Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

ename "employee name".esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1.-------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.----------. OPERATORS:1.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.----------.-------------.----------------. 2.ename.---------.edep "employee department" from emp1.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-----------------------.-----------.-------------.b Banur 6 rows selected. COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.-------------. employee no employee name employee department -----------------. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. SQL> select * from emp1. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno.----------------- .---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".

-------------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .------------.d Pat #127.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.------------.-----------.-------------------.---------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.----------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.------------.-------------.------------.---------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276.-------------.'Sales').-----------.-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.---------.-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765.------------------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-------.---------.--------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.----------.b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.

B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2.b Banur 6 rows selected. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1. EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.4. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 .-------------.-----------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2.----------.---------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2.-------------.

.We have three categories of constraints: 1. Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table. EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY.esalary number(10)).----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table. CHECK 2.90 30 10 rows selected. UNIQUE 3.''.8000).Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null. EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields.They are used to maintain the consistency of the database. 1 row created. Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL . C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2. Table Created. SQL> insert into emp2 values(100. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------. So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3).-----------.

CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well.---------------------------10 Amit 10000 . SQL> select empno.initcap(ename). SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL. PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table. Miscellaneous Functions 5. UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname). alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT. Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital.esalary from emp1. Table Created. Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1. Character Functions 2. Table altered. EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------.primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno). At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3).ename varchar2(30). Date Functions 4.EMP_ENO_PK) .esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)). Numeric Functions 3. Table altered. At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000). Table altered.

20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected. LT -it 1 rows selected. SQL> select ltrim ('amit'.'it') from emp1 where empno=10.esalary from emp1. SQL> select empno. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'.'am') from emp1 where empno=10. iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left. SQL> select empno. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------.esalary from emp1.lower(ename). iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected. Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase. RT -am .upper(ename).

4. EMPNO REPLAC --------. SQL> select empno.'*') from dual. ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected.5) from dual. SQL> select empno.'a'.length(ename) from emp1. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character.1 rows selected. SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected. EMPNO TRAN --------.---50 nehu 1 rows selected.'u') from emp1 where empno=50.translate('neha'. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'.'i'.10. xi) RPAD:- . SQL> select empno. replace('sumit'.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string.

CEIL(100.3) from dual. INSTR('HELLO'.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'.SQL> select rpad('amit'. RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected.23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2.'*')from dual.'world') from dual.10. FLOOR(100.23) from dual.23) from dual. . ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual.'e') from dual.

6) from dual. SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i.467235.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- .'15-oct-09') from dual. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii.2) -----------------23.2) from dual. TRUNC(23.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual.2) -----------------23.3) from dual.467235.461235. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii. MOD(10. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate. MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate. ROUND(23.POWER(2. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10.2) from dual.461235.

TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual.4819736 iv. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual. TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii. UID:SQL> select uid from dual.'Sunday') from dual. TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii. UID --------20 ii. USER:SQL> select user from dual. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 .1. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i.

We have following type of joins:1. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. Self Join 1. Non Equii join 3. Left Outer Join ii. Equii join 2. Right Outer Join iii. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1. SQL> select * from emp.e. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. Outer Join i.--------------. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1. Full Outer Join 4. emp and dep table. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------- . COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. Lets have a look at both the tables i.

--------------.dno=dep.dep.-----------------.esal between s.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade.emp.dep where emp.esal.e.dno.grade from emp2 e. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.--------------.dno.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3.salgrade s where e. .emp. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------.ename.e.eno. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2.enmae.s.losal and s.hisal.eno. SQL> select * from emp2.--------. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.e.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.dname from emp.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp. emp2 and salgrade table.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.

--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.dno(+)=dep.dno=dep. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.emp.emp.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40.dep where emp. Return all rows from the right table.dno.--------------- . ii.dname from emp.enmae.dno. SQL> select eno.dno.--------.--------------.dep where emp.dno. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables.'ADMIN'. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.'Pkl').--------.dno=dep.dep where emp. 1 row created.dno(+). ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dname from emp.--------. even if there are no matches in the left table.dno and emp.--------------. ii.enmae.enmae.emp.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i.--------------.dno(+)=dep.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected.--------------. SQL> select * from dep. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dname from emp. even if there are no matches in the right table. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------------.

SQL> select * from emp3.1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected.e1. SQL> select e1.emp3 e2 where e1.eno. SQL> select * from emp2.ename from emp3 e1. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself.ename.eno.mgr=e2. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2). ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------. ENO ENAME --------.e2.designation.--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries. ENAME ---------C .e1.---------.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2. 4.

it is created by a query joining one or more tables. SQL> select eno.d 60 Rajat #127.-------------.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE.-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2).---------.ename.ename.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.empsal) as select empno. . MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is.---------. It does not physically exist. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------.---------. View created. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1. in essence.--------------10 Amit #1276.-------------.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2).esalary from emp1.-------------.ename. SQL> select * from emp10.-----------. Rather.empname. a virtual table. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY.b Banur 1.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.-------------.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765.eadd from emp1.

SQL> select * from emp10.dname from emp e.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp.--------------. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from dep. SQL> select * from emp10. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.enmae. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES .eno.View created.--------------.dno.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected.d.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e.--------------. View created.dep d where e. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2.e.dno=d.dno. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.e. SQL> select * from emp10. View dropped.

'HR'. Index created.'Pat').dloc).'CHD').---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX .--------------. Index created. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from dep. SQL> insert into dep values(50.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno. SQL> select * from dep. insert into dep values(50.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname). DNO DNAME DLOC --------. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.'HR'.'HR1'. 1 row created.--------------.I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50.--------------.ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep.

one of which is a not null. where you can initialize a variable. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . For example: The below example declares two variables. you must initialize the variable when it is declared. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon. • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. 1) We can directly assign values to variables. DECLARE salary number (6). 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. INTO statement. Index dropped. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable.. The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block.SQL> drop index d1. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. For example. DECLARE salary number(4). if you want to store the current salary of an employee. The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. you can use a variable. value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification.

• • Local variables . 13> / . For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block.e. The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block. the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks.put_line(var_salary). it cannot be accessed after line 11. 3> var_num2 number. DECLARE var_salary number(6). 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. dbms_output. Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. var_emp_id number(6) = 1116. The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block. so cannot be accessed in the outer block i. Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen. dbms_output. / ' || var_salary).[WHERE condition]. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id.e.These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks. Global variables . 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number. 12> END. 11> END. 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2.put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. 6> var_num2 := 200. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types. The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100.These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks. Therefore. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks.

PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3). END. dbms_output. Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. You cannot assign a value later. For example. . The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error. BEGIN salary_increase := 100. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%. iterative statements. If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section. you will get a error. Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program. similar to a variable name. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program.e. A constant is a user-defined literal value. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value. to declare salary_increase.put_line (salary_increase). The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. VALUE . • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i.

ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. ELSE statement 4.put_line(‘God’). prompt . if num>4 then dbms_output. END IF. ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. end. ELSE statement 2.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1.put_line(‘No God’). 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. begin num:=5. statement 2. else dbms_output.g declare num number(3). / Switch case: e. END IF. statement 2. ELSE statement 4. 4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1. e.g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’. END IF. END IF.

EXIT. end case. . Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output. An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop.} END LOOP. These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop. Else Dbms_output. / Or Declare Num:=2. / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times.declare num1 number:=&num. End.put_line(‘Sunday’). otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations. {or EXIT WHEN condition. begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop. End case.put_line(‘Wrong’). 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body.put_line(‘two’).put_line(‘One’). end. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates. when 2 then dbms_output. The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements.

e. The iteration continues until the condition becomes false. The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration.put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). e. dbms_output. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. begin dbms_output. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly. end loop. The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements. / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true.g declare ctr number(2):=0. END LOOP. If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition. the statements in the loop is executed only once. exit when ctr>10. loop ctr:=ctrl+1.g .3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. end.put_line(‘the loop begins’).

declare ctr number(2):=1. The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1.put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. ctr:=ctr+1.End integer value. end. The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer. Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly.val2 LOOP statements. val2 . while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output.g . begin dbms_output. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity. END LOOP. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly. • • val1 . / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times.’999’).Start integer value. end loop. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section. Simple for loop e.. The counter is always incremented by 1.put_line(‘The while loop begin’).

.begin for I in 1. End loop. end. statements1. End. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false.. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true. then statements2 is executed. THEN.put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr).6 loop If MOD(I. end loop. End if.. / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1. ELSE. then statements1 is executed. The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF. End loop. If condition1 is true.2)= 0 then Dbms_output. / Table 1 You may use the IF. This conditional logic flows as follows: 1.put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i).5 loop dbms_output. 2.put_line(‘hello’). . and statements3 are PL/SQL statements. / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1. End. statements2. 2.10 loop Dbms_output. where 1. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic. ELSIF.

11 END. SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 . 3 v_b Number.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true. 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'.--------. 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'.3. then statements3 is executed. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT.----------------OSTATUS ---------- . 10 END IF. --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'. 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 15 END IF.40. ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . 17 END.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0. 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'. We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85.

7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10). 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1. 8 end loop. 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop .put_line(a).--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. ONO ITEM --------. 6 dbms_output. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1. SQL> select * from order_master. 7 exit when(a>5). 9 end. 10end.----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1. 9 end if.

6 a:=a+1. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp. 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line(vsal). begin select dname.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). vloc varchar2(10). Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp. end.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number. / Working with attribute:. 9end. dbms_output. end. end. .vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'. 8 end loop.%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. dbms_output.sal%type.put_line(vdname||' '||vloc).loc into vdname. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.put_line(a). begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'.--. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype. dbms_output. 7 dbms_output. ENO ENAME -----. / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10).

elsif erec.sal%type. end. end. .put_line('No such emp exists in the table:'). / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype. Pre defined exception 2. end if. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp. User defined exc E. Some common exception are: 1.put_line(drec.loc). dbms_output.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block.empno.dname||' '||drec.g of pre defined exc.G declare vsal emp. if erec. begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). / Exceptions:. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000. end. dbms_output. update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec.sal%type.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. vraise number.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers.

. DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p .esal %type.salary from emp where eno=empno. / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp.'). 3 empno emp. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno.put_line('too many rows are there for this end'). new 6: empno:=12. employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 7 select ename. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master. 3 o_pending Exception. there is no data for this employee no. 9 dbms_output.ename %type..ddate %type.put_line('there is no data for this employee no. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output. new 6: empno:=4.begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. 15 end.put_line('too many rows . 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------. 8 dbms_output.:'). exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output. 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output. 4 salary emp. dbms_output.--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master.put_line('employee name is:' ||name).put_line('employee salary is:' || salary). SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno.esal into name.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).---------.eno %type. end.

12 end. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 10 end.put_line('your order is still pending'). 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2. 8 end if. 7 else 8 dbms_output. SQL> select * from emp. record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending.eno %type. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no.put_line('record is not found').4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4. 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount . 9 end if. ENO ENAME --------.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp. ENO ENAME --------. 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output.put_line('record found').

-------------------.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected.esal %type. 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no.--------. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1. SQL> declare 2 no employee.SQL> declare 2 no emp. 8 end.--------.ename. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500.eno %type.esal from employee. 17 / .name. ENO ENAME --------.eno %type. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee. 4 salary employee. 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no.put_line(SQL %rowcount). SQL> select * from emp. 14 end loop. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno.ename %type.salary. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 15 close emp_crsr. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound. 7 end if. 12 end if. 16 end. 3 name employee.--------------. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr.

put_line('salary is less'). 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 13 end loop. 10 else 11 dbms_output. 11 end.'clerk'). 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 12 end if.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job.put_line('record fetch'). 10 close emp_cursor.put_line('salary is average'). 9 end if. Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number. 14 end. 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10.esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output.PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp. 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1.p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno.ename. 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output. Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp. .

%NOTFOUND. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE. only one record can be processed at a time. and %ISOPEN. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. but they differ in the way they are accessed. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set.. %ROWCOUNT. For example. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. A cursor can hold more than one row. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. INSERT. UPDATE and SELECT statements. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block. UPDATE. UPDATE. and manipulate this data. but can process only one row at a time. . Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. When a SELECT. which is called as current row. INSERT. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. and DELETE statements are executed. When you execute INSERT.. Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. implicit statements are created to process these statements.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed.

If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'.INTO statement return at least one row.put_line('None of the salaries where updated'). In the above PL/SQL Block. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. Else we get a message like for example. UPDATE. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT….INTO statement do not return a row. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5).put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated'). if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT. BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000. The return value is TRUE. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT …. 'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. if DML statements like INSERT. the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT ….INTO statement return at least one row.Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. if a DML statement like INSERT. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE. END IF.INTO statement does not return a row. . END. dbms_output. DELETE. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. The return value is FALSE.

We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section. How to access an Explicit Cursor? . It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000. FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows.

On every fetch statement. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name. 3) Close the cursor. BEGIN OPEN cursor. the first row becomes the current row. If you want to fetch after the last row. process the records. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. . 1) Open the cursor. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. END. the pointer moves to the next row. create a cursor. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. the program will throw an error. records. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. FETCH cursor. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name. When a cursor is opened. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. CLOSE cursor. · If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record.

What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors. FALSE. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. 12> END. 10> dbms_output. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10.put_line (emp_rec. Fourth. 11> CLOSE emp_cur. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row. FETCH and CLOSE Statements. Sixth. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND .last_name). ' || In the above example.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype.6. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. we are closing the cursor in line no 11. TRUE. FALSE. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN. We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name. Third.first_name || ' emp_rec. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation. Second. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10. Fifth. 7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor. if fetch statement doesn’t return a row. .

salary FROM emp_tbl. 15> END.salary). 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. . Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. if the cursor is not opened in the program. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row. it directly moves to line no 9. 14> END LOOP. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype.put_line(emp_cur. So use these attributes in appropriate instances. if there is a row found the program continues. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. last_name. 8> END IF. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. we need to reverse the logic of the program. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. If there is no rows found the program would exit. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. If we do so. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. TRUE.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE. In line no 6. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 12> dbms_output. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. In line no 11. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur.

9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row..put_line(emp_cur. In the loop. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row. 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped. Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 5> BEGIN . last_name. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement.salary). 16> END LOOP.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. salary FROM emp_tbl. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors. END LOOP. 17> END. if true the program moves into the while loop..Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop. before fetching the record again. else you will skip the first row. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. last_name.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. salary FROM emp_tbl. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. need not open. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. 8> END IF. fetch and close the cursor. 18> / In the above example. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype.

salary). END LOOP. 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters .6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output.0). 12> / In the above example.put_line(emp_cur.97) 10 11 12 END. A procedure has a header and a body. 11>END. By using FOR Loop in your program. 10> END LOOP. the cursor is opened. Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages. DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 . 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price. The body consists or declaration section. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block. the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed. NUMBER(4. We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways. NUMBER(5.2). The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure. A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur.product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur. when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created. you can reduce the number of lines in the program. FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur.

salary). The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional. 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code. procedure_name. 11> END LOOP. 12>END.put_line(emp_cur. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END. 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name. . IS .last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks. EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name. last_name. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name. salary FROM emp_tbl.A procedure may or may not return any value.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section. 1) From the SQL prompt. 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure.

SQL> execute raise_salary(2).esal into name. . we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program. 4 end raise_salary.NOTE: In the examples given above. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements.ename %type. OUT mode.salary from emp where eno=no. SQL> select * from emp. name OUT emp. 6 / Procedure created. 5 end emp_detail.esal %type) T emp. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename. 5 / Procedure created. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp.eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. salary OUT emp.eno %type. IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp.

.esal%type. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)). 3 name emp. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno. new 6: no:=3. Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code. Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890.ename %type. 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p. 5 end format_phone. 5 begin 6 no:=&eno. 10* end. 7 emp_detail(no.The first three digit/ characters are of area code. 6 format_phone(p).eno %type. 6 / Procedure created. 8 end. SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10). employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p). 9 dbms_output.put_line('employee name is: '||name). 4 salary emp. 3 begin 4 p:=&p.name.3).salary). Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure.SQL> declare 2 no emp.1.putline("Area Code Is: "||p). 7 dbms_output. 8 dbms_output. 5 dbms_output.put_line('employee salary is: '||salary).

SQL> select * from emp. new 4: p=1722665626. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value. The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [. Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee.eno %type) 2 return number. 3 is 4 sal number. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no. 7 return sal. . You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement.---------. 8 end getsal. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name.--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p.. . Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed..

6 RETURN x.deptno = p_deptno. OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present. 7 END ss_thresh.2). 8 / Function created. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter. 8 .PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 7 . 9 . SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT. 8 return (cnt). 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9. 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0. 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e. 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function . The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 4 .2) comm NUMBER(6. 6 . 5 . 9 end. 3. table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6.where 1. 3 END. 10 .2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) . 2.

A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. a specification and a body. enhance. 6 RETURN v_area. 8 / Function created. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. variables. It declares the types. and subprograms. 2).CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. or replace a package body without changing the package spec. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. Packages usually have two parts. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER. 3 v_area NUMBER. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee. 9 / Function created. SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. cursors. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. sometimes the body is unnecessary. exceptions.14. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package. variables. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual. constants. . 8 END average_salary.7525 Packaage:." You can debug. 7 END circle_area. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table.

7. END emp_actions. a cursor. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). deptno NUMBER). which are hidden from code outside the package. which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. sal NUMBER. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. The spec holds public declarations.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. 2. 3. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. job VARCHAR2. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. such pragmas must follow the function spec). 5. comm NUMBER. Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. mgr NUMBER. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. 6.To create package specs. and two employment procedures. 1. If necessary. These are potentially available to all database users. 4. salary REAL). . The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. The package body contains the actual code. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. The package specification contains information about the package. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT.

Salary Number(8. sal NUMBER.job VARCHAR2. job. END emp_actions. End_Date DATE. / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. END hire_employee. The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. it is executed once when the package is initially referenced. comm. END fire_employee.NEXTVAL. deptno).object_name package_name. If you perform any initialization in the package body. you must use dot notation. Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. mgr. ename.type_name package_name. comm NUMBER. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. Table created.subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -. Start_Date DATE.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). SYSDATE. sal. you create the body of the package. Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). SQL> . To reference the package's subprograms and objects. The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name. mgr NUMBER. City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE).2).

to_date('19901231'. t 3 / 1 row created. to_date('19840115'. 'Rice'.'Robert'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values ('01'.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / . SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Start_Date. Start_Date. Start_Date. to_date('19960917'. Start_Date. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('03'.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD'). t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name.'Alison'.'Jason'.'David'.'Linda'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name. 'Cat'. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Martin'. E 2 values('07'. to_date('19821024'. Last_Name. 'Smith'. 'Green'.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD').'YYYYMMDD').'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> insert into Employee(ID. t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('08'.SQL> -. Start_Date. First_Name. E 2 values('06'. First_Name.'Celia'. to_date('19960725'. Start_Date. Last_Name. 'Mathews'. Last_Name. First_Name. to_date('19760321'. t 3 / 1 row created. to_date('19781212'. E 2 values('02'.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. 'Larry'. 'Black'. t 3 / 1 row created. E 2 values('04'.'James'. Last_Name. Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD').'James'. E 2 values('05'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. Start_Date. First_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name. to_date('19870730'. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD').

---------25-JUL-06 1234. 13 END. . 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232. 6 INSERT into employee (id. 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer).salary) values ('01'. 7 RETURN(new_qty). first_name)values('01'.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344. SQL> SQL> select * from employee.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.new_qty).78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected. 4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6. 16 17 END inv_pck_spec. 14 BEGIN -.inv_adjust(2000). 5 / Package created.---------.inv_count(2). SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id. 'new').78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897. SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec. Call completed.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544. SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer.56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661. SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec. 18 / Package body created. 8 END inv_count. 4 END inv_pck_spec.

. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped.---------21-FEB-86 6661.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.---------.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.