Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

edep "employee department" from emp1. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno.---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected.-----------.-------------.ename "employee name". 2. employee no employee name employee department -----------------.----------------- . COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.b Banur 6 rows selected.-------------.---------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.----------.esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".----------------.-----------------------. OPERATORS:1. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. SQL> select * from emp1.ename. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------.----------.-------------.-------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.

-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.----------.---------.-------------------.-----------.-------------.-------------.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765.---------.------------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl . EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.------------.d Pat #127.-------.------------.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276.--------.---------.------------.----------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-------------------.-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.---------.'Sales').------------------------.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.-----------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.

EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 .sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.4. SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2.---------. EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------.-------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.b Banur 6 rows selected. B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2.-----------.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1.----------. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2.

So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3).esalary number(10)). Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL . SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------.Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation.8000).90 30 10 rows selected. 1 row created. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY.We have three categories of constraints: 1.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null. UNIQUE 3. EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2. EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields. .-----------. Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table. CHECK 2.They are used to maintain the consistency of the database. C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2. Table Created. SQL> insert into emp2 values(100.''.

alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT. Miscellaneous Functions 5.esalary from emp1. At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000). B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table. Table altered. At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3).ename varchar2(30). Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital.EMP_ENO_PK) .initcap(ename). PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). SQL> select empno. Date Functions 4. EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------. Table altered. Character Functions 2. Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1.primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno). Numeric Functions 3. Table altered. SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL.---------------------------10 Amit 10000 . Table Created.CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well. UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname).esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)).

LT -it 1 rows selected.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected.upper(ename). iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left.esalary from emp1. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'.esalary from emp1.'am') from emp1 where empno=10. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase. RT -am . v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right. SQL> select empno. SQL> select empno.'it') from emp1 where empno=10.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected.lower(ename). SQL> select ltrim ('amit'. iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase.

SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'.'u') from emp1 where empno=50.5) from dual.length(ename) from emp1.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected. replace('sumit'.---50 nehu 1 rows selected. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character.1 rows selected. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters. SQL> select empno. xi) RPAD:- . ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'.4. SQL> select empno. EMPNO TRAN --------.translate('neha'. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20.'*') from dual. EMPNO REPLAC --------.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected.'i'.10.'a'. SQL> select empno.

'world') from dual. INSTR('HELLO'.10.3) from dual. . RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100.SQL> select rpad('amit'.23) from dual. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual. CEIL(100.23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2.'e') from dual. ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100.'*')from dual.23) from dual. FLOOR(100.

ROUND(23. TRUNC(23. MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- .'15-oct-09') from dual.2) from dual.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23.2) -----------------23.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual.2) from dual. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate. SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii. MOD(10.POWER(2. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii.467235.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10.3) from dual.2) -----------------23.461235.6) from dual.461235.467235. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate.

TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual. NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i. UID --------20 ii. UID:SQL> select uid from dual. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v.'Sunday') from dual. TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i.4819736 iv. TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual. USER:SQL> select user from dual. TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii. TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 .1.

Left Outer Join ii. Non Equii join 3. Self Join 1.e. Right Outer Join iii. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. Full Outer Join 4. We have following type of joins:1. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables. SQL> select * from emp. COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables.--------------. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. Lets have a look at both the tables i. emp and dep table. Outer Join i.--------- . AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1. Equii join 2.

dno.dname from emp.ename.dno=dep.dep.losal and s.emp.e.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3. SQL> select * from emp2.salgrade s where e.hisal.dep where emp.--------------. NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i.esal between s.esal. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.grade from emp2 e.s.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.emp.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.-----------------.--------------.enmae.e. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. . OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.--------. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------.eno.eno. emp2 and salgrade table.e.dno.

dno=dep. even if there are no matches in the left table.ENO ENMAE DNO --------. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. ii. SQL> select * from dep.dno.dname from emp.--------------- .dep where emp.dep where emp.--------------.dname from emp.--------------.emp. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.'Pkl').--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.--------. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.--------------.--------.'ADMIN'.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40.emp.enmae.dno(+).dno=dep. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dno.enmae.--------------. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.emp.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected. ii.dno(+)=dep.--------. SQL> select eno.dname from emp. even if there are no matches in the right table.dno.dep where emp.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables.dno and emp.dno(+)=dep. Return all rows from the right table. 1 row created.enmae.--------------. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dno.

ENAME ---------C .--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries.1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected.eno.---------. ENO ENAME --------. SQL> select * from emp2. ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------. SQL> select e1. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2).e1.--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected.ename from emp3 e1. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself.e2.emp3 e2 where e1. SQL> select * from emp3.mgr=e2.eno. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. 4.e1.ename.designation.

---------.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE.empname.-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.ename.-------------. SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.ename.ename. .---------. Rather.eadd from emp1. SQL> select * from emp10.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno. It does not physically exist.-------------.d 60 Rajat #127. it is created by a query joining one or more tables. SQL> select eno.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.b Banur 1. in essence. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1. a virtual table.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2). View created. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2).-------------.empsal) as select empno.--------------10 Amit #1276.-------------.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------.---------.-----------.esalary from emp1.

--------------. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e.dno=d.e. SQL> select * from emp10.--------------. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10.dno. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES .eno. SQL> select * from emp10.dname from emp e. SQL> select * from dep.dep d where e. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2. View dropped.enmae. View created.dno.--------------. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from emp10.e.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.d.View created.

DNO DNAME DLOC --------.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT.--------------. Index created.'HR1'.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname). SQL> select * from dep. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.'HR'. SQL> insert into dep values(50.'HR'. SQL> select * from dep.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX . 1 row created. Index created.--------------.'CHD'). insert into dep values(50.I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50.ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep.--------------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno.dloc).'Pat'). DNO DNAME DLOC --------.

one of which is a not null. 1) We can directly assign values to variables.SQL> drop index d1. DECLARE salary number(4).. if you want to store the current salary of an employee. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable. Index dropped. value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”. you can use a variable. For example. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. DECLARE salary number (6). • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. For example: The below example declares two variables. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . you must initialize the variable when it is declared. Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon. 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. INTO statement. where you can initialize a variable. The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value.

e. dbms_output. The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100. Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id. var_emp_id number(6) = 1116. • • Local variables . Therefore. 13> / .[WHERE condition].These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks. / ' || var_salary). The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks.put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number. the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks.e. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types.These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block. DECLARE var_salary number(6). 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. 3> var_num2 number. The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. it cannot be accessed after line 11. Global variables . 6> var_num2 := 200. so cannot be accessed in the outer block i. 11> END.put_line(var_salary). 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen. 12> END. dbms_output.

you will get a error. The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change. If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section. You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value. Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program. • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i.PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program.e. dbms_output. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. A constant is a user-defined literal value. DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3). If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. similar to a variable name. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%. VALUE . END. iterative statements. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. BEGIN salary_increase := 100. You cannot assign a value later. The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it. to declare salary_increase.put_line (salary_increase). . Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. For example. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10.

else dbms_output. e. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3.put_line(‘God’).g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’. ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2. END IF. prompt . 4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1. END IF.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1. if num>4 then dbms_output. ELSE statement 4. END IF. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. begin num:=5. END IF. statement 2.put_line(‘No God’). 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. ELSE statement 4. / Switch case: e. end. statement 2.g declare num number(3). END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. ELSE statement 2.

EXIT. . / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times.declare num1 number:=&num.} END LOOP. end case. otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations.put_line(‘Sunday’). Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output. {or EXIT WHEN condition.put_line(‘One’). The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. End. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop. end.put_line(‘two’). These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates. Else Dbms_output. when 2 then dbms_output. / Or Declare Num:=2. An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop. These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop. begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. End case. 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body.put_line(‘Wrong’).

The iteration continues until the condition becomes false. loop ctr:=ctrl+1.g . END LOOP. The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements. dbms_output. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. e. The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration.g declare ctr number(2):=0.put_line(‘the loop begins’). the statements in the loop is executed only once. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. end loop. / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true.3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop.put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition. e. exit when ctr>10. begin dbms_output. end. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly.

. val2 . 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly. begin dbms_output.g . Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity. • • val1 . while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output. The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer. END LOOP. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section. ctr:=ctr+1. end. The counter is always incremented by 1. The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1.put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. end loop.val2 LOOP statements. Simple for loop e.put_line(‘The while loop begin’).’999’). / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly.declare ctr number(2):=1.Start integer value.End integer value.

5 loop dbms_output. End. ELSIF. end loop. statements1. End if. where 1.. 2. 2.10 loop Dbms_output.put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i). End loop. statements2. / Table 1 You may use the IF. and statements3 are PL/SQL statements. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true.. / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1. If condition1 is true. The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF. THEN. End.put_line(‘hello’). This conditional logic flows as follows: 1. End loop.put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr).begin for I in 1.. . ELSE.2)= 0 then Dbms_output. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic.6 loop If MOD(I. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false. then statements1 is executed. / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1. end. then statements2 is executed.

4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0. SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 . Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT. 11 END. ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'. 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'. 17 END. 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.3. 15 END IF. 10 END IF. 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. 3 v_b Number. --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master.----------------OSTATUS ---------- . 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.--------. 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'.40. then statements3 is executed. 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'.

----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----.1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10).--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1.put_line(a). 7 exit when(a>5). 9 end. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1. 8 end loop. 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop . SQL> select * from order_master. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 end if. 10end. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1. 6 dbms_output. ONO ITEM --------. 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

9end. 7 dbms_output.put_line(vsal). end.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). vloc varchar2(10).put_line(vdname||' '||vloc). Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp. end.vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'. 8 end loop.put_line(a). begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10).%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. .6 a:=a+1. dbms_output.--. / Working with attribute:.loc into vdname.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp. dbms_output. begin select dname. end. dbms_output.sal%type. begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'. ENO ENAME -----. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype.

sal%type.loc). User defined exc E. / Exceptions:. Some common exception are: 1. .empno. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.dname||' '||drec. vraise number. end if.job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers. end.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E.G declare vsal emp. dbms_output. begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'. update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec. / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. end. if erec. dbms_output.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'.g of pre defined exc.sal%type. end. Pre defined exception 2.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).put_line('No such emp exists in the table:').put_line(drec. elsif erec.

13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output. dbms_output. DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p . / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp.put_line('too many rows .salary from emp where eno=empno.:').--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master.esal %type.esal into name. 3 empno emp.---------. there is no data for this employee no. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output.put_line('there is no data for this employee no.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary).begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. 4 salary emp.. new 6: empno:=12.put_line('too many rows are there for this end'). employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 3 o_pending Exception.ddate %type. 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno.put_line('employee name is:' ||name). 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output. 8 dbms_output. 9 dbms_output. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master.. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno. 7 select ename.eno %type. end.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). 15 end.ename %type. new 6: empno:=4.').

12 end.4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4. 10 end. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount . 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no. ENO ENAME --------. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2. 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output. 9 end if. 7 else 8 dbms_output. 8 end if. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output.put_line('your order is still pending'). record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ENO ENAME --------.put_line('record found').eno %type. SQL> select * from emp.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp.put_line('record is not found').

8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no. 17 / . 3 name employee.--------.eno %type.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected.SQL> declare 2 no emp. SQL> select * from emp. SQL> declare 2 no employee.ename. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound. ENO ENAME --------. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no.ename %type. 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee.esal from employee. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr. 15 close emp_crsr.put_line(SQL %rowcount). new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1.--------. 12 end if. 14 end loop. 4 salary employee.eno %type.-------------------. 7 end if. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 16 end. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no.--------------. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500.name. 8 end.salary.esal %type.

Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number. 14 end. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output. 11 end.esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output. 10 else 11 dbms_output. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 12 end if. 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1.ename. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp. 13 end loop. 10 close emp_cursor. 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job.put_line('record fetch'). Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp.put_line('salary is less').p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno. .put_line('salary is average').'clerk'). 9 end if.

The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. UPDATE. When you execute INSERT. but can process only one row at a time. When a SELECT. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. Even though the cursor stores multiple records.. but they differ in the way they are accessed. which is called as current row. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE. Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. and DELETE statements are executed. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. INSERT. and %ISOPEN. implicit statements are created to process these statements. INSERT. only one record can be processed at a time. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. For example. A cursor can hold more than one row. %ROWCOUNT. . UPDATE.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. UPDATE and SELECT statements.. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. %NOTFOUND. and manipulate this data. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set.

END.put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated'). DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT…. The return value is FALSE.INTO statement return at least one row. dbms_output. DELETE.INTO statement do not return a row.Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT ….INTO statement return at least one row. END IF. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5). If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'. if a DML statement like INSERT. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT.put_line('None of the salaries where updated'). ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT. The return value is TRUE. the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated.INTO statement does not return a row. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. UPDATE. if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT. 'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT …. . Else we get a message like for example. if DML statements like INSERT. In the above PL/SQL Block. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE.

• • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section. We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. How to access an Explicit Cursor? . select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000.

records. · If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. END. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row. . 1) Open the cursor. the pointer moves to the next row. 3) Close the cursor. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. If you want to fetch after the last row. the program will throw an error. When a cursor is opened. create a cursor. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. CLOSE cursor. On every fetch statement. the first row becomes the current row. FETCH cursor. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. process the records. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. BEGIN OPEN cursor. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name.

FETCH and CLOSE Statements. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE. 11> CLOSE emp_cur. if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row.put_line (emp_rec. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10.last_name). Second. Fifth. if fetch statement doesn’t return a row. TRUE.first_name || ' emp_rec. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. . Sixth. Fourth.6.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype. FALSE. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. FALSE. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND . Third. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN. 12> END. ' || In the above example. We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name. 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor. 7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . we are closing the cursor in line no 11. 10> dbms_output.

it directly moves to line no 9. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row. So use these attributes in appropriate instances. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row. 12> dbms_output. if the cursor is not opened in the program. last_name.salary). In line no 6. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. 15> END. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. salary FROM emp_tbl.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. In line no 11. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. . If there is no rows found the program would exit. Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. If we do so. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. 8> END IF. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. if there is a row found the program continues.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur.put_line(emp_cur. 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. we need to reverse the logic of the program. TRUE. 14> END LOOP.

salary FROM emp_tbl. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. last_name. before fetching the record again. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. fetch and close the cursor.salary). In the loop. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row. salary FROM emp_tbl. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. need not open. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. else you will skip the first row.. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. last_name.put_line(emp_cur. 18> / In the above example. if true the program moves into the while loop. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors. 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row. 8> END IF.. 17> END. END LOOP. 16> END LOOP.Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop. 5> BEGIN . Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur.

put_line(emp_cur.2).6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output. By using FOR Loop in your program. 11>END. the cursor is opened. the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur.salary).97) 10 11 12 END. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages. Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). you can reduce the number of lines in the program. A procedure has a header and a body.product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur. 10> END LOOP. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block. NUMBER(4. FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec. DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 . The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure. What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task. 12> / In the above example. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price. NUMBER(5. A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. The body consists or declaration section. 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. END LOOP. We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways. 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created.0).

6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure.put_line(emp_cur. 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. 12>END. salary FROM emp_tbl. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END. EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name. last_name. 11> END LOOP.last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur. . 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. IS .marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks.A procedure may or may not return any value.salary). 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name. 1) From the SQL prompt. By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code. The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section. procedure_name.

ename %type. name OUT emp. SQL> execute raise_salary(2). we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode.esal into name. 5 / Procedure created. 6 / Procedure created.salary from emp where eno=no. 5 end emp_detail.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename. .eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. OUT mode. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. SQL> select * from emp.eno %type. salary OUT emp. 4 end raise_salary. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp.esal %type) T emp. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements. IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp.NOTE: In the examples given above.

8 dbms_output. 6 / Procedure created. 3 begin 4 p:=&p.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p). 6 format_phone(p).SQL> declare 2 no emp. 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p. 3 name emp. 8 end.1. Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890. 5 begin 6 no:=&eno. Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code.3). 5 end format_phone. 4 salary emp. new 6: no:=3. 5 dbms_output.put_line('employee salary is: '||salary).name.ename %type. Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure. . 10* end. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)). 7 dbms_output. 7 emp_detail(no.put_line('employee name is: '||name).esal%type.The first three digit/ characters are of area code. SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10). SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno.putline("Area Code Is: "||p).eno %type.salary). employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 dbms_output.

The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [.])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name.---------.. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no.. .eno %type) 2 return number. new 4: p=1722665626. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee. 8 end getsal. SQL> select * from emp. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement. 3 is 4 sal number. . Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p. 7 return sal. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp.

OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present. 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e. 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function . 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 2.deptno = p_deptno. 4 . 8 return (cnt). 6 . 8 / Function created.2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) . 5 .2) comm NUMBER(6. 8 . 7 . 7 END ss_thresh. 10 . SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 9 end. 9 . 6 RETURN x. 3. create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter. The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6. 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9.where 1.2). 3 END.

A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. Packages usually have two parts. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. cursors. . 8 END average_salary. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. constants. It declares the types. 2). AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. and subprograms. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER.CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. 6 RETURN v_area. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual. exceptions. 8 / Function created. sometimes the body is unnecessary. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. or replace a package body without changing the package spec. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package. 9 / Function created. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package.7525 Packaage:. variables. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table. 7 END circle_area. enhance. a specification and a body. SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual. variables.14. 3 v_area NUMBER. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee." You can debug.

which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. 6. 7. 2. salary REAL). job VARCHAR2. The package specification contains information about the package. which are hidden from code outside the package. . a cursor. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps. and two employment procedures. such pragmas must follow the function spec). use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. These are potentially available to all database users. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. If necessary. Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. deptno NUMBER). CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. 3. 1. mgr NUMBER.To create package specs.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT. comm NUMBER. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). The package body contains the actual code. 5. 4. sal NUMBER. The spec holds public declarations. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. END emp_actions. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -.

NEXTVAL. END fire_employee. If you perform any initialization in the package body. Table created. END hire_employee.type_name package_name.subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -. The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name. comm. / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. deptno). you must use dot notation. END emp_actions. ename.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. To reference the package's subprograms and objects. you create the body of the package. End_Date DATE. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. sal.2). mgr NUMBER. The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification. it is executed once when the package is initially referenced. job. SQL> . SYSDATE. Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE).object_name package_name. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. Salary Number(8. Start_Date DATE.job VARCHAR2. comm NUMBER. sal NUMBER. mgr.

SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name. Start_Date. First_Name. Start_Date. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('07'. 'Larry'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Start_Date. to_date('19760321'. 'Martin'.'YYYYMMDD'). to_date('19821024'. First_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Black'. t 3 / 1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID. t 3 / 1 row created.'YYYYMMDD'). First_Name. to_date('19901231'. Start_Date.'David'.'YYYYMMDD').'YYYYMMDD'). to_date('19840115'. E 2 values('03'.'YYYYMMDD'). First_Name. E 2 values('08'. E 2 values('06'. 'Smith'. Last_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19960917'. 'Mathews'.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / . SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19870730'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'Alison'.'Jason'.'Robert'. Last_Name. E 2 values('02'.'James'. 'Cat'. t 3 / 1 row created. to_date('19960725'. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD'). First_Name. First_Name. E 2 values('05'. 'Green'. t 3 / 1 row created.'Celia'. t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name.'James'. 'Rice'. E 2 values ('01'.'Linda'. Start_Date. First_Name. Last_Name. Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values('04'. Last_Name. Last_Name. Start_Date. to_date('19781212'.SQL> -.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name. Start_Date. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.

78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected.package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id. 14 BEGIN -.new_qty). 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty. 5 / Package created. 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer).inv_count(2). . 6 INSERT into employee (id. 4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6. 8 END inv_count.salary) values ('01'. SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322. 16 17 END inv_pck_spec.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232. 13 END. 4 END inv_pck_spec. 'new').78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334. SQL> SQL> select * from employee.56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661. 18 / Package body created.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344. first_name)values('01'.inv_adjust(2000).---------. 7 RETURN(new_qty). SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer. Call completed. SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec.---------25-JUL-06 1234.

78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. .---------.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.---------21-FEB-86 6661.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful