Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

----------------. employee no employee name employee department -----------------. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno.b Banur 6 rows selected. COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20.ename.-------------. OPERATORS:1. 2.edep "employee department" from emp1.---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected.-------------.----------. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------.ename "employee name".----------------- .-------------.-----------.esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1.-----------------------.---------.----------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.-------------. SQL> select * from emp1. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.

------------. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.-------.'Sales'). EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.----------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.--------.---------.----------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.---------.------------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765.-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.------------------------.------------.-------------------.-----------.-------------------.-----------.-------------.d Pat #127.---------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.---------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276.-------------.-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.

-------------.b Banur 6 rows selected.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.4.---------. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 . B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2. SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2. EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.-----------.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------.----------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.-------------.

-----------. Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY. . C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2.They are used to maintain the consistency of the database.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table.esalary number(10)). EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2. UNIQUE 3. 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp2 values(100.8000). CHECK 2.Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation.90 30 10 rows selected. Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL .ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null. So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3).''. Table Created.We have three categories of constraints: 1. EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------.

ename varchar2(30). Miscellaneous Functions 5. At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3). Table altered.CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well. Table altered. SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL. alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT. PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). SQL> select empno.initcap(ename). At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000). Character Functions 2. Date Functions 4. Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital.EMP_ENO_PK) . B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table.esalary from emp1. Numeric Functions 3. Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1.primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno). EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------. Table Created. Table altered.esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)).---------------------------10 Amit 10000 . UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname).

LT -it 1 rows selected.'it') from emp1 where empno=10.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected.esalary from emp1. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. SQL> select empno. iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left.'am') from emp1 where empno=10. RT -am .lower(ename). Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase. SQL> select empno. iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase.esalary from emp1. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'. v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected.upper(ename). SQL> select ltrim ('amit'.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------.

-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string. SQL> select empno.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20.'u') from emp1 where empno=50.10.5) from dual. EMPNO REPLAC --------. SQL> select empno.length(ename) from emp1. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character.translate('neha'.'*') from dual. EMPNO TRAN --------. SQL> select empno.'i'.1 rows selected. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------. xi) RPAD:- . SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'. ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected.'a'. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'.4. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected. replace('sumit'.---50 nehu 1 rows selected.

RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected.SQL> select rpad('amit'.23) from dual.'*')from dual.'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual. CEIL(100.10. ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100. .23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2.'world') from dual.'e') from dual. INSTR('HELLO'. FLOOR(100. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'.3) from dual. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100.23) from dual.

SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate.467235. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual.2) -----------------23.467235.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23.2) -----------------23. ROUND(23.'15-oct-09') from dual. MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23.3) from dual. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii. TRUNC(23.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual.6) from dual.POWER(2.461235.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- . MOD(10. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate.2) from dual.461235.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10.2) from dual.

TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual.1. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. USER:SQL> select user from dual. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 . UID:SQL> select uid from dual. TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii.4819736 iv. TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii. UID --------20 ii.'Sunday') from dual. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i. TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual.

Full Outer Join 4. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1.e. Non Equii join 3. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. Equii join 2. SQL> select * from emp.--------------.--------- . Lets have a look at both the tables i. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1. emp and dep table. Right Outer Join iii. COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. Self Join 1. We have following type of joins:1. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. Outer Join i. Left Outer Join ii. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables.

ename.--------.esal between s.-----------------. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------. emp2 and salgrade table.dep where emp.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.e.esal.--------------.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3.s.--------------. NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade.e.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2.eno.salgrade s where e.grade from emp2 e.emp.losal and s.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.enmae.dname from emp. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.dno. .dno.eno.dno=dep.hisal.dep.emp.e. SQL> select * from emp2.

dno. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dno=dep. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.--------.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected. SQL> select * from dep.dno.dep where emp.--------------. even if there are no matches in the left table.enmae.--------.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.enmae. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.enmae. ii.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables.--------------.'Pkl'). 1 row created.dname from emp.dname from emp.dno and emp.dno=dep.dno(+)=dep.dno(+). RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.dep where emp.--------.ENO ENMAE DNO --------.'ADMIN'. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------------.dno(+)=dep.dep where emp.--------------.--------------.dno.emp.dname from emp. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------. Return all rows from the right table.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i.--------------- .dno.emp. even if there are no matches in the right table.emp. SQL> select eno. ii.

ename from emp3 e1. 4.designation. SQL> select * from emp2.e1.ename. ENO ENAME --------.e2.eno. ENAME ---------C . ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------.--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2).1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected. SQL> select e1.eno.--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2.e1. SQL> select * from emp3.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected.---------.emp3 e2 where e1. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself.mgr=e2.

ename.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY. SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno.empname.eadd from emp1.--------------10 Amit #1276.-------------.ename.---------. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------. SQL> select * from emp10. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1. in essence.---------. it is created by a query joining one or more tables. Rather.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765.empsal) as select empno.-------------. View created.-------------. SQL> select eno.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.b Banur 1. .esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2).b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno.esalary from emp1. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.---------. It does not physically exist. MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is.d 60 Rajat #127.ename.-----------.-------------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. a virtual table.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2).-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.

enmae. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2. SQL> select * from emp10.eno. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e. View dropped. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp.dep d where e. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES . ENO ENMAE DNO --------. SQL> select * from emp10.dno. SQL> select * from dep.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected.d.dno. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dno=d.--------------.dname from emp e.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10.--------------. View created.View created.--------------. SQL> select * from emp10.e.e.

'Pat').---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname).ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep. SQL> insert into dep values(50.'HR'. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.'HR'.I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------------. Index created.'CHD').dloc). 1 row created.--------------.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT. SQL> select * from dep.'HR1'. insert into dep values(50.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX . DNO DNAME DLOC --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno. SQL> select * from dep. Index created.--------------.

The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. if you want to store the current salary of an employee. 1) We can directly assign values to variables. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6.. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. Index dropped. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. you can use a variable. DECLARE salary number(4). DECLARE salary number (6). datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype.SQL> drop index d1. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable. where you can initialize a variable. • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. one of which is a not null. you must initialize the variable when it is declared. For example: The below example declares two variables. value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. For example. INTO statement.

DECLARE var_salary number(6). • • Local variables . 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. 11> END. / ' || var_salary). the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks.put_line(var_salary). Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types. The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. dbms_output.These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks. 3> var_num2 number. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id. Therefore.e. Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen. 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. 13> / . var_emp_id number(6) = 1116. The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100. so cannot be accessed in the outer block i. 6> var_num2 := 200. it cannot be accessed after line 11.put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number.These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks. dbms_output. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks. Global variables . The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block. 12> END.e.[WHERE condition].

• • • constant_name is the name of the constant i. If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error. For example. VALUE . you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. iterative statements. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10. . You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value.PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program. dbms_output. A constant is a user-defined literal value. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%. similar to a variable name. Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. BEGIN salary_increase := 100. The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section. END. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change.put_line (salary_increase). DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3). You cannot assign a value later.e. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it. to declare salary_increase. you will get a error.

g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1. prompt . if num>4 then dbms_output. statement 2. / Switch case: e. 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. END IF. END IF. ELSE statement 2. END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. end.put_line(‘No God’). ELSE statement 4.put_line(‘God’). END IF.g declare num number(3). ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2. END IF. e. begin num:=5. ELSE statement 4. statement 2. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. else dbms_output. 4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1.

Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output. End. The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. end case. Else Dbms_output. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates.put_line(‘One’). / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times.} END LOOP. 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body.put_line(‘two’). end. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop. An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. End case. otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations. begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output. . These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop. when 2 then dbms_output.put_line(‘Sunday’).put_line(‘Wrong’). EXIT.declare num1 number:=&num. / Or Declare Num:=2. {or EXIT WHEN condition.

put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). end. loop ctr:=ctrl+1. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. end loop. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly.put_line(‘the loop begins’). The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration. begin dbms_output.g declare ctr number(2):=0. If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. e. END LOOP. The iteration continues until the condition becomes false.3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop. / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true. exit when ctr>10. the statements in the loop is executed only once.g . The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements. e. dbms_output.

End integer value. begin dbms_output.g .Start integer value. end.put_line(‘The while loop begin’). The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly. • • val1 .put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. The counter is always incremented by 1. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity.’999’). Simple for loop e. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly. / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times. END LOOP. ctr:=ctr+1.. while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output.declare ctr number(2):=1. end loop. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section.val2 LOOP statements. Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1. val2 .

If condition1 is true. 2. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true. This conditional logic flows as follows: 1. End if.begin for I in 1.put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr). ELSE. then statements1 is executed. statements2. where 1..put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i).6 loop If MOD(I. and statements3 are PL/SQL statements. statements1. 2. ELSIF.5 loop dbms_output. end. . condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false. / Table 1 You may use the IF. End. end loop.2)= 0 then Dbms_output.put_line(‘hello’). / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1..10 loop Dbms_output. THEN. then statements2 is executed. The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF. End loop. End loop. End. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic. / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1..

18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'.----------------OSTATUS ---------- . 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT.40. 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'. 10 END IF. 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . 17 END.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 15 END IF. then statements3 is executed. 11 END. 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0.3.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'. --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master.--------. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85. ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------. 3 v_b Number. If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true. SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 . 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 7 exit when(a>5). 6 dbms_output.put_line(a). 10end. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. SQL> select * from order_master. 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ONO ITEM --------. 9 end.----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1.--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1.1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10). 9 end if. 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1. 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop . 8 end loop.

begin select dname. 7 dbms_output. dbms_output.%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp. dbms_output. 8 end loop.put_line(a). 9end.put_line(vsal).loc into vdname. Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp. vloc varchar2(10). 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. dbms_output.vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'.put_line(vdname||' '||vloc). begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number. end.--.sal%type. end. begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). ENO ENAME -----. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype. / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10). .6 a:=a+1. / Working with attribute:. end.

end. / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500.sal%type. dbms_output.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E. User defined exc E. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp.put_line(drec. end.loc). vraise number. elsif erec.put_line('No such emp exists in the table:'). . Pre defined exception 2.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block. / Exceptions:.empno. if erec. begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'. end.G declare vsal emp. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. Some common exception are: 1.job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec.dname||' '||drec.g of pre defined exc.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'. dbms_output.sal%type. end if.

.put_line('too many rows are there for this end'). Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master.eno %type. 9 dbms_output. 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno.salary from emp where eno=empno.put_line('too many rows .esal %type. 3 o_pending Exception. 15 end. / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno.begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.').put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).put_line('employee name is:' ||name). new 6: empno:=4. 3 empno emp. employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary). 4 salary emp.ename %type.---------. 8 dbms_output. dbms_output. 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output. DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p .put_line('there is no data for this employee no.esal into name. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno. end.--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output.:'). new 6: empno:=12. there is no data for this employee no. 7 select ename..ddate %type.

ENO ENAME --------. 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no. 8 end if. 12 end. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output.4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4. 9 end if. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2.put_line('record found'). 10 end. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp.put_line('your order is still pending'). 7 else 8 dbms_output.put_line('record is not found'). 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount . ENO ENAME --------.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp. SQL> select * from emp.eno %type. 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending. record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. SQL> declare 2 no employee. 15 close emp_crsr.esal %type.ename %type. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 3 name employee. 12 end if. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr.salary.--------. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------. 8 end. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500. ENO ENAME --------.--------.SQL> declare 2 no emp.-------------------. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound.ename. 4 salary employee. 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno. SQL> select * from emp.eno %type. 17 / . 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 16 end.put_line(SQL %rowcount).eno %type.--------------. 7 end if. 14 end loop.name.esal from employee.

p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output. 9 end if. 10 else 11 dbms_output.put_line('salary is average'). 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job. 12 end if.put_line('salary is less').PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number.put_line('record fetch'). 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output.ename. 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1. . 11 end. 10 close emp_cursor.'clerk'). Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp. 14 end. 13 end loop.

When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. but they differ in the way they are accessed. INSERT. but can process only one row at a time. only one record can be processed at a time. and manipulate this data. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. %NOTFOUND. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. and DELETE statements are executed. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table.. which is called as current row. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block. UPDATE. INSERT. When a SELECT. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it.. A cursor can hold more than one row.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. %ROWCOUNT. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. When you execute INSERT. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. implicit statements are created to process these statements. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. . Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. For example. and %ISOPEN. UPDATE and SELECT statements. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE. UPDATE.

%ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT…. BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000. dbms_output. Else we get a message like for example.put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated'). . 'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'. if a DML statement like INSERT.INTO statement return at least one row.INTO statement does not return a row. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT …. The return value is FALSE. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT ….INTO statement do not return a row. UPDATE. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5). In the above PL/SQL Block. DELETE.INTO statement return at least one row. The return value is TRUE. END. if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT.Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. if DML statements like INSERT. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. END IF. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE.put_line('None of the salaries where updated'). the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated.

How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000. How to access an Explicit Cursor? . 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees. We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section. FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000.

When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records. END. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. the program will throw an error. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list. If you want to fetch after the last row. 1) Open the cursor.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. create a cursor. records. CLOSE cursor. . process the records. the pointer moves to the next row. the first row becomes the current row. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. FETCH cursor. When a cursor is opened. 3) Close the cursor. On every fetch statement. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. · If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name. BEGIN OPEN cursor.

' || In the above example. Fourth. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN. if fetch statement doesn’t return a row. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8.first_name || ' emp_rec. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE. Fifth. FALSE.6. Second. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. we are closing the cursor in line no 11. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor.last_name). Sixth. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . 7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors.put_line (emp_rec. 12> END. 11> CLOSE emp_cur. FALSE. 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. Third. TRUE.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND . 10> dbms_output. if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row. FETCH and CLOSE Statements. .

Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. last_name.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. salary FROM emp_tbl. if there is a row found the program continues. In line no 11. it directly moves to line no 9. In line no 6. 8> END IF. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. TRUE. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. So use these attributes in appropriate instances. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP.put_line(emp_cur.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur.salary).last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. If we do so. 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. 12> dbms_output. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. . 14> END LOOP. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. If there is no rows found the program would exit. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. if the cursor is not opened in the program. we need to reverse the logic of the program. 15> END. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row.

Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop. salary FROM emp_tbl. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped. 16> END LOOP. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row. else you will skip the first row. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. END LOOP. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. 17> END.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors. last_name. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 8> END IF.. 5> BEGIN . before fetching the record again. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype.put_line(emp_cur. Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values. need not open.. if true the program moves into the while loop.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. fetch and close the cursor. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. salary FROM emp_tbl. In the loop. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. 18> / In the above example. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row.salary). General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row. last_name.

2). A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price.product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur. 11>END.put_line(emp_cur.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur. 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY. NUMBER(4. 12> / In the above example.salary). We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways.97) 10 11 12 END. the cursor is opened. when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created. What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages.6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output. FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. NUMBER(5. you can reduce the number of lines in the program. the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed. Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). 10> END LOOP. The body consists or declaration section. DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 .0). A procedure has a header and a body. The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure. END LOOP. 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . By using FOR Loop in your program. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block.

put_line(emp_cur. last_name. The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section. EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END. 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name. 1) From the SQL prompt.A procedure may or may not return any value.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur.salary).last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur. 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. 12>END. 11> END LOOP. 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. salary FROM emp_tbl.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure. IS . The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional. . 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name. By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code. procedure_name. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee.

6 / Procedure created.esal into name. salary OUT emp. we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program. IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp. . PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.NOTE: In the examples given above. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode. SQL> select * from emp.eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename.ename %type.salary from emp where eno=no. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp. 4 end raise_salary.esal %type) T emp. SQL> execute raise_salary(2). name OUT emp. OUT mode.eno %type. 5 end emp_detail. 5 / Procedure created.

3 name emp. 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p. SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10). Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890. 5 begin 6 no:=&eno. 9 dbms_output. employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno. 6 / Procedure created. 6 format_phone(p). 7 emp_detail(no.ename %type. 7 dbms_output. 8 end.eno %type.put_line('employee name is: '||name).putline("Phoneno Is: "||p).salary).1.putline("Area Code Is: "||p).SQL> declare 2 no emp. . Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure. 5 dbms_output. Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code. 3 begin 4 p:=&p.The first three digit/ characters are of area code.put_line('employee salary is: '||salary). 4 salary emp.esal%type. 8 dbms_output.name. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)). 5 end format_phone.3). new 6: no:=3. 10* end.

--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp. SQL> select * from emp.. . . 8 end getsal. 3 is 4 sal number. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement.. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee. The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [. new 4: p=1722665626.eno %type) 2 return number. 7 return sal. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value.---------.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p. Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no.

6 RETURN x.deptno = p_deptno. 8 / Function created. 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function . OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present. 7 END ss_thresh. 3 END. 4 . 9 end. 5 . 2. 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9.2) comm NUMBER(6. 8 return (cnt). 7 . table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6. 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e. The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 10 . 6 . 9 .2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) . 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 8 . SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 3.where 1.2). create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter.

SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual. cursors. exceptions." You can debug.7525 Packaage:. 8 / Function created. sometimes the body is unnecessary. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table. . a specification and a body. or replace a package body without changing the package spec. 3 v_area NUMBER. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. constants. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. 9 / Function created. 7 END circle_area.CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. 6 RETURN v_area. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius.A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. 8 END average_salary. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. It declares the types. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package.14. and subprograms. enhance. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER. Packages usually have two parts. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. variables. variables. 2).

salary REAL). which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. sal NUMBER. The package body contains the actual code. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. These are potentially available to all database users. END emp_actions. The package specification contains information about the package. 7. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT.To create package specs. comm NUMBER. such pragmas must follow the function spec). CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. deptno NUMBER).body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. 4. use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. 5. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. which are hidden from code outside the package. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. . 3. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. 1. job VARCHAR2. a cursor. You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. 6. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. and two employment procedures. If necessary. The spec holds public declarations. 2. mgr NUMBER. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER).

Salary Number(8.NEXTVAL. ename. The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name.object_name package_name. sal NUMBER. Start_Date DATE.2).subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -. you must use dot notation.type_name package_name. SYSDATE. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. sal.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). END fire_employee. To reference the package's subprograms and objects. comm. SQL> . City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). deptno). job. END hire_employee. comm NUMBER. Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL.job VARCHAR2. it is executed once when the package is initially referenced. Table created. End_Date DATE. Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). you create the body of the package. mgr. mgr NUMBER. / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification. END emp_actions. If you perform any initialization in the package body. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq.

Start_Date. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name. 'Martin'.SQL> -. Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD').'YYYYMMDD'). to_date('19901231'. Last_Name. First_Name. Start_Date. t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name. to_date('19760321'.'James'.'Linda'.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'YYYYMMDD'). Start_Date. 'Cat'. E 2 values('04'. Start_Date. First_Name. 'Green'.'Jason'. Last_Name. Last_Name.'James'. Start_Date. to_date('19960917'. E 2 values('08'. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values('05'. E 2 values('02'.'YYYYMMDD'). to_date('19870730'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. t 3 / 1 row created.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / . First_Name. to_date('19960725'.'Alison'. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. to_date('19821024'.'Celia'. First_Name. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values('03'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Rice'. Last_Name. First_Name. to_date('19840115'. t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name. Start_Date. 'Mathews'. t 3 / 1 row created. E 2 values ('01'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. 'Larry'.'Robert'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. t 3 / 1 row created. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Black'.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name. Start_Date.'David'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. 'Smith'. E 2 values('06'. to_date('19781212'. E 2 values('07'.'YYYYMMDD').

3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer). 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty.56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661.---------. 'new').78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322. SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec. 5 / Package created.78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> select * from employee. Call completed. 14 BEGIN -. SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer. 6 INSERT into employee (id.package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.inv_count(2). 7 RETURN(new_qty). 4 END inv_pck_spec.inv_adjust(2000). 16 17 END inv_pck_spec. 18 / Package body created.---------25-JUL-06 1234.salary) values ('01'.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232. 4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6. 13 END. first_name)values('01'. SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec.new_qty). 8 END inv_count.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897. .

78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.---------21-FEB-86 6661.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.---------. .

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