Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

ename.---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected.b Banur 6 rows selected. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.----------.-------------. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno. OPERATORS:1.-----------------------. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".ename "employee name".sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.----------------.-----------.-------------.---------.-------------.----------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. 2.esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1. COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.edep "employee department" from emp1.-------------.----------------- . employee no employee name employee department -----------------. SQL> select * from emp1.

---------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.---------.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.-------------.-------------------.d Pat #127.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.------------.-------------------.-----------.'Sales').---------.-------------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.----------.b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .--------.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.------------------------.---------.-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.-------.-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.------------.----------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-----------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.------------.

---------. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.-----------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.b Banur 6 rows selected.-------------. SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2.-------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 . EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------.4.----------. B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2. EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.

SQL> insert into emp2 values(100. CHECK 2.They are used to maintain the consistency of the database. Table Created. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY.esalary number(10)). Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL . EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null.''. C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2. EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------. .Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation.8000). 1 row created. UNIQUE 3.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table.We have three categories of constraints: 1.90 30 10 rows selected. Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table.-----------. So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3).

CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well. Table Created.EMP_ENO_PK) . Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital. UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname). SQL> select empno. Table altered.esalary from emp1.initcap(ename).ename varchar2(30). At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3). EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------. B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table. Numeric Functions 3. Character Functions 2. alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT.primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno). Date Functions 4.esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)). PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL.---------------------------10 Amit 10000 . Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1. Miscellaneous Functions 5. Table altered. At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000). Table altered.

esalary from emp1. SQL> select ltrim ('amit'. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'. SQL> select empno.'it') from emp1 where empno=10.'am') from emp1 where empno=10.lower(ename). iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left. iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected.upper(ename).esalary from emp1. v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right. RT -am .---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected. LT -it 1 rows selected. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected. Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase. SQL> select empno.

10. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------.---50 nehu 1 rows selected. SQL> select empno.'*') from dual.'a'. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'.1 rows selected. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters.5) from dual.'i'.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected. SQL> select empno.4. SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'. EMPNO TRAN --------. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected.length(ename) from emp1.translate('neha'.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20. ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string. EMPNO REPLAC --------. SQL> select empno. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected.'u') from emp1 where empno=50. replace('sumit'. xi) RPAD:- .

23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2.SQL> select rpad('amit'.3) from dual.23) from dual.'e') from dual.23) from dual.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100. RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected. INSTR('HELLO'. ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100.'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'.'*')from dual. FLOOR(100.'world') from dual. . xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.10. CEIL(100.

MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual.2) from dual.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23.467235.2) from dual. TRUNC(23. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- . ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii.'15-oct-09') from dual. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate.2) -----------------23.6) from dual.3) from dual.POWER(2. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate. SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i. MOD(10.461235.461235.467235.2) -----------------23.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23. ROUND(23.

NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 . TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii. USER:SQL> select user from dual. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i.4819736 iv. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual.'Sunday') from dual. UID --------20 ii. UID:SQL> select uid from dual. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii.1. TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual. NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate.

Right Outer Join iii. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1. SQL> select * from emp. Full Outer Join 4.--------- .--------------. Lets have a look at both the tables i. COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables. Self Join 1. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. Outer Join i. We have following type of joins:1. emp and dep table. Non Equii join 3. Left Outer Join ii. Equii join 2.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables.e. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.

dep where emp. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.losal and s.dname from emp. SQL> select * from emp2. NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i.emp. emp2 and salgrade table.esal between s.dno.e.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2.--------------.ename. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------.hisal.eno.salgrade s where e.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3.enmae.s.esal.dep. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.grade from emp2 e.emp. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------------.-----------------. .dno=dep.--------.e.eno.dno.e.

LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.--------------. ii.dno=dep.dno(+)=dep. SQL> select eno.--------------. 1 row created.dno(+).--------------.dname from emp.dname from emp.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected.dep where emp.dname from emp.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40.'ADMIN'. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.enmae. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.emp. even if there are no matches in the left table.enmae. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------. Return all rows from the right table.emp.--------------. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno. even if there are no matches in the right table.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables.dep where emp.--------------- .dno=dep.dno. SQL> select * from dep. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.emp. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------.--------.dno(+)=dep.enmae.ENO ENMAE DNO --------.'Pkl').dno. ii.--------.dno.--------------.dno and emp.dno.dep where emp.

ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself.eno.designation. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2).--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries.mgr=e2.emp3 e2 where e1. ENAME ---------C .ename.e1.1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected. ENO ENAME --------.e1.eno. SQL> select * from emp2. SQL> select * from emp3.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected. SQL> select e1.---------.ename from emp3 e1. 4.--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2.e2. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.

esalary from emp1.---------. a virtual table. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------.eadd from emp1.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno.empname. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. SQL> select eno.---------. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2).empsal) as select empno. It does not physically exist.-------------. .-----------. MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is.--------------10 Amit #1276.-------------.-------------. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1.ename.d 60 Rajat #127.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE.ename. SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2).---------. View created.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765.-------------. in essence. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. it is created by a query joining one or more tables.-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. SQL> select * from emp10.ename.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. Rather.b Banur 1.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY.

eno.enmae.d. View created. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp. View dropped.dno.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10.--------------.dno. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.View created. SQL> select * from emp10.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected.dname from emp e. SQL> select * from dep. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e.--------------.--------------. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES .dep d where e.dno=d. SQL> select * from emp10.e. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2. SQL> select * from emp10.e.

---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX . DNO DNAME DLOC --------.'HR'.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname).I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50. Index created. 1 row created. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from dep.--------------.ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT. SQL> select * from dep.--------------. Index created.--------------.'Pat').'HR'.'HR1'. insert into dep values(50.'CHD'). DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> insert into dep values(50.dloc).

Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon.. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable. DECLARE salary number(4). The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. if you want to store the current salary of an employee. one of which is a not null. 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. you must initialize the variable when it is declared. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. INTO statement. For example: The below example declares two variables.SQL> drop index d1. • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. DECLARE salary number (6). value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”. 1) We can directly assign values to variables. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6. For example. Index dropped. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. where you can initialize a variable. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. you can use a variable. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below.

so cannot be accessed in the outer block i. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block. 13> / . • • Local variables .These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks.put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. DECLARE var_salary number(6). 6> var_num2 := 200. dbms_output. 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks. it cannot be accessed after line 11. The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100. 11> END.e. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types. The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block. 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id. Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks.e. 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. 3> var_num2 number. 12> END. / ' || var_salary). Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen. var_emp_id number(6) = 1116. Therefore. dbms_output.put_line(var_salary). The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block.[WHERE condition]. Global variables .These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks.

. You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value. For example. Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program. You cannot assign a value later. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10. iterative statements. The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change. dbms_output. to declare salary_increase.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. BEGIN salary_increase := 100. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it. END.e. VALUE . DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3).PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program. If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. you will get a error. The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error. • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i.put_line (salary_increase). PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. similar to a variable name. A constant is a user-defined literal value.

END IF. END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1.g declare num number(3). ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. END IF. ELSE statement 2.g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’. statement 2. END IF. 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. statement 2. 4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1.put_line(‘God’). e. ELSE statement 4. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. prompt . else dbms_output.put_line(‘No God’). END IF. if num>4 then dbms_output. end. ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2. begin num:=5. ELSE statement 4.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1. / Switch case: e.

1) Initialise a variable before the loop body.declare num1 number:=&num. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations. End case. Else Dbms_output.put_line(‘two’). The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop. {or EXIT WHEN condition. Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output.put_line(‘Wrong’). An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop. End. / Or Declare Num:=2. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates. end case. . EXIT. end.} END LOOP.put_line(‘One’). begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output. / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times.put_line(‘Sunday’). When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop. when 2 then dbms_output.

end. loop ctr:=ctrl+1. dbms_output. END LOOP.3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop. end loop.put_line(‘the loop begins’). If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. The iteration continues until the condition becomes false.g . exit when ctr>10. The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration.put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). e. The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements. / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true. the statements in the loop is executed only once. begin dbms_output.g declare ctr number(2):=0. e. 2) Increment the variable in the loop.

val2 LOOP statements.. end. val2 . end loop. Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given.g .declare ctr number(2):=1. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity. The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1.put_line(‘The while loop begin’). 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly. while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output.End integer value. ctr:=ctr+1. • • val1 .’999’). The counter is always incremented by 1. The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer. / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times. Simple for loop e.put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section.Start integer value. begin dbms_output. END LOOP. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly.

ELSIF.put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i). If condition1 is true.. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false. then statements1 is executed. 2. End loop.5 loop dbms_output..put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr).begin for I in 1. / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1. THEN. and statements3 are PL/SQL statements. The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF. statements1. statements2. End loop. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic. End. end loop. end. where 1. End. . ELSE.10 loop Dbms_output. then statements2 is executed. This conditional logic flows as follows: 1. / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1. / Table 1 You may use the IF. 2. End if.6 loop If MOD(I. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true..put_line(‘hello’).2)= 0 then Dbms_output.

----------------OSTATUS ---------- .PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 10 END IF. 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0. 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'.3. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 . then statements3 is executed. ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------. 11 END. 15 END IF. 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.40. 17 END. 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'. If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85. 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master.--------. 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'. --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). 3 v_b Number.

3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1. 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1. 6 dbms_output.1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10). 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line(a). 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1. 9 end if. SQL> select * from order_master. 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop .--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. ONO ITEM --------. 7 exit when(a>5). Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1.----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. 10end. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 8 end loop. 9 end.

put_line(vdname||' '||vloc). 9end.6 a:=a+1.vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'. .loc into vdname. 7 dbms_output. / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10).sal%type. begin select dname.--. 8 end loop.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number.%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. dbms_output. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp. end. Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp. / Working with attribute:. vloc varchar2(10). ENO ENAME -----.put_line(vsal).put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).put_line(a). begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'. 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. dbms_output. dbms_output. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype. end. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. end.

elsif erec.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block.g of pre defined exc. if erec. / Exceptions:. dbms_output.job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec. Some common exception are: 1.sal%type.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E.dname||' '||drec. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp. begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'. dbms_output.G declare vsal emp.put_line('No such emp exists in the table:'). end.loc). exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. vraise number.empno. end if.sal%type. User defined exc E. . Pre defined exception 2. end. end.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype.put_line(drec.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers.

DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p . end.put_line('too many rows . 7 select ename. new 6: empno:=4.eno %type. employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno.salary from emp where eno=empno. 9 dbms_output.. 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output. 4 salary emp.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). 3 empno emp. there is no data for this employee no.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary).put_line('too many rows are there for this end').put_line('there is no data for this employee no. 3 o_pending Exception.esal %type. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output.ddate %type. 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno..begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master. 15 end. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------. / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp.'). 8 dbms_output. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output. dbms_output.esal into name. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master.---------.:').ename %type. new 6: empno:=12.put_line('employee name is:' ||name).

8 end if. record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('your order is still pending'). 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 end if.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp. 10 end. ENO ENAME --------. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending.4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount .put_line('record found'). 7 else 8 dbms_output. SQL> select * from emp. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output. 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2. ENO ENAME --------. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp.eno %type.put_line('record is not found'). 12 end.

ENO ENAME --------. 17 / .---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee.ename %type. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1.SQL> declare 2 no emp. 12 end if.name. 8 end. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 14 end loop. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500. 15 close emp_crsr. SQL> declare 2 no employee.eno %type.-------------------. 3 name employee. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no.--------. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected. 4 salary employee. 7 end if.esal from employee. 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 16 end. 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------.salary. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno. SQL> select * from emp.--------. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr.ename.put_line(SQL %rowcount).esal %type.--------------.eno %type.

10 else 11 dbms_output.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job. 14 end. 12 end if. 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output.'clerk'). 9 end if. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 13 end loop.p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno. 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10. .put_line('salary is less').ename.put_line('record fetch'). 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1. Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number. 10 close emp_cursor.esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output. 11 end.put_line('salary is average'). ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp.PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp.

UPDATE. . Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. and %ISOPEN. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table.. but they differ in the way they are accessed. but can process only one row at a time. A cursor can hold more than one row. and manipulate this data. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. UPDATE and SELECT statements. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. INSERT. UPDATE. implicit statements are created to process these statements. which is called as current row. %NOTFOUND. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed.. and DELETE statements are executed. INSERT. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. %ROWCOUNT.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. When you execute INSERT. For example. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. When a SELECT. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE. only one record can be processed at a time.

DELETE.Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT. If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'. the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated. UPDATE. Else we get a message like for example.INTO statement return at least one row. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT …. The return value is FALSE. if DML statements like INSERT. The return value is TRUE. . END IF. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT ….put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated'). if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. if a DML statement like INSERT.INTO statement return at least one row. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. END. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5). 'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE.INTO statement do not return a row.put_line('None of the salaries where updated'). if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT.INTO statement does not return a row. In the above PL/SQL Block. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT…. dbms_output.

In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. How to access an Explicit Cursor? . select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees.

create a cursor. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. 1) Open the cursor.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. FETCH cursor. 3) Close the cursor. · If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. the first row becomes the current row. END. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list. When a cursor is opened. CLOSE cursor. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. records. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records. the pointer moves to the next row. process the records. . General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. If you want to fetch after the last row. the program will throw an error. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. BEGIN OPEN cursor. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row. On every fetch statement. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name.

we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 .Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype.put_line (emp_rec.6. Third. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN. Second. we are closing the cursor in line no 11. if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row. 7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. FALSE. 12> END. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10. ' || In the above example.first_name || ' emp_rec. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE. 11> CLOSE emp_cur. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10. Fourth. FALSE. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. if fetch statement doesn’t return a row. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors.last_name). . TRUE. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND . 10> dbms_output. Fifth. FETCH and CLOSE Statements. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor. Sixth.

The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. we need to reverse the logic of the program. If we do so. 8> END IF. In line no 11. 12> dbms_output. 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. So use these attributes in appropriate instances. .first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. 15> END. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. In line no 6. salary FROM emp_tbl. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. it directly moves to line no 9.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. TRUE. last_name.salary). we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. 14> END LOOP.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. If there is no rows found the program would exit. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP. if there is a row found the program continues. if the cursor is not opened in the program. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor.put_line(emp_cur. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name.

last_name.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. In the loop. if true the program moves into the while loop. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors. 17> END. fetch and close the cursor. need not open. 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values. last_name.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name.Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop. else you will skip the first row. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 8> END IF.salary). 5> BEGIN . 16> END LOOP. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. END LOOP. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. 18> / In the above example.. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement.put_line(emp_cur. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row. salary FROM emp_tbl.. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. salary FROM emp_tbl. before fetching the record again.

This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages.put_line(emp_cur. The body consists or declaration section.2).product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur. NUMBER(5. We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways. 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY.97) 10 11 12 END. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block. A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created. A procedure has a header and a body. By using FOR Loop in your program. NUMBER(4.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur. the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed. The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure. DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 . 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ).salary). 10> END LOOP.6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output. 12> / In the above example. What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task.0). 11>END. END LOOP. the cursor is opened. you can reduce the number of lines in the program.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price. FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec.

IS . The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks. 1) From the SQL prompt. 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. salary FROM emp_tbl. 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name. EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name. 12>END. By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code.last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur. The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure.salary). 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. 11> END LOOP. procedure_name.A procedure may or may not return any value. . 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype.put_line(emp_cur. last_name.

IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp.esal %type) T emp.NOTE: In the examples given above. SQL> execute raise_salary(2). salary OUT emp. 6 / Procedure created.eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode.salary from emp where eno=no. 5 end emp_detail. OUT mode.esal into name.eno %type.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename. we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program. 5 / Procedure created. SQL> select * from emp. . 4 end raise_salary. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp. name OUT emp.ename %type.

6 format_phone(p). 3 begin 4 p:=&p. 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p.putline("Area Code Is: "||p). 8 end.The first three digit/ characters are of area code. 7 dbms_output. 6 / Procedure created. 8 dbms_output. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)). Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code.SQL> declare 2 no emp.3). 4 salary emp. . employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 3 name emp.esal%type.put_line('employee salary is: '||salary).ename %type. 5 end format_phone. 7 emp_detail(no.put_line('employee name is: '||name). 9 dbms_output. Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890. new 6: no:=3.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p). 5 dbms_output. 5 begin 6 no:=&eno.name. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno.1.eno %type.salary). SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10). 10* end. Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure.

7 return sal. 8 end getsal.eno %type) 2 return number. 3 is 4 sal number. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. new 4: p=1722665626.--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp.. . Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement.---------. SQL> select * from emp. Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [.])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p.. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value. .

6 .deptno = p_deptno.2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) . 2.2) comm NUMBER(6. 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 8 return (cnt). SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT. 8 / Function created. table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6. 9 end.where 1. OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present. create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0. 6 RETURN x. 9 . 10 . 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9. 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e. 4 . 7 END ss_thresh. 8 . The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 5 .PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 7 . 3. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter. 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function .2). 3 END.

enhance. exceptions. cursors.CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual. 9 / Function created. and subprograms. sometimes the body is unnecessary. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER. 3 v_area NUMBER. variables. variables. Packages usually have two parts. 8 / Function created.7525 Packaage:. 6 RETURN v_area. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table. a specification and a body. 7 END circle_area. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package. 8 END average_salary." You can debug. It declares the types.A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual. .14. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. or replace a package body without changing the package spec. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. constants. 2). 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee.

Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit. 1. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. a cursor. which are hidden from code outside the package. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. deptno NUMBER). / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. END emp_actions. These are potentially available to all database users. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. 4. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. The package body contains the actual code. and two employment procedures. 3. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp.To create package specs. You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. If necessary.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. 2. 5. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. The spec holds public declarations. such pragmas must follow the function spec). . mgr NUMBER. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. job VARCHAR2. which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. comm NUMBER. 6. The package specification contains information about the package. salary REAL).body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. 7. sal NUMBER. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps.

comm NUMBER. END emp_actions. you must use dot notation. SQL> . SYSDATE.type_name package_name. Salary Number(8. job.subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -. you create the body of the package. The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification. it is executed once when the package is initially referenced. Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). Start_Date DATE. Table created. mgr. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq.object_name package_name. sal. To reference the package's subprograms and objects. mgr NUMBER. End_Date DATE. deptno). / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. comm.job VARCHAR2.2). END hire_employee. ename. Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. sal NUMBER.NEXTVAL. If you perform any initialization in the package body.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. END fire_employee.

Start_Date. Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name. 'Cat'. to_date('19960917'.'YYYYMMDD').'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Green'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD').prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('08'. Start_Date.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / .'Jason'.'Celia'. Last_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name. Start_Date. E 2 values('02'. Start_Date. 'Black'. Last_Name. to_date('19840115'. t 3 / 1 row created. E 2 values ('01'. t 3 / 1 row created. to_date('19760321'. First_Name. to_date('19821024'.'YYYYMMDD'). to_date('19870730'.'YYYYMMDD').'David'. 'Smith'. 'Mathews'. Start_Date. t 3 / 1 row created. E 2 values('07'. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name.'Alison'. to_date('19901231'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name. First_Name. to_date('19960725'. 'Rice'. E 2 values('06'.'James'. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.'Linda'. to_date('19781212'.'James'. t 3 / 1 row created.'Robert'. E 2 values('03'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name. Start_Date.SQL> -. t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'YYYYMMDD'). t 3 / 1 row created. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Larry'. E 2 values('04'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('05'. First_Name. First_Name. First_Name. 'Martin'.

SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer. 4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334. 7 RETURN(new_qty). 16 17 END inv_pck_spec. first_name)values('01'.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.---------.inv_adjust(2000).78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id. 8 END inv_count. SQL> SQL> select * from employee. SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec. .inv_count(2). 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer). SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec. Call completed. 5 / Package created.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.new_qty).56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.salary) values ('01'. 13 END. 'new'). 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.---------25-JUL-06 1234. 4 END inv_pck_spec. 6 INSERT into employee (id. 18 / Package body created. 14 BEGIN -.

78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.---------21-FEB-86 6661.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.---------.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped.78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected. . SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.

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