Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.b Banur 6 rows selected. 2.----------.-------------. COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20.-------------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.edep "employee department" from emp1.----------. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno.-------------.esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1. employee no employee name employee department -----------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.----------------.-----------------------.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".----------------- .---------.ename "employee name". EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------. OPERATORS:1. SQL> select * from emp1.---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected.-----------.ename. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.-------------.

------------.--------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765.---------.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276.-------------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.'Sales'). EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.------------.----------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.----------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.d Pat #127.---------.-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.---------. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.------------------------.------------.-----------.-------------.-------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-----------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.------------.-------------------.---------.

B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 . EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.-------------. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.b Banur 6 rows selected.-------------.4.---------. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2.----------.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.-----------.

EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2.We have three categories of constraints: 1. SQL> insert into emp2 values(100.90 30 10 rows selected. EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields.Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation.-----------.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table.esalary number(10)). Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL . So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3). UNIQUE 3.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null. . CHECK 2. Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table. Table Created. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------.They are used to maintain the consistency of the database. 1 row created.8000). C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY.''.

SQL> select empno. PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000). B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table. Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital. UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname).initcap(ename). SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL. alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT. Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1. Character Functions 2. Table altered.ename varchar2(30). Table Created. Table altered. Miscellaneous Functions 5.primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno).esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)).CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well. Table altered.EMP_ENO_PK) . EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------. Numeric Functions 3. At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3).---------------------------10 Amit 10000 .esalary from emp1. Date Functions 4.

'am') from emp1 where empno=10. SQL> select ltrim ('amit'.lower(ename). SQL> select empno.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected. iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. RT -am . v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right. LT -it 1 rows selected. iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'.esalary from emp1.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected. Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase.upper(ename).esalary from emp1. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected.'it') from emp1 where empno=10. SQL> select empno.

'u') from emp1 where empno=50. ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string. xi) RPAD:- . LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected.10.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20.'*') from dual. SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string. EMPNO REPLAC --------.5) from dual. EMPNO TRAN --------.---50 nehu 1 rows selected. SQL> select empno. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected. SQL> select empno.length(ename) from emp1. SQL> select empno. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters.4. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------.'i'. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'.translate('neha'. replace('sumit'.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected.'a'.1 rows selected.

'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual. INSTR('HELLO'. FLOOR(100. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'. ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100. .SQL> select rpad('amit'.3) from dual.23) from dual. RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected.23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100. CEIL(100.23) from dual. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'.'*')from dual.10.'world') from dual.'e') from dual.

461235.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23.2) -----------------23.2) from dual.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10. SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- .47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23.POWER(2.467235.'15-oct-09') from dual.2) from dual. MOD(10.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate.461235. TRUNC(23. MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii.3) from dual.467235. ROUND(23. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate.2) -----------------23.6) from dual.

LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate.1. TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual. UID --------20 ii. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i. TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 .'Sunday') from dual. TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual. UID:SQL> select uid from dual. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v.4819736 iv. USER:SQL> select user from dual.

Lets have a look at both the tables i. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables. Self Join 1. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. We have following type of joins:1.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1.--------------. Right Outer Join iii. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1.--------- . SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1. emp and dep table. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. Outer Join i. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1. Full Outer Join 4. Non Equii join 3. Left Outer Join ii. SQL> select * from emp. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables.e. Equii join 2.

--------------.dep where emp.ename. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.-----------------.grade from emp2 e.dno.--------.eno.dno.e.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3.losal and s.emp. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade.emp. SQL> select * from emp2.e. emp2 and salgrade table.dname from emp.hisal.eno.dep.dno=dep. .1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.esal.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2.s.--------------.salgrade s where e. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------.esal between s.e. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.enmae.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.

dname from emp.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i.dno(+)=dep. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.--------------.'Pkl'). ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.--------.enmae. ii. 1 row created.--------------.dno(+)=dep. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.'ADMIN'. even if there are no matches in the left table.dno(+).--------------. SQL> select * from dep. ii.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40.dno=dep.dno and emp.emp. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.emp.--------------.dno. SQL> select eno.dep where emp.--------------.dno.dno.--------.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected.dep where emp.ENO ENMAE DNO --------. Return all rows from the right table.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno. even if there are no matches in the right table.dep where emp.emp.enmae.dname from emp.dno=dep.--------.dname from emp. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------------- .enmae.dno. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.

ename from emp3 e1.1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected. SQL> select * from emp3. ENAME ---------C .eno. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2).designation.e2.e1.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected.mgr=e2. SQL> select * from emp2.---------. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself.ename.e1. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.eno.--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries. 4.--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2. ENO ENAME --------.emp3 e2 where e1. SQL> select e1. ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------.

ename.--------------10 Amit #1276. in essence. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.---------. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.eadd from emp1. a virtual table. it is created by a query joining one or more tables.empsal) as select empno. It does not physically exist.---------.-----------.---------. SQL> select eno.-------------. View created.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765.-------------.-------------. Rather.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE. .d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2).empname.ename.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY.ename.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1.-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.d 60 Rajat #127.esalary from emp1. SQL> select * from emp10.b Banur 1.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2). MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is.

View dropped. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2.e.dno. SQL> select * from emp10. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp.View created.dname from emp e. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dno=d.enmae. SQL> select * from emp10. View created.dno.dep d where e.d.e. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from dep. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10.--------------.--------------.--------------.eno.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e. SQL> select * from emp10. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES .

SQL> select * from dep.--------------. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. Index created.'HR'.'CHD'). SQL> insert into dep values(50.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno.--------------.'HR1'. 1 row created.dloc). DNO DNAME DLOC --------.ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. Index created. SQL> select * from dep.--------------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname).'Pat').I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50. insert into dep values(50.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX .'HR'.

value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification.. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. 1) We can directly assign values to variables. • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon. where you can initialize a variable. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. you can use a variable. you must initialize the variable when it is declared. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6. For example. Index dropped. For example: The below example declares two variables. if you want to store the current salary of an employee. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. DECLARE salary number (6). INTO statement. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. DECLARE salary number(4).SQL> drop index d1. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. one of which is a not null. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”.

DECLARE var_salary number(6).e. 11> END. 3> var_num2 number. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id.These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks.e. the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks. it cannot be accessed after line 11. so cannot be accessed in the outer block i.put_line(var_salary). The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. 13> / .These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks. Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen. The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block. Global variables . Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. 6> var_num2 := 200. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks.[WHERE condition]. 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block. Therefore. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block. • • Local variables . dbms_output. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types. 12> END. 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. dbms_output.put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. / ' || var_salary). 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100. var_emp_id number(6) = 1116.

PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program. The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. iterative statements. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%. BEGIN salary_increase := 100. Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. VALUE . END. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3). For example. The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change. dbms_output. Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program. If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it. You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value. .e.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. You cannot assign a value later. you will get a error. to declare salary_increase. If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error. similar to a variable name. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. A constant is a user-defined literal value.put_line (salary_increase). • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i.

ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2.put_line(‘No God’). begin num:=5. end. END IF. 4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1. statement 2. / Switch case: e. ELSE statement 4.g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’. 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. else dbms_output. if num>4 then dbms_output. statement 2. END IF. prompt . e. ELSE statement 4. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. ELSE statement 2.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1.g declare num number(3).put_line(‘God’). END IF. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. END IF.

End case. / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times. Else Dbms_output. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop.put_line(‘One’). end.put_line(‘two’). The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. {or EXIT WHEN condition. . Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output. End. EXIT. / Or Declare Num:=2.declare num1 number:=&num. otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations. when 2 then dbms_output.} END LOOP.put_line(‘Wrong’). begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output. end case. An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop. These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop.put_line(‘Sunday’). 2) Increment the variable in the loop. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates. 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body.

e. the statements in the loop is executed only once.g declare ctr number(2):=0.3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop.put_line(‘the loop begins’). 2) Increment the variable in the loop. begin dbms_output. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly. / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true. The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements. end loop. If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition. end.put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). exit when ctr>10. The iteration continues until the condition becomes false. The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration.g . dbms_output. e. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. END LOOP. loop ctr:=ctrl+1.

put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr.g .End integer value. end loop.declare ctr number(2):=1. end.val2 LOOP statements. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly. ctr:=ctr+1. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity. END LOOP.Start integer value. val2 . Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section. Simple for loop e. / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly. begin dbms_output. The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1. The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer.’999’). Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. • • val1 .put_line(‘The while loop begin’). while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output. The counter is always incremented by 1..

put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr). then statements1 is executed.. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic.2)= 0 then Dbms_output. ELSE. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true.10 loop Dbms_output. and statements3 are PL/SQL statements. / Table 1 You may use the IF. 2. End if.5 loop dbms_output. If condition1 is true. End. End loop. statements1. / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1.. statements2.6 loop If MOD(I. then statements2 is executed. ELSIF.begin for I in 1.put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i). End loop. End.. The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF. . / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1. end loop. 2. THEN. This conditional logic flows as follows: 1. where 1. end. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false.put_line(‘hello’).

SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 . We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master. 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'.--------. 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 15 END IF.3. If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true. 17 END. 3 v_b Number. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT. then statements3 is executed. 10 END IF. 11 END.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------. --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'. 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'.----------------OSTATUS ---------- . 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b).40. 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'.

3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop . SQL> select * from order_master. 10end. 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1.----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. 6 dbms_output.--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1.put_line(a). 9 end if. 8 end loop. 9 end. 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1.1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10). ONO ITEM --------. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1. 7 exit when(a>5). 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1.

10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ENO ENAME -----.put_line(a).%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number. end. end.6 a:=a+1. dbms_output. 9end.sal%type. dbms_output.vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp. begin select dname. vloc varchar2(10).loc into vdname. begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype.put_line(vsal).put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10). dbms_output. .--. 7 dbms_output. / Working with attribute:.put_line(vdname||' '||vloc). 8 end loop. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp. end.

. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp. dbms_output.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E. end.empno.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).sal%type.sal%type. dbms_output. if erec. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output.loc). end. begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'.put_line('No such emp exists in the table:').g of pre defined exc. / Exceptions:. Some common exception are: 1.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. Pre defined exception 2. vraise number.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block. / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype.put_line(drec.job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers. User defined exc E. elsif erec.G declare vsal emp. end. update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec.dname||' '||drec. end if.

put_line('too many rows are there for this end').. employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.salary from emp where eno=empno.put_line('there is no data for this employee no..put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).:').'). new 6: empno:=4. end.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary).ename %type.eno %type.--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master. new 6: empno:=12.esal %type. there is no data for this employee no.ddate %type. / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp. DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p . 4 salary emp. 9 dbms_output. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output. dbms_output. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output. 3 o_pending Exception. 15 end. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master. 7 select ename.esal into name. 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output. 3 empno emp.put_line('too many rows .put_line('employee name is:' ||name). ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------.---------. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno. 8 dbms_output. 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno.begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.

4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2.eno %type. 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('your order is still pending'). 7 else 8 dbms_output. 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output. ENO ENAME --------.put_line('record is not found').---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount . ENO ENAME --------. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending. 9 end if. 10 end. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp.put_line('record found'). record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 8 end if. 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no. 12 end. SQL> select * from emp.

6 begin 7 open emp_crsr. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected. 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. SQL> declare 2 no employee. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no.--------------. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1.eno %type. 15 close emp_crsr.-------------------.SQL> declare 2 no emp.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound. 8 end. SQL> select * from emp. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno. 14 end loop.esal %type.ename %type. 16 end. 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500. ENO ENAME --------. 17 / .ename.--------. 4 salary employee.--------. 3 name employee.name. 7 end if.salary. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------.esal from employee.eno %type.put_line(SQL %rowcount). 12 end if.

7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output.esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output. 12 end if.put_line('record fetch'). 10 else 11 dbms_output. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job. 11 end. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 end if.put_line('salary is average'). Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number. .put_line('salary is less'). 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10.PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 14 end.p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno. 13 end loop. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.'clerk'). 10 close emp_cursor. 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1.ename. Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp.

UPDATE.. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. but they differ in the way they are accessed. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. UPDATE. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. When you execute INSERT. implicit statements are created to process these statements. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected.. only one record can be processed at a time. %NOTFOUND. but can process only one row at a time. and DELETE statements are executed. which is called as current row. UPDATE and SELECT statements. For example. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. A cursor can hold more than one row. Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. and %ISOPEN. INSERT. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. INSERT. %ROWCOUNT. and manipulate this data. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. . When a SELECT.

'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. END. . the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5). In the above PL/SQL Block. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000.Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. if a DML statement like INSERT. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT. if DML statements like INSERT. DELETE. Else we get a message like for example. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE. The return value is FALSE. If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'.INTO statement return at least one row. END IF. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT ….put_line('None of the salaries where updated'). DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT …. The return value is TRUE.INTO statement return at least one row.INTO statement do not return a row. if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT.put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated').INTO statement does not return a row. dbms_output. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT…. UPDATE.

Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. How to access an Explicit Cursor? . FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section. It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000.

BEGIN OPEN cursor. When a cursor is opened. · If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. the first row becomes the current row. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records. 3) Close the cursor. FETCH cursor. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. create a cursor. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. 1) Open the cursor. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. process the records. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name. On every fetch statement. the pointer moves to the next row. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. . the record should have the same structure as the cursor. If you want to fetch after the last row. END. records. CLOSE cursor. the program will throw an error. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables.

if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND . . if fetch statement doesn’t return a row. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. 12> END. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . FETCH and CLOSE Statements. Sixth. Second. 7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor.6. We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name.put_line (emp_rec. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE. 11> CLOSE emp_cur. Third. Fifth. FALSE. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors. 10> dbms_output. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation.first_name || ' emp_rec. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10. Fourth. if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row. FALSE. ' || In the above example. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation. TRUE. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN.last_name). 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype. we are closing the cursor in line no 11. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8.

We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned.put_line(emp_cur. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. So use these attributes in appropriate instances.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row. 14> END LOOP. if the cursor is not opened in the program. if there is a row found the program continues. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row. salary FROM emp_tbl. 8> END IF. 15> END. . If we do so.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. TRUE. it directly moves to line no 9. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP.salary). 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. In line no 11. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. last_name. we need to reverse the logic of the program. In line no 6. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. If there is no rows found the program would exit. 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. 12> dbms_output. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors.

first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. END LOOP. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row. last_name. need not open. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped. before fetching the record again. In the loop. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. salary FROM emp_tbl. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. 18> / In the above example.Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. if true the program moves into the while loop. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. 17> END. else you will skip the first row. 8> END IF. Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. fetch and close the cursor.. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 16> END LOOP. salary FROM emp_tbl. last_name.put_line(emp_cur.. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row.salary). These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 5> BEGIN .

97) 10 11 12 END. The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure. A procedure has a header and a body. FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price.6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output. What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task.2). Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created. 11>END. 10> END LOOP. you can reduce the number of lines in the program. A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. NUMBER(5. 12> / In the above example.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur. The body consists or declaration section. DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 .product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur.0).put_line(emp_cur.salary). 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . NUMBER(4. the cursor is opened. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages. By using FOR Loop in your program. 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY. END LOOP. We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways.

11> END LOOP. The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional. 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END. salary FROM emp_tbl.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name. 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. last_name. The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section. 12>END.put_line(emp_cur.salary). procedure_name. 1) From the SQL prompt.last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur. 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. IS . By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code. EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name.A procedure may or may not return any value. .first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur.

name OUT emp. 6 / Procedure created. OUT mode.esal into name.eno %type. 5 / Procedure created. . 5 end emp_detail.salary from emp where eno=no. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements. SQL> select * from emp. salary OUT emp.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename. 4 end raise_salary.eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.esal %type) T emp. SQL> execute raise_salary(2). we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program.ename %type.NOTE: In the examples given above. IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode.

Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890. SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10). 5 begin 6 no:=&eno.salary).ename %type. employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.putline("Area Code Is: "||p). 3 begin 4 p:=&p. 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p. Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno.esal%type. 7 emp_detail(no.name.SQL> declare 2 no emp. Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p). 10* end. 8 dbms_output. 8 end.1. 6 format_phone(p). new 6: no:=3.put_line('employee name is: '||name). 4 salary emp. 9 dbms_output. 5 dbms_output. 5 end format_phone.eno %type. 7 dbms_output. 3 name emp.3).put_line('employee salary is: '||salary). . 6 / Procedure created. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)).The first three digit/ characters are of area code.

3 is 4 sal number. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement.. 7 return sal. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no. .eno %type) 2 return number. Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee.. new 4: p=1722665626.--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [. 8 end getsal. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value. Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.---------. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. SQL> select * from emp. .])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name.

The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 4 . 9 end.2) comm NUMBER(6. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter. SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT. 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function . 7 END ss_thresh. 6 . create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0. 2. 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 8 return (cnt). 8 / Function created. 5 . 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9.PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 9 .2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) .2). 8 . 6 RETURN x. 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e. 3. 3 END. table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6. 7 . 10 .deptno = p_deptno.where 1. OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present.

7 END circle_area. 8 / Function created. 9 / Function created. Packages usually have two parts. and subprograms. SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package. variables.7525 Packaage:. . The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms.14. enhance.A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. sometimes the body is unnecessary. It declares the types. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table.CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. 3 v_area NUMBER. cursors. exceptions. 8 END average_salary. 2). CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER. constants. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual." You can debug. a specification and a body. or replace a package body without changing the package spec. variables. 6 RETURN v_area.

The package specification contains information about the package. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT. 4. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. 1. comm NUMBER. 7. 6. The spec holds public declarations. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. END emp_actions. 2. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps. a cursor. 3. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. such pragmas must follow the function spec). deptno NUMBER). You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. These are potentially available to all database users. which are hidden from code outside the package. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. job VARCHAR2. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. salary REAL). 5. . Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit. sal NUMBER. The package body contains the actual code. which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. mgr NUMBER.To create package specs.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. and two employment procedures. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). If necessary. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -.

deptno). The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name. it is executed once when the package is initially referenced. If you perform any initialization in the package body.type_name package_name. End_Date DATE. job. Table created. comm NUMBER. ename. Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. you create the body of the package. City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification. / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. mgr NUMBER. sal NUMBER. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq.NEXTVAL.object_name package_name. comm. END emp_actions. SQL> . END hire_employee. Salary Number(8.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). Start_Date DATE.2). SYSDATE. sal. END fire_employee. To reference the package's subprograms and objects. mgr.subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -.job VARCHAR2. you must use dot notation.

t 3 / 1 row created. t 3 / 1 row created.'James'. Last_Name. t 3 / 1 row created.SQL> -.'YYYYMMDD').'YYYYMMDD'). 'Smith'. Start_Date. First_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name. 'Rice'.'Jason'.'Alison'. t 3 / 1 row created.'Robert'. to_date('19870730'. 'Black'. Start_Date. First_Name. E 2 values('04'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('02'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. t 3 / 1 row created. E 2 values('03'.'YYYYMMDD').'YYYYMMDD'). 'Larry'. Start_Date. to_date('19821024'. Last_Name.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID. t 3 / 1 row created.'David'. to_date('19901231'. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. to_date('19781212'. E 2 values('06'. Start_Date. to_date('19960725'. E 2 values('05'.'YYYYMMDD').'James'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name. to_date('19760321'. to_date('19840115'. First_Name.'Celia'. Last_Name. First_Name. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). 'Green'. E 2 values('08'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Mathews'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('07'. 'Martin'. Last_Name. Last_Name. Start_Date. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19960917'. First_Name.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / .'YYYYMMDD').'Linda'. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Cat'. Start_Date. Start_Date. E 2 values ('01'. Last_Name. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name. Start_Date.

4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6. 18 / Package body created. . 6 INSERT into employee (id. 8 END inv_count. 'new').56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344. SQL> SQL> select * from employee. SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer.---------. first_name)values('01'.new_qty).salary) values ('01'. 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer). Call completed.inv_count(2).78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232. SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec.package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id. 13 END. 16 17 END inv_pck_spec. SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.---------25-JUL-06 1234. 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty.78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected. 14 BEGIN -.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.inv_adjust(2000).78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897. 7 RETURN(new_qty). 5 / Package created. 4 END inv_pck_spec.

SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------. .---------.---------21-FEB-86 6661.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.

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