remain in place permanently. The ribs and edge beam support the slab.

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Figure 53

TYPICAL WAFFLE POD FLOOR SYSTEM

With this type of construction, the foundation can expand or contract without affecting the floor, i.e. cracking or breaking the floor.

<

Some Advantages of Using a Waffle Pod Floor System it is one of the very few concrete floor construction methods that overcome problems that can result from the effects of extremely reactive soils; and it is lighter in weight than a solid mass concrete structure from the top of the foundation to the top of the floor.

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Figure 54 VOIDS

VIEW SHOWING RIBS AND

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Some Disadvantages of Using a Waffle Pod Floor System - it is more expensive to construct than a raft slab * more excavation and preparation of foundation. * purchase of the waffle pods. * more reinforcement. * more labour required. * possibly more concrete, and - it is slower to construct * requires more time and labour.

Suspended Slab Construction

A suspended floor slab is a reinforced concrete slab which spans between supporting walls (load bearing), columns or beams. The floor slab supports itself between its other supporting structures. That is, the underneath surface (soffit) of the slab does not sit on anything between the support structures (span). This design is ideal for multi-storey construction.

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Figure 55

PICTORIAL VIEW OF A SUSPENDED CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB

For domestic construction, a suspended slab may be used where garage or car parking is required under the living area.

Figure 56

SUSPENDED SLAB OVER CAR AREA

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It may also be used on sloping sites where cut-and-fill excavation has been necessary. The portion (part) of the floor cast on the fill is designed as a suspended slab. For this type of construction, the perimeter of the suspended slab is generally supported on piers or piers and beam. The fill is used only as a temporary support until the concrete is set and cured.

Figure 57 SUSPENDED FLOOR ON CUT AND FILLED PLATFORM

<

Some Advantages of Using Suspended Slab Construction the floor can be at any realistic height above the ground as it does not sit on the ground.

- it allows the use of space under the floor, e.g. garage. See Figure 56. it also allows access to plumbing and other services installed under the floor. Refer Figure 58.

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Figure 58

ACCESS AVAILABLE TO SERVICES

<

Some Disadvantages of Using Suspended Slab Construction - it is more expensive to construct * hire, place and removal of soffit form work and associated support structure; * additional labour required for the soffit formwork; and - it takes longer to construct * working above the ground (scaffolds, ladders, etc); * the installation of the soffit formwork and its support; * the removal of the soffit formwork.

Pier and Beam System

The pier and beam (with integral floor) system is a reinforced concrete floor and its support structure. It is used where the surface foundation is unstable or has been filled and a more stable foundation is located much deeper, e.g. class P of AS2870. The reinforced concrete piers are taken down to the stable material which is able to support the structure. Each pier is supported by a large reinforced concrete base called a pad (or pad footing).

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The reinforced concrete beam or integral beam and floor, is supported by the piers. The beam or beam and floor spans between the piers.

Figure 59

PICTORIAL VIEWS OF PIER AND BEAM CONSTRUCTION

The pier and beam system may be used to support the edge of a raft slab, where this edge portion is over the compacted fill area of a cut-and-fill excavation.

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Figure 60 PIER AND BEAM USED WITH A RAFT SLAB

The pier and beam system may also be used to support a suspended slab. it may be a partially suspended slab on fill (similar to the raft slab above) or it may be a fully suspended slab.

Figure 61

VARIATIONS OF PIER AND BEAM SYSTEMS

Note that the piers above ground level (GL) or above the ground floor level are then called columns.

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Some Advantages of Using Pier and Beam Construction it is an ideal system for transmitting the main structural load down to an appropriate foundation; and - it can also be extended to support a floor above the ground.

<

Some Disadvantages of Using Pier and Beam Construction - slower to construct: * more excavation to obtain adequate foundation; * working below ground surface level to prepare and cast the pads and piers; * time must be allowed to cure the piers before removal of formwork; and * backfill (and compaction) around the piers. - it is more expensive to construct: * the cost of additional labour, materials and equipment.

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SITE VISIT

During the period you have been learning about the various slab types you should have visited a number or residential construction sites to observe each of the four systems we have discussed. Ensure that you understand how these systems of construction can be combined or integrated to ensure that the construction methods planned and used are the best and most economical for the individual situation and site classification.

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EXERCISE 3:
1.

CONCRETE SLAB TYPES

There are four (4) reinforced concrete slab types that are commonly used in housing construction. They are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) raft slab waffle pod system suspended slab pier and beam system

Listed below are some common occurring site or foundation conditions. You are to select the most appropriate slab type for each of the listed conditions and write it in the space provided. (a) problem soil (class P of AS2870) _________________________________ (b) sand and rock (class A) _________________________________ (c) a concrete floor above a garage which will be supported by load-bearing walls. _________________________________ (d) extremely reactive clay (class E) _________________________________ (e) moderately reactive clay (class M) _________________________________ (f) sloping ground, cut and fill, with the fill used as a temporary support until the concrete has set and cured._________________________________

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2.

The diagrams below represent the four (4) reinforced concrete slab types, referred to in Question 1. Write the name of the type in the space provided under each diagram.

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PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 3: SKETCH MAJOR DETAILS OF FOUR (4) FLOOR SLAB SYSTEMS


Using A3 sheets of 5mm graph paper and your drawing instruments draw/sketch to a scale of 1 : 10, vertical section details through major elements of examples of the four (4) slab systems of construction listed below: 1. Raft Slab Construction Ground line Showing: (Minimum) Sand Fill Floor slab with rebated outer edge Thickened edge beam Floor thickening (intermediate) Reinforcement Waterproof membrane (vapour barrier) Waffle Pod System Ground line Showing: (Minimum) Sand bed Floor slab with rebated outer edge Thickened edge beam Waffle Pods (voids) Rib Walls Reinforcement Waterproof membrane (vapour barrier) Suspended Slab Construction (2 levels) Ground lines Showing: (Minimum) Piers and pad footings Loose filling Columns or supporting walls Formwork Suspended floors Pier and Beam System (on ground) Ground line Showing: (Minimum) Pier and pad footings Floor and integral beam Loose filling (formwork)

2.

3.

4.

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SUMMARY
You have now completed Practical Activities 1, 2 and 3 where you were able to apply the knowledge and theory you have experienced in respect to reinforced concrete. In Activity 1 you were able to apply your understanding of the principles of good concrete and how to perform tests on concrete in its plastic state, to ensure its workability in that plastic state and its strength and durability in its hardened state. In addition by completing Activity 1 you are now able to mould a cylinder specimen for testing the compressive strength of concrete at a later specified date. By completing Activity 2 you should now be able to accurately measure off, calculate cost and place an order for the concrete and steel reinforcement components required for a raft or slab-on-ground project. In Activity 3 you were able to identify and sketch major detail sections of four different types of residential floor construction systems. These activities, in conjunction with the oral an/or written test scheduled by your instructor, will have covered all of the Assessment Criteria for Assessment Tasks 1, 2 and 3 of this Module. You may find it useful to make some brief notes on the following aspects of Concrete as a Building Material and Residential Slab Types: Concrete - Principles and Properties:

Cements:

Aggregates:

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Proportioning of Materials:

Additions and Admixtures:

Mixing and Transportation:

Testing Concrete:

Reinforced Concrete:

Calculations and Costing of Concrete and Reinforcement in a Simple Slab:

Slab Types:

In Section 2 you will further your knowledge and skills gained in Section 1, by preparing a site, selecting and fixing reinforcement, erecting formwork and placing, finishing and curing concrete.

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NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION STUDIES RESOURCE PROJECT

STAGE 3

BASIC INDUSTRY SKILLS

LEARNING PACKAGE

NFF3113 REINFORCED CONCRETE AND FORMWORK (RESIDENTIAL)

Book 2of 2

PUBLISHED:

1997

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The writers of this learning package wish to acknowledge the following organisations for their assistance. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia Standards Australia AUTHOR: David Harris Moreton Institute of TAFE Brisbane, Queensland INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER: Construction Curriculum Consortium TAFE Queensland

This learning package was developed as part of the AVTS Training Program in Construction Studies. This project was managed by the Construction Curriculum Consortium, TAFE Queensland. For further details contact:

Noel Ryan Manager Construction Curriculum Consortium Yeronga Institute of TAFE PO Box 6045 FAIRFIELD GARDENS QLD 4103 Telephone: Facsimile: (07) 3892 0457 (07) 3892 0457

NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

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SECTION 2 - REINFORCED CONCRETE FORMWORK PRACTICE IN RESIDENTIAL AND MINOR WORKS CONSTRUCTION

READ

INTRODUCTION
In Section 1 you achieved knowledge and skills enabling you to identify various reinforced concrete components, batch and test concrete, select reinforcing steel and calculate quantities of relevant material requirements. This section follows on in sequence, to further practical activities where your knowledge and skills in respect to the handling of formwork, reinforcement and concrete will be applied. More specifically, it covers the theory and procedures for: the final set out and preparation of sub-grade for a slab on ground construction; the erection of formwork to slabs on ground, suspended slabs (to one level) and single flight stairs (to one level); the fixing of reinforcing steel to slabs on ground , small elevated slabs, beams, columns and retaining walls; and the placement of concrete into footings, walls, stairs and other sundry elements. These four components include the essential information you will need to complete Assessment Tasks 4, 5 and 6 of this module which address the following learning outcomes: 5. 6. Perform all under-slab preparation for residential concrete slab-on-ground construction. Select, cut, bend, place and fix steel reinforcement for footings, slabs on ground, retaining walls and small suspended slabs of housing/residential construction. Erect formwork for concrete slabs and a low retaining wall. Identify tools and equipment used in concreting and explain the application of each. To develop the skills and knowledge required to transport, place, consolidate, screed and finish concrete to footings, slabs on ground and small suspended slabs for housing/residential construction.

7. 3. 8.

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The information relating to reinforced concrete and formwork practice will be presented under fourteen topics. Setting Out Preparation of Subgrade Establish Levels Construct Sub-Base Installation of Services and Drainage Pipes Excavation of Trenches Construct Formwork Termite Protection Installation of Vapour Barrier Reinforcement of Slab on Ground Concrete Placing and Finishing Formwork to Lintels, Suspended Slabs and Beams (to one level) Formwork to Stairs - Straight Flight (to one level) Reinforcement and Concrete to Suspended Slabs and Stairs (to one level)

SITE PREPARATION FOR SLAB


Prior to erecting the formwork to construct the floor slab, a number of other activities must be performed. These are: setting out the slab; preparation of the subgrade; establish levels; construction of sub-base installation of service and drainage pipes and fittings; and excavation of trenches for edge beam/footing and any internal beams or thickenings.

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1.

SETTING OUT

Setting out for a residence (house) is as important as setting out to construct a piece of furniture or setting out for a multi-million dollar shopping complex. Setting out is generally done before any construction work begins to make sure the house will be: on the correct building site (block); at the exact position on the block; the right shape and size; set at the correct floor height; and level.

When setting out a building always work to the Site Plan. The position of the building is often determined by the local authority regulations (council by-laws). Local councils or building authorities specify a minimum distance that the building must be set back from the boundaries of the block. The set back position at the front of the block is commonly called the building line. The outside face of the front wall can be built at this position. The side set back is usually measured to the eaves line.

Figure 62 BUILDING LINE AND SETBACKS


The block survey pegs (one at each corner) must be located. If any are missing or if you have any doubt about the location of any survey pegs, the block should be re-surveyed. Employ a qualified surveyor to re-survey the block.

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Figure 63 IDENTIFY ALL SURVEY PEGS You should refer back to the Learning Package for Module NFF3103 Site Setting Out, to ensure you fully understand the process of setting out and the use of profiles (hurdles) and chalk lines to accurately position the outer perimeter of the concrete slab and footings/beams. Each of the profile crosspieces should have markings to indicate the outside face of the wall (outside edge of concrete). Other markings required are for the position of the outside brick/blockwork, the cavity and the internal brick/block or stud wall. The width of the rebate is usually the width of the external skin plus the width of the cavity.

Figure 64

PROFILE (HURDLE) REFERENCE POINTS

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The profiles should be positioned well outside the proposed slab perimeter, allowing access for mechanical excavation equipment to operate without the fear of bumping or causing damage to the profiles.

2.

PREPARATION OF SUBGRADE

The subgrade is the excavated or filled ground on which the floor is to be built. Figure 65 shows the elements which make up a typical concrete floor on ground.

Figure 65 ELEMENTS OF TYPICALCONCRETE FLOOR ON THE GROUND The building site, where the house is going to be constructed, must have the top soil and vegetation removed. This is called stripping the site. Top soil is an unstable foundation. It may shrink and expand which could cause uneven movement of the concrete slab, and it could crack. As vegetation decays it creates voids in the soil, which again causes the soil to become unstable.

Figure 66 SOIL

REMOVE THE TOP

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3.

ESTABLISH LEVELS

A datum or datum point should be established on site, that is, a permanent level point that all levels are taken from and can be referred back to.

Figure 67 SOME EXAMPLES OF DATUM POINTS Next, a finished floor level (FL) should be established, level with the datum or at a set dimension higher or lower than the datum. The finished floor level must be a minimum of 225mm above the final ground level outside the building line. The crosspieces of the profiles are usually fixed level with this established ground floor surface level (FL) or slightly above, and level with each other at all corners of the slab. These critical levels should be transferred from the datum point using one of the methods practiced by you when training in the Module NFF2002 Plan Interpretation, Calculations, Setting Out and Levelling and again used in NFF3103 Site Setting Out.

4.

CONSTRUCT SUB-BASE

The sub-base is the layer (or layers) of material, placed on the subgrade and compacted. The sub-base is to support the concrete slab. The sub-base is a granular material, such as gravels, crushed rock sand etc. which must be able to be compacted (consolidated) without being crushed.

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Figure 68 SUB-BASE PREPARATION The granular material is installed and spread in layers, generally 150 to 200mm thick. It is then compacted using a machine such as a self-propelled vibrating roller or a compacting plate. Compacting makes the material into one solid mass by filling in any pockets of trapped air (voids) and bonding the ingredients together.

Figure 69

COMPACTING SUB-BASE BY VIBRATING ROLLER

Maximum compaction is usually achieved after several passes of the machine. Moisture is also an important factor for maximum compaction. Too much can cause the gravel to go sloppy. Not enough can cause the ingredients not to bond together.

The bearing pressure in the bottom of the beam trenches should be a minimum of 100 Kpa. Bearing pressure to soil under the interior of a slab must be a minimum of 30 Kpa.

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Sand Bed

It is usual to place a sand (or crusher dust) bed under the vapour barrier membrane. This sand bed helps to prevent the membrane from being punctured by the sub-base material and is readily consolidated by saturation with water, sprayed over it. The final trim of the sand to the correct underside of slab level is carried out after the formwork is in place.

Figure 70 SECTION SHOWING SUB-BASE AND SAND BED 5. INSTALLATION OF SERVICES AND DRAINAGE PIPES

The installation of service pipes or conduits, drainage pipes and ducts, etc. must be completed prior to the floor formwork being constructed. They are generally installed after the sub-base is in place. All service pipes and drains should be capped or sealed off to ensure no debris enters.

Figure 71 INSTALL AND SEAL SERVICE AND DRAIN PIPES

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6.

EXCAVATION OF TRENCHES

After the sub-grade has been completed, string lines can be strung from the profiles to mark out the edge beam and any internal beams. If these are to be excavated by a machine, the position of the trenches are usually marked by a line of lime or sand. This allows the operator to see where the excavation is required without having to keep getting off and taking up the string lines.

Figure 72 MARK OUTSIDE EDGE OF FOOTING WITH LIME OR SAND If the excavation is done by machine, the trenches for the beams or thickening should be trimmed by hand to ensure bottoms of trenches are straight and level and to the specified profile.

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SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 4:

SITE PREPARATION FOR SLABS ON GROUND

Put a tick (9 ) in the box ( ) next to the correct answer. 1. There are many activities involved in the construction of a reinforced concrete slab on ground. Two (2) of the activities are the preparation of the subgrade and the construction of the sub-base. (i) The subgrade is the (a) (b) (c) ground on which the slab is built. layer of compacted granular fill under the slab top soil removed for the slab.

(ii)

The sub-base is the (a) (b) (c) ground on which the slab is built. layer of compacted granular fill under the slab top soil removed for the slab.

2.

Top soil is removed (stripped) from the floor slab site. This is because it is _________________ as a foundation. (i) (ii) (iii) excellent reasonable unstable

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3.

The sub-base must be consolidated. Place a tick ( 9 ) in the box beside each listed item which would be suitable to consolidate the sub-base for a house slab. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) wheel barrow compacting plate vibrating roller small hand roller back of a square-mouth shovel

4. slab.

The top or surface level of the sub-base determines the thickness of the floor

What happens if the top of the sub-base is too low? (a) (b) (c) the slab will be too thick, requiring more concrete to complete. the slab will be too thin and undersize. the slab thickness will be alright.

5.

When excavating the trenches for the beams of a slab on ground, it *is/*is not important to trim them to the correct size. *Circle the correct answer.

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FORMWORK TO SLAB ON GROUND


Formwork is the mould for (casting) pouring the concrete into. It therefore must be constructed so the completed job is as detailed as per the plans. The formwork must be: accurate; and strong.

Accurate - because the floor is the base on which the house is built. If it is the wrong size, out of square or not level, severe problems with alignment and straightening will occur. Strong - so that it doesnt move as the concrete is being poured. It must also retain the correct shape until the concrete has set. CONSTRUCT FORMWORK

7.

The following information is to be taken as a guide only. The procedure may vary from place to place and according to the engineers particular design of the slab, footing or edge beam and thickenings. All formwork must be set up accurately around the total perimeter of the slab to the specified floor level (FL) and in relation to the established datum point. Set Up Edge Beam Formwork

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(i)

Procedure Set string lines to the profile to indicate face of wall and top of slab.

Figure 73

SET UP STRING LINE TO FLOOR LEVEL AND BUILDING LINE

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(ii)

Stand a suitable thickness and straight edge board on edge, with its face in line with the string line. The edge board must be below the line i.e. the depth of a brick/block course (depth of the rebate).

Figure 74 SET UP EDGE BOARD TO LINE AND LEVEL Butt together and cleat the boards to make up the wall length. (iii) Drive in pegs behind the edgeboard to hold it in a vertical position. These pegs have to be driven in below the bottom of the excavation. They also need to be higher then the top of the edge board. (iv) Nail the edgeboard to the pegs at the required height.

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Have an offsider hold a big hammer behind the peg as you are nailing the board on. This helps to prevent the peg from being made loose in the ground. Dont forget, at the corners, let one board run past the other so they can be fixed together. (Also nail a cleat on the face side of edgeboard 1 to prevent board 2 moving when the concrete is being poured).

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Figure 75

FIRMLY FASTEN EDGE BOARDS TO PEGS

Brace the edge boards and pegs if necessary. (v) Drive in another peg (secondary peg) about 450mm away from the pegs which you have fixed the edge boards to.

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These pegs are positioned at right angles (90) to the face of the edge board. They are to fix the outriggers to. The outriggers are used to hold the rebate board in place.

Figure 76 CORNER

PLAN VIEW AT

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Figure 77 SECTIONAL VIEW OF FINISHED FORMWORK (vi) Sit the rebate board temporarily on the edge board and mark the positions of the ends of the outriggers on the back face.

Figure 78 MARK POSITION OF ENDS OF OUTRIGGERS ON REBATE BOARD (vii) Remove the rebate board and nail the outriggers to it.

Figure 79 NAIL OUTRIGGERS TO REBATE BOARD AT MARKED


POSITIONS

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(viii) Return rebate board (with outriggers) to required location and nail the outriggers to the pegs with the rebate board in the correct position.

Figure 80 POSITION NOTE:

REBATE BOARD FIXED INTO

The top edge of the rebate board will be the finished floor level, so it must be accurate.

Ensure that the rebate board or edge board IS NOT trodden on or bumped as this could cause it to move out of level.

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TERMITE PROTECTION, VAPOUR BARRIER AND REINFORCING STEEL TO SLAB ON GROUND


8. TERMITE PROTECTION

Subterranean termite infestation can be minimised in a new building by installing physical barriers or chemical soil barriers during building construction. These barriers impede and discourage termite entry into buildings and force their entry into the open where they can be detected more readily. The installation of physical or chemical barriers does not negate the need for regular inspections, which should occur at no greater intervals than every 12 months. Breaking or bridging the termite barriers by subsequent alterations or additions to the construction will defeat the protective measures taken, unless special care and attention is given to the junction with existing and placement of subsequent barriers. For slab-on-ground construction, a well vibrated concrete slab, constructed in accordance with AS2870.1 forms an integral part of the system designed to resist termites. However, due to the variety of footing/slab construction details now in use, brought about by design requirements (due to slope of natural ground, soil classification, filling requirements and the like) the application of both horizontal and vertical barrier protection may be necessary. Presently there are three principal protection system options for protection from beneath concrete slabs. They are: chemical barrier; stainless steel mesh; and graded stone.

Further, depending on the construction design, protection from around the perimeter of concrete slabs is required by one or more of the following: slab edge exposure; chemical barrier; stainless steel mesh; and/or graded stone.

You are advised to consult a copy of AS3660.1 - 1995 Protection of Buildings from Subterranean Termites - New Buildings, and discuss this topic with you instructor. Your instructor may show you technical data and samples of proprietary materials available such as, Slabset Termi-Mesh, Granitgard and the like.

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Installation of Termite Barriers

The application of chemical soil barriers must only be carried out by a licenced operator. Other systems must be used in close consultation with the manufacturer and supplier of the product. Service entry and drainage penetrations must be given special attention as protection at these points is essential. In line with previous illustrations in this section of the learning resource package, Figure 81 shows a section through a simple raft slab with a thickened edge beam and indicates a continuous chemical soil barrier under the slab and beam and extending 300mm around the perimeter of the floor area. Note also the 75mm minimum exposed slab edge.

Figure 81

RAFT SLAB SHOWING CONTINUOUS CHEMICAL SOIL BARRIER

9.

INSTALLATION OF VAPOUR BARRIER

A vapour barrier must be placed under all slabs, including non-habitable areas, that are cast on the ground or fill. A thin 0.2mm thick, coloured polythene, branded by the manufacturer is recommended for use as a vapour barrier. It must be lapped a minimum of 200mm at all edges and held in place by strips of waterproof adhesive tape at no more than 1 metre intervals.

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Where the membrane has to be cut and folded up around a pipe or other penetration, it must be taped in place using pressure sensitive tape. At the time of placing the concrete the membrane prevents the sub-base fill from absorbing the water out of the concrete before it sets. It also helps form a glazed, water-tight surface to the soffit of the concrete slab. In addition, it also assists with the curing process of the concrete. Ask your instructor to show you samples of a variety of approved vapour barrier materials and pressure sensitive tape.

Final Trim of the Sub-Base

After the edge formwork has been completed, the sand bed can be accurately screeded off and compacted.

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Checking the sand level is done by running a string line from one side of the floor to the other (top of rebate board) and measuring down to the sand. The measurement should be the thickness of the concrete slab minus 10mm to allow for settlement. On small jobs, another method is to screed the sand off the rebate formwork.

Figure 82

FINAL TRIM TO SUB-BASE

The thickened edge beam and any internal beams or thickenings are now checked and trimmed to the required sizes.

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Installation of the Vapour Barrier

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The polythene membrane is carefully rolled out, cut to length and positioned. It must extend over the whole slab and beams area and extend up under the edge beam formwork.

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All joints are lapped a minimum of 200mm and taped to hold the overlap in place. Any slab penetrations have to be sealed and taped effectively. If puncture holes occur they must be sealed with pressure sensitive tape.

Figure 83 PLACE

VAPOUR BARRIER IN

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REINFORCEMENT TO SLAB ON GROUND

The type of steel reinforcement and its position is shown on the plans and/or written into the job specifications. Select the appropriate reinforcing starting with the edge and internal beams/thickenings, and finishing with the slab mesh.

Figure 84 BEAM

TRENCH MESH LAID IN EDGE

Beam/Thickening Reinforcing

Lay the beam reinforcement in the correct position ensuring the correct cover (clearance from base and sides of trenches) and recommended lap at corners and joins. Be careful not to puncture the vapour barrier. Tie the beam mesh, at the joins and the corners with wire ties. Install appropriate supports under the beam reinforcing, e.g. trench mesh supports.

Figure 85 TRENCH MESH SUPPORTED ON TRENCH MESH SUPPORTS

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Slab Reinforcing

Determine the direction of the sheets - across or along the slab, for most efficient use. Lay out and tie the slab reinforcing - correct lap and cover (clearance) from the rebate board.

Figure 86 FABRIC

DETERMINE DIRECTION OF

Select correct size reinforcement supports for top cover (usually 25mm cover). Install the reinforcement supports at recommended spacings, e.g. 800mm both ways. The slab reinforcement must be checked for cover. Run a string line from the top edge of the rebate boards and measure down to the reinforcing - it must not be less than specified.

Figure 87 ENSURE COVER IS TO SPECIFICATION Ensure that bar chairs are used in conjunction with metal or plastic bases to prevent damage to the vapour barrier.

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Figure 88 PLACE

SLAB REINFORCEMENT IN

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SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 5: FORMWORK, TERMITE PROTECTION, VAPOUR BARRIER AND REINFORCING TO SLABS ON GROUND
Put a tick ( 9 ) in the box ( ) next to the correct answer/s. 1. Formwork is a concrete mould. It must be: (a) (b) (c) accurate and flexible strong and near enough accurate and strong

2.

Concrete is cast _____________________ the formwork. (a) (b) (c) outside inside near

3.

To create a rebate to the concrete edge beam to later receive the brickwork and cavity, outriggers are used to support the: (a) (b) (c) (d) vapour barrier reinforcement rebate board (form) pegs

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4.

Some of the systems used for protection against termites from beneath a slab on ground are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) stainless steel mesh total saturation of the subgrade with kerosene and creosote graded stone chemical soil barrier vapour barrier (sealed)

5.

A monolithic (solid unit) slab on ground with thickened edge beam should have slab edge exposure of at least: (a) (b) (c) 75mm 225mm 100mm

6.

The application of a chemical soil barrier can be carried out by which of the following persons: (a) (b) (c) (d) a plumber a licensed drainer a licensed termite control applicator a supplier of stainless steel mesh

7.

A vapour barrier (membrane) is required under concrete slabs which are cast on the ground or on fill. The membrane _______________ punctured or unsealed at penetrations. (a) (b) (c) can be must not be maybe

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8.

The minimum recommended thickness for polythene film used for a vapour barrier under a concrete slab on ground is: (a) (b) (c) 0.2mm 0.02mm 2.2mm

9.

Trench mesh in slab edge beams should be supported on: (a) (b) (c) (d) trench mesh support chairs plastic tipped bar chairs bar chairs with base plates broken bricks

10.

Fabric used as reinforcement in a 100mm thick concrete slab on ground should have a minimum top cover of 25mm. This cover is achieved by supporting the fabric with: (a) (b) (c) (d) broken bricks wire hangers from the rebate board bar chairs with bases the fabric is placed after the concrete is placed

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CONCRETE TO SLAB ON GROUND


11. CONCRETE PLACING AND FINISHING

Most concrete used on building sites is ready-mixed (pre-mix or transit mixed), delivered by trucks with concrete mixer (agitator) on them.

Figure 89

CONCRETE TRANSIT MIXER

The method of placement of the concrete is usually determined by how close the delivery truck can get to the concretes final position. Common placement methods are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) truck chute; wheelbarrow; crane and bucket/kibble; and concrete pump.

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Figure 90

VARIOUS METHODS OF PLACEMENT

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Placing Concrete

When placing concrete be careful not to damage or move the formwork and reinforcement. Place concrete as near to its final position as possible. Start placing from the corners of the formwork and work out. Delay can cause the concrete to dry-out and stiffen. Delay is more of a problem on hot or windy days, when the concrete will dry-out and stiffen more quickly.

Figure 91 AVOID DELAYS WHILSTPLACING CONCRETE Segregation

Segregation occurs when the fine and course aggregates become separated. Segregation makes the concrete weaker, less durable, and will leave a poor surface finish. To avoid segregation:

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check that the concrete is not too wet or too dry.

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Figure 92

ENSURE SLUMP IS CORRECT

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If placing concrete straight from a truck, pour vertically and never let the concrete fall more than one-and-half metres.

Figure 93 FALLING CONCRETE TENDS TO SEGREGATE

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Always place new concrete into the face of the concrete already in place.

Figure 94 EDGE

ALWAYS KEEP A WET

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Concrete Compaction What is Compaction?

Compacting concrete forces out any air bubbles trapped in the concrete. It also brings all the materials closer together. This makes it a denser, stronger and more durable product.

Figure 95 USE A VIBRATOR TO COMPACT CONCRETE When to Compact

Compaction must be done as soon as the concrete is placed, when it is still in its plastic form. If concrete is allowed to dry out and stiffen it will be too hard to compact.

Figure 96 COMPACT CONCRETE AS SOON AS IT IS PLACED

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External vibration

Mechanical screed compacts and vibrates the concrete as it screeds the surface flush with the formwork. These screeds sit on top of the formwork and can be pulled along by two workers. On larger jobs they can be self-propelled.

Figure 97

USING A MECHANICAL (VIBRATING) SCREED

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Internal vibration

Internal vibration is done with a mechanical (poker) vibrator. The poker is put into concrete and vibrates it from the inside. Make sure the poker goes into the concrete quickly, but is taken out very slowly. Taking the poker out too quickly could leave a hole in the concrete.

Figure 98

INTERNAL VIBRATOR

Figure 99

INSERTING AND EXTRACTING THE VIBRATOR

The amount of concrete vibrated at one time is determined by the size of the poker. The area of vibration will be greater with a larger poker and more workable concrete.

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Always vibrate in a definite pattern so that the whole area is covered.

Figure 100 PATTERN

VIBRATE IN A DEFINITE

With a poker size between 25-75mm and concrete with a slump of 80mm, concrete should be vibrated for between 5 and 15 seconds. It is worse to under-vibrate than to over-vibrate concrete.

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The poker should be long enough to reach the bottom layers of concrete.

Figure 101

VIBRATE TO LOWER LAYER OF CONCRETE

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<

Never touch the form face with the poker.

Figure 102 KEEP VIBRATOR CLEAR OF FORMWORK FACE

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Never touch the reinforcement with the poker.

Figure 103 KEEP VIBRATOR CLEAR OF REINFORCEMENT

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Never spread or move the concrete with the poker. Always use a shovel.

Figure 104 DON'T USE VIBRATOR TO SPREAD CONCRETE

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Levelling Concrete using Wet Screeds When you pour your concrete for your slab on ground the formwork will give you the correct height at the outer edges. Correct levels can be obtained while pouring by using a laser. A laser level can be set outside the floor area. When switched on it will self level. A laser eye on a timber staff can be set on the formwork. Adjust the laser eyes sensor until it gives a level reading. Fix the laser eye sensor in this position. When you take any further readings from your laser level the bottom of the staff will be the floor height.

Figure 105 LASER LEVEL SENSOR ADJUSTED ON STAFF

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Commence by placing the concrete from one end of the floor. As the pour progresses levels can be obtained by using the laser level and staff. Each time you obtain a level reading the bottom end of the staff is the correct floor height. By continuing this process a series of level pads can be formed.

Figure 106 ESTABLISHING LEVEL PADS WITH LASER

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With a straight edge a wet screed can be formed using these pads as the height guide. Once the wet screed has been formed the remainder of the concrete can be levelled off (ruled off) using the formwork and the wet screed as a guide.

Figure 107 FORMING A WET SCREED USING LEVEL PADS FOR HEIGHT

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Finishing Concrete Finishing is screeding, floating or trowelling a concrete surface to give it the required finish. The finishing process will also harden and further compact the surface of the concrete. There are two stages of finishing. They are: initial. final.

Initial Finishing

After placement, the concrete is screeded to the level of the formwork. After screeding, a bullfloat is used and the concrete is left to partially set. Bullfloating brings the fines up to the surface for better finishing. Bullfloating is generally not necessary if a vibrating screed has been used.

Figure 108 SCREEDING AND THENBULLFLOATING CONCRETE

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Water then appears on the surface of the concrete. This water is called BLEED WATER.

Figure 109 WATER SURFACING (BLEEDING) FOLLOWING INITIAL FINISHING When the bleed water has dried the final finishing can begin.

WARNING

No final finishing can begin until the bleed water dries up.

Final Finishing

Final finishing involves:

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floating; trowelling; jointing; and edging.

Floating

Hand floats are made of wood or a composition of materials. The wood float produces a rougher texture which is safer for paths, patios and driveways. This surface finish is not likely to get as slippery as a trowel finish.

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Figure 110 APPLYING A FINISHTO CONCRETE PAVING

FLOAT

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Trowelling

Steel trowelling is used to provide a smooth, dense and hard surface. A concrete surface can be trowelled two or three times to obtain the required finish. Mechanical Trowel, sometimes called a helicopter or a whirly-bird, will reduce labour requirements and finishing time.

Figure 111 TROWELLING TROWELLING MACHINE

WITH

A hand trowel may be used in place of a mechanical trowel, but must be used to touch up areas in corners or close to obstructions.

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Figure 112

USING A HAND TROWEL

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Jointing Concrete

Joints in concrete are planned breaks. These allow designed movement without random cracking. That is, shrinkage cracks occurring where they are not wanted. The control joint is a groove made in the concrete slab to create a line of weakness. As the concrete shrinks, it will tend to crack below the line.

Figure 113 GROOVE TO CONTROL SHRINKAGE CRACKS

Control joints may be made in smaller slabs, while the concrete is hardening with a jointing tool.

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Figure 114

USING JOINTING TOOL

Structural concrete usually has control joints made by a special saw after the concrete is set, because of the larger floor areas involved. A joint may be filled with a flexible filler to stop the edges breaking or prevent it from filling with dirt.

Figure 115 FLEXIBLE FILLER IN CUT CONTROL JOINT

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Edging Concrete

Where required, the edges of a concrete floor should be finished with an edging tool. This forms a rounded edge to the concrete which gives it a neater and stronger edge. The formwork around the concrete is used as a guide for the edging tool.

Figure 116 Curing Concrete

USING AN EDGING TOOL

Concrete doesnt go hard by drying out only it requires curing as well. Curing concrete is covering it so it stays moist.

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Figure 117 RETAIN MOISTUREAS LONG AS YOU CAN By keeping the concrete moist, the bond between the paste and the aggregates gets stronger. When to Cure

Curing is done after finishing the concrete. It is done as soon as possible without damaging the surface. How to Cure

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Covering the concrete with a thin plastic membrane is a common method of curing. It is held down (with sand) onto the concrete for at least 7 days.

Figure 118 CURING WITH CONTINUOUS PLASTIC SHEET

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Adding a fine misty spray of water over the concrete is another method of curing. The problem with this method is that the concrete must NEVER be allowed to dry out.

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Figure 119 SPRAYING

CURING BY CONTINUOUS WATER

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Another widely used method of curing is by the application of a curing compound. This compound is sprayed onto the surface immediately the final surfacing has been completed.

Figure 120 SPRAY ON CURING COMPOUND

Care should be taken that the compound selected will not effect the adhesion of future floor finishes.

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Effects of Proper Curing

Concrete that has been installed and cured properly is:

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less likely to crack. The water/moisture in the concrete does not dry out as quickly. Quicker drying may lead to cracking.

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more durable.

The concrete has a surface that wears better, lasts longer and protects the steel reinforcement better.

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stronger. The concrete can carry more weight without cracking.

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SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 6:

CONCRETE TO SLABS ON GROUND

Put a tick ( 9 ) in the box ( ) next to the correct answer or fill in the missing word.

1.

Concrete is an artificial rock. It is made by mixing together the cement, water and aggregate in (a) (b) (c) certain proportions any proportions equal proportions

2.

When transporting and placing concrete, segregation must be avoided. Segregation makes the concrete. (a) (b) (c) strong and durable weak and less durable weak and durable

3.

Compacting (vibrating) the concrete makes it (a) (b) (c) strong, dense and more durable lighter use more concrete.

4.

A slump test checks the ________________________ of the concrete. (a) (b) (c) finish strength consistency

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5.

A compression test checks the ________________________ of the concrete. (a) (b) (c) finish strength consistency

6.

A compression test is performed _____________________ days after making the test specimen.

7.

After the initial finishing stage, water appears on the surface of the concrete. What is the term for this water? (a) (b) (c) saturated bleed excess

8.

The term wet screed, is a (a) (b) (c) dampened screed board height guide of wet concrete mechanical screed

9.

The final finishing stage is when the ______________________ is done. (a) (b) (c) trowelling shaping casting.

10.

Name the type of joint made by a jointing tool. Answer: ______________________________

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11.

Proper concrete curing (a) (b) (c) retains the moisture in fresh concrete gets rid of the moisture in fresh concrete helps to prevent the fresh concrete from getting slippery.

12.

List three (3) items which could be used for curing a concrete floor. (i) (ii) (iii) __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

13.

For better strength and durability, a concrete floor should be cured for ____________________ days.

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SITE VISIT

At this stage, it is again necessary to visit an appropriate residential building site where construction is to the point of placing concrete into already prepared formwork for a slab on ground. Inspect the results of subgrade preparation, sub-base installation and trimming, installation of vapour barrier and reinforcing steel in place. If possible remain on site during the period of placement, finishing and application of curing material.

DEMONSTRATION

Your instructor should arrange a situation where the correct use of an immersion vibrator and trowelling machine are demonstrated and you have the opportunity of using both pieces of equipment.

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PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 4: CONCRETE SLAB ON GROUND CONSTRUCTION


To carry out this practical activity you will need access to a residential building project, at least one partner and the assistance of trained on-site construction personnel in addition to your instructor. There are five major components to this activity: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Preparation for the slab; Installation of the formwork; Termite treatment, installation of the vapour barrier and reinforcing steel; Concrete placement, finishing and curing; and Stripping and cleaning the formwork.

It would be to your advantage to carry out this activity completely on the one site. However, each component or a group of components may have to be completed on separate projects as and when circumstances dictate. All work must be carried out according to the assessment criteria and tolerances specified in Assessment Tasks 4, 5 and 6 on pages 21 to 26. You may find it useful to refer back to relevant segments of the instructional material while carrying out this activity.

1.

PREPARATION FOR THE SLAB

Follow the steps set out below: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Assist with the stripping of the top soil and the preparation of the subgrade; Assist with the establishment of a datum and floor level; Assist with the setting out for the slab; Check profile marks and identify critical dimensions; Construct sub-base including sand bed; Assist with the installation of underfloor services and drainage; Excavate for edge beam and slab thickenings;

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2. 2.1 2.2 2.3

INSTALLATION OF FORMWORK Fabricate and install edge beam formwork; Install slab edge recess formwork to detail; Install any other recess or step-down formwork;

3.

TERMITE TREATMENT, INSTALLATION OF THE VAPOUR BARRIER AND REINFORCING STEEL Observe, or assist if applicable, with the application of the specified termite protection system; Install vapour barrier and seal at all penetrations etc.; Cut and install reinforcing steel, place supports and tie firmly, ensuring correct cover;

3.1 3.2 3.3

4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11

CONCRETE PLACEMENT Prepare method of transportation and handling on site; Prepare for and carry out slump test; Obtain sample and mould specimen for compressive strength testing later; Assist with placement of concrete; Consolidate/compact concrete using vibrator; Establish wet screeds using levelling equipment; Screed concrete using straight edge and bullfloat; Finish concrete using mechanical trowel and hand trowel where applicable; Install control joints using hand jointing tool; Finish exposed edges of slab, where applicable, with hand edging tool; Apply curing agent to specification.

5. 5.1 5.2

STRIPPING AND CLEANING FORMWORK Strip edge beam and recess formwork carefully, when specified; Clean, de-nail, oil and stack in readiness for re-use or removal from site.

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SUSPENDED CONCRETE SLABS


12. FORMWORK TO LINTELS SUSPENDED SLABS AND BEAMS (TO ONE LEVEL) INTRODUCTION When concrete sets, it takes the shape of the container, into which it was placed when wet. This container is known as FORMWORK. As long as 2000 years ago, the Romans used a system of posts and boards to retain the wet mixture, consisting of stones of more or less uniform size and mortar, when constructing podia and retaining walls. The impressions of the boards can still be seen on the ruins of the structures to this day. Off-form concrete is used in concrete structures today, to break up the flat appearance of the surface or to give a sculptured effect.

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Definitions and Terms The temporary structure, which supports the fresh concrete, until it has gained sufficient strength to stand alone. A piece of timber placed on the ground to distribute the force over a greater area. Also used on concrete floor, so that wedges can be adjusted with less friction. Used as a pair, each being wedge shaped timber tapering 1 : 12. They are placed Top to Tail so that the outside faces are parallel to each other. By adjusting their relative positions, the distance between the parallel faces is altered. This makes them useful for adjustment during erection, easing and striking formwork Diagonal members used to prevent lateral movement of a structure. Horizontal members supporting joists. Pieces of timber nailed across joints to give strength. Horizontal members used to hold either horizontal or vertical members in the correct position. The underneath lining or surface of lintels, or beams, or floors. The sheeting to a soffit form. The part of a vertical form which is in contact with the concrete.

Formwork

Sole Plate

Folding Wedge

Braces Bearers Cleats Runners Soffit Decking Sheeting

Spreader Form Tie

Waling

Standard Bar Chair

Fillet

A short piece of timber or other material to hold the form faces for walls or beams at the correct spacing. A device for holding the opposing faces of wall, beam, or other forms at the correct distance apart, against the force of fresh concrete. Some combine the role of spreader also. A long, usually horizontal, member acting as a beam, used in conjunction with form ties and standards, to support and resist movement of forms. A vertical or near vertical supporting member. A metal, plastic or concrete article used to support reinforcing steel at the required position. When used in walls, they must be wired to reinforcement to prevent dislodgment during vibration of the concrete. The triangular section material placed in the internal corners of forms, so as to give a chamfer on the finished member.

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Materials

When reinforced concrete was first used for above ground structures, towards the end of the last century, the principal material used for formwork was timber. It was usually designed and built by the carpenter on site. Site construction is still widely used, however with the introduction of new materials and pre-fabrication of concrete many forms or components are manufactured in the factory. The completed formwork must be strong enough to resist the forces acting upon it, generated by the wet concrete and in some instances the men and equipment used to position and consolidate the wet concrete; so that the formwork remains: (i) (ii) (iii) true to size; true to line; and true to position.

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Timber

Timber in contact with wet concrete must be pine, as hardwoods cause staining. Boards 150 x 25 may be cleated together to form the support for soffits and sides of lintels and small beams. The useful life of eight (8) uses could be expected. Scantling, either soft or hardwood (Oregon pine is the best suited) are used for joists, bearers, wallings, soldiers, props, struts, braces and runners.

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Waterproof particle board is sometimes used in contact with the concrete surface and will give a reasonable finish on walls and decking. Useful life of up to four (4) uses. Tempered hardboard can also be used as lining but backing support members are required. Its life would be no more than four (4) uses. Formply (plastic coated) is perhaps the best sheeting available for formwork construction, as it is available in large sheets, easily cut to size, strong and can give up to twenty-five (25) uses.

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Steel

Steel may be used in a variety of ways: 1. In contact with the wet concrete special forms may be constructed when more than say 25 units are required, See Figure 119 for an example.

Figure 121

STEEL TWO-PIECE FORMS

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2.

Panels with slotted flange edges for ease of assembly into larger areas.

Figure 122 STEEL PANEL CLAMPED TOGETHER AND TO RUNNERS OR SOLDIERS 3. Transition pieces for forming chamfered corners and the like.

Figure 123 4.

STEEL TRANSITION PIECES

As support members for all of the above components - framing and bracing channels or tubing

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Precast Concrete

Precast concrete units which will form the facing of the wall or column, are erected on false work. Steel ties built into the unit, project from the reverse side, to be connected to the reinforcing of the structural members. The concrete core is poured and allowed to cure before the false work is removed.

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Fibre Cement

Fibre cement may be used in a similar manner as precast concrete units, or used as duct formers, or domes for Waffle slabs construction. Laminated pressed tubes are used as circular column forms or as duct formers.

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Polystyrene

Polystyrene or honeycomb cardboard (biscuits) are used as void formers under floors and beams in pier and beam construction or waffle slab construction.

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Glass Reinforced Plastic

Glass Reinforced Plastic can be used on site, but mainly used for precast sculptured concrete, produces excellent cast concrete surfaces. Handled with care through all stages of production, will give up to sixty (60) uses.

Basic Requirements of Good Formwork

All formwork must be constructed and erected in compliance with AS3610 Formwork for Construction and the OH&S Regulations. There are three (3) basic requirements of good formwork:

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Quality; Safety; and Economy.

Quality

This requires that the formwork be: (a) Accurate The size, shape, position and alignment of the member will depend on the accuracy with which the forms are built. Rigid Forms must be sufficiently rigid to prevent movement bulging or sagging, during the placement and curing of the concrete. It must be adequately propped, braced and tied.

(b)

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(c)

Tight Jointed To prevent loss of water and cement, and where large gaps occur, the loss of fines: This is achieved by the use of Foam Filler Tape along all joints and behind fillets. Well Finished The degree of accuracy and the quality of the surface finish of the member, is governed by the specification for that member.

(d)

Figure 124

DEFECTS IN FORMWORK

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Safety

This requires the formwork to be: (a) Strong To ensure the safety of workers, the formwork must be designed to withstand all the action, that can be expected to occur on building sites. Vertical Loads come from: The self weight of the formwork and other formwork awaiting placing. e.g. Sheets and Formply. The mass of reinforcing either in place or stacked in bundles. The weight of the placed concrete or that discharged rapidly from a kibble.

Horizontal Loads come from: Wind Action Impact of kibble or other crane load, striking form. Surge from concrete pump lines.

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The movement of barrows and buggies Various vibrators The effect of concrete pressure on edge forms.

The materials must be of the size and quality specified, otherwise failure in one member will cause the load or force to be transmitted to the adjacent members. If the extra load that these members are now required to carry, is beyond their capacity, then they also will fail. Thus the failure zone spreads out from the original failed member. This is known as progressive failure.

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Economy

This requires that the formwork be: (a) Simple It must be designed to be erected and dismantled in the correct sequence. Easily handled Sections should be capable of being erected and struck without distortion. With large panels, it is necessary to have lifting points indicated. This makes possible, ease of assembly and the possibility of reuse. This lowers cost. Formwork intended for reuse must be removable without damage and with ease. The number of reuses required, will influence the material used in the construction of the forms.

(b)

(c)

Standardised

(d)

Reuse

Lintels and Beams In brick or concrete block buildings concrete lintels may be used over door and window openings. These are usually poured in-situ, that is poured in the situation they will always occupy. Sometimes when there are many of the same design and the structure is suitable, precast, that is poured and cured in another position or site, then lifted into position are used.

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Lintel formwork

This consists of three pieces in contact with the concrete; the soffit and the lintel (beam) sides. One method of construction is to use 19mm thick formply with 75 x 25 thick softwood cleats on the sides and spaced to suit the braces, which are nailed to the runners. If the concrete beam is to be cement rendered on the sides, an allowance must be made so that the cast beam or lintel is behind the face of the brickwork to allow for the rendering. If the soffit is to be rendered, cleats are placed under the soffit formwork to rest on the cross head. The top surface of the soffit board is raised the required amount above the top at the brick jamb. The use of the cleat, lowers the position of the cross head and will allow the side formwork to sit on the cross head and cove the top edge of the jamb where the concrete lintel will rest. See Figure 125 and 126.

Figure 125 CUT AWAY VIEW OF SHOWING BEARING OF FUTURE CONCRETE LINTEL

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Figure 126 LINTEL FORMWORK - TIMBER CONSTRUCTION, SUPPORT AND BRACING

Beams and Larger Lintel Formwork

With the increase in opening size, come the necessity to use a member of deeper section. This causes greater mass to the beam, which will have to be supported by the formwork, until curing has occurred. Several methods of formwork are popular and acceptable:

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Use of two props to support bearers, joists, soffit and beam sides - all timber, a stronger version of that shown in Figure 126. Use of unit type scaffolding to support timber bearers, joists etc. See alternative methods Figure 127. Use of manufactured patent metal formwork supported on unit type scaffolding. See Figure 128.

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Figure 127 TIMBER FORMWORK SUPPORTED ON UNIT SCAFFOLDING

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Figure 128 PATENT METAL FORMWORK SUPPORTED ON UNIT SCAFFOLDING

Suspended Floors and Beams There are four (4) distinct methods of formwork construction for simple suspended concrete floors and beams used in residential and one level slab construction. These are: 1. Propped Formwork - resting on props or scaffolding supported on the floor below. See Figure 129 and 130.

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Figure 129 BELOW

FLOOR AND BEAM FORMWORK SUPPORTED FROM FLOOR

Figure 130 PICTORIAL VIEW OF SECTION OF FLOOR FORMWORK SUPPORTED BY SCAFFOLDING

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2.

Suspended Formwork - used where U-Beams form the principal member of a floor system, from which the formwork is suspended by metal hangers.

Figure 131

FORMWORK SUSPENDED FROM U-BEAM

3.

Full Span Floor Centres - used where the floor is to span between two supporting walls. In wide spans the floor centre will require temporary mid-span propping. Special hangers may be used to support beam ends. See Figure 134.

Figure 132

USE OF FLOOR CENTRES

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Figure 133

ADJUSTABLE STEEL PROPS AND A VARIETY OF HEADS

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Figure 134 WALLS *

FLOOR CENTRE SUPPORT AT

Figure 133 opposite show examples of proprietary adjustable steel props and a variety of head components. Composite Construction - in this type, a U-Beam/channel or structural wall supports the ribbed galvanised steel which acts as decking for the wet concrete, and later forms the ceiling or soffit lining to the area below.

4.

Figure 135 DECKING

COMPOSITE SLAB STRUCTURAL FLOOR

Inspections

Inspections of the formwork during construction should have the aim of checking all significant details as the work progresses. This also includes a watch on the quality of materials used. Before the pour commences inspection of the completed formwork must be carried out and any adjustments made.

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The following checklist could be useful.

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Foundations soil capacity sole plates and ledgers - size - continuity - stability - fixed to props - punching through slabs compaction when wet on the surface

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Support Systems quality misalignment missing parts manufacturers directions lateral ties slenderness ratio top of props fixed to bearers eccentric loads due to misalignment U heads due to bent prop - tying into bracing

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Soffit System Materials Floor centres Beam Hanger adequate size quality check for faults all joints taped eccentric loading midspan point loadings tight fit to U.B. eccentricity due to pouring sequence

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Edge Problems Overhanging Forms - tie downs Edge Beams propping - tie downs Edge Forms Thrust to adjacent works All joints taped

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Bracing Proprietary Systems Prop Systems -

manufacturers directions tying top and bottom tube ties diagonal tube 30 to 60 adequate number of tube sets at start of pour at edge

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Release Agent All contact surfaces covered (none on reinforcing)

Faults in materials and design are not always obvious to visual inspections and may only become obvious when the materials are under load. For this reason a careful watch must be kept while the concrete is being placed. AS3610 Formwork for Construction code calls for formwatchers to continuously inspect the formwork during the pour. These formwatchers can then call attention to signs of possible failure such as excessive deflection as shown by deflection indicators. Rapid action can then be taken to install extra supports and thus avoid failure of the form. Stripping of Formwork

Most of the proprietary hardware or formwork systems have easing mechanism built into or attached to the support system. Floor centres have a camber lock bolt which once released allows the beam to lower sufficiently to release the deck sheeting.

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Undisturbed Supports

Props are available where the head of the prop is actually part of the soffit form. The soffit frames attach to the side of the prop immediately below the prop head. The soffit form surface is carried on the soffit frames. At the attachment of the soffit frames to the prop head there is a mechanism that permits the smooth lowering of the frames without disturbing the props.

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When the soffit frames and surface forms have been lowered a short distance they can be carefully stripped out, leaving the slab supported on the undisturbed props.

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Back Propping

With the reshoring or back propping system the formwork is made of conventional soffit forms of ply, joists, bearers and props. When the slab has been poured and has reached an adequate strength the reshores are placed up to the underside of the form ply in positions near the props of the formwork. Care is taken to place the prop onto a ply sheet which is not the same one above the formwork prop. The location of the formwork props should then be marked on the floor. The formwork system can now be stripped out leaving the slab supported on the reshores. All that remains now is to remove the ply sheets that are on top of the reshores. See Figure 136.

Figure 136 Source:

RESHORING OR BACK PROPPING

Concrete Practice on Building Sites Figure 26. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia.

With reshoring, a mistake in placing a reshore can have considerable structural consequences. Also there is the chance of both a form prop and a reshore being loosened during stripping. The area above, being without support, will at least deflect excessively and may even fail. Reshoring requires close and continuous supervision. It should be noted that the time at which a slab can be considered safe to back prop or strip must be strictly in accordance with the engineers specification or recommendations of AS3610.

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Cleaning and Storage

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Cleaning

Any concrete adhering to the forms must be removed before reuse of the forms. The sooner it is removed the easier it will be and less damage sustained by the forms. Different means are used on the various materials. For example: Material: Steel Forms Plywood Forms Sawn Timber Glass Reinforced Plastic Means: Metal Scraper H/W Timber Wedge Metal Scraper or Bass Brush Bass Brush

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Preparation for Storage

To prevent steel forms rusting during prolonged storage it is advisable to coat them with a thin film of oil, of a type which is not injurious to concrete. If sump oil is used, it will need to be removed before the forms are reused for columns, which are to be cement rendered.

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Storage

If the forms are to be reused at a later time it is important that they are: forms. stacked to prevent distortion; stacked to prevent rising dampness; protected from heat-wind-rain; and protection of contact surfaces particularly with off-form

Ordering

On projects requiring great quantities of units of patent formwork it is the usual practice to have sub-contractors supply and erect all formwork. These subcontractors work in association with suppliers of the patent formwork, who employ a scheduler to design, take-off, and arrange delivery at the appropriate stage of the project. On smaller projects it is the responsibility of the foreman to design in accordance with AS3610, take-off the materials, and arrange delivery. To lessen the chance of error when taking-off, it is advisable to make a detailed scale drawing of the completed concrete members and supporting formwork.

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Summary If care and attention to the job at hand is maintained throughout the period of construction, the resulting members will be true to shape, line, position and finish as required by the plans and specification. Correct preparation and storage of used forms will allow them to be used with confidence and ensures maximum reuse. 13. FORMWORK TO STAIRS - STRAIGHT FLIGHT (TO ONE LEVEL)

Any building which is something more than a simple slab on ground structure, requires some form of stairway. Terminology A stairway includes the treads and risers of a flight of stairs and the landing between flights. The vertical height from the ground or floor, at the start of a flight, to the top of the floor or landing above. The horizontal distance from the front edge of the bottom tread to the front edge of the floor or landing. The vertical height from the ground or floor, at the start of the lower flight, to the top of the floor above the upper flight. The horizontal distance from the front edge of the bottom tread in the lower flight, to the front edge of the floor above the upper flight. The vertical height from the face (upper surface) of one tread to the face (upper surface) of the next. The horizontal distance from the face of one rise edge to one tread to the front edge of the next. The flat or horizontal portion upon which the foot rests, while descending or ascending the stairs. A line touching the front top edge of all treads, landing and/or floor. A floor or resting place at the top or bottom of a flight, or at the intermediate level between two flights.

Stairway

Rise of Flight

Going of Flight

Rise of Stairs (Total Rise) Going of Stairs (Total Going)

Rise/Riser Height

Going

Tread

Nosing Line Landing

Sole Plate

A horizontal piece of timber or other rigid material, beneath a short prop or jack to distribute the load from the member

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above. Stiffening piece Raking members frequently 100 x 75, placed on top of the riser boards, used in conjunction with cleats to prevent the riser boards bending or bulging along their lengths. A raking member which supports the decking of the stair soffit. A horizontal or raking member resisting a compressive or tensile stress in a bracing system. Wedges used in pairs to tighten, loosen, raise or lower props or other members. The board which forms the vertical face of a step. (i) A timber member nailed across a number of boards to hold them together. (ii) A block fixed to a main member to provide a bearing or resist a thrust. Wall string A raking member fixed to the wall above the ends of the riser boards, where the stairs are constructed against an existing wall and to which cleats are fixed which then hold in position the ends of the riser boards. A raking member of formply or boards cleated together, placed on edge and set at right angles to the raking decking, to resist the lateral thrust of the wet concrete, and to take cleats which position the riser boards. The sheeting to a soffit form. A term of many meanings, but generally any wire which holds two members in their relative positions whether to form members or secure reinforcement. A horizontal member supported on shores or hangers and carrying joists. A short piece of timber or other material to hold form faces at the correct spacing.

Carriage piece

Brace

Folding wedges

Riser board Cleat

Outer string

Decking Tie wire

Bearer

Spacer

These members when combined come into the category of formwork or falsework. Formwork refers to the sheeting which actually contains the plastic concrete, forming it to the required shape and size, while falsework refers to the structure which supports those forms.

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Requirements and Regulations

Although formwork and falsework are temporary structures, a high standard of accuracy and workmanship must go into their construction. The same rules apply to formwork for concrete stairs, as applied to other types of formwork. The forms are constructed the reverse shape of the intended structure, and must be capable of supporting their own load, the load of the plastic concrete, and the load of any equipment and workmen placed upon them. The basic requirements of good formwork are always:

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Quality; Safety; and Economy.

These aspects have been explained in detail earlier in this section in topic (12) under the sub-heading Basic Requirements of Good Formwork and apply equally to stair formwork as well as to suspended floor and beam formwork. Regulations in the SAAHB60 Australian Domestic Construction Manual relating to the design of stairways, apply equally to concrete stairs, as well as to stairs constructed of other materials. The following dimensions are given as a guide:

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Stairway Dimensions

The widths of the stairways must not be less then 750, which distance must be clear of all obstructions and projecting parts. The vertical clearance must extend to a height of 2000 for the full length of the stairway, measured vertically above the nosing line.

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Landings

The maximum number or rises a stairway may have is 18. Where more than 18 rises are necessary, a landing must be included. The landing must be not less than 750 wide clear of all projecting parts, and not less than 760 in length.

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Proportioning of Stairs

Regulations required that the going and rise to be constant throughout all flights in that stairway. A well proportioned stairway should satisfy the following equation: 2R + G = maximum 700 to minimum 550 R = Rise G = Going

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Regardless of the above equation the rise must not exceed 190mm or be less than 115mm, and the going must not exceed 355mm or be less than 240mm. Calculations for Rises and Goings

When calculating the rise, going, number of treads in each flight, headroom etc, the same procedure is followed as for timber stairs. Example: A straight concrete stairway in two flights, with a lower and an upper landing is to be constructed between two concrete floors. The total rise is 2275 and the rise must not exceed 180. Calculate the rise and a suitable going, the number of rises in each flight, and the going of the stairway. We proceed as follows: Trial no. of rises = = = total rise trial rise 2275 180 12.638

As the rise must not exceed 180 we use 13 rises. Rise = = = total rise number of rises 2275 13 175 600 - 2R (selected 600 i.e. between maxi 700 and min 550) 600 - 350 250

suitable going = = =

Total number of rises is 13 The 7 rises are in the lower flight and 6 rises are in the upper flight No. of goings in lower flight = No. of goings in upper flight = Total number of goings = Total going = (11 x = 4850

7 - 1 = 6 6 - 1 = 5 11 + 1 mid landing + 1 upper landing 250) + 900 + 1200

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Stair Plans

Stair plans used for the majority of concrete stairways are basic and include the following:

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enclosed straight flight straight flight with balustrade enclosed straight stair with landing straight stair with landing, newels and balustrade

Figure 137

VARIOUS STAIR PLANS (INFORMATION ONLY)

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stairway with quarter spaced landing stairway with half spaced landing

On some public buildings such as libraries, geometrical stairs of various styles are added, where a need is felt for a certain aesthetic appeal. As indicated earlier, this unit will be restricted to the construction of straight flight stairs to one level only.

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Setting Out Concrete Stairs

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The set-out when adjacent to a wall:

When the stairs are to be constructed adjacent to a wall, the position of the various members are easily located by marking the height of the landings on the wall, and drawing the zig-zag line which represents the top of each step, and the face of the riser. The thickness of the concrete for the landings and the throat thickness are marked on the wall and the soffit lines drawn in. The necessary falsework is then drawn in place. By using this full size in situ set out, the position of the members are fixed, and the lengths of the carriage pieces, joists and props can be determined. The props may be timber, or adjustable steel or a combination or both. (See Figures 140 and 141). The following steps in setting out should be followed: 1. 2. 3. wall. 4. Set out accurately the going rod and the height rod. Check the total height and total going and number the rods correctly. Mark the line for height of landing or floor on adjacent brick or concrete Draw zig-zag line to give front and top of each step by working from height rod and going rod. (Use a level and straight edge for this purpose)

Figure 138

INITIAL SET OUT ON WALL

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Measure required thickness of concrete below top of landing and under the stairs and draw soffit lines. (See Figure 139). Draw U beam in position allowing for regulation covering of concrete. Measure for thickness of decking and draw lines parallel to soffit lines. Draw formwork round beam. Draw supports for formwork. Draw carriage piece, landing joist and formwork. Draw timbers above the stairs to show sectioned riser boards, stiffening piece with cleats and wall string.

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11.

Cut and erect formwork adjacent to the set out.

Figure 139

SET OUT CONSTRUCTION DETAILS ON WALL

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The set-out when there is no adjacent wall:

When concrete stairs have no adjacent wall a different approach is necessary. The rise and going have to be calculated and set out on fabricated or formply strings in a similar manner to setting out a flight of timber constructed stairs. The rise and going determine the slope of the soffit which when erected should be extended on both sides of the stairs to support the set out strings braced as shown in Figure 140.

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Figure 140 WALL

STAIR FORMWORK WHERE THERE IS NO ADJACENT

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Construction of Stair Formwork

Member sizes for the construction of concrete stair formwork should be specified by a qualified person. The sizes of members stated and shown in diagrams in this package are sizes frequently used for formwork designed for standard flight lengths and widths and should be adjusted, if necessary, to a particular design.

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Carriage Pieces

These are frequently 100 x 75 or 125 x 75 and the number used depends on the width of the flight. The lower end of the carriage pieces for the lower flight are finished with a plumb cut and a seat cut, which rests upon a pair of folding wedges which are supported by a sole plate. The folding wedges enable the lower ends of the carriage pieces to be raised to the correct height during construction, and lowered during the process of stripping. The vertical portion of the stairs at the bottom on the underside is usually one rise high. Its purpose is to avoid an acute corner at the junction of the floor and the stair soffit. See Figures 139 and 141. This vertical section: makes both erection and stripping much easier; allows a plasterer to make a good finish (if necessary); and makes that area easier to keep clean.

In all other places, the ends of the carriage pieces are birdsmouthed to bearers and fixed beside the landing joists.

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Adjustable Props

Adjustable props support the bearers, which permits the raising of the bearers to the exact height during construction, and the lowering of the bearers to facilitate stripping. They may be timber props on folding wedges, supported by a sole plate on the floor or ground, or they may be adjustable steel props. Braces are required to give lateral support to the props. See Figures 140 and 141.

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Figure 141 PART SECTIONAL ADJUSTABLE STEEL PROPS

ELEVATION

SHOWING

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Decking

The decking is fixed to the carriage pieces and the landing joists and may be boards, but is more commonly of formply 18 thick. The wet concrete rests directly on the decking. Where there is no wall beside the stairway the decking is extended out wider than the stairs to allow for a runner and a brace to hold the string in place and upright. See Figure 140.

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Wall Strings

Where the stair has to be built up against an existing wall, a wall string of 150 x 25 material is used. Its purpose is to hold the wall end of the riser board in place. It is fixed to the wall, and to it are fixed 50 x 25 cleats which project below the string, so that the riser board may be nailed to those cleats. The top edge of the risers should fit tightly against the underside of the wall string. The boom end of the cleats should be kept high enough to allow the trowelling of the tread surface. See Figure 142.

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Figure 142 BOARDS

USE OF WALL STRING TO SUPPORT ENDS OF RISER

An alternative method is to use a cut wall string. See Figure 143.

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Figure 143

USE OF CUT WALL STRING AND STIFFENER

The lower edge of these strings are cut to the shape of the rise and going of the stairs and the riser board is fixed to the cut edge. A clearance is usually left to allow for trowelling of the tread under the cut string and up to the wall face.

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Outer String

These are formed by 150 x 25 pine boards held together by cleats on the outside or by formply cut to the required width. They are placed on edge at right angles to the decking, and held in place by a runner fixed to the extended decking on the outside of the string, and held upright by braces also fixed to the extended decking. The purpose of the string is to give lateral support to the wet concrete, and provide a fixing for the end of the riser boards. See Figure 140.

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Riser Boards

These are out of 25mm thick material. The ends are supported by the strings and so placed that the back of the riser board forms the front of the step. The top edge of the riser board gives the required level for the top of the finished concrete. See Figure 143. The bottom edge of the riser board should be levelled to allow the trowel to work over the full face of the tread. The face of the riser is often splayed back 25mm. This is done to prevent the riser from rubbing the heel of persons descending the stair. See Figure 139.

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Stiffening Piece

The purpose of the stiffening piece is to prevent the riser board from bulging along its length, as a result of the pressure from the wet concrete. They are commonly of 100 x 75 in section, and in a wide flight of stairs, more than one may be needed. They are placed on the rake, resting on the top corner of the riser boards. Cleats with one end cut to fit against the riser, are nailed alternately to opposite side of the stiffener. A strut cut between the lower end of the stiffener, and if possible an opposing wall, helps to prevent movement. (See Figure 143). Tie wires taken over the stiffening piece down through the decking, and around a carriage piece or bearer help to prevent the stiffener from being forced upwards as the wet concrete is placed.

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Intermediate Support

An intermediate support or bearer, consisting of a cross member supported on props, and located half way along the length of the carriage pieces is required for all but very short flights. See Figure 140.

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Tolerances

Absolute accuracy should be aimed for in the finished stairway, however certain tolerances are accepted. The rise of any one step must not exceed 3mm of the average riser of the whole flight. The variation between two consecutive steps must not exceed 3mm. The maximum variation in the going of the tread is 5mm. The variation between two consecutive steps must not exceed 5mm. Obviously the tolerances acceptable in the formwork will be less than the tolerances acceptable in the finished stair. The remaining members are placed in the usual arrangement for propped floors, decking, joists and bearers supported by props and wedges, with the props being held by diagonal braces.

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Beam Formwork at Top of Flight

Where large well-holes are required in floors to receive stairs and allow for sufficient headroom, a concrete beam, reinforced with either mild steel rods or a U beam, is placed at the edge of the well-hole to support the floor.

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Reinforced Concrete Beams

Figure 144 shows the formwork for a reinforced concrete beam, consisting of a soffit and two beam sides, supported by cross heads and props. On the right is the formwork supporting the floor concrete and reinforcement (all reinforcement is omitted for clarity). Note provision in the decking for expansion and the space at the end of the joist for wedges. This ensures that the joists do not bind tightly on the beam sides, making stripping difficult. On the left, the formwork for the upper portion of the concrete stair is shown in position against the beam. The carriage piece is birdsmouthed over the cross head or bearer; (sometimes over a runner resting along these cross heads, as is the case in Figure 145, where the suspended method is used) a pair of folding wedges is fitted between the vertical cut of the birdsmouth and the end of the cross head, to simplify the stripping of the formwork. The outer string shown, rests on edge on the decking at the pitch of the stair. The upper end of the string is cut off vertically to butt against the beam side the portion shown dotted. After two strings are butted and fixed to the beam side, a portion of the latter is cut away between the two strings down to the level of the decking. This is to form an opening through the beam side at the top of the stair, to allow the concrete of the stair to merge with that of the beam.

Figure 144

STAIR INTERSECTION WITH R.C. BEAM

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Concrete Encased U-Beam

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Shows the formwork for concrete beam reinforced by a U beam from which the shuttering is suspended. He carriage piece is birdsmouthed over a runner which rests on the cross head. There are no wedges used at the birdsmouth but they may be used in the space left between the carriage piece and the beam side. This space also allows the carriage to be easily stripped from the decking when the cross head and runner are released from the U bolt.

Figure 145 STAIR INTERSECTION WITH ENCASED UBEAM SHOWING SUSPENDED FORMWORK 14. REINFORCEMENT AND CONCRETE TO SUSPENDED SLABS AND STAIRS (TO ONE LEVEL) Reinforcement Fixing The size and position of the reinforcement for suspended slabs, beams and stairs should be designed and detailed by a structural engineer. The builder however is responsible for the placement, tying, support and cover to the reinforcement according to the engineered details and specifications. In the case of stairs the reinforcement should be placed in position before the riser boards are in place. It may be in the form of a fabric, or rods running from top to bottom of the flight. Where the flight is to join a concrete floor already poured and set, reinforcement should be left projecting from the floor, to be tied to the reinforcement of the stair or landing.

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Concrete Placement If a slab is bearing on a brick or masonry wall care must be taken to ensure that a bond breaker or slip joint is installed at the top of the wall prior to concrete placement. This could be in the form of two layers of fibre cement sheeting laid continuously across the full width of the bearing face. Prior to the placement of the reinforcing steel on the formwork the decking surface and edge formwork should be treated with a coat of form oil or release agent. Concrete to elevated positions such as beams, slabs and stairs should be handled by mechanical means, distributing the concrete gently and evenly onto the prepared formwork. A crane and bucket or a concrete pump would generally be used. The spreading, screeding, vibrating, finishing and curing should be carried out in the same manner as is described earlier for slab on ground construction.

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SITE VISIT

Another visit should be made to a residential site/s where formwork for a suspended concrete balcony and a flight of concrete stairs is being prepared. It would be to you advantage to observe the reinforcing steel in place and if possible be on site when the concrete is being placed to observe: the method of transportation and elevation; the spreading and consolidation; and the surface finishing and curing.

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SUMMARY
In this Section you applied all of the theory and knowledge gained in Section 1. By following the simple construction procedures and details laid down in Section 2 you were able to complete the Practical Activities 4 and 5. Having completed Activities 4 and 5 you should now have reached competence in all of the remaining Assessment Criteria of the Tasks, detailed in the Assessment Specifications for this Module. You may find it useful to make some brief notes on these topics for Reinforced Concrete and Formwork Practice in Residential and Minor Works Construction. Setting Out:

Preparation of Subgrade:

Establish Levels:

Construct Sub-Base:

Installation of Services and Drainage Pipes:

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Excavation of Trenches:

Construct Formwork:

Termite Protection:

Installation of Vapour Barrier:

Reinforcement to Slab on Ground:

Concrete Placing and finishing:

Formwork to Lintels, Suspended Slabs and Beams (to one level):

Formwork to Stairs - Straight Flight (to one level):

Reinforcement and Concrete to Suspended Slabs and Stairs (to one level):

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SELF-CHECK

EXERCISE 7: STAIRS

FORMWORK TO SUSPENDED SLABS AND

Put a tick ( 9) in the box ( ) next to the correct answer or fill in the missing word/s.

1.

The vertical support, for formwork for concrete, is known as: (a) (b) (c) (d) sole piece joist prop bearer

2.

The horizontal piece of timber, placed outside the bottom of the beam side to resist lateral pressure, is the: (a) (b) (c) (d) head runner sole plate cleat

3.

The underneath lining of the formwork to lintels, beams and floors, to support the wet concrete, is known as: (a) (b) (c) (d) soffit sheeting waling decking

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4.

The vertical height from the face (upper surface) of one stair tread to the face (upper surface) of the next, is known as the: (a) (b) (c) (d) riser board rise of flight rise nosing

5.

The horizontal distance from the front edge of the bottom tread to the front edge of the floor or landing above, is called the: (a) (b) (c) (d) rise of flight going of flight going stairwell

6.

The flat or horizontal portion upon which the foot rests, while descending or ascending a stair, is known as the: (a) (b) (c) (d) tread going carriage piece string

7.

The three (3) basic requirement of good formwork are: (a) (b) (c) ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

8.

The number of _____________ than can be achieved from formwork effects the economy of the formwork.

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9.

When making stair calculations there is a formula used to ensure a good proportion of rise to going. This formula is: 2 x _______________ + _________________ equals between 550 and 700mm

10.

State two reasons for using adjustable props in formwork construction. (i) ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ (ii) ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

11.

Sketch a sectional elevation through the formwork for a concrete beam supported on unit type scaffolding, showing: scaffolding support; adjustable heads; bearers; runners; standards; braces; joists; formply; brace; and waling

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12.

Show on the sketch below how you should support the raking riser boards from the wall string to ensure rigidity.

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PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY 5: STAIRS

FORMWORK - SUSPENDED SLABS, AND (TO ONE LEVEL)

To carry out this practical activity you will need access to a residential building project, at least one partner and the assistance of trained on-site personnel in addition to your instructor. This activity is in two (2) parts: 1. 2. o construct the formwork for a small residential balcony To construct the formwork for a straight flight of concrete stairs (minimum of eight (8) treads)

All work must be carried out according to the assessment criteria and tolerances specified in Assessment Tasks 5 and 6 and in conformity with AS3610. Example 1: To construct the formwork for a small residential balcony. The following procedures (adjusted to suit individual project) are to be carried out: 1. Select materials to be used for the formwork decking. For example: 2. 3. formply or Bondek

Select materials for all other falsework and sheeting. Select method and materials for support structure, For example: timber or unit type scaffolding or props.

4. 5. 6.

Prepare area and set out. Position and bed sole plates. Erect support system.

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Construct falsework framing and place decking. Construct edge formwork. Place any slip joint materials on bearing surfaces. Place, support and tie specified reinforcement to engineers details. Adjust to final levels. Place, finish and cure concrete.

NOTE:Additional operations or adjustments to the above, according to the individual project available, should be made by your instructor prior to commencing the practical activity.

Example 2: To construct the formwork for a straight flight of concrete stairs (minimum of eight (8) treads). The following procedures (adjusted to suit individual project) are to be carried out: 1. Select materials to be used for the formwork decking. For example: 2. 3. formply, fibre cement, pine boards or Bondek.

Select materials for all other falsework and sheeting. Select method and materials for support structure. For example: timber or unit type scaffolding or props.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Prepare area. Measure rise of flight. Calculate rise and going and determine number of treads. Calculate going of flight and check available space. Set out stairs on: wall and other string; or both walls; or both outer strings (whichever is applicable).

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Erect formwork and support. Install decking. Install outer strings or wall strings (whichever is applicable). Install all other necessary runner, cleats and braces. Place, support and tie specified reinforcement to engineers details. Adjust final levels. Install riser boards. Check nosing line, making any necessary adjustments. Place, finish and cure concrete.

NOTE:Additional operations and/or adjustments as for Example 1, must be made by your instructor prior to you commencing the practical activity.

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CONCLUSION
This learning package has combined the theoretical and practical components required for the Module NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential). Having successfully completed the requirements of this module, you now understand what constitutes good reinforced concrete and how to prepare a site, construct formwork and place reinforced concrete for a slab on ground. In addition you have constructed formwork and placed reinforcement and concrete for simple suspended slabs, beams and concrete stairs (to one level) following engineered detail drawings and specifications. You can expect to apply your knowledge and skills again and again on a range of building sites. Module NFF3118 Concrete Formwork Construction (Residential) will take you further in the area of formwork construction for larger suspended slabs, stairways, columns and retaining walls. We hope you have found this package easy to follow and to apply in practice.

Congratulations on having successfully completed the Module NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

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SECTION 1

SELF-CHECK

ANSWERS

EXERCISE 1:
1.

CONCRETE AS A BUILDING MATERIAL

Concrete is a mixture of binding agent and aggregate. The binding agent is a mixture of Portland cement and water.

2.

Concrete is generally strong in compression and weak in tension.

3.

To improve the performance of concrete in tension in its hardened state, reinforcing steel is introduced.

4.

Good quality concrete has three properties, in its plastic or wet state, that enable it to be easily placed into moulds or forms and compacted with relative ease. They are: (i) (ii) (iii) workability cohesiveness consistency

5.

In its hardened state, good concrete develops three other quite different properties which make it a successful building material. These three properties are: (i) (ii) (iii) strength durability impermeability

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6.

The ultimate strength and performance of concrete as a structural material, is improved by three things at the initial stage of placement. These are: (i) (ii) (iii) Appropriate water - cement ratio full and careful compaction; and adequate curing.

7.

Aggregates for general purpose concrete are usually: Course: Well graded, from 20mm down to 7mm and; Fine: Well graded, 5mm and under but not containing fine powdery particles.

8.

Concrete mixed on site by volume proportioning requires careful measuring. To gain a concrete equivalent to 20MPa the following proportions would be necessary. Course Aggregate : Fine Aggregate : Cement 3 : 2 : 1

9.

Calculate the total cost of all material required for site mixed concrete of 3 : 2: 1 proportions, for a concrete slab 8m long x 5m wide , 150mm thick. Given the following material costs: Course Aggregate: $30/m3 Fine Aggregate$20m/3 Cement $10/bag Volume = = = L x B x T 8 x 5 x 0.150m 6m3 =
2

Course Aggregate 180.00 Fine Aggregate= Cement or

6m3
6

@ $30/m3 4m3 @ #20/m3 = = 2m3 76 bags @ $10/bag TOTAL COST

= $ 80.00 =

/3 x 6 = 1 = /3 x 38 x 2=

$ 760.00 $1020.00

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10.

List the manes of the two admixtures used with concrete to produce the following results: (i) improved workability air-entraining admixture (ii) slowing down of setting process set-retarding admixture

11.

List the acceptable range of slump for concrete used in the following positions: Mass concrete footings30mm to 80mm Pavements and slabs 50mm to 80mm Columns 50mm to 100mm Reinforced footings 50mm to 100mm

12.

Concrete for domestic construction unless specified otherwise should be 20 MPa compressive strength concrete.

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ANSWERS

EXERCISE 2:
1.

REINFORCED CONCRETE

The principle types of stress which develop in concrete members are: compression; tension; and shear.

Compressive stress tends to cause the concrete to crush Tensile stress tends to cause the concrete to stretch Shear stress tends to cause sliding between sections of the concrete.

2.

The reinforcement used in reinforced concrete is either steel bars or steel wires welded together to form a fabric or mesh.

3.

In reinforced concrete construction, the steel reinforcement is required to: (a) (b) (c) help the concrete to withstand tensile forces. Increase the weight of the concrete help the concrete to withstand compressive forces.

4.

Concrete bonds or adheres to the reinforcing so the reinforcing can do its job properly. Steel reinforcing which has clay, oil or flaking rust on it. (a) (b) (c) bonds well to the concrete. slightly improves the bond. will not bond properly to the concrete.

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5.

What is the approved method of supporting reinforcing steel to maintain cover for a slab on the ground? (a) (b) (c) bar chairs and bases plastic tip bar chairs broken brick or stone

6. Steel bars and sheets or strips of fabric are commonly used for concrete reinforcing. (i) (a) (b) (c) The current deformed bars are referenced as _______________ bars. R bars C bars Y bars

(ii) The reference for sheet mesh with 8mm diameter wires at 200mm centres is (a) (b) (c) (iii) (a) (b) (c) F818. F82. FM82 The reference for trench mesh with 4 wires of 11mm diameter is TM11-4. TM4-11 4-11TM.

;
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7. Which of the 3 diagrams show the minimum acceptable lap for sheet mesh reinforcing?

8.

On each of the following diagrams indicate how reinforcement should be placed to best resist the tensile and shear stresses which would occur in the concrete beams.

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ANSWERS

EXERCISE 3:
1.

CONCRETE SLAB TYPES

There are four (4) reinforced concrete slab types that are commonly used in housing construction. They are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) raft slab waffle pod system suspended slab pier and beam system

Listed below are some common occurring site or foundation conditions. You are to select the most appropriate slab type for each of the listed conditions and write it in the space provided. (a) problem soil (class P of AS2870) SYSTEM (b) (c) sand and rock (class A) a concrete floor above a garage which will be supported by load-bearing walls. extremely reactive clay (class E) moderately reactive clay (class M) sloping ground, cut and fill with the fill used as a temporary support until the concrete has set and cured. PIER AND BEAM

RAFT SLAB

SUSPENDED SLAB WAFFLE POD RAFT SLAB

(d) (e) (f)

SUSPENDED SLAB

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2.

The diagrams below represent the four (4) reinforced concrete slab types, referred to in Question 1. Write the name of the type in the space provided under each diagram.

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SELF-CHECK

ANSWERS

EXERCISE 4:
1.

SITE PREPARATION FOR SLABS ON GROUND

There are many activities involved in the construction of a reinforced concrete slab on ground. Two (2) of the activities are the preparation of the subgrade and the construction of the sub-base. (i) The subgrade is the (a) (b) (c) ground on which the slab is built. layer of compacted granular fill under the slab. top soil removed for the slab.

(ii)

The sub-base is the (a) (b) (c) ground on which the slab is built. layer of compacted granular fill under the slab. top soil removed for the slab.

2.

Top soil is removed (stripped) from the floor slab site. This is because it is ________________ as a foundation. (a) (b) (c) excellent reasonable unstable

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3.

The sub-base must be consolidated. Place a tick in the box beside each listed item which would be suitable to consolidate the sub-base for a house slab. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) wheel barrow compacting plate vibrating roller

small hand roller back of a square-mouth shovel

4. slab.

The top of surface level of the sub-base determines the thickness of the floor

What happens if the top of the sub-base is too low? (a) (b) (c) the slab will be too thick, requiring more concrete to complete. the slab will be too thin and under size. the slab thickness will be alright.

5.

When excavating the trenches for the beams of a slab on ground, it *is/*is not important to trim them to the correct size. * Circle the correct answer.

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ANSWERS

EXERCISE 5: FORMWORK, TERMITE PROTECTION, VAPOUR BARRIER AND REINFORCING TO SLABS ON GROUND
1. Formwork is a concrete mould. It must be: (a) (b) (c) accurate and flexible strong and near enough accurate and strong

; ;

2.

Concrete is cast ______________ the formwork. (a) (b) (c) outside inside near

3.

To create a rebate to the concrete edge beam to later receive the brickwork and cavity, outriggers are used to support the: (a) (b) (c) (d) vapour barrier reinforcement rebate board (form) pegs

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4.

Some of the systems used for protection against termites from beneath a slab on ground are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) stainless steel mesh total saturation of the subgrade with kerosene and creosote graded stone chemical soil barrier vapour barrier (sealed)

; ; ;

5.

A monolithic (solid unit) slab on ground with thickened edge beam should have slab edge exposure of at least: (a) (b) (c) 75mm 225mm 100mm

6.

The application of a chemical soil barrier can be carried out by which of the following persons: (a) (b) (c) (d) a plumber a licensed drainer a licensed termite control applicator a supplier of stainless steel mesh

7.

A vapour barrier (membrane) is required under concrete slabs which are cast on the ground or on fill. This membrane _________________ punctured or unsealed at penetrations. (a) (b) (c) can be must not be maybe

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8.

The minimum recommended thickness for polythene film used for a vapour barrier under a concrete slab on ground is: (a) (b) (c) 0.2mm 0.02mm 2.2mm

9.

Trench mesh in slab edge beams should be supported on: (a) (b) (c) (d) trench mesh support chairs plastic tipped bar chairs bar chairs with base plates broken bricks

10.

Fabric used as reinforcement in a 100mm thick concrete slab on ground should have a minimum top cover of 25mm. This cover is achieved by supporting the fabric with: (a) (b) (c) (d) broken bricks wire hangers from the rebate board bar chairs with bases the fabric is placed after the concrete in placed.

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SELF-CHECK

ANSWERS

EXERCISE 6:
1.

CONCRETE TO SLABS ON GROUND

Concrete is an artificial rock. It is made by mixing together the cement, water and aggregate in (a) (b) (c) certain proportions any proportions equal proportions

2.

When transporting and placing concrete, segregation must be avoided. Segregation makes the concrete (a) (b) (c) strong and durable. weak and less durable. weak and durable.

3.

Compacting (vibrating) the concrete makes it. (a) (b) (c) strong, dense and more durable lighter use more concrete

4.

A slump test checks the __________________ of the concrete. (a) (b) (c) finish strength consistency

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NFF3113 Reinforced Concrete and Formwork (Residential)

SECTION 2

5.

A compression test checks the _______________ of the concrete. (a) (b) (c) finish strength consistency

6.

A compression test is performed as specified (7, 14 or 28) days after making the test specimen. After the initial finishing stage, water appears on the surface of the concrete. What is the term for this water? (a) (b) (c) saturated bleed excess

7.

8.

The term wet screed, is a (a) (b) (c) dampened screed board height guide of wet concrete mechanical screed

9.

The final finishing stage is when the ________________ is done. (a) (b) (c) trowelling shaping casting

10.

Name the type of joint made by a jointing tool. Answer: control

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SECTION 2

11.

Proper concrete curing (a) (b) (c) retains the moisture in fresh concrete gets rid of the moisture in fresh concrete helps to prevent the fresh concrete form getting slippery.

12.

List three (3) items which could be used for curing a concrete floor. (i) (ii) (iii) thin film of plastic sheeting curing compound fine spray/mist of water

13.

For better strength and durability, a concrete floor should be cured for 7 days.

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SELF-CHECK

ANSWERS

EXERCISE 7: STAIRS
1.

FORMWORK TO SUSPENDED SLABS AND

The vertical support, for formwork for concrete, is known as a: (a) (b) (c) (d) sole piece joist prop bearer

2.

The horizontal piece of timber, placed outside the bottom of the beam side to resist lateral pressure, is the: (a) (b) (c) (d) head runner sole plate cleat

3.

The underneath lining of formwork to lintels, beams and floors, to support the wet concrete, is known as: (a) (b) (c) (d) soffit sheeting waling decking

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4.

The vertical height from the face (upper surface) of one stair tread to the face (upper surface) of the next, is known as the: (a) (b) (c) (d) riser board rise of flight rise nosing

5.

The horizontal distance from the front edge of the bottom tread to the front edge of the floor or landing above, is called the: (a) (b) (c) (d) rise of flight going of flight going stairwell

6.

The flat or horizontal portion upon which the foot rests, while descending or ascending a stair, is known as the: (a) (b) (c) (d) tread going carriage piece string

7.

The three (3) basic requirements of good formwork are: (a) (b) (c) quality safety economy

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8.

The number of reuses that can be achieved from formwork effects the economy of the formwork.

9.

When making stair calculations there is a formula used to ensure a good proportion of rise to going. This formula is: 2x rise + going equals between 550 and 700mm

10.

State two reasons for using adjustable props in formwork construction. (i) ease in making final adjustments to height of formwork prior to concrete placement. ease of stripping, ensuring minimal damage to concrete or formwork.

(ii)

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SECTION 2

11.

Sketch a vertical sectional elevation through the formwork for a concrete beam supported on unit type scaffolding, showing: scaffolding support; adjustable heads; bearers; runners; standards; braces; joists; formply; brace; and waling.

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12.

Show on the sketch below how you should support the raking riser boards from the wall string to ensure rigidity.

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