Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

edep "employee department" from emp1. employee no employee name employee department -----------------.-------------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20.ename "employee name".---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno.-------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.b Banur 6 rows selected.----------.---------.ename.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.-----------. OPERATORS:1. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------.----------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.-----------------------.----------------.----------------- .-------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. 2.-------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------. SQL> select * from emp1.

sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.-------------------.b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.'Sales').-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276.--------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-------.------------.------------.-------------------.d Pat #127. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.---------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.-------------.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-----------.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.------------.----------------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765.----------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-------------.---------.---------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.------------.-----------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.------------------------.---------.

-------------.-----------.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------. EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.---------.b Banur 6 rows selected. B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2.4.----------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 .

1 row created. .Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation.''.-----------. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table. C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2.esalary number(10)). EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields.We have three categories of constraints: 1. Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL . CHECK 2. EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null.90 30 10 rows selected. So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3).They are used to maintain the consistency of the database. Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------. SQL> insert into emp2 values(100. Table Created. UNIQUE 3.8000).

Table altered.---------------------------10 Amit 10000 . Table altered. SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL.esalary from emp1. B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table.EMP_ENO_PK) . At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000). UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname).esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)).CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well.ename varchar2(30). Date Functions 4. Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital. EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------. PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). SQL> select empno. Character Functions 2.primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno). Numeric Functions 3. Table Created.initcap(ename). Miscellaneous Functions 5. alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT. At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3). Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1. Table altered.

'am') from emp1 where empno=10. RT -am . iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. SQL> select empno. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'. SQL> select empno.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected. v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected.upper(ename).lower(ename). Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase.'it') from emp1 where empno=10.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected.esalary from emp1.esalary from emp1. SQL> select ltrim ('amit'. LT -it 1 rows selected. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left.

replace('sumit'.---50 nehu 1 rows selected.'u') from emp1 where empno=50.translate('neha'.'*') from dual. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character.1 rows selected. xi) RPAD:- . ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string.4. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------. SQL> select empno.'a'.'i'.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20.5) from dual. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected. SQL> select empno. SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'.10. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected.length(ename) from emp1. EMPNO TRAN --------.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected. EMPNO REPLAC --------. SQL> select empno. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string.

'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual. CEIL(100.'*')from dual. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'.'e') from dual.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100. ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100.SQL> select rpad('amit'. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2. RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected.'world') from dual.23) from dual.3) from dual.10. FLOOR(100.23) from dual. INSTR('HELLO'. .

'15-oct-09') from dual.POWER(2.461235.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual.2) from dual.467235.467235. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate.461235. ROUND(23.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- . SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate. TRUNC(23. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii. MOD(10.6) from dual.2) -----------------23.3) from dual.2) -----------------23.2) from dual. MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.

4819736 iv. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i.'Sunday') from dual. TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii. UID:SQL> select uid from dual. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 . NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v. TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual. TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii. USER:SQL> select user from dual. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. UID --------20 ii.1.

COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables.--------------. SQL> select * from emp. Outer Join i. Full Outer Join 4. Self Join 1.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. Left Outer Join ii. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1. Lets have a look at both the tables i. Non Equii join 3.--------- . EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables.e. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. emp and dep table. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. We have following type of joins:1. Right Outer Join iii. Equii join 2. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1.

--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------.s.e.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.dep where emp.--------.esal.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp.emp.e.eno. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dno=dep. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.dname from emp.esal between s.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.eno. NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i.emp. SQL> select * from emp2.salgrade s where e.e.-----------------.--------------.hisal.losal and s. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.enmae.grade from emp2 e.--------------.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2. .ename. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------.dno. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.dno. emp2 and salgrade table.dep.

ENO ENMAE DNO --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i.dno.enmae. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.dno=dep.dno(+)=dep.enmae.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40. 1 row created. even if there are no matches in the left table.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.dname from emp.dno and emp.emp. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.dep where emp. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dep where emp.emp.--------------.--------------. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------. SQL> select eno.--------.dno=dep.'ADMIN'.--------------.--------.--------------- .emp.--------. SQL> select * from dep.'Pkl'). even if there are no matches in the right table. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.dno. Return all rows from the right table.--------------.dno.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables.enmae.--------------. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.dno.dname from emp.dep where emp.dname from emp. ii.dno(+)=dep. ii.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dno(+).

--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2. ENO ENAME --------. 4. SQL> select e1. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2).ename from emp3 e1. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected. ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------.designation. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself.ename.e1.--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries. ENAME ---------C .emp3 e2 where e1. SQL> select * from emp3.e2.eno.---------.eno. SQL> select * from emp2.e1.1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected.mgr=e2.

ename.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1. it is created by a query joining one or more tables. .sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2).-------------.esalary from emp1.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2). MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is.---------.d 60 Rajat #127. SQL> select eno. Rather.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno.empname.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. a virtual table.---------.---------. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------.--------------10 Amit #1276.-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-----------.-------------. It does not physically exist.b Banur 1. SQL> select * from emp10.empsal) as select empno.eadd from emp1. View created. in essence.ename.-------------.ename.-------------.

SQL> select * from dep.--------------.--------------.e.--------------. View created. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.dno=d.dep d where e. View dropped.View created. SQL> select * from emp10. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES .e. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2. SQL> select * from emp10.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e.dno.enmae.eno.dname from emp e.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10.d. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dno. SQL> select * from emp10.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp.

'HR'.'HR1'.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname). Index created. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from dep.ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX .'CHD').--------------.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT.dloc).I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50. SQL> insert into dep values(50.--------------.--------------. SQL> select * from dep.'HR'. 1 row created. insert into dep values(50. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.'Pat'). DNO DNAME DLOC --------. Index created.

• • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. DECLARE salary number(4). if you want to store the current salary of an employee. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . you can use a variable. The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. one of which is a not null. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6. For example: The below example declares two variables. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon. For example. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable. DECLARE salary number (6). 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”.SQL> drop index d1.. value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification. where you can initialize a variable. The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. Index dropped. you must initialize the variable when it is declared. INTO statement. 1) We can directly assign values to variables.

Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. 6> var_num2 := 200. it cannot be accessed after line 11. Therefore. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id.These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks. 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks.put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. • • Local variables . 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. 3> var_num2 number. var_emp_id number(6) = 1116. Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen.e. The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types.e. 12> END. Global variables . The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block.[WHERE condition]. 13> / . The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block.put_line(var_salary).These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks. so cannot be accessed in the outer block i. DECLARE var_salary number(6). / ' || var_salary). 11> END. dbms_output. dbms_output. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100. 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number.

If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section. . Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program. If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error. to declare salary_increase. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%.e. dbms_output. END. You cannot assign a value later.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it. VALUE . The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10. For example. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3). BEGIN salary_increase := 100. similar to a variable name. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. iterative statements. • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i. you will get a error.put_line (salary_increase). Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value. The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change.PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program. A constant is a user-defined literal value. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements.

ELSE statement 4.g declare num number(3). END IF. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. statement 2. END IF. statement 2. else dbms_output. end. END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. begin num:=5. ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1. 4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1. END IF. ELSE statement 2. e.g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’. 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1.put_line(‘No God’). / Switch case: e. if num>4 then dbms_output. ELSE statement 4. prompt .put_line(‘God’). END IF.

put_line(‘Sunday’). Else Dbms_output. end case.put_line(‘Wrong’). when 2 then dbms_output.put_line(‘two’). An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop. Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates. / Or Declare Num:=2. {or EXIT WHEN condition. 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times. End.put_line(‘One’). otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations. end. The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. EXIT. begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output.} END LOOP. End case. These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop. .declare num1 number:=&num. 2) Increment the variable in the loop.

3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly.g . e. end loop. 2) Increment the variable in the loop.put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition.put_line(‘the loop begins’). / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true. loop ctr:=ctrl+1.g declare ctr number(2):=0. The iteration continues until the condition becomes false.3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop. e. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. the statements in the loop is executed only once. The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration. end. dbms_output. exit when ctr>10. END LOOP. The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements. begin dbms_output.

The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1. end.declare ctr number(2):=1.’999’). / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times.End integer value.put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. END LOOP.Start integer value. ctr:=ctr+1.val2 LOOP statements. The counter is always incremented by 1.. begin dbms_output. The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer. Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. • • val1 . while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output.g . val2 . 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity. end loop. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section.put_line(‘The while loop begin’). Simple for loop e.

ELSE. 2.put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i). If condition1 is true. end.2)= 0 then Dbms_output. 2.put_line(‘hello’). and statements3 are PL/SQL statements. / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1. then statements1 is executed.. End loop. end loop. statements2. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false. . where 1. End. THEN.. / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1. End. then statements2 is executed. / Table 1 You may use the IF.put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr). The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF.5 loop dbms_output. ELSIF.6 loop If MOD(I. statements1. End if. End loop.10 loop Dbms_output.begin for I in 1.. This conditional logic flows as follows: 1.

We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master. 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'. If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0. 16 DBMS_OUTPUT.--------.----------------OSTATUS ---------- . --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). 11 END. 10 END IF. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT. SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 . 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'.40.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). 15 END IF. ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------. 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'.3. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'. 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'. then statements3 is executed. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . 3 v_b Number. 17 END.

Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1. 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop . 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1. 6 dbms_output. 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1.--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 end. 7 exit when(a>5). SQL> select * from order_master. 9 end if.put_line(a).1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10). ONO ITEM --------.----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 10end. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1. 8 end loop.

7 dbms_output.6 a:=a+1. 9end. end. Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp.sal%type. 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp. dbms_output. 8 end loop.put_line(vsal).put_line(a). begin select dname. end.%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. / Working with attribute:. / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10).put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'. dbms_output.loc into vdname.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number. ENO ENAME -----. begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype. dbms_output. . begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.put_line(vdname||' '||vloc).--. end. vloc varchar2(10).

sal%type. elsif erec. / Exceptions:.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'. begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'.sal%type.put_line('No such emp exists in the table:').dname||' '||drec. dbms_output. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp. Pre defined exception 2. User defined exc E.empno.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500. end. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. Some common exception are: 1.g of pre defined exc. . vraise number.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block. end. dbms_output. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype.put_line(drec.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). end.loc).job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers.G declare vsal emp. if erec. end if. update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec.

SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno. end.:'). DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p . 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output.esal %type.put_line('too many rows .--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master. new 6: empno:=4. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output. 3 o_pending Exception.salary from emp where eno=empno. 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno. new 6: empno:=12. 9 dbms_output.put_line('too many rows are there for this end').put_line('there is no data for this employee no.begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary). there is no data for this employee no.ddate %type.esal into name. / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp.. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output.'). employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 4 salary emp. 3 empno emp.---------..eno %type. dbms_output. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------. 15 end.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).put_line('employee name is:' ||name). 8 dbms_output. 7 select ename.ename %type.

4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4. 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2.put_line('record is not found'). 12 end. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output.put_line('record found'). 10 end. ENO ENAME --------.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp. SQL> select * from emp. ENO ENAME --------. 7 else 8 dbms_output. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending. 8 end if. 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no. 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output.eno %type. 9 end if. record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount .put_line('your order is still pending').

ENO ENAME --------.--------------. 4 salary employee. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500. 15 close emp_crsr.name.SQL> declare 2 no emp. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------.--------. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no.esal %type.put_line(SQL %rowcount). 16 end.--------. SQL> select * from emp.eno %type.ename %type. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee. 12 end if.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected. 8 end.salary. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 14 end loop. 3 name employee. 7 end if.-------------------. SQL> declare 2 no employee. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.esal from employee. 17 / . 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no.eno %type.ename.

Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp. 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output. .esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job. 14 end.put_line('record fetch'). 9 end if. 13 end loop.put_line('salary is less').'clerk'). Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number.ename. 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1. 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10.p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp.PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output. 12 end if. 10 else 11 dbms_output. 10 close emp_cursor.put_line('salary is average'). 11 end. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it.. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. UPDATE. UPDATE and SELECT statements. For example. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table. INSERT. Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. but can process only one row at a time. but they differ in the way they are accessed. %NOTFOUND. and %ISOPEN. and manipulate this data.. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. which is called as current row. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. INSERT. only one record can be processed at a time. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block. and DELETE statements are executed. . When you execute INSERT. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. %ROWCOUNT. implicit statements are created to process these statements. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. A cursor can hold more than one row. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE. UPDATE. When a SELECT.

The return value is FALSE. If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. END IF. 'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table.put_line('None of the salaries where updated'). BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT …. END. . UPDATE. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT.INTO statement do not return a row. if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT.INTO statement return at least one row. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5). DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT …. In the above PL/SQL Block.put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated'). if a DML statement like INSERT.INTO statement return at least one row. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT….Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. dbms_output. The return value is TRUE.INTO statement does not return a row. Else we get a message like for example. DELETE. if DML statements like INSERT.

It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000. How to access an Explicit Cursor? . FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000. We can provide a suitable name for the cursor.

If you want to fetch after the last row. 3) Close the cursor. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records. the first row becomes the current row. records. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. . General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. the program will throw an error. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. · If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. 1) Open the cursor. END. CLOSE cursor. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. BEGIN OPEN cursor. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. process the records. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list. FETCH cursor. create a cursor. On every fetch statement. When a cursor is opened. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. the pointer moves to the next row.

7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. 11> CLOSE emp_cur.put_line (emp_rec. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND .first_name || ' emp_rec. . Fifth. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE. FALSE. we are closing the cursor in line no 11. FETCH and CLOSE Statements. TRUE. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. 12> END. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype. Sixth. We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. Fourth. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN. if fetch statement doesn’t return a row.6. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10. 10> dbms_output. 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. Second. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row. ' || In the above example. Third. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10. FALSE.last_name).

9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. In line no 11. it directly moves to line no 9. 14> END LOOP. TRUE.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. If we do so. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. we need to reverse the logic of the program. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row.salary). if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE.put_line(emp_cur. 15> END. So use these attributes in appropriate instances. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 8> END IF. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. 12> dbms_output. salary FROM emp_tbl. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP. . Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. If there is no rows found the program would exit. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. last_name. if the cursor is not opened in the program. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. if there is a row found the program continues.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. In line no 6.

17> END. 18> / In the above example. fetch and close the cursor. last_name. 16> END LOOP. else you will skip the first row. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row. salary FROM emp_tbl. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. last_name. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement. 5> BEGIN . 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype.. 8> END IF. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name.salary). Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values.. END LOOP.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. if true the program moves into the while loop. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row.Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop. need not open. before fetching the record again. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors. 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. In the loop. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. salary FROM emp_tbl. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur.put_line(emp_cur.

DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 . execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block. The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure.salary). NUMBER(5. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price. FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec.2). A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. 11>END.97) 10 11 12 END.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur.put_line(emp_cur.0). you can reduce the number of lines in the program. 10> END LOOP. the cursor is opened.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur.product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur. Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways. END LOOP. 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY. What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task. NUMBER(4. By using FOR Loop in your program. the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed. The body consists or declaration section. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages.6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output. A procedure has a header and a body. 12> / In the above example. 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created.

A procedure may or may not return any value. salary FROM emp_tbl. 11> END LOOP. IS . By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code. 12>END. The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional. EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name. . 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name.put_line(emp_cur. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. 1) From the SQL prompt. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure. last_name. 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output.salary). The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section. 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks.last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur. procedure_name.

eno %type. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode. 4 end raise_salary. 6 / Procedure created.NOTE: In the examples given above. SQL> execute raise_salary(2).esal %type) T emp.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename. .salary from emp where eno=no.eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements. SQL> select * from emp.ename %type.esal into name. name OUT emp. 5 end emp_detail. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program. 5 / Procedure created. salary OUT emp. OUT mode.

The first three digit/ characters are of area code.esal%type. Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890.eno %type. 7 dbms_output. 5 end format_phone. employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('employee salary is: '||salary). new 6: no:=3. 6 / Procedure created.SQL> declare 2 no emp.ename %type. 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p. Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure.salary).putline("Area Code Is: "||p). 4 salary emp. 10* end. 9 dbms_output.1. 7 emp_detail(no. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)).3). SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10).put_line('employee name is: '||name). 3 name emp. 8 end. 8 dbms_output.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p). . 5 dbms_output. 5 begin 6 no:=&eno. 3 begin 4 p:=&p.name. 6 format_phone(p). Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code.

ENO ENAME ESAL --------. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value. new 4: p=1722665626. .])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no. Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee.---------. Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 7 return sal. SQL> select * from emp. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p. 3 is 4 sal number.eno %type) 2 return number.--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp.. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 8 end getsal. . The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [..

2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) . 5 .2) comm NUMBER(6.deptno = p_deptno. 8 / Function created. 8 return (cnt). 8 . table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6.PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 4 . 3. 6 RETURN x. 9 end. create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter. 9 . 7 . The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9. 2. 10 . 7 END ss_thresh. 3 END. 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function . 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e.2). 6 . OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present. SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT.where 1.

8 / Function created. or replace a package body without changing the package spec. SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual. sometimes the body is unnecessary. 3 v_area NUMBER. variables. It declares the types. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package. .14.7525 Packaage:. enhance. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. exceptions.CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. variables. Packages usually have two parts. a specification and a body. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee.A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types." You can debug. 7 END circle_area. 6 RETURN v_area. and subprograms. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. 2). 8 END average_salary. cursors. constants. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. 9 / Function created.

The spec holds public declarations. a cursor. 5. and two employment procedures. You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. such pragmas must follow the function spec). 4. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. END emp_actions. 1.To create package specs. If necessary. mgr NUMBER. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. 3. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. The package specification contains information about the package. sal NUMBER. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. These are potentially available to all database users. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. job VARCHAR2. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. The package body contains the actual code. 7. which are hidden from code outside the package. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. . deptno NUMBER). PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. salary REAL). 2. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). comm NUMBER. 6. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT. use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno.

deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. job. END fire_employee. SQL> . mgr NUMBER. End_Date DATE. ename. Salary Number(8. you must use dot notation. you create the body of the package. mgr. SYSDATE. Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. comm NUMBER.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE).object_name package_name. sal. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. it is executed once when the package is initially referenced. If you perform any initialization in the package body. The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name. comm. deptno). To reference the package's subprograms and objects.NEXTVAL. END emp_actions.type_name package_name.job VARCHAR2. Start_Date DATE.subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -. The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification.2). Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). Table created. sal NUMBER. / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. END hire_employee.

t 3 / 1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19960917'. First_Name. E 2 values('05'. t 3 / 1 row created. Start_Date. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD').'James'. Last_Name.'Celia'. Start_Date. Last_Name. 'Rice'. First_Name. E 2 values('03'. Start_Date. E 2 values ('01'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('07'.'Alison'. to_date('19821024'.'Linda'. 'Smith'. to_date('19960725'. 'Black'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Start_Date. E 2 values('06'. First_Name. t 3 / 1 row created.'YYYYMMDD'). t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19870730'. Start_Date. t 3 / 1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / . to_date('19760321'.'YYYYMMDD'). First_Name. E 2 values('08'. 'Martin'. First_Name. to_date('19901231'. to_date('19840115'.'Jason'. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values('04'. 'Mathews'. E 2 values('02'. First_Name. Last_Name. Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'Robert'. Start_Date. 'Cat'. 'Larry'. t 3 / 1 row created. to_date('19781212'. Last_Name. 'Green'. t 3 / 1 row created.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD').'David'. Start_Date.'James'.SQL> -.

SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer.package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id.78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer. 8 END inv_count. 16 17 END inv_pck_spec. 'new').78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.---------. first_name)values('01'. SQL> SQL> select * from employee.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897. 14 BEGIN -. 4 END inv_pck_spec. 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty. 18 / Package body created. SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec.inv_adjust(2000). 5 / Package created. .78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544. 4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6.salary) values ('01'.56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661.new_qty). Call completed.inv_count(2). SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.---------25-JUL-06 1234. 7 RETURN(new_qty). 13 END. 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer). 6 INSERT into employee (id.

---------.---------21-FEB-86 6661.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344. .78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected.