Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

----------------. 2. SQL> select * from emp1. COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20.esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1.b Banur 6 rows selected.ename "employee name".---------.ename.---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".-----------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.-------------.----------.-----------------------.edep "employee department" from emp1.----------. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno. OPERATORS:1.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. employee no employee name employee department -----------------. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.----------------- .d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.-------------.-------------.

---------.-------------------.-----------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.'Sales').-------------.------------------------.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.------------.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.------------.d Pat #127.--------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.----------------.---------.-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.-------------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.-------------.------------.-------.-----------.-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.----------.---------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.------------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .---------.

-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1.----------. B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2.4. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2.-------------. SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.---------. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.-------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.-----------. EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.b Banur 6 rows selected. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 .

They are used to maintain the consistency of the database. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------. C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2.We have three categories of constraints: 1. EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table.''.90 30 10 rows selected. Table Created. . 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp2 values(100.-----------. CHECK 2.esalary number(10)). UNIQUE 3.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null. Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table. EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY. So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3).8000). Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL .Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation.

Date Functions 4. Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital.EMP_ENO_PK) . Table altered. SQL> select empno. PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). Numeric Functions 3. Table Created. Character Functions 2. Table altered.esalary from emp1. SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL. Miscellaneous Functions 5.initcap(ename).---------------------------10 Amit 10000 .primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno). At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000).ename varchar2(30). EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------. Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1. B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table. UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname).esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)). alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT. Table altered.CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well. At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3).

LT -it 1 rows selected.upper(ename). SQL> select empno.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected. Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase.'it') from emp1 where empno=10.esalary from emp1. RT -am .esalary from emp1.lower(ename).'am') from emp1 where empno=10. SQL> select empno.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected. v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right. iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'. SQL> select ltrim ('amit'. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left.

SQL> select empno.10. EMPNO REPLAC --------.---50 nehu 1 rows selected.1 rows selected. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters.'*') from dual. SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'.length(ename) from emp1. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'.'i'. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------.'u') from emp1 where empno=50. replace('sumit'. xi) RPAD:- . vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character. EMPNO TRAN --------. ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string.'a'.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected.4. SQL> select empno.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string. SQL> select empno.5) from dual.translate('neha'.

'e') from dual. CEIL(100. INSTR('HELLO'. RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected.'*')from dual. . ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100.3) from dual.'world') from dual.23) from dual.23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2.SQL> select rpad('amit'. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.10.'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual. FLOOR(100.23) from dual.

461235.2) -----------------23.2) -----------------23.3) from dual. MOD(10. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii.467235.467235. TRUNC(23.461235.POWER(2.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate. ROUND(23.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23.2) from dual. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual. SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i.2) from dual.6) from dual.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23.'15-oct-09') from dual. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- . MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.

TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual. UID:SQL> select uid from dual.1. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 . TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual. TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii. NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate. USER:SQL> select user from dual. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i. UID --------20 ii. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual.'Sunday') from dual.4819736 iv. TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii.

GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. SQL> select * from emp. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1.e. Outer Join i. We have following type of joins:1. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. Right Outer Join iii.--------- . COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1. Left Outer Join ii. Full Outer Join 4. Self Join 1. emp and dep table. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. Equii join 2. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1.--------------. Lets have a look at both the tables i. Non Equii join 3.

NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------.grade from emp2 e.-----------------.e. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.dep.esal between s. emp2 and salgrade table.dno=dep.enmae.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade.e.esal.hisal.dno. SQL> select * from emp2.s.eno.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.dname from emp.losal and s.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2.--------. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------.emp.--------------.dno. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.e.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3.ename.emp. .dep where emp.eno.salgrade s where e. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp.--------------.

--------------- . even if there are no matches in the left table.dep where emp.dno=dep. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.'Pkl').dno.dno(+)=dep.--------.dno=dep. even if there are no matches in the right table.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables.dno(+)=dep. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.--------------. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------------. SQL> select eno.emp.ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.enmae.emp. Return all rows from the right table.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i.enmae.--------------. ii.emp.dno. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.--------.enmae.dno and emp. ii.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40.dep where emp. SQL> select * from dep.'ADMIN'.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.dno(+). 1 row created.--------------.dname from emp.dno.dname from emp.dno. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected.dname from emp.--------------.dep where emp.

e1. 4. SQL> select * from emp3.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected.e2. SQL> select e1.emp3 e2 where e1. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2). ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------. SQL> select * from emp2.e1.eno.---------. ENO ENAME --------.designation.eno. ENAME ---------C .1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected.ename from emp3 e1.--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.mgr=e2.ename.--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries.

Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1.empsal) as select empno.---------.d 60 Rajat #127. it is created by a query joining one or more tables.---------.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2). SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno.b Banur 1.esalary from emp1. View created. in essence. . SQL> select eno. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------.-------------.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765.ename.-------------. Rather.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. SQL> select * from emp10.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY. a virtual table.empname.ename.eadd from emp1.ename.---------.-----------. MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is. It does not physically exist. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2).-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.-------------.-------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.--------------10 Amit #1276.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno.

dname from emp e.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10.enmae.eno.--------------.e. SQL> select * from emp10.e.dno.dno.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. SQL> select * from emp10.--------------. SQL> select * from dep. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.d. View created.dep d where e.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e.--------------. View dropped. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES . SQL> select * from emp10.View created.dno=d. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2.

SQL> select * from dep.dloc).'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT. 1 row created.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname).'HR'.--------------.ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep.'HR'. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------------.'Pat'). insert into dep values(50.'CHD').'HR1'. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> insert into dep values(50. Index created.I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from dep.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX .---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno.--------------. Index created.

dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”. value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification. For example. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6. • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable.SQL> drop index d1. DECLARE salary number(4). 1) We can directly assign values to variables. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . Index dropped. For example: The below example declares two variables.. you must initialize the variable when it is declared. 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. where you can initialize a variable. if you want to store the current salary of an employee. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. you can use a variable. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable. The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon. The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. INTO statement. DECLARE salary number (6). one of which is a not null. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype.

it cannot be accessed after line 11. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types. DECLARE var_salary number(6). dbms_output. the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks. dbms_output. / ' || var_salary). var_emp_id number(6) = 1116.put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id. 13> / . The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block. 12> END. Therefore. 3> var_num2 number. The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block. 6> var_num2 := 200. 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100.e. 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. Global variables .These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks.e.[WHERE condition].put_line(var_salary). The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen.These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks. • • Local variables . 11> END. so cannot be accessed in the outer block i.

Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program. . Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. to declare salary_increase. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. iterative statements.put_line (salary_increase). If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section. • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared.e. you will get a error. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it. BEGIN salary_increase := 100. DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3).PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program. The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change. A constant is a user-defined literal value. You cannot assign a value later. VALUE . END. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%. similar to a variable name. The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error. dbms_output. For example. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value.

4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1. END IF. e. ELSE statement 4.put_line(‘God’). begin num:=5. end. END IF. 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. / Switch case: e. prompt . END IF. END IF. statement 2. ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2. else dbms_output.put_line(‘No God’).g declare num number(3).g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’. ELSE statement 4. statement 2. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. ELSE statement 2. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. if num>4 then dbms_output.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1. END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1.

These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop. Else Dbms_output. begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates. otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations.put_line(‘Wrong’). 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body.} END LOOP.put_line(‘two’). End. Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output. end. End case.put_line(‘One’). EXIT.put_line(‘Sunday’). An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop. The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. end case. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop. / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times. .declare num1 number:=&num. {or EXIT WHEN condition. when 2 then dbms_output. / Or Declare Num:=2.

/ 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true.put_line(‘the loop begins’). begin dbms_output. e.3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop. If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition. end. exit when ctr>10. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. The iteration continues until the condition becomes false. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. the statements in the loop is executed only once. END LOOP. loop ctr:=ctrl+1. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly.g . The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration. dbms_output.g declare ctr number(2):=0. The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements. end loop.put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). e.

3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly..val2 LOOP statements. begin dbms_output. • • val1 . Simple for loop e. END LOOP. Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times. while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity. end.put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. ctr:=ctr+1. The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1.Start integer value. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section. end loop. The counter is always incremented by 1.put_line(‘The while loop begin’).declare ctr number(2):=1.g .End integer value. The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer.’999’). val2 . 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly.

THEN. . statements2. End loop.. end loop..begin for I in 1. This conditional logic flows as follows: 1. then statements2 is executed. If condition1 is true. / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1. The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true.5 loop dbms_output.10 loop Dbms_output. statements1.put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i). End. End if. 2.2)= 0 then Dbms_output. ELSE. and statements3 are PL/SQL statements.put_line(‘hello’). / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1.put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr). 2.. ELSIF. / Table 1 You may use the IF. end.6 loop If MOD(I. End. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic. End loop. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false. then statements1 is executed. where 1.

15 END IF. ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------. 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'. If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85. 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. then statements3 is executed. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 11 END.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 17 END. 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0. We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master.40. --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'.----------------OSTATUS ---------- . 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'. 3 v_b Number. 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'. SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 . 10 END IF.3.--------.

1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10). 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1. 6 dbms_output. 9 end. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1.--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1. 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 8 end loop. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 end if.put_line(a).----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. 7 exit when(a>5). SQL> select * from order_master. ONO ITEM --------. 10end. 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop .

begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'. end.sal%type.put_line(vdname||' '||vloc). 7 dbms_output. ENO ENAME -----.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. / Working with attribute:. dbms_output. Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp.put_line(a). dbms_output.--.vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'. vloc varchar2(10). begin select dname. dbms_output.6 a:=a+1. end.%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. . end.put_line(vsal). 9end. / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10). 8 end loop. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype.loc into vdname. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number.

begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.sal%type.g of pre defined exc.sal%type. elsif erec.G declare vsal emp. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output.empno.put_line(drec. begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers.job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'. . update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec.loc). Some common exception are: 1. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp. end if. vraise number. / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500.dname||' '||drec. dbms_output. User defined exc E.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block. dbms_output. if erec.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E. end.put_line('No such emp exists in the table:'). end. end. Pre defined exception 2. / Exceptions:.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).

8 dbms_output. new 6: empno:=4.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).put_line('too many rows are there for this end').:'). DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p . employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 3 o_pending Exception.put_line('too many rows . 3 empno emp.put_line('employee name is:' ||name). 4 salary emp.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary). Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master.salary from emp where eno=empno. dbms_output.ename %type. 15 end. 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno.begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.ddate %type.esal %type. / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp.'). 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output. end. 9 dbms_output. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno.esal into name.. there is no data for this employee no. new 6: empno:=12. 7 select ename..eno %type. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output.---------.--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master.put_line('there is no data for this employee no. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------.

SQL> select * from emp. 8 end if. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no. 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 12 end. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2. 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no. 10 end.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount .eno %type.put_line('record found'). ENO ENAME --------. 9 end if.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp.put_line('your order is still pending'). 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output. record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp. 7 else 8 dbms_output. ENO ENAME --------.4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4.put_line('record is not found').

SQL> declare 2 no emp. 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr. 4 salary employee. 3 name employee. ENO ENAME --------.-------------------. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound. 16 end. 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.salary. 7 end if. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------.ename. SQL> select * from emp. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee.--------.esal %type. SQL> declare 2 no employee. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output.put_line(SQL %rowcount).ename %type. 14 end loop.--------.eno %type. 8 end.esal from employee.eno %type.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no.--------------. 17 / . 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno. 15 close emp_crsr.name. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1. 12 end if.

ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp. 9 end if.PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('salary is average'). 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output.ename. 12 end if. 13 end loop. 10 close emp_cursor. 10 else 11 dbms_output. 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10.put_line('record fetch'). Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number. Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp.'clerk').p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job. 14 end. 11 end. 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('salary is less'). .esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output.

UPDATE. When you execute INSERT. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. INSERT.. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE. implicit statements are created to process these statements. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. UPDATE and SELECT statements. and %ISOPEN. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. . %ROWCOUNT. which is called as current row. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. For example. but they differ in the way they are accessed. When a SELECT. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. but can process only one row at a time. and manipulate this data. %NOTFOUND.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. INSERT.. only one record can be processed at a time. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. and DELETE statements are executed. A cursor can hold more than one row. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. UPDATE. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database.

'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT ….Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000. if a DML statement like INSERT. if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. UPDATE. Else we get a message like for example. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. In the above PL/SQL Block.put_line('None of the salaries where updated'). END. The return value is FALSE.INTO statement does not return a row. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. END IF. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT…. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT …. DELETE.put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated'). If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'. dbms_output.INTO statement return at least one row. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5). the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated. .INTO statement do not return a row.INTO statement return at least one row. The return value is TRUE. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. if DML statements like INSERT.

It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000. FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees. select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. How to access an Explicit Cursor? . In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section.

. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. process the records.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. On every fetch statement. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list. BEGIN OPEN cursor. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row. records. If you want to fetch after the last row. CLOSE cursor. create a cursor. · If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name. FETCH cursor. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. the pointer moves to the next row. the first row becomes the current row. the program will throw an error. 1) Open the cursor. 3) Close the cursor. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. When a cursor is opened. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. END. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records.

if fetch statement doesn’t return a row. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation. if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype. Fourth. Sixth. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor.last_name).first_name || ' emp_rec. 11> CLOSE emp_cur. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. FETCH and CLOSE Statements. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN. ' || In the above example. We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . FALSE. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8.6. we are closing the cursor in line no 11. TRUE. 7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10. Second. .put_line (emp_rec. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND . Third. 10> dbms_output. 12> END. Fifth. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE. FALSE.

first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. In line no 11. Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. If we do so. So use these attributes in appropriate instances.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP. . we need to reverse the logic of the program. it directly moves to line no 9. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. 14> END LOOP. if there is a row found the program continues. last_name. TRUE. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. In line no 6. 8> END IF. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. If there is no rows found the program would exit. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. salary FROM emp_tbl. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row.salary). Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again.put_line(emp_cur. if the cursor is not opened in the program. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE. 12> dbms_output. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. 15> END.

salary). 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. 17> END. last_name. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped. if true the program moves into the while loop. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors.Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. salary FROM emp_tbl.. last_name. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. salary FROM emp_tbl..put_line(emp_cur. else you will skip the first row. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. END LOOP. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. fetch and close the cursor. Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row. 18> / In the above example. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. before fetching the record again. need not open. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement. In the loop.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. 16> END LOOP. 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. 5> BEGIN . 8> END IF.

the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed. the cursor is opened. NUMBER(4.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur. NUMBER(5.97) 10 11 12 END. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block. 11>END. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages. END LOOP.product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur. We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways. The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure.2). 12> / In the above example. By using FOR Loop in your program.salary).put_line(emp_cur. What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task. The body consists or declaration section. A procedure has a header and a body. 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . 10> END LOOP. 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price. when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created. FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec. A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 . you can reduce the number of lines in the program.6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur.0).

1) From the SQL prompt.A procedure may or may not return any value.salary). 11> END LOOP. By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure. 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name. . IS . 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks. salary FROM emp_tbl. EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name. last_name. procedure_name.put_line(emp_cur. 12>END. 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype.last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name. The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END.

6 / Procedure created. name OUT emp. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp. we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program. SQL> execute raise_salary(2).esal into name. 5 / Procedure created. OUT mode. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode.salary from emp where eno=no. salary OUT emp. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements.ename %type.NOTE: In the examples given above.eno %type. IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename.esal %type) T emp. 5 end emp_detail. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. SQL> select * from emp.eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. . 4 end raise_salary.

8 dbms_output. Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)).putline("Area Code Is: "||p). 6 format_phone(p). SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno. 5 begin 6 no:=&eno.salary). Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure. .The first three digit/ characters are of area code. 4 salary emp. employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('employee salary is: '||salary). 5 end format_phone. 10* end.esal%type. 7 emp_detail(no. 6 / Procedure created.name. new 6: no:=3.SQL> declare 2 no emp.ename %type.3). 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p. 3 begin 4 p:=&p.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p). 3 name emp.eno %type. 5 dbms_output. Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code. SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10). 8 end.1. 7 dbms_output.put_line('employee name is: '||name). 9 dbms_output.

Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value. 7 return sal. 3 is 4 sal number. SQL> select * from emp..---------. The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [.])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. . 8 end getsal. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. .eno %type) 2 return number.. Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p. new 4: p=1722665626. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no.--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp.

4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function . 8 / Function created. 6 RETURN x. 3. SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT. 3 END.2). 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e. create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0.PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 9 . 4 . 10 . 7 . 2. OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present. The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 7 END ss_thresh. 5 . 9 end.deptno = p_deptno.2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) . table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6. 8 . 8 return (cnt).where 1.2) comm NUMBER(6. 6 . 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter.

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. or replace a package body without changing the package spec. 6 RETURN v_area.14. and subprograms. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. exceptions. variables. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER." You can debug. Packages usually have two parts. cursors. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. variables. enhance.A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. 8 / Function created.7525 Packaage:. SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual. 8 END average_salary. sometimes the body is unnecessary. 9 / Function created. 3 v_area NUMBER. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. 7 END circle_area. 2). . 7 RETURN v_average_salary. constants. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table. a specification and a body. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee. It declares the types.

body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. deptno NUMBER). The package body contains the actual code. a cursor. If necessary. Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. 1. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. 2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. sal NUMBER. 3. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. These are potentially available to all database users. 7. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. 4. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. . use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. END emp_actions. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). 6. The spec holds public declarations. which are hidden from code outside the package. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps. job VARCHAR2. 5.To create package specs. mgr NUMBER. The package specification contains information about the package. salary REAL). CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. and two employment procedures. comm NUMBER. You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. such pragmas must follow the function spec).

City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). If you perform any initialization in the package body. comm NUMBER. END emp_actions.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). End_Date DATE. mgr. The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name. you must use dot notation. sal NUMBER. END fire_employee. SQL> . Salary Number(8. Table created.2). PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id.NEXTVAL. comm. SYSDATE. To reference the package's subprograms and objects. mgr NUMBER.object_name package_name.job VARCHAR2. deptno). sal. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. END hire_employee.subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -. The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification. you create the body of the package. job. Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. it is executed once when the package is initially referenced. Start_Date DATE.type_name package_name. ename.

SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('04'. 'Larry'. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values('07'.'YYYYMMDD'). t 3 / 1 row created.'Jason'. First_Name. 'Rice'. Last_Name. E 2 values('03'. First_Name. Start_Date.'David'.'YYYYMMDD'). to_date('19821024'. Start_Date. Start_Date.SQL> -. First_Name. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. Last_Name. Last_Name. 'Cat'. Last_Name.'Alison'. to_date('19901231'. 'Green'.'James'. to_date('19870730'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. 'Martin'. Start_Date. t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name. 'Black'. t 3 / 1 row created. Start_Date. First_Name. E 2 values ('01'. to_date('19781212'.'YYYYMMDD'). to_date('19840115'. t 3 / 1 row created. t 3 / 1 row created.'Robert'. First_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19960725'. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> insert into Employee(ID. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19760321'.'YYYYMMDD').'Linda'.'Celia'. to_date('19960917'. Last_Name.'James'. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Mathews'.'YYYYMMDD'). 'Smith'. t 3 / 1 row created. E 2 values('06'. Start_Date. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name. E 2 values('02'. Last_Name. Start_Date. Last_Name.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / . E 2 values('08'. t 3 / 1 row created. E 2 values('05'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD').

SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec. 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer). 7 RETURN(new_qty). 16 17 END inv_pck_spec.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334. 18 / Package body created. 4 END inv_pck_spec. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer. SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232. 14 BEGIN -. Call completed.package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id.---------. 13 END. 4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544. 'new').salary) values ('01'. SQL> SQL> select * from employee. 8 END inv_count.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.inv_count(2). SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec.---------25-JUL-06 1234.inv_adjust(2000).56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661. 6 INSERT into employee (id. 5 / Package created.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344. first_name)values('01'.new_qty). .78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected. 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.

78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------. .78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.---------21-FEB-86 6661.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped.---------.

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