Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

employee no employee name employee department -----------------. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.----------.-------------. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------.ename "employee name". SQL> select * from emp1.----------------. 2.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected.-------------.ename.esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1.b Banur 6 rows selected. COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20.edep "employee department" from emp1.-----------------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.-------------.----------------- . EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.----------.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".-------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. OPERATORS:1.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.---------.-----------.

EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-----------.'Sales').----------------.-------------------. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.------------.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276.-------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-----------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.------------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .---------.d Pat #127.------------.-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.----------.-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.---------.---------.-------------------.--------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.------------------------.-------------.---------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.

A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 .-------------.-----------. SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2.-------------.b Banur 6 rows selected.----------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.---------.4.

esalary number(10)). So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3). Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL . SQL> insert into emp2 values(100.They are used to maintain the consistency of the database.Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation. Table Created.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null. . Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table. 1 row created.''.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table. UNIQUE 3. C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY.We have three categories of constraints: 1. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------. EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2. CHECK 2.8000).-----------.90 30 10 rows selected. EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields.

Miscellaneous Functions 5. At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3).---------------------------10 Amit 10000 . PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno).CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well. alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT. Table altered.esalary from emp1. UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname). Date Functions 4. SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL. Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1. EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------.initcap(ename). Table altered.EMP_ENO_PK) . Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital. Character Functions 2.esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)). SQL> select empno.primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno). Table Created. Table altered.ename varchar2(30). Numeric Functions 3. B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table. At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000).

lower(ename).upper(ename). RT -am . LT -it 1 rows selected. SQL> select empno.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected. SQL> select empno. iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase.esalary from emp1. Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected. iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left.esalary from emp1.'am') from emp1 where empno=10. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------.'it') from emp1 where empno=10.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. SQL> select ltrim ('amit'. v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right.

'a'. SQL> select empno. replace('sumit'. EMPNO REPLAC --------.'*') from dual. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------. xi) RPAD:- .5) from dual. ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string.10.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected.length(ename) from emp1.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected.'u') from emp1 where empno=50.---50 nehu 1 rows selected. EMPNO TRAN --------. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected.1 rows selected. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string.translate('neha'.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'. SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'.'i'. SQL> select empno. SQL> select empno.4.

FLOOR(100.23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2.3) from dual. CEIL(100.'*')from dual.'world') from dual. ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100.'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual.23) from dual.23) from dual.SQL> select rpad('amit'. RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.10. .23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100. INSTR('HELLO'.'e') from dual.

461235. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- .3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23.467235.2) from dual. ROUND(23. TRUNC(23.461235. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual.'15-oct-09') from dual. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual.6) from dual.2) -----------------23. MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.2) -----------------23.POWER(2.3) from dual.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23. SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i.467235. MOD(10.2) from dual.

USER:SQL> select user from dual. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual. UID --------20 ii. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v. TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual. TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual.1. TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii.'Sunday') from dual. NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 . TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii. UID:SQL> select uid from dual.4819736 iv. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i.

emp and dep table. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1. Self Join 1.--------- . Non Equii join 3. COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables. SQL> select * from emp. Lets have a look at both the tables i.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. Equii join 2.--------------. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1. Left Outer Join ii. Full Outer Join 4. Right Outer Join iii.e. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. We have following type of joins:1. Outer Join i.

e.hisal.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3. NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i.enmae.emp.dno.losal and s.esal. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.eno.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.--------------.ename. .esal between s.e. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------.--------.emp. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2. emp2 and salgrade table.eno.salgrade s where e.dep where emp.e.-----------------.--------------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp.dno=dep.dno.dname from emp. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade.dep. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from emp2.grade from emp2 e.s.

emp. 1 row created.dep where emp. ii.enmae.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected.ENO ENMAE DNO --------. even if there are no matches in the left table.--------------.dep where emp.dname from emp.dname from emp.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i.--------. SQL> select * from dep. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.'Pkl'). ii.--------------.emp.dno.dep where emp.--------------- . DNO DNAME DLOC --------.enmae. even if there are no matches in the right table. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40.emp.--------.--------------. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dno(+)=dep.dno(+)=dep.enmae.dno.--------. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.dno=dep.dno. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.--------------. SQL> select eno.--------------.dno(+).dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables. Return all rows from the right table.dno=dep.dname from emp.'ADMIN'.dno. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dno and emp.

SQL> select e1. 4. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.eno.designation. ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself.e1.e1.---------. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2).ename from emp3 e1.e2. ENAME ---------C .eno. SQL> select * from emp3.mgr=e2.emp3 e2 where e1.--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries.--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2. SQL> select * from emp2.1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected. ENO ENAME --------.ename.

--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE.-------------.d 60 Rajat #127. View created. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2). SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno.b Banur 1.esalary from emp1. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2). SQL> select eno.-------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is. it is created by a query joining one or more tables. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno.--------------10 Amit #1276.eadd from emp1.-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. SQL> select * from emp10. .ename.---------.-------------.ename.empname.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY. in essence. a virtual table.---------. Rather. It does not physically exist.ename.-----------.empsal) as select empno. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765.-------------.---------.

ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------------.--------------.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10.enmae. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from emp10. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES .dno. View created.e. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dep d where e. SQL> select * from dep.dno=d.e.--------------.d.dno.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp. SQL> select * from emp10. View dropped.eno.View created.dname from emp e. SQL> select * from emp10.

'HR1'.'HR'.--------------.--------------. insert into dep values(50. SQL> select * from dep.ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep. Index created.dloc). SQL> select * from dep.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX .'Pat').I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50. SQL> insert into dep values(50.'HR'. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. 1 row created.--------------.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT.'CHD'). Index created. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname).

IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. 1) We can directly assign values to variables. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. DECLARE salary number(4). you must initialize the variable when it is declared. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6. where you can initialize a variable. one of which is a not null. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. Index dropped. if you want to store the current salary of an employee. For example. • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. INTO statement.SQL> drop index d1. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL.. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”. Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon. DECLARE salary number (6). For example: The below example declares two variables. you can use a variable. value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification.

so cannot be accessed in the outer block i.put_line(var_salary). The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. 13> / .put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. / ' || var_salary).These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks.These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block. 6> var_num2 := 200. 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks.[WHERE condition]. Therefore. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id.e. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100. Global variables . dbms_output. dbms_output. 12> END. it cannot be accessed after line 11. var_emp_id number(6) = 1116. Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks. 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number.e. 11> END. DECLARE var_salary number(6). Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types. The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block. 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block. Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen. 3> var_num2 number. • • Local variables .

The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value. A constant is a user-defined literal value. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%. you will get a error. BEGIN salary_increase := 100. • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i. Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section.put_line (salary_increase). Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program.PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program. VALUE . The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. to declare salary_increase. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. You cannot assign a value later. similar to a variable name. . If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error. DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3). dbms_output. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10.e. END. The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change. For example. iterative statements.

END IF. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. / Switch case: e. END IF. begin num:=5. else dbms_output. ELSE statement 4.g declare num number(3). e.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1. if num>4 then dbms_output. END IF. statement 2. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1.put_line(‘God’). END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1.put_line(‘No God’). END IF.g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’. prompt . ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2. 4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1. ELSE statement 4. end. ELSE statement 2. statement 2.

The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. EXIT. {or EXIT WHEN condition. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop. / Or Declare Num:=2.put_line(‘Wrong’). when 2 then dbms_output. These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop. end case. / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times. begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output.put_line(‘One’).} END LOOP.put_line(‘Sunday’). 2) Increment the variable in the loop. Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output. otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations. 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body.put_line(‘two’). An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates. End case. .declare num1 number:=&num. end. Else Dbms_output. End.

The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration. loop ctr:=ctrl+1. If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition. begin dbms_output.3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop. the statements in the loop is executed only once. END LOOP. dbms_output.put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). The iteration continues until the condition becomes false. end. / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true. e. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. exit when ctr>10. e.g . 2) Increment the variable in the loop. end loop.put_line(‘the loop begins’). 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly.g declare ctr number(2):=0. The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements.

val2 LOOP statements. END LOOP. • • val1 . The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1.. Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times.Start integer value. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity.End integer value. end.put_line(‘The while loop begin’). val2 . ctr:=ctr+1. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section.’999’). 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly.put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly.g . Simple for loop e. while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output. begin dbms_output. The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer.declare ctr number(2):=1. end loop. The counter is always incremented by 1.

10 loop Dbms_output.5 loop dbms_output..put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i). This conditional logic flows as follows: 1... ELSIF. end loop. / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1. statements2. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true. and statements3 are PL/SQL statements. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic. end. End loop. End if. / Table 1 You may use the IF. 2. / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1.put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr). then statements1 is executed. End loop. End. THEN. 2. End. ELSE.put_line(‘hello’). where 1.begin for I in 1. . The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false. then statements2 is executed.6 loop If MOD(I. statements1.2)= 0 then Dbms_output. If condition1 is true.

SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 . ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------.----------------OSTATUS ---------- .3. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0. 15 END IF. 3 v_b Number. then statements3 is executed. 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master. 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'.--------.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'. 17 END.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 11 END. --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'. 10 END IF. 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85. If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true. 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'. 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a .40. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'.

1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10). 6 dbms_output. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1.--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 10end.put_line(a). 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop . 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1. 9 end if. 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1. 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1. 9 end.----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. ONO ITEM --------. 7 exit when(a>5). SQL> select * from order_master. 8 end loop.

begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'. Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp. / Working with attribute:. dbms_output. 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10). Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp.vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'. end.%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. begin select dname. end.put_line(a).sal%type. 9end. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype.6 a:=a+1. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. 8 end loop. end.put_line(vsal). dbms_output. . dbms_output. 7 dbms_output.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number.put_line(vdname||' '||vloc).put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). vloc varchar2(10).--.loc into vdname. ENO ENAME -----.

end if. / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype. update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. end. begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'. dbms_output. elsif erec. end. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp. if erec.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block. vraise number. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers.sal%type.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E. dbms_output.G declare vsal emp. Some common exception are: 1. .loc).job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000. Pre defined exception 2. User defined exc E. end.dname||' '||drec.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'.put_line(drec.sal%type.g of pre defined exc.empno.put_line('No such emp exists in the table:').put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). / Exceptions:.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500.

3 o_pending Exception.put_line('too many rows . new 6: empno:=12. DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p . 4 salary emp. 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno. there is no data for this employee no.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary).begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output. 3 empno emp. / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------. end.. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno. new 6: empno:=4.put_line('too many rows are there for this end').salary from emp where eno=empno.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.').put_line('there is no data for this employee no. 8 dbms_output. 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output. 7 select ename. 9 dbms_output.eno %type.esal into name.:').. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno.ddate %type.ename %type.--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master.put_line('employee name is:' ||name).esal %type. 15 end. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output. dbms_output.---------.

13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 end if. 10 end. SQL> select * from emp. 12 end. ENO ENAME --------.put_line('record is not found'). Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.eno %type. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2. 7 else 8 dbms_output.put_line('your order is still pending'). ENO ENAME --------.4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending. 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output. 8 end if. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount . 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no.put_line('record found').

5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 4 salary employee. 8 end. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 15 close emp_crsr. SQL> declare 2 no employee. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 7 end if. 12 end if.--------.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected. 3 name employee.put_line(SQL %rowcount). 17 / .eno %type. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno.--------------.salary.--------. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr. SQL> select * from emp.eno %type. ENO ENAME --------.esal %type.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee.esal from employee. 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.SQL> declare 2 no emp.ename. 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no.ename %type.-------------------.name. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound. 14 end loop. 16 end.

10 close emp_cursor. 9 end if.'clerk').PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output. 10 else 11 dbms_output. 11 end.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp. 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10.p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno.put_line('record fetch'). 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1. 14 end. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 12 end if.esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output.put_line('salary is less').put_line('salary is average').ename. . 13 end loop. Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number. Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. and %ISOPEN. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block. When you execute INSERT. which is called as current row. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. UPDATE. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. UPDATE. INSERT. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. and DELETE statements are executed. but can process only one row at a time.. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table. only one record can be processed at a time.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. and manipulate this data. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. UPDATE and SELECT statements. A cursor can hold more than one row. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. %NOTFOUND. but they differ in the way they are accessed. .. When a SELECT. %ROWCOUNT. INSERT. implicit statements are created to process these statements. For example. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE.

if a DML statement like INSERT. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT. DELETE.INTO statement do not return a row. . %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE. 'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated. If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT…. BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000.INTO statement does not return a row. END. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. if DML statements like INSERT. dbms_output. The return value is TRUE. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5).Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT ….INTO statement return at least one row. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. END IF. UPDATE. Else we get a message like for example. In the above PL/SQL Block. The return value is FALSE.INTO statement return at least one row. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT ….put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated').put_line('None of the salaries where updated').

We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. How to access an Explicit Cursor? . Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees. It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000. FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement.

· If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. 3) Close the cursor. records. process the records. the program will throw an error. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row. the first row becomes the current row. . the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. If you want to fetch after the last row. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. CLOSE cursor. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. BEGIN OPEN cursor. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name. create a cursor. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. On every fetch statement. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records. FETCH cursor. END. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. the pointer moves to the next row. When a cursor is opened. 1) Open the cursor. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name.

10> dbms_output. if fetch statement doesn’t return a row. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND . We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor. we are closing the cursor in line no 11.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. 7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. Third.last_name). When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. FALSE. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE.first_name || ' emp_rec.6. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN. Fifth. if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row. Sixth. Second. ' || In the above example. . TRUE.put_line (emp_rec. FALSE. 12> END. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. Fourth. 11> CLOSE emp_cur. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors. FETCH and CLOSE Statements.

we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row. last_name. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE. In line no 6.put_line(emp_cur.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. . 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. if there is a row found the program continues.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. if the cursor is not opened in the program. 14> END LOOP. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP. 12> dbms_output. If we do so. So use these attributes in appropriate instances. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND.salary). if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. If there is no rows found the program would exit. TRUE. 15> END. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. In line no 11. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. it directly moves to line no 9. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row. 8> END IF. salary FROM emp_tbl. we need to reverse the logic of the program.

5> BEGIN . last_name. 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. else you will skip the first row. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec.. fetch and close the cursor. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. if true the program moves into the while loop. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. salary FROM emp_tbl. salary FROM emp_tbl. 18> / In the above example. Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values.Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name.put_line(emp_cur. 17> END. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement. 8> END IF. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped. need not open. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row.salary). last_name. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. In the loop. END LOOP.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. 16> END LOOP.. before fetching the record again. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec.

The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure. you can reduce the number of lines in the program. Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). 10> END LOOP. By using FOR Loop in your program.product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur.salary). FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec. DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 . the cursor is opened. We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways. 11>END. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price. The body consists or declaration section. A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. NUMBER(4.put_line(emp_cur.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task. 12> / In the above example. 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY. A procedure has a header and a body.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur. END LOOP. NUMBER(5. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block. when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created.0). the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed.2).6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output.97) 10 11 12 END. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages.

procedure_name. The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional.salary). 12>END. IS . 11> END LOOP. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. 1) From the SQL prompt. . 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name.last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur.put_line(emp_cur. By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code. The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur.A procedure may or may not return any value. 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. salary FROM emp_tbl. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure. 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name. 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END. last_name.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks. EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name.

salary from emp where eno=no.eno %type. 6 / Procedure created. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp.esal into name. .eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. name OUT emp. SQL> select * from emp. OUT mode. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program. 5 / Procedure created.NOTE: In the examples given above. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode. SQL> execute raise_salary(2).esal %type) T emp. salary OUT emp. 4 end raise_salary. IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename. 5 end emp_detail.ename %type. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements.

put_line('employee salary is: '||salary). 7 emp_detail(no.putline("Area Code Is: "||p). 5 end format_phone. Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code. 5 dbms_output.put_line('employee name is: '||name). 3 name emp. SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10).esal%type. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno.SQL> declare 2 no emp. 10* end.1. employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure. 8 end.3).ename %type. . 3 begin 4 p:=&p. 8 dbms_output. 6 format_phone(p). new 6: no:=3. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)). 4 salary emp.salary). 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p. 6 / Procedure created.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p). 5 begin 6 no:=&eno.name.The first three digit/ characters are of area code. Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890. 7 dbms_output. 9 dbms_output.eno %type.

7 return sal. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [. 3 is 4 sal number. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no. .eno %type) 2 return number.--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp.. 8 end getsal..---------. SQL> select * from emp. Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. new 4: p=1722665626.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p.])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name. . Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.

10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9. 6 .where 1.deptno = p_deptno. The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 6 RETURN x. 4 . 2. 8 return (cnt).2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) . 8 / Function created.PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 7 END ss_thresh. 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e. 3. 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function . 10 . 9 end.2) comm NUMBER(6. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter. 3 END. 7 . create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0. SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT. 9 . 8 .2). table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6. 5 . OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present.

cursors. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. It declares the types. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER. 7 END circle_area." You can debug. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. 8 END average_salary. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package. constants. 6 RETURN v_area. enhance. 2). 3 v_area NUMBER. a specification and a body. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual.CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table. . 9 / Function created.14. exceptions. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. sometimes the body is unnecessary. SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual.7525 Packaage:. Packages usually have two parts. or replace a package body without changing the package spec. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. 8 / Function created.A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee. variables. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. and subprograms. variables.

which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. 1. comm NUMBER. 7. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps. sal NUMBER. The spec holds public declarations. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. These are potentially available to all database users. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. and two employment procedures. . END emp_actions. 3. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. 4. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. job VARCHAR2. If necessary. 2. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. deptno NUMBER). which are hidden from code outside the package. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. mgr NUMBER. The package specification contains information about the package.To create package specs. salary REAL). The package body contains the actual code. use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. 6. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. such pragmas must follow the function spec). Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT. 5. a cursor. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp.

The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification.NEXTVAL. / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). SYSDATE. Start_Date DATE. SQL> . mgr. If you perform any initialization in the package body. Salary Number(8.type_name package_name.job VARCHAR2.subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -. deptno). END hire_employee. you must use dot notation. To reference the package's subprograms and objects. comm NUMBER. mgr NUMBER. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq.2). PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. you create the body of the package. Table created. sal. END fire_employee. Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). comm. sal NUMBER. it is executed once when the package is initially referenced. End_Date DATE.object_name package_name. ename. END emp_actions. job.

'Cat'. Last_Name. 'Black'.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values ('01'. Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name. Start_Date. t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name. First_Name.'James'.'Jason'.'Robert'.'YYYYMMDD'). t 3 / 1 row created.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / . t 3 / 1 row created.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> insert into Employee(ID. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'Alison'.'YYYYMMDD'). Start_Date. to_date('19870730'. t 3 / 1 row created. Start_Date. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. 'Rice'. First_Name. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.'Linda'.'Celia'. E 2 values('03'.'David'. to_date('19821024'. E 2 values('07'. First_Name. 'Smith'. t 3 / 1 row created.'James'. 'Mathews'.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values('08'. First_Name. Start_Date. t 3 / 1 row created.SQL> -. t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19960917'. to_date('19760321'. to_date('19781212'. 'Larry'. to_date('19901231'. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD'). First_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name. 'Green'. First_Name. E 2 values('04'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name. Start_Date. to_date('19840115'. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Martin'. Last_Name. E 2 values('06'. E 2 values('02'. E 2 values('05'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Start_Date. to_date('19960725'. Start_Date.

SQL> SQL> select * from employee. 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty. SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec. SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344. 16 17 END inv_pck_spec.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232. SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer. 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer).78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334. 18 / Package body created. 6 INSERT into employee (id.inv_count(2). 8 END inv_count.56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected. 7 RETURN(new_qty).78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544. 4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6.---------25-JUL-06 1234. . 5 / Package created. 14 BEGIN -.new_qty).package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id.---------. 13 END. 4 END inv_pck_spec. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer. Call completed. 'new').salary) values ('01'.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.inv_adjust(2000). first_name)values('01'.

78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected.---------21-FEB-86 6661.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334. . SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.---------.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.

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