Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

ename.-------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no". OPERATORS:1.----------.-----------------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.-----------.edep "employee department" from emp1.-------------.----------.esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1. 2.---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno.b Banur 6 rows selected. employee no employee name employee department -----------------.----------------- . SQL> select * from emp1.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.---------.-------------.----------------.ename "employee name". COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.

---------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.------------------------.-----------.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.---------.---------.-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.--------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.'Sales').b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.-------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.----------------.-----------.d Pat #127.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.------------.-------------------.-------------------.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.----------.------------. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.-------------.------------.---------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.------------.

-------------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2. EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.b Banur 6 rows selected. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------.----------.-------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.4.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 . SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2.---------.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1.-----------.

They are used to maintain the consistency of the database.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table. Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table. C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2. So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3).-----------.Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation. Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL . 1 row created. Table Created. EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields. UNIQUE 3.90 30 10 rows selected. SQL> insert into emp2 values(100. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------.''.esalary number(10)).8000). CHECK 2. EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY.We have three categories of constraints: 1. .

UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname). SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL. B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table. Table Created. Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1.ename varchar2(30). At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000). Table altered. Table altered. Character Functions 2. EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------. Numeric Functions 3.---------------------------10 Amit 10000 . PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). Date Functions 4.initcap(ename).esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)).esalary from emp1. SQL> select empno.primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno). alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT. Table altered. Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital. At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3).CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well. Miscellaneous Functions 5.EMP_ENO_PK) .

lower(ename).upper(ename). RT -am .esalary from emp1. Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase. iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase. SQL> select empno.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected.'am') from emp1 where empno=10.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected. SQL> select ltrim ('amit'.'it') from emp1 where empno=10. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------.esalary from emp1.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected. LT -it 1 rows selected. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left. v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right. SQL> select empno.

replace('sumit'.'u') from emp1 where empno=50. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected. EMPNO TRAN --------.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character. ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string.10.'a'. xi) RPAD:- . SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'.'i'. EMPNO REPLAC --------.length(ename) from emp1.1 rows selected.4. SQL> select empno. SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'.'*') from dual.translate('neha'.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20.---50 nehu 1 rows selected. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected.5) from dual. SQL> select empno. SQL> select empno.

. CEIL(100. FLOOR(100.'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual.'*')from dual.23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2.10.23) from dual.SQL> select rpad('amit'.23) from dual. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'.'world') from dual. INSTR('HELLO'.'e') from dual.3) from dual. RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected. ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100.

461235.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23. TRUNC(23. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii.6) from dual.461235. MOD(10.467235. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate. ROUND(23.2) from dual. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate.46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual.2) -----------------23.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23. SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i.3) from dual.467235. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual.POWER(2.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- .'15-oct-09') from dual. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii.2) -----------------23.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10. MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.2) from dual.

USER:SQL> select user from dual. TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v. NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate.4819736 iv. TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i. TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual.1. UID --------20 ii. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 .'Sunday') from dual. TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii. UID:SQL> select uid from dual. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual.

based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables. We have following type of joins:1. COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables. emp and dep table. Right Outer Join iii. Non Equii join 3. SQL> select * from emp. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. Full Outer Join 4. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1.--------------. Self Join 1. Left Outer Join ii. Lets have a look at both the tables i. Outer Join i.--------- .e. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. Equii join 2.

SQL> select * from emp2.hisal. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.dno.--------------. NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i.salgrade s where e.eno.emp.e.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.enmae. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.esal between s. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2.dep. .dno.losal and s.dname from emp.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3. emp2 and salgrade table.-----------------.ename.dno=dep.e.esal.--------.--------------. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------.e.grade from emp2 e.s.dep where emp.eno.emp.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp.

dno(+).'Pkl'). Return all rows from the right table.dno.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i.--------------.dname from emp.dname from emp. SQL> select eno. even if there are no matches in the left table.'ADMIN'. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------. SQL> select * from dep.--------------- .dno=dep. ii.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.--------.ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dno(+)=dep.dno.--------------. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.dno and emp.enmae.dname from emp.enmae.dep where emp.emp.dep where emp.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.enmae. 1 row created.dno.dno=dep.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.--------------.dno. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno.--------. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.dno(+)=dep. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.emp. even if there are no matches in the right table.--------------.dep where emp. ii.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables.emp.--------------.--------.

---------.eno. ENO ENAME --------.e2. SQL> select * from emp3.emp3 e2 where e1.designation. 4. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.e1.1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself. SQL> select * from emp2.e1.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected.--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2.eno.ename from emp3 e1. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2). ENAME ---------C .ename. ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------.--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries.mgr=e2. SQL> select e1.

EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------. SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno.-------------.-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. in essence.--------------10 Amit #1276. SQL> select eno.esalary from emp1. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2).---------.-------------.-------------.eadd from emp1.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2). .empsal) as select empno. MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is. a virtual table.-----------.empname.---------.sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765.d 60 Rajat #127. SQL> select * from emp10. It does not physically exist.-------------. it is created by a query joining one or more tables. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE.ename.---------. Rather. View created.ename.b Banur 1.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno.ename.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.

View created.View created. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e.e.dno=d.enmae.dno.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10.eno.e. SQL> select * from emp10. SQL> select * from dep.--------------.dno. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dname from emp e. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.--------------.d. View dropped. SQL> select * from emp10.--------------.dep d where e. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES . SQL> select * from emp10.

dloc).---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno. SQL> insert into dep values(50.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX . DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from dep.I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50. 1 row created.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT. Index created.'Pat').'HR'. insert into dep values(50.'HR'.'CHD'). Index created. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. SQL> select * from dep.ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.--------------.--------------.'HR1'.--------------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname).

value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification. DECLARE salary number(4). The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”. INTO statement. For example. The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ].. if you want to store the current salary of an employee. Index dropped. where you can initialize a variable. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon. 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. you can use a variable. For example: The below example declares two variables. one of which is a not null. DECLARE salary number (6). you must initialize the variable when it is declared. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name .SQL> drop index d1. 1) We can directly assign values to variables. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6.

The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block. it cannot be accessed after line 11. Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. dbms_output. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks.put_line(var_salary). 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number. Global variables . • • Local variables . The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types. 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. 6> var_num2 := 200.e. The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id.[WHERE condition]. var_emp_id number(6) = 1116. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100. 13> / . 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. 3> var_num2 number.These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks. Therefore. so cannot be accessed in the outer block i.These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks. / ' || var_salary). 12> END. the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks.put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. 11> END. dbms_output. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block. DECLARE var_salary number(6). Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen.e.

If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section. The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change. BEGIN salary_increase := 100. You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value. You cannot assign a value later. Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. For example. . VALUE . END. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. A constant is a user-defined literal value. DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3). to declare salary_increase. If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error.e.put_line (salary_increase). you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10. dbms_output. you will get a error. The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. similar to a variable name. iterative statements. Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it.PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%.

END IF.g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’. else dbms_output.put_line(‘No God’). statement 2. ELSE statement 2. ELSE statement 4.IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1. END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. begin num:=5. ELSE statement 4. END IF. statement 2. END IF. 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. if num>4 then dbms_output. END IF. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. 4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1. end. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. prompt . / Switch case: e. e. ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2.g declare num number(3).put_line(‘God’).

/ Or Declare Num:=2. End. when 2 then dbms_output. These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop.put_line(‘Sunday’).put_line(‘One’).declare num1 number:=&num. An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop.put_line(‘Wrong’). EXIT.put_line(‘two’). 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output. Else Dbms_output. The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. end case. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop. End case. end. 2) Increment the variable in the loop. otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations. Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates. {or EXIT WHEN condition. / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times. .} END LOOP.

dbms_output. The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration. exit when ctr>10. If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition. loop ctr:=ctrl+1. END LOOP. e. The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements. The iteration continues until the condition becomes false.3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop. begin dbms_output. end loop. the statements in the loop is executed only once. end.g declare ctr number(2):=0.g . e.put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly.put_line(‘the loop begins’). 2) Increment the variable in the loop. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body.

’999’).. The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer.g . Simple for loop e. end loop.val2 LOOP statements. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity. ctr:=ctr+1.put_line(‘The while loop begin’).declare ctr number(2):=1. while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section. • • val1 . val2 . Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. end. / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times. END LOOP.Start integer value.put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. begin dbms_output. The counter is always incremented by 1. The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1.End integer value. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly.

End if. The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF. THEN. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic.begin for I in 1.2)= 0 then Dbms_output. End loop. .6 loop If MOD(I. then statements2 is executed. where 1. End.. statements2.5 loop dbms_output. end. End.put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i). / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1. ELSIF.. End loop. statements1.put_line(‘hello’). and statements3 are PL/SQL statements. If condition1 is true.. This conditional logic flows as follows: 1. ELSE.10 loop Dbms_output. end loop. / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1.put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr). then statements1 is executed. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false. / Table 1 You may use the IF. 2. 2.

40. 3 v_b Number. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85. SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 . --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true. ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------. 17 END. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 11 END. We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master. 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. 10 END IF. 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0.----------------OSTATUS ---------- .--------. 7 DBMS_OUTPUT.3. 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'. 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). 13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'. 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'. 15 END IF. 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. then statements3 is executed.

10end. 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop .put_line(a). 6 dbms_output. 9 end. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1. 7 exit when(a>5). 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1. ONO ITEM --------. 9 end if. SQL> select * from order_master. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1.1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10). 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1.----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 8 end loop. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1.--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1.

begin select dname.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp. / To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10).%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. dbms_output. 8 end loop. end. 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line(vdname||' '||vloc). / Working with attribute:. 7 dbms_output.6 a:=a+1.--.loc into vdname.vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'. Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp. dbms_output. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype. end.sal%type. 9end.put_line(a). begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'. dbms_output. vloc varchar2(10).put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. ENO ENAME -----.put_line(vsal). . end.

G declare vsal emp.g of pre defined exc. dbms_output. end.empno.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'. User defined exc E.job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E. vraise number. . begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.put_line('No such emp exists in the table:'). Pre defined exception 2.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block.dname||' '||drec. / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype. / Exceptions:.sal%type. end if.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers.loc). dbms_output. / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp. end. begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'. Some common exception are: 1. if erec. end.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500.sal%type. update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec.put_line(drec. elsif erec. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output.

---------.ddate %type. new 6: empno:=12. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno.').put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). new 6: empno:=4. 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output. 3 empno emp. end.put_line('too many rows are there for this end').. 3 o_pending Exception. 9 dbms_output. 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno.begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output. 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output.esal %type.esal into name.ename %type. employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('too many rows . 15 end.:'). 4 salary emp.put_line('there is no data for this employee no. there is no data for this employee no. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------.put_line('employee name is:' ||name). 8 dbms_output. / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp.salary from emp where eno=empno.eno %type. 7 select ename.--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master. dbms_output.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary). DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p ..

6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output.put_line('your order is still pending'). SQL> select * from emp.put_line('record is not found'). 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no.put_line('record found'). 9 end if. 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output. ENO ENAME --------.4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4. 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 10 end. 8 end if. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp. 12 end. 7 else 8 dbms_output.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp. record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ENO ENAME --------. 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount .eno %type.

15 close emp_crsr.name. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno.put_line(SQL %rowcount).-------------------. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 14 end loop.ename %type. 3 name employee.--------------. 17 / . 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500.esal from employee. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------. 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no. 8 end. SQL> select * from emp. SQL> declare 2 no employee.eno %type. ENO ENAME --------. 12 end if.--------.eno %type.esal %type.ename.salary. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound. 4 salary employee. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected.--------.SQL> declare 2 no emp. 16 end. 7 end if.

5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job.ename.put_line('salary is less'). 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1. 12 end if. 10 close emp_cursor. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 11 end. 13 end loop.put_line('record fetch').'clerk').PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp. 9 end if.esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number.p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno. .put_line('salary is average'). 10 else 11 dbms_output. 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output. 14 end. Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp.

UPDATE. For example. INSERT. UPDATE and SELECT statements.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. which is called as current row. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. INSERT. When a SELECT. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. implicit statements are created to process these statements. When you execute INSERT. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. %ROWCOUNT. but can process only one row at a time.. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. but they differ in the way they are accessed. A cursor can hold more than one row. UPDATE. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. and manipulate this data. . %NOTFOUND. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. only one record can be processed at a time. and %ISOPEN. and DELETE statements are executed. Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE.. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it.

the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated. 'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT…. END. if a DML statement like INSERT. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT …. Else we get a message like for example. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT ….INTO statement do not return a row. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. DELETE.Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. END IF.put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated'). . if DML statements like INSERT. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output.INTO statement return at least one row. if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT. dbms_output.INTO statement return at least one row. BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000. If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'. UPDATE. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5). In the above PL/SQL Block. The return value is TRUE.put_line('None of the salaries where updated'). The return value is FALSE.INTO statement does not return a row.

It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section. In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows. FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. How to access an Explicit Cursor? .

process the records. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. On every fetch statement. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. FETCH cursor. When a cursor is opened. the pointer moves to the next row. BEGIN OPEN cursor. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. CLOSE cursor. · If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. . the program will throw an error. 1) Open the cursor. create a cursor. the first row becomes the current row. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. 3) Close the cursor. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row. records. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. If you want to fetch after the last row. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. END. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list.

Fifth. 7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur. 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec.first_name || ' emp_rec. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND . if fetch statement doesn’t return a row.last_name). Sixth. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. FALSE.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors. We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name. Third. we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. 12> END. 11> CLOSE emp_cur. ' || In the above example. first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation. FALSE. we are closing the cursor in line no 11. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE. FETCH and CLOSE Statements. TRUE. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN.put_line (emp_rec. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8. if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row. Second. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . Fourth. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10.6. 10> dbms_output. .

if there is a row found the program continues. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. If there is no rows found the program would exit. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. If we do so. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. In line no 6. 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row. we need to reverse the logic of the program. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE.put_line(emp_cur.%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. 8> END IF. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. last_name. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. . 12> dbms_output.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. So use these attributes in appropriate instances. 14> END LOOP. In line no 11. TRUE. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. if the cursor is not opened in the program. it directly moves to line no 9.salary). 15> END. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. salary FROM emp_tbl.

last_name. 17> END. else you will skip the first row. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped.Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop.. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row. need not open.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. salary FROM emp_tbl.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. 18> / In the above example. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec.put_line(emp_cur.salary). 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. In the loop. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row. 8> END IF. Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values. 16> END LOOP. fetch and close the cursor.. last_name. before fetching the record again. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. salary FROM emp_tbl. if true the program moves into the while loop. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors. END LOOP. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. 5> BEGIN .

13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY. DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 .6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output. 11>END. We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways. What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task.salary). 10> END LOOP. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block.2). By using FOR Loop in your program. Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). 1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . you can reduce the number of lines in the program.product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur.0). END LOOP. when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created.97) 10 11 12 END. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price. the cursor is opened. A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec. NUMBER(4. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages. A procedure has a header and a body. 12> / In the above example. The body consists or declaration section.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur. the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed.put_line(emp_cur. NUMBER(5. The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure.

last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur.put_line(emp_cur.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks. salary FROM emp_tbl. 1) From the SQL prompt. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END.salary). EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name. 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name. The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section. 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name. 11> END LOOP. IS . . 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. last_name. 12>END.A procedure may or may not return any value. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure. The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional. By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. procedure_name.

ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp. name OUT emp. 5 end emp_detail. .esal into name. IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.NOTE: In the examples given above. 6 / Procedure created.eno %type. OUT mode. 4 end raise_salary. SQL> execute raise_salary(2). 5 / Procedure created. salary OUT emp.salary from emp where eno=no.eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. SQL> select * from emp. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename.esal %type) T emp.ename %type. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode. we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program.

7 dbms_output. 8 end. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)). 3 name emp. 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p.esal%type. 9 dbms_output.salary). 10* end.name. 7 emp_detail(no.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p).ename %type. 5 begin 6 no:=&eno.eno %type. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno. employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 5 dbms_output.putline("Area Code Is: "||p). 8 dbms_output. 3 begin 4 p:=&p. 6 / Procedure created. 5 end format_phone. 6 format_phone(p). 4 salary emp.3).put_line('employee salary is: '||salary). Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890. Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code. new 6: no:=3.SQL> declare 2 no emp. Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure. .1.put_line('employee name is: '||name).The first three digit/ characters are of area code. SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10).

The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement.--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp. Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value. new 4: p=1722665626. . 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p.])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name. 8 end getsal. 3 is 4 sal number. . 7 return sal. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.---------.. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee. SQL> select * from emp.eno %type) 2 return number..

6 RETURN x. 8 return (cnt). 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function .PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT. The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 3.2) comm NUMBER(6. 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9. 9 end. 2.where 1. 3 END.2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) . 4 .deptno = p_deptno. 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e. create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0. 7 . 8 / Function created.2). table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter. 7 END ss_thresh. 9 . 10 . 8 . 5 . OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present. 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 6 .

or replace a package body without changing the package spec. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. Packages usually have two parts." You can debug. 8 END average_salary. sometimes the body is unnecessary. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee.14. enhance.A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. variables.7525 Packaage:. 7 END circle_area. variables. cursors.CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. 2). SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. 9 / Function created. 6 RETURN v_area. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table. and subprograms. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package. It declares the types. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual. a specification and a body. . 3 v_area NUMBER. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER. 8 / Function created. constants. exceptions.

Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit. use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. salary REAL). PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). which are hidden from code outside the package. such pragmas must follow the function spec). deptno NUMBER). a cursor. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. The package specification contains information about the package. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. comm NUMBER.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. These are potentially available to all database users. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. job VARCHAR2. 5. 7. 1. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. . mgr NUMBER.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT. END emp_actions. and two employment procedures. The spec holds public declarations. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps. sal NUMBER. 4. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. If necessary. 6. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. 2. The package body contains the actual code. You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. 3.To create package specs.

deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created.NEXTVAL. job. END emp_actions. comm. sal.job VARCHAR2. SYSDATE.object_name package_name. sal NUMBER. Salary Number(8. The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name. mgr. The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification. you create the body of the package. If you perform any initialization in the package body. End_Date DATE. mgr NUMBER. Table created. END hire_employee. To reference the package's subprograms and objects. SQL> .subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -. City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). ename. you must use dot notation.type_name package_name. END fire_employee. Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). Start_Date DATE.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). comm NUMBER. deptno). it is executed once when the package is initially referenced.2).

Last_Name. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD'). 'Black'. E 2 values('02'. t 3 / 1 row created.'YYYYMMDD'). t 3 / 1 row created. Start_Date. to_date('19781212'. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / . SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. 'Rice'.'YYYYMMDD'). 'Cat'.SQL> -. Start_Date. Last_Name. First_Name. 'Larry'. Start_Date. E 2 values('05'. t 3 / 1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19870730'. t 3 / 1 row created. E 2 values ('01'. 'Mathews'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name.'James'. t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name. E 2 values('07'. Start_Date. Last_Name. to_date('19760321'. E 2 values('04'. Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name. First_Name. to_date('19960917'. to_date('19821024'. Start_Date. First_Name. First_Name. 'Martin'. to_date('19901231'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name. to_date('19960725'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name.'David'.'Jason'. t 3 / 1 row created.'Robert'. to_date('19840115'.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Last_Name. Start_Date.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'James'. E 2 values('03'.'Celia'.'YYYYMMDD').'YYYYMMDD'). 'Smith'. E 2 values('06'. t 3 / 1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'Alison'. E 2 values('08'. 'Green'. Start_Date.'Linda'.

. 8 END inv_count.inv_count(2).78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec.inv_adjust(2000). first_name)values('01'.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.new_qty). 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty. SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334. 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer). SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec. 13 END. 4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6. SQL> SQL> select * from employee. 7 RETURN(new_qty).---------25-JUL-06 1234.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897. 18 / Package body created.56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661. 4 END inv_pck_spec.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232. 14 BEGIN -. 'new'). 5 / Package created. Call completed. 6 INSERT into employee (id.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.salary) values ('01'. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer. 16 17 END inv_pck_spec.package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id.---------.

---------. .78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped.78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.---------21-FEB-86 6661.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.

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