Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

ename "employee name".-------------.----------. 2. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------.b Banur 6 rows selected.----------------.----------. employee no employee name employee department -----------------. COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20.-------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".-----------.ename.-------------.----------------- . SQL> select * from emp1. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.-----------------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.edep "employee department" from emp1.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------. OPERATORS:1.---------.-------------.esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1.---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected.

-----------.---------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.---------.----------------.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.------------. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.---------.-------------.-------.------------.-----------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .----------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765.d Pat #127.------------.-------------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-------------------.------------.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.---------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.'Sales').sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.--------.------------------------.

EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.---------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 .4.-------------. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1.-------------. SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2.----------. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------.b Banur 6 rows selected.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.-----------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.

Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL . UNIQUE 3. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null. . EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY.8000). 1 row created. Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table.They are used to maintain the consistency of the database. SQL> insert into emp2 values(100. CHECK 2. Table Created.''.-----------.Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table. So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3). C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2.esalary number(10)).We have three categories of constraints: 1.90 30 10 rows selected. EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields.

SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL.initcap(ename).ename varchar2(30).primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno). Miscellaneous Functions 5. PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). Table altered.EMP_ENO_PK) .esalary from emp1. Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital. Character Functions 2.---------------------------10 Amit 10000 . UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname). Date Functions 4. Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1. SQL> select empno. Table Created. B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table. alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT. At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3). Table altered. Numeric Functions 3. Table altered.esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)). EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------.CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well. At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000).

SQL> select empno. SQL> select ltrim ('amit'.esalary from emp1. SQL> select empno.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected.'it') from emp1 where empno=10.'am') from emp1 where empno=10. LT -it 1 rows selected.upper(ename). SQL> select rtrim ('amit'.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected. iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right. RT -am . EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase. Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase.esalary from emp1.lower(ename).

10.length(ename) from emp1. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters.1 rows selected. SQL> select empno. ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string. SQL> select empno.'a'.5) from dual.---50 nehu 1 rows selected. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected. xi) RPAD:- .'ee') from emp1 where empno=20.'*') from dual. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string. EMPNO REPLAC --------.4.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------.'u') from emp1 where empno=50. SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'.'i'.translate('neha'. EMPNO TRAN --------. replace('sumit'. SQL> select empno. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'.

SQL> select rpad('amit'. INSTR('HELLO'.'e') from dual.3) from dual.10.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100.23) from dual. FLOOR(100.'world') from dual. CEIL(100. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'.23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2.23) from dual. . ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100.'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual. RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected.'*')from dual. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.

MOD(10. SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i.467235.2) from dual.'15-oct-09') from dual. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10.POWER(2.2) from dual.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23.461235.2) -----------------23.3) from dual.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- . MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.6) from dual. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual. TRUNC(23.2) -----------------23.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23. ROUND(23. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate.467235.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate.461235.

TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii. NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate. UID --------20 ii. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v.1.'Sunday') from dual. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. USER:SQL> select user from dual. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual. TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual. TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual. UID:SQL> select uid from dual. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 . TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii.4819736 iv.

Outer Join i.--------------. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables. Left Outer Join ii. Lets have a look at both the tables i. SQL> select * from emp. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables. emp and dep table. Self Join 1. Right Outer Join iii. We have following type of joins:1. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. Equii join 2.e. Full Outer Join 4. Non Equii join 3. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1.--------- .

e.esal.eno.grade from emp2 e.--------------.hisal.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3.dno.--------------.e.dname from emp. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.emp.dno.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.dep where emp.s.dno=dep. emp2 and salgrade table. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.losal and s. SQL> select * from emp2.emp.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade.esal between s.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.eno.-----------------.salgrade s where e.ename.enmae.e. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------. . NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dep.--------.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.

emp.dno(+).emp.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.dep where emp. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno. 1 row created. ii.--------.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected.dno=dep.dno=dep. even if there are no matches in the left table. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dname from emp.enmae.--------------.enmae.dno(+)=dep.dno(+)=dep.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables.ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------.dep where emp.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i. SQL> select * from dep.dep where emp.'ADMIN'.dname from emp.enmae.dno. ii.dno and emp.dname from emp.--------------.--------------. SQL> select eno.'Pkl'). FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dno. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.dno.--------.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40. even if there are no matches in the right table.--------------.dno.--------------.--------------- . DNO DNAME DLOC --------. Return all rows from the right table. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.emp.

e2.--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2.1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected. SQL> select * from emp2.mgr=e2. 4. ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------. ENAME ---------C .e1.emp3 e2 where e1.designation.e1. ENO ENAME --------.---------. SQL> select * from emp3. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.ename from emp3 e1.eno.ename.eno.--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2).---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected. SQL> select e1.

empsal) as select empno.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765. SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno. MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2).-------------.empname.esalary from emp1.---------.b Banur 1. Rather.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2). .---------. SQL> select * from emp10.-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. it is created by a query joining one or more tables.ename.d 60 Rajat #127.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY.-------------.---------.-------------. in essence.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. a virtual table. SQL> select eno. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. View created.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1.ename.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno. It does not physically exist.ename.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.-----------.-------------.eadd from emp1.--------------10 Amit #1276.

dep d where e.e. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. SQL> select * from emp10.e.d. View dropped. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected.--------------.dno=d.enmae.--------------.eno.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e. SQL> select * from dep. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------------. SQL> select * from emp10. View created. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES .--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10.View created. SQL> select * from emp10. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2.dno.dname from emp e.dno.

insert into dep values(50.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.'CHD'). DNO DNAME DLOC --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname). SQL> select * from dep.'HR1'.'HR'. Index created. SQL> select * from dep. 1 row created.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX .dloc).ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep. SQL> insert into dep values(50.--------------.--------------.'HR'.--------------.'Pat').---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. Index created.I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50.

DECLARE salary number(4). where you can initialize a variable. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. if you want to store the current salary of an employee. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon. INTO statement. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6. The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. Index dropped. 1) We can directly assign values to variables.. For example. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. you can use a variable. • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. you must initialize the variable when it is declared. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. DECLARE salary number (6). value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”. one of which is a not null. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT.SQL> drop index d1. For example: The below example declares two variables. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable.

so cannot be accessed in the outer block i. DECLARE var_salary number(6).put_line(var_salary). the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks.e. dbms_output. 6> var_num2 := 200. it cannot be accessed after line 11. dbms_output. Global variables . a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks. 11> END. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block.These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks. The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. 13> / . 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types. • • Local variables . Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen. The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id. 12> END. 3> var_num2 number.These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks. 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block.[WHERE condition]. Therefore. / ' || var_salary). 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100.e. 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number.put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. var_emp_id number(6) = 1116.

BEGIN salary_increase := 100. similar to a variable name. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%. The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change. You cannot assign a value later. A constant is a user-defined literal value. • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. VALUE .PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program. The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program. you will get a error. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++.e. iterative statements. If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section.put_line (salary_increase). You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value. . dbms_output. Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. to declare salary_increase.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. For example. DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3). END.

4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1. statement 2. END IF. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. ELSE statement 2. else dbms_output. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. END IF. ELSE statement 4. ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1.put_line(‘God’). statement 2.g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’. begin num:=5. END IF. END IF.put_line(‘No God’). e.g declare num number(3). END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. if num>4 then dbms_output. end. ELSE statement 4. prompt . 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. / Switch case: e.

/ Or Declare Num:=2. Else Dbms_output. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop. An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop.put_line(‘Sunday’). begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output. end. / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times. . when 2 then dbms_output. 2) Increment the variable in the loop.put_line(‘One’). end case. EXIT.put_line(‘Wrong’). Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output.put_line(‘two’). These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop. The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. End case. 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. End.declare num1 number:=&num.} END LOOP. otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations. {or EXIT WHEN condition. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates.

end loop. e. loop ctr:=ctrl+1. dbms_output. end. END LOOP. e. / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true. If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition.g declare ctr number(2):=0.g . The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements.put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly. exit when ctr>10. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. begin dbms_output. The iteration continues until the condition becomes false.put_line(‘the loop begins’).3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. the statements in the loop is executed only once.

/ 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly. Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. val2 .declare ctr number(2):=1. end.End integer value.put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer. The counter is always incremented by 1. The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1. Simple for loop e. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly. end loop. ctr:=ctr+1. • • val1 ..Start integer value.g .put_line(‘The while loop begin’).’999’). while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output.val2 LOOP statements. begin dbms_output. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section. END LOOP.

. End..2)= 0 then Dbms_output. ELSIF. .put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i). THEN. then statements2 is executed. and statements3 are PL/SQL statements. end.begin for I in 1. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic. If condition1 is true. 2. The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF. statements2. This conditional logic flows as follows: 1. End if.. End.put_line(‘hello’).6 loop If MOD(I. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true. 2. statements1. / Table 1 You may use the IF. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false. end loop. / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1. / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1.10 loop Dbms_output. then statements1 is executed. ELSE. End loop.5 loop dbms_output. End loop. where 1.put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr).

11 END. 10 END IF. ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0. 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'. If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true.3. 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'. then statements3 is executed. 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 15 END IF. We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master. 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'.--------. 17 END. SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 .40. 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT.----------------OSTATUS ---------- .PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). 3 v_b Number. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85.

----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1. 9 end if. 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1. ONO ITEM --------. 8 end loop. 6 dbms_output. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1. 7 exit when(a>5).put_line(a). SQL> select * from order_master. 9 end. 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop . 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1. 10end.--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1.1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10).

Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp. ENO ENAME -----. dbms_output. vloc varchar2(10). begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'. 9end. dbms_output. / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10). / Working with attribute:. dbms_output.vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'. begin select dname.put_line(vsal).put_line(a).put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).put_line(vdname||' '||vloc).loc into vdname. end.sal%type. 7 dbms_output.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number. . 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 8 end loop. end. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp.%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. end.6 a:=a+1.--. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype.

G declare vsal emp.g of pre defined exc. dbms_output. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp. end. / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype. Some common exception are: 1.job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000. dbms_output.empno. if erec.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'.put_line('No such emp exists in the table:').sal%type.dname||' '||drec.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). Pre defined exception 2. end.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500.sal%type. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. vraise number.loc). update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec. / Exceptions:. . begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block. end if. end.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. User defined exc E. elsif erec.put_line(drec.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E.

put_line('employee name is:' ||name). 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output.esal into name.esal %type. end. new 6: empno:=12. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno.eno %type. 3 empno emp. there is no data for this employee no. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------.:'). 7 select ename. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno. / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp.put_line('too many rows . 9 dbms_output. new 6: empno:=4.begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. dbms_output. 3 o_pending Exception.. DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p . 15 end.ddate %type. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output..---------.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary).salary from emp where eno=empno. employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('too many rows are there for this end'). 4 salary emp. 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master.put_line('there is no data for this employee no.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). 8 dbms_output.ename %type.--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master.').

put_line('record found').put_line('record is not found'). 9 end if. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 12 end. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp. 8 end if.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2. 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ENO ENAME --------.eno %type. 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no.4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4. SQL> select * from emp. 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending. ENO ENAME --------. 7 else 8 dbms_output.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount . 10 end.put_line('your order is still pending'). record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

8 end. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno.ename. 12 end if. 3 name employee.ename %type.name.SQL> declare 2 no emp.--------. 15 close emp_crsr.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output.-------------------. 17 / .---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee.--------.--------------. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr. 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no.salary. SQL> declare 2 no employee. 14 end loop.esal from employee. 4 salary employee. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. ENO ENAME --------. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------. 16 end.esal %type.eno %type. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound.put_line(SQL %rowcount). 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. SQL> select * from emp. 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.eno %type. 7 end if.

esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output.ename. Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp. 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 14 end. . 12 end if. Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number.p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno.PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job. 10 close emp_cursor.'clerk'). 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('record fetch'). 11 end. 10 else 11 dbms_output. 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp. 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output.put_line('salary is less'). 13 end loop. 9 end if.put_line('salary is average').

Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. UPDATE. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. but can process only one row at a time. %NOTFOUND. UPDATE and SELECT statements. When you execute INSERT. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE. implicit statements are created to process these statements. which is called as current row. When a SELECT. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. but they differ in the way they are accessed. %ROWCOUNT. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. A cursor can hold more than one row. INSERT. and manipulate this data. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. and %ISOPEN. only one record can be processed at a time. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations.. and DELETE statements are executed.. . INSERT. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table. UPDATE. For example.

BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. END IF. Else we get a message like for example. 'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. dbms_output. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT…. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT …. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT. the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated. if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT. UPDATE.Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. . The return value is FALSE.INTO statement return at least one row. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. END.put_line('None of the salaries where updated').INTO statement return at least one row. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE. if a DML statement like INSERT. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT …. DELETE. The return value is TRUE. In the above PL/SQL Block. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5).put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated'). If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'.INTO statement does not return a row. if DML statements like INSERT.INTO statement do not return a row.

FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. How to access an Explicit Cursor? .Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000. select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows. In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000. We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees.

· If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. When a cursor is opened. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. . 3) Close the cursor. 1) Open the cursor. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. On every fetch statement. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row. END. the pointer moves to the next row. records. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. If you want to fetch after the last row. the program will throw an error. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records. · If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. FETCH cursor. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name. BEGIN OPEN cursor. create a cursor. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. CLOSE cursor. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. process the records. the first row becomes the current row.

7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND . we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10.6. Fourth. 12> END. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation.last_name). Third. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10. Second. 11> CLOSE emp_cur. we are closing the cursor in line no 11. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype. 10> dbms_output. . We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name. if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row. Fifth. Sixth.first_name || ' emp_rec. ' || In the above example. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. FALSE. 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. if fetch statement doesn’t return a row. FETCH and CLOSE Statements.put_line (emp_rec. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . FALSE. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor. TRUE. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN.

These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. .salary). Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. So use these attributes in appropriate instances. salary FROM emp_tbl. if the cursor is not opened in the program. In line no 11.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. if there is a row found the program continues. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. If we do so. 12> dbms_output. If there is no rows found the program would exit. 14> END LOOP. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. it directly moves to line no 9. 8> END IF. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row. we need to reverse the logic of the program. last_name.put_line(emp_cur. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE. 15> END. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. TRUE. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. In line no 6.

salary FROM emp_tbl. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row. 17> END. salary FROM emp_tbl. 18> / In the above example.. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. In the loop. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. fetch and close the cursor.put_line(emp_cur. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. else you will skip the first row.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row. END LOOP. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors. Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype.salary). 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. last_name..Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop. 5> BEGIN . 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. 8> END IF. last_name.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. if true the program moves into the while loop. need not open. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. before fetching the record again. 16> END LOOP.

first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur.put_line(emp_cur. The body consists or declaration section. the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur. END LOOP.2). What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task. when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block. We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways. NUMBER(4. the cursor is opened. 10> END LOOP. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages. A procedure has a header and a body. By using FOR Loop in your program. 12> / In the above example. you can reduce the number of lines in the program.97) 10 11 12 END. DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 . 11>END. The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure.6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output. NUMBER(5. 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY.0).product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur. 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec. Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price.salary).

11> END LOOP.put_line(emp_cur. EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END. 1) From the SQL prompt.last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur. . procedure_name. 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks. IS . last_name.A procedure may or may not return any value. 12>END. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure. By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code. The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name.salary). 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name. salary FROM emp_tbl.

Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode.esal into name. 6 / Procedure created.eno %type. salary OUT emp. IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp. name OUT emp. we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program. SQL> select * from emp. 4 end raise_salary.NOTE: In the examples given above. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. OUT mode. SQL> execute raise_salary(2). This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements.esal %type) T emp.eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp.ename %type.salary from emp where eno=no. 5 / Procedure created.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename. 5 end emp_detail. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. .

5 begin 6 no:=&eno. 3 begin 4 p:=&p. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p). Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure. SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10).putline("Area Code Is: "||p). 4 salary emp. .salary).1. 6 / Procedure created. 3 name emp.name. 7 emp_detail(no. 10* end. 5 end format_phone. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)).The first three digit/ characters are of area code. 6 format_phone(p).SQL> declare 2 no emp.put_line('employee salary is: '||salary).put_line('employee name is: '||name).esal%type. 8 dbms_output. 9 dbms_output. new 6: no:=3. 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p. 8 end. 5 dbms_output. employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890. 7 dbms_output. Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code.3).eno %type.ename %type.

The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [. new 4: p=1722665626.. Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee.---------.])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 3 is 4 sal number. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement.eno %type) 2 return number. Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed..--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp. . SQL> select * from emp.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no. 8 end getsal. . 7 return sal.

PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 8 / Function created. SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT. 7 . 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9.deptno = p_deptno. 5 . 10 . 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function . 9 . 8 return (cnt). The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e.where 1. 4 .2) comm NUMBER(6. create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter. 6 RETURN x. 3. 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 9 end. table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6. OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present. 7 END ss_thresh. 6 .2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) .2). 3 END. 8 . 2.

constants. cursors. a specification and a body. exceptions. and subprograms.14. sometimes the body is unnecessary. 8 / Function created. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual. 3 v_area NUMBER. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. Packages usually have two parts. enhance. 2). The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package." You can debug. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER. . 8 END average_salary. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. 6 RETURN v_area. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. variables.CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. It declares the types. or replace a package body without changing the package spec. SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual.7525 Packaage:. 9 / Function created.A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. variables. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee. 7 END circle_area.

deptno NUMBER). comm NUMBER. and two employment procedures. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. END emp_actions.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. a cursor. 1. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. The package body contains the actual code. .To create package specs. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER).spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. job VARCHAR2. sal NUMBER. 2. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. The package specification contains information about the package. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. 5. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit. salary REAL). The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. These are potentially available to all database users. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. mgr NUMBER. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps. 6. which are hidden from code outside the package. The spec holds public declarations. such pragmas must follow the function spec). 4. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. 3. If necessary. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. 7.

deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). deptno). To reference the package's subprograms and objects. End_Date DATE. City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE).object_name package_name. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. mgr NUMBER.NEXTVAL.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). SQL> . it is executed once when the package is initially referenced.job VARCHAR2. sal NUMBER.2). / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. END hire_employee. If you perform any initialization in the package body. mgr. END fire_employee. comm. sal. Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. comm NUMBER. END emp_actions. you create the body of the package. Salary Number(8. SYSDATE. The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name.type_name package_name. The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification. Table created. you must use dot notation. job.subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -. ename. Start_Date DATE.

E 2 values('02'. 'Mathews'. E 2 values('07'. Start_Date. Start_Date. Start_Date. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('06'. 'Rice'. Last_Name. to_date('19870730'. First_Name. First_Name.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values('08'. First_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'Celia'.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> insert into Employee(ID. 'Martin'. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Cat'.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / .'Alison'. Last_Name. Start_Date. to_date('19760321'.'YYYYMMDD'). First_Name.'David'. Last_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Start_Date.'James'. First_Name. 'Smith'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values('05'. Last_Name. to_date('19781212'.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. 'Black'. t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). Start_Date. to_date('19840115'. E 2 values('04'. Start_Date. t 3 / 1 row created. to_date('19960917'.'Robert'. 'Larry'. E 2 values ('01'.'James'. E 2 values('03'. First_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name.'Jason'. Last_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. t 3 / 1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19960725'.SQL> -.'Linda'. to_date('19901231'.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name. 'Green'. Start_Date. Last_Name. First_Name. to_date('19821024'.'YYYYMMDD'). t 3 / 1 row created. t 3 / 1 row created.

---------.new_qty). Call completed. 6 INSERT into employee (id.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544. SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec. . 4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6. SQL> SQL> select * from employee. 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer).56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661. 14 BEGIN -. 13 END. SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334. 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty.---------25-JUL-06 1234.inv_adjust(2000).78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.inv_count(2).package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.salary) values ('01'. 8 END inv_count.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344. 5 / Package created. 18 / Package body created.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322. 4 END inv_pck_spec. 7 RETURN(new_qty). 'new'). first_name)values('01'.78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer. 16 17 END inv_pck_spec. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232.

78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344. .78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.---------. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.---------21-FEB-86 6661.78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped.

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