Oracle

Create Command Create command is used to create a Table or a relation. Syntax: Create table tablename (Field1 datatype, Field1 datatype,……., Field n datatype) SQL> create table emp (eno number (8), ename varchar2 (20), esal number (10)); Table created. Describe Command Describe command is used to see the description of a table. Syntax: Desc tablename SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Insert command Insert command is used to insert the values in a table. Syntax: insert into tablename values (value1, value2,….., value n) insert into emp values(1,”shyam”,5000); SQL> insert into emp values (&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: suresh Enter value for esal: 20000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(1,'suresh',20000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: ajay Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(2,'ajay',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: vijay Enter value for esal: 18000 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(3,'vijay',18000) 1 row created. SQL> /

Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 17 old 1: insert into emp values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into emp values(4,'arun',17) 1 row created. Select Command Select command is used to view the table. Syntax: Select columnname from emp Select columnname1, columnname2, columnname3 from emp Select * from emp SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17 Update Command Update command is used to update the values of a table. Syntax: update tablename set columnname=value where columnname=value SQL> update emp set esal=17000 where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- --------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 Alter Command : Alter command is used to alter the structure of a table. Alter command has three attributes namely add, modify and drop. Add: Adding a column in a table. Modify: Modify the size of a column. Drop: Dropping a column of a table. Syntax: Add Column Alter table tablename add (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp add (city varchar2 (15)); Table altered. SQL> select * from emp;

ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ---------1 suresh 20000 2 ajay 15000 3 vijay 18000 4 arun 17000 SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=1; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='CHD 'where eno=2; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='AMBALA' where eno=3; 1 row updated. SQL> update emp set city='banur' where eno=4; 1 row updated. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- ----------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 3 vijay 18000 AMBALA 4 arun 17000 banur SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(15) Syntax: Modify Column Alter table tablename modify (column datatype) SQL> alter table emp modify(city varchar2(20)); Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20)

Syntax: Drop Column Alter table tablename drop column columnname SQL> alter table emp drop column city ; Table altered. SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) Delete Command Delete command is used to delete a row from a table. Syntax: Delete from tablename where cloumnname=value SQL> delete from emp where eno=3; 1 row deleted. SQL> select * from emp; ENO ENAME ESAL CITY --------- -------------------- --------- -------------------1 suresh 20000 CHD 2 ajay 15000 CHD 4 arun 17000 banur Truncate command: Truncate command is used to truncate or empty or delete all rows of a table. Syntax:Truncate table tablename SQL> truncate table emp; Table truncated. SQL> select * from emp; no rows selected SQL> desc emp; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---ENO NUMBER(8) ENAME VARCHAR2(20) ESAL NUMBER(10) CITY VARCHAR2(20) Drop Command: Drop command is used to drop the structure of a table permanently. Syntax: Drop table tablename

SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> desc emp; ERROR: ORA-04043: object emp does not exist Slash Command(/) : Slash command is used to rerun the previous command. SQL> create table employee(eno number(8),ename varchar2(20),esal number(10)); Table created. SQL> insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal); Enter value for eno: 1 Enter value for ename: arun Enter value for esal: 12000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(1,'arun',12000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 2 Enter value for ename: raani Enter value for esal: 14000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(2,'raani',14000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 Enter value for ename: raaj Enter value for esal: 15000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(3,'raaj',15000) 1 row created. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 4 Enter value for ename: harpreet Enter value for esal: 17000 old 1: insert into employee values(&eno,'&ename',&esal) new 1: insert into employee values(4,'harpreet',17000) 1 row created. SQL> select * from employee ENO ENAME ESAL --------- -------------------- ---------

2.----------.-------------. COMPARISON/RELATIONAL OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where empno!=20.-------------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127. OPERATORS:1. employee no employee name employee department -----------------.-----------------------.----------------- .-------------.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.ename "employee name".edep "employee department" from emp1.1 arun 12000 2 raani 14000 3 raaj 15000 4 harpreet 17000 COLUMN ALIASES:SQL> select empno "employee no".--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.----------------.---------------------10 Amit 120000 20 Sumit 144000 30 Harish 276000 40 Avneet 180000 50 Neha 192000 60 Rajat 288000 6 rows selected. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.ename. SQL> select * from emp1.----------.b Banur 6 rows selected.esalary*12 "Annual Salary" from emp1.-----------. ARITHMETIC OPERATOR:SQL> select empno. EMPNO ENAME Annual Salary ------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.---------------------------------10 Amit HR 20 Sumit Mkt 30 Harish Finance 40 Avneet sales 50 Neha Admin 60 Rajat Prod 6 rows selected.---------.

-----------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------------.------------. LOGICAL OPERATOR:A) AND OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=23000 and edep='Finance'.---------.-----------.10 30 40 50 60 Amit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat HR Finance sales Admin Prod 10000 23000 15000 16000 24000 #1276.---------.-------------.---------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 3.-------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-------------.--------.'Sales').b Banur A) BETWEEN:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary between 10000 and 20000.--------------30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali B) OR OPERATOR:SQL> select * from emp1 where esalary=15000 or edep='HR'.sec-12b chd C) LIKE:SQL> select * from emp1 where ename like 'A%' EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ---------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.----------.------------.----------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.sec-12b chd #986 Mohali #908 Pkl #765. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.d Pat #127.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765.------------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ------------.-----------.---------.-------------------.-------. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC ----------.sec-12b chd 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl .------------.d Pat B) IN:SQL> select * from emp1 where edep in('HR'.------------------------.

sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. EMPNO -------------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 . SET OPERATORS:We created two tables emp1 and emp2 with the following enteries:SQL> select * from emp2. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------.--------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.-----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 SQL> select * from emp1. EMPNO ENAME ESALARY ----------. EMPNO --------10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9 rows selected.-------------.4.----------.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.---------. A) UNION:SQL> select empno from emp1 union select empno from emp2.-------------. B) UNION ALL:SQL> select empno from emp1 union all select empno from emp2.-----------.b Banur 6 rows selected.

esalary number(10)).90 30 10 rows selected. C) INTERSECT:SQL> select empno from emp1 intersect select empno from emp2. EMPNO --------30 D) MINUS:SQL> select empno from emp1 minus select empno from emp2. EMPNO --------10 20 40 50 60 CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are the rules and regulations which we impose on our table fields. UNIQUE 3. SQL> select * from emp2 EMPNO ENAME ESALARY -----------.8000). CHECK 2. Entity Integrity Constraint: PRIMARY KEY. Table Created. Domain Level Constraint : NOT NULL .-----------.They are used to maintain the consistency of the database.Constraint can be applied at the time of table creation. 1 row created.ename varchar2(30) constraint emp_en_nn not null.We have three categories of constraints: 1.----------70 Mohit 90000 80 Roshan 25000 90 Ajay 17000 30 Harish 23000 100 8000 Now we implement a NOT NULL constraint on emp2 table. So by dropping the table emp2 and creating it again implementing a NOT NULL constraint: NOT NULL:Create table emp2(empno number(3). Referential Integrity Constraint: FOREIGN KEY 1) DOMAIN LEVEL CONSTRAINT:We are inserting a null value in ename field of emp2 table.''. SQL> insert into emp2 values(100. .

B) ENTITY INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:Entity Integrity constraints can also be created at both times at the time of creation and at the time of alteration of a table. Table altered. Numeric Functions 3.---------------------------10 Amit 10000 . SQL FUNCTIONS:We have Single row functions and Group functions in SQL. Table altered.EMP_ENO_PK) . Miscellaneous Functions 5.CHECK:Check constraint can be applied at the time of table creation and at the time of alteration as well. At the time of alteration: SQL> alter table emp2 add constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000).primary key violated C) REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS:FOREIGN KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dno_fk foreign key(dno) references dep(dno).esalary number(10) constraint emp_sal_chk check(esalary>5000)). SQL> select empno. UNIQUE:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_dn_uq unique(dname). alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02437: cannot enable (SCOTT.esalary from emp1. EMPNO INITCAP(ENAME) ESALARY --------.ename varchar2(30). Single row functions are further divided into following categories: 1. At the time of creation: Create table emp2(empno number(3). Character Functions 2. Conversion Functions Let us discuss them SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS:A) Character Functions:i) INITCAP:It makes the first Charcter of the string as capital. Table Created. Table altered.initcap(ename). PRIMARY KEY:SQL> alter table emp add constraint emp_eno_pk primary key(eno). Date Functions 4.

iv) LTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from left.---------------------------10 amit 10000 20 sumit 12000 30 harish 23000 40 avneet 15000 50 neha 16000 60 rajat 24000 6 rows selected.---------------------------10 AMIT 10000 20 SUMIT 12000 30 HARISH 23000 40 AVNEET 15000 50 NEHA 16000 60 RAJAT 24000 6 rows selected.esalary from emp1. iii) UPPER:It converts the field into uppercase.esalary from emp1.'it') from emp1 where empno=10. RT -am . LT -it 1 rows selected. Ii) LOWER:It converts the field into lowercase. EMPNO UPPER(ENAME) ESALARY --------.lower(ename).'am') from emp1 where empno=10. EMPNO LOWER(ENAME) ESALARY --------. SQL> select empno.upper(ename). SQL> select empno. SQL> select ltrim ('amit'. v)RTRIM:It trims the given set of characters from a string from right.20 30 40 50 60 Sumit Harish Avneet Neha Rajat 12000 23000 15000 16000 24000 6 rows selected. SQL> select rtrim ('amit'.

length(ename) from emp1. EMPNO TRAN --------.'*') from dual. EMPNO REPLAC --------.'ee') from emp1 where empno=20.translate('neha'.1 rows selected.5) from dual.---50 nehu 1 rows selected.10.'i'. EMPNO LENGTH(ENAME) --------. vi)TRANSLATE:It replaces a character by a single character. SUBST ----LOWOR x) LPAD:SQL> select lpad('amit'. vii)REPLACE:It replaces a character by multiple characters. SQL> select empno. SQL> select substr('HELLOWORLD'. replace('sumit'. xi) RPAD:- . SQL> select empno. SQL> select empno. ix) SUBSTR:It fetches the given substring from a string.4. viii)LENGTH:It counts the number of characters in a string. LPAD('AMIT ---------******amit 1 rows selected.'u') from emp1 where empno=50.-----20 sumeet 1 rows selected.'a'.------------10 4 20 5 30 6 40 6 50 4 60 5 6 rows selected.

'*')from dual. INSTR('HELLO'.'world') from dual. xii) CONCAT:SQL> select concat('hello'.'e') from dual. RPAD('AMIT ---------------amit****** 1 rows selected.23) from dual.'E') -----------------2 B) NUMERIC FUNCTIONS:i) ABS():SQL> select abs(-31) from dual. ABS(-31) ------------31 ii) CEIL():SQL> select ceil(100.23) -----------101 iii) FLOOR():SQL> select floor(100. FLOOR(100.SQL> select rpad('amit'.23) ------------100 iv) POWER():SQL> select power(2. .3) from dual. CONCAT('HE ---------Helloworld xiii) INSTR:SQL> select instr('hello'. CEIL(100.23) from dual.10.

MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. TRUNC(23.2) from dual.POWER(2.461235. MONTHS_BETWEEN:SQL> select months_between(sysdate.467235.'15-OCT-09') ----------------------------------- .46 viii) SQRT():SQL> select sqrt(4) from dual.461235.'15-oct-09') from dual.3) --------1 vi) ROUND():SQL> select round(23.2) -----------------23. ROUND(23.6) from dual.47 vii) TRUNCATE():SQL> select trunc(23. SQRT(4) --------2 C) DATE FUNCTIONS:i. SYSDATE:SQL> select sysdate from dual. MOD(10.2) from dual.467235. ADD_MONTHS:SQL> select add_months(sysdate.3) from dual. SYSDATE --------29-NOV-09 iii.2) -----------------23. ADD_MONTH --------29-MAY-10 ii.3) ---------8 v) MOD():SQL> select mod(10.

4819736 iv. UID --------20 ii. LAST_DAY( --------31-JUL-09 v.'Sunday') from dual. TO_CHAR(S --------29-NOV-09 ii. TO_CHAR():SQL> select to_char(sysdate) from dual. USER:SQL> select user from dual. USER -----------------------------SCOTT E) CONVERSION FUNCTIONS:i.1. LAST_DAY:SQL> select last_day('14-jul-09') from dual. TO_NUMBER():SQL> select to_number('123') from dual. NEXT_DAY( --------06-DEC-09 D) MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS:i. TO_DATE():SQL> select to_date('29-NOV-09') from dual. TO_DATE(S --------29-NOV-09 . NEXT_DAY:SQL> select next_day(sysdate. UID:SQL> select uid from dual. TO_NUMBER('123') ---------------123 iii.

Right Outer Join iii. emp and dep table. Non Equii join 3. ENO ENMAE DNO --------. based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables. Full Outer Join 4. COUNT(*) --------5 JOINS SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables. MIN(ESALARY) -----------10000 2) MAX:SQL> select max(esalary) from emp1. Outer Join i. SQL> select * from emp. AVG(ESALARY) -----------17000 5) COUNT:SQL> select count(*) from emp1. Left Outer Join ii. Self Join 1.--------------.GROUP FUNCTIONS 1) MIN:SQL> select min(esalary) from emp1. Equii join 2. EQUII JOIN Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables. SUM(ESALARY) -----------85000 4) AVG:SQL> select avg(esalary) from emp1. MAX(ESALARY) -----------24000 3) SUM:SQL> select sum(esalary) from emp1. We have following type of joins:1.--------- . Lets have a look at both the tables i.e.

ENO ENMAE DNO --------.esal between s.e. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. OUTER JOIN SQL> select * from emp.emp.losal and s.--------------.-----------------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur Implementing equii join on both tables: SQL> select emp. SQL> select * from emp2.dno. GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------.dep.--------------. ENO ENAME ESAL GRADE --------.hisal.esal.e.ename.emp.dno.--------4 D 2200 4 1 A 5500 5 2 B 6500 5 3.grade from emp2 e.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Implementing non equii join on both tables: SQL> select e.--------.eno. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.salgrade s where e.dname from emp.enmae. emp2 and salgrade table. NON-EQUII JOIN Lets have a look at both the tables i.e.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES 2.eno.1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E 10 20 30 10 20 SQL> select * from dep.dno=dep.dep where emp.-----------------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 SQL> select * from salgrade. .s.

dno.dep where emp.dep where emp.dno.'ADMIN'. ii. Return all rows from the right table.dep where emp. RIGHT OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------. 1 row created.dno(+)=dep.dname from emp. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.emp. FULL OUTER JOIN:SQL> select eno. SQL> select * from dep. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------. ii.dno(+) Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables. SQL> select eno.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES ADMIN 6 rows selected.emp.--------.dno(+)=dep.emp.enmae.enmae.dno=dep.--------. even if there are no matches in the left table.dname from emp.--------------.dno=dep.enmae.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 SQL> insert into dep values (40.--------------.dname from emp.--------------. ENO ENMAE DNO DNAME --------.--------------- .--------.dno. LEFT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the left table.dno(+).ENO ENMAE DNO --------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl i.--------------1 A 10 HR 4 D 10 HR 2 B 20 MKT 5 E 20 MKT 3 C 30 SALES 6 F 70 6 rows selected.dno. even if there are no matches in the right table.--------------.dno and emp.--------------.'Pkl').

ename from emp3 e1.e1. 4.eno. SQL> select * from emp3. SELF JOIN:Joins the table with itself.eno. ENO ENAME --------. ENAME ---------C .--------1 A 5500 2 B 6500 3 C 14000 4 D 2200 5 E 25000 QUERY1 : SELECT THE ENAMES FROM THE EMP TABLE WHOSE SALARY ARE GREATER THAN THE SALARY OF EMP WHOSE ENO IS 2.e1.ename.designation.---------1 A 2 B 4 D 3 C 5 E 6 F 6 rows selected. ENO ENAME DESIGNATION ENAME --------. SQL> select e1. SQL> select * from emp2.e2.emp3 e2 where e1.--------------------------------1 A Peon C 4 D Peon C 6 F Clerk C 2 B Clerk E DESIGNATION MGR --------------------Peon 3 Clerk 5 Peon 3 Manager Manager Clerk 3 SUB QUERIES Nested queries are known as sub queries.1 4 2 5 3 6 A D B E C F 10 10 20 20 30 70 HR HR MKT MKT SALES ADMIN 7 rows selected.mgr=e2. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.---------. SQL> select ename from emp2 where esal>(select esal from emp2 where eno=2).

sec-12b 20 Sumit #897/a 30 Harish #986 40 Avneet #908 50 Neha #765.d 60 Rajat #127.-------------.esalary from emp1.-----------.--------------10 Amit #1276.ename.ename.esal from emp2 where esal=(select min(esal)from emp2).empsal) as select empno. SQL> select max(esal) from emp2 where esal<(select max(esal) from emp2). Rather. in essence.b Banur 1.--------4 D 2200 QUERY3 : SELECT THE 2ND MAXIMUM SALARY OF THE EMP TABLE. SQL> select * from emp10. MAX(ESAL) --------14000 VIEWS A view is. View created.sec-12b chd 20 Sumit Mkt 12000 #897/a amb 30 Harish Finance 23000 #986 Mohali 40 Avneet sales 15000 #908 Pkl 50 Neha Admin 16000 #765. SQL> select eno. SIMPLE VIEW:SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select empno.ename. EMPNO ENAME EADD -------------. a virtual table.E QUERY2 : SELECT THE DETAILS OF EMP WHOSE SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE MINIMUM SALARY. .---------. Syntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition SQL> select * from emp1.d Pat 60 Rajat Prod 24000 #127.-------------------------10 Amit HR 10000 #1276.eadd from emp1.empname.-------------.---------. it is created by a query joining one or more tables. EMPNO ENAME EDEP ESALARY EADD ELOC -------------. ENO ENAME ESAL --------.---------. It does not physically exist.b SQL> create or replace view emp10(empno.-------------.-------------.

View created.dno. SQL> select * from emp10.e.dno.e. SQL> select * from dep.--------------.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create or replace view emp10 as select e.--------------.View created.--------1 A 10 2 B 20 3 C 30 4 D 10 5 E 20 6 F 70 6 rows selected. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.dno=d.dname from emp e.--------1 A 10 4 D 10 2 B 20 5 E 20 3 C 30 DROP VIEW SQL> drop view emp10. EMPNO --------10 20 30 50 60 EMPNAME -------------------Amit Sumit Harish Neha Rajat EMPSAL --------10000 12000 23000 16000 24000 2. DNO DNAME DLOC --------. COMPLEX VIEW SQL> select * from emp. SQL> select * from emp10.eno. SQL> select * from emp10.--------------.d. select * from em0p10 * DNAME --------------HR HR MKT MKT SALES . View dropped.dep d where e. ENO ENMAE DNO --------.enmae.

SQL> insert into dep values(50. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.dloc).---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl SQL> create unique index i4 on dep(dname).'HR'. DNO DNAME DLOC --------.'HR1'. Index created.ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist INDEX SQL> select * from dep. SQL> select * from dep.'CHD'). insert into dep values(50.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat DROP INDEX . SQL> select * from dep. Index created.--------------.I4) violated SQL> insert into dep values(50.---------10 HR Chd 20 MKT Moh 30 SALES Banur 40 ADMIN Pkl 50 HR1 Pat COMPOSITE INDEX SQL> create unique index d1 on dep (dno.'CHD') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT.'HR'.--------------.--------------. 1 row created.'Pat'). DNO DNAME DLOC --------.

one of which is a not null. DECLARE salary number(4). • • • • • variable_name is the name of the variable. where you can initialize a variable. * “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6. you can use a variable. NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable. DECLARE salary number (6). The General Syntax is: variable_name:= value. value or DEFAULT valueis also an optional specification. if you want to store the current salary of an employee. Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon.SQL> drop index d1. IMPLEMENTING PL/SQL PL/SQL Variables These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block. 1) We can directly assign values to variables. dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”. you must initialize the variable when it is declared. datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. INTO statement. 2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT. Index dropped.. The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below. When a variable is specified as NOT NULL. For example. The General Syntax is: SELECT column_name INTO variable_name FROM table_name . The General Syntax to declare a variable is: variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]. For example: The below example declares two variables.

• • Local variables .put_line('The employee ' || var_emp_id || ' has salary END. it cannot be accessed after line 11. 6> var_num2 := 200. 4> BEGIN 5> var_num1 := 100. BEGIN SELECT salary INTO var_salary FROM employee WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id. The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block. 7> DECLARE 8> var_mult number. / ' || var_salary). 13> / . 11> END. The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks. var_emp_id number(6) = 1116. 9> BEGIN 10> var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2. dbms_output. Scope of Variables PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i. so cannot be accessed in the outer block i. 3> var_num2 number. For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning thier product to the third variable created in the inner block. DECLARE var_salary number(6). 1> DECLARE 2> var_num1 number. Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen.These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks. dbms_output. Global variables .put_line(var_salary).e. The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block.These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks.[WHERE condition]. 12> END. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types.e. the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks. Therefore.

The General Syntax to declare a constant is: constant_name CONSTANT datatype := VALUE. BEGIN salary_increase := 100. • • • constant_name is the name of the constant i. END. iterative statements. The programming constructs are similar to how you use in programming languages like Java and C++. You cannot assign a value later. DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number(3). you will get a error. For example: If you want to write a program which will increase the salary of the employees by 25%. PL/SQL supports programming language features like conditional statements. You must assign a value to a constant at the time you declare it. you can write code as follows: DECLARE salary_increase CONSTANT number (3) := 10. VALUE . You can declare a constant and use it instead of actual value. you can declare a constant and use it throughout the program. For example. A constant is a user-defined literal value. . The word CONSTANT is a reserved word and ensures that the value does not change. Conditional Statements in PL/SQL As the name implies. If you do not assign a value to a constant while declaring it and try to assign a value in the execution section.PL/SQL Constants As the name implies a constant is a value used in a PL/SQL Block that remains unchanged throughout the program.e. If you execute the below Pl/SQL block you will get error. dbms_output. In this section I will provide you syntax of how to use conditional statements in PL/SQL programming. to declare salary_increase.put_line (salary_increase). Next time when you want to increase the salary again you can change the value of the constant which will be easier than changing the actual value throughout the program.It is a value which must be assigned to a constant when it is declared. similar to a variable name.

IF THEN ELSE STATEMENT 1) IF condition THEN statement 1. e. END IF. 2) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. statement 2. 4) IF condition1 THEN ELSE IF condition2 THEN statement1. begin num:=5. prompt . ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3.put_line(‘God’). ELSE statement 4. statement 2. end. ELSIF condition3 THEN statement2.g accept num prompt ‘Enter a single no’.put_line(‘No God’).g declare num number(3). / Switch case: e. ELSE statement 2. END IF. else dbms_output. END IF. ELSIF condtion2 THEN statement 3. END IF 3) IF condition 1 THEN statement 1. if num>4 then dbms_output. ELSE statement 4. END IF.

These are the important steps to be followed while using Simple Loop. / Iterative Statements in PL/SQL An iterative control Statements are used when we want to repeat the execution of one or more statements for specified number of times. Else Dbms_output. . otherwise the loop will get into an infinite number of iterations.declare num1 number:=&num. These are similar to those in There are three types of loops in PL/SQL: • Simple Loop • While Loop • For Loop 1) Simple Loop A Simple Loop is used when a set of statements is to be executed at least once before the loop terminates.} END LOOP. When the EXIT condition is satisfied the process exits from the loop.put_line(‘Wrong’). / Or Declare Num:=2. End case.put_line(‘One’). end case.put_line(‘two’). The General Syntax to write a Simple Loop is: LOOP statements. EXIT. when 2 then dbms_output. End. An EXIT condition must be specified in the loop. 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. begin case num1 when 1 then dbms_output. end. Begin Case num When 1 then Dbms_output. {or EXIT WHEN condition.put_line(‘Sunday’). 2) Increment the variable in the loop.

If you use a EXIT statement without WHEN condition. loop ctr:=ctrl+1. The General Syntax to write a WHILE LOOP is: WHILE <condition> LOOP statements. / 2) While Loop A WHILE LOOP is used when a set of statements has to be executed as long as a condition is true. end loop. begin dbms_output.put_line(‘the loop begins’). Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) Initialise a variable before the loop body. end.g .put_line(‘Loop number:’||ctr). e.3) Use a EXIT WHEN statement to exit from the Loop. END LOOP. e. dbms_output. The iteration continues until the condition becomes false. exit when ctr>10. 2) Increment the variable in the loop.g declare ctr number(2):=0. The condition is evaluated at the beginning of each iteration. the statements in the loop is executed only once. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in while loops but it's not done oftenly.

while ctr<=10 loop dbms_output. Simple for loop e. / 3) FOR Loop A FOR LOOP is used to execute a set of statements for a predetermined number of times.End integer value. Iteration occurs between the start and end integer values given. The counter is always incremented by 1. 2) The counter variable is incremented by 1 and does not need to be incremented explicitly.g . END LOOP.put_line(‘Loop number’||to_char(ctr. ctr:=ctr+1.’999’). The General Syntax to write a FOR LOOP is: FOR counter IN val1.declare ctr number(2):=1. begin dbms_output. • • val1 . The loop exits when the counter reachs the value of the end integer.val2 LOOP statements.Start integer value. end loop. Important steps to follow when executing a while loop: 1) The counter variable is implicitly declared in the declaration section.put_line(‘The while loop begin’). val2 .. so it's not necessary to declare it explicity. 3) EXIT WHEN statement and EXIT statements can be used in FOR loops but it's not done oftenly. end.

/ Table 1 You may use the IF. and statements3 are PL/SQL statements.6 loop If MOD(I.put_line(‘Loop number’||ctr). If condition1 is true. 2. End loop. End loop. ELSE. . / Reverse for loop Begin For ctr in reverse 1. statements2. End.put_line(‘hello’). This conditional logic flows as follows: 1. / Find the mod of number using for Begin For I in 1.put_line(‘Loop counters is:’||i).5 loop dbms_output. THEN.. End. End if. statements1.2)= 0 then Dbms_output. 2. end loop.. then statements1 is executed. then statements2 is executed. ELSIF. and END IF keywords in PL/SQL for performing conditional logic. where 1. condition1 and condition2 are Boolean expressions that evaluate to true or false.begin for I in 1. If condition1 is false but condition2 is true.10 loop Dbms_output. The following syntax illustrates the use of conditional logic: IF condition1 THEN statements1 ELSIF condition2 THEN statements2 ELSE statements3 END IF.. end.

13 ELSE 14 v_LetterGrade := 'E'.PUT_LINE('Your Letter Grade is: ' || v_LetterGrade ). then statements3 is executed. 16 DBMS_OUTPUT. 10 END IF. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_Score >= 90 THEN 6 v_LetterGrade := 'A'.----------------OSTATUS ---------- . If neither condition1 nor condition2 are true.PUT_LINE('Hours b worked = ' || v_b). 18 / Your Letter Grade is: B PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 15 END IF.40.--------. 11 END. --Percentage 3 v_LetterGrade Char(1). 8 ELSE 9 v_b := 0. ONO ITEM QUANTITY DDATE -------. 9 ELSIF v_Score >= 70 THEN 10 v_LetterGrade := 'C'. 7 ELSIF v_Score >= 80 THEN 8 v_LetterGrade := 'B'. 4 BEGIN 5 IF v_a > 40 THEN 6 v_b := v_a . 7 DBMS_OUTPUT. 12 / Hours b worked = 10 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 17 END. Use IF THEN ELSE IF set serveroutput on SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_Score Number := 85. 11 ELSIF v_Score >= 60 THEN 12 v_LetterGrade := 'D'. We have created a table order_master with the following fields: SQL> select * from order_master. 3 v_b Number.3. SQL> set echo on SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 v_a Number := 50 .

10end.----1 pancil 2 pen 3 ink 4 eraser QUANTITY ----. SQL> select * from order_master. 5 if(os='p') then 6 update order_master set ddate=sysdate+15 where ono=1. 3 begin 4 select ostatus into os from order_master where ono=1. 10 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 8 end loop. 3 begin 4 loop 5 a:=a+1. 6 dbms_output. 9 end.put_line(a). Write a PL/SQL Block to implement while Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 7 else 8 update order_master set ddate=sysdate where ono=1.1 2 3 4 pancil pen ink eraser 100 500 400 900 15-NOV-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement IF statement SQL> declare 2 os varchar2(10). 7 exit when(a>5). 3 begin 4 while(a>5) 5 loop .--------100 500 400 900 DDATE --------06-DEC-09 29-OCT-09 25-OCT-09 12-NOV-09 OSTATUS ---------p d d p Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Simple Loop SQL> declare 2 a number:=1. 11 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 end if. ONO ITEM --------.

/ To display the name and location of dept declare vdname varchar2(10). 10/ PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)).vloc from dept where deptno='&deptno'.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 DATABASE WITH PL/SQL declare vsal number. 9end.loc into vdname.%type and %rowtype attribute are used to avoid the erro which might occure due to some mistake while declaring a variable. dbms_output.sal%type. end. Exception Handling in PL/SQL SQL> select * from emp. 7 dbms_output.--. end. dbms_output. . begin select esal into vsal from emp6 where ename='&ename'. / To display the record in row wise declare drec dept%rowtype.put_line(vsal). begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. end. 8 end loop.6 a:=a+1. Suppose you want to display the total sal of emp declare vsal emp.put_line(vdname||' '||vloc). begin select dname.put_line(a). / Working with attribute:. vloc varchar2(10). ENO ENAME -----. dbms_output.

job='SALESMAN' then vraise:=1000.sal%type.loc). / Too_many_rows declare vsal emp. end.     NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS ZERO_DIVIDE VALUE_ERROR E. end. / Exceptions:.put_line('No such emp exists in the table:'). vraise number. User defined exc E. . elsif erec.empno. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. update emp set sal=sal+vraise where empno=erec.put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). begin select * into erec from emp where ename='&ename'. Pre defined exception 2.job='CLERK' then vraise:=500. end if.dname||' '||drec. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'. if erec.begin select * into drec from dept where deptno='&deptno'. end. dbms_output.put_line(drec.g of pre defined exc. dbms_output.G declare vsal emp. / To increase the salary based on their jobs declare erec emp%rowtype.sal%type. Some common exception are: 1.It help to us about take care of any error that may have occurred in the executable part of the block.Exceptions are nothing but error handlers.

new 6: empno:=4. exception TOO_MANY_ROWS then dbms_output..put_line('employee name is:' ||name). there is no data for this employee no.put_line('employee salary is:' || salary). 5 begin 6 empno:=&eno.---------.. Write a PL/SQL Block to implement a user defined exception SQL> select * from order_master. 10 EXCEPTION 11 when no_data_found then 12 dbms_output.eno %type.begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno='&empno'.put_line('there is no data for this employee no.salary from emp where eno=empno.--------1 pancil 100 2 pen 500 3 ink 400 4 eraser 900 SQL> declare 2 d1 order_master. end. 7 select ename.'). 16 / Enter value for eno: 4 old 6: empno:=&eno. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 12 old 6: empno:=&eno. dbms_output. 9 dbms_output. employee name is:harish employee salary is:18000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ONO ITEM QUANTITY --------. 3 o_pending Exception.:').put_line('The total sal is'||to_char(vsal)). DDATE OSTATUS ----------------06-DEC-09 p 29-OCT-09 d 25-OCT-09 d 12-NOV-09 p . 3 empno emp.ddate %type. new 6: empno:=12.ename %type.put_line('too many rows are there for this end'). / Write a PL/SQL Block to implement Inbuilt exception-No data found and too many rows SQL>declare 2 name emp. 15 end. 4 salary emp.esal %type. 13 when too_many_rows then 14 dbms_output.put_line('too many rows . 8 dbms_output.esal into name.

---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 15000 18000 Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %rowcount . 3 begin 4 delete from emp where eno=&no. Cursor Management in PL/SQL Implicit Cursor: Write a PL/SQL Block to implement the attribute: %found SQL> select * from emp.eno %type. 9 exception 10 when o_pending then 11 dbms_output. new 4: delete from emp where eno=2. record found PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 13 / your order is still pending PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 end if. ENO ENAME --------. 6 if(d1<sysdate)then 7 raise o_pending. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output. 8 end if. SQL> select * from emp.put_line('record found'). 11 / Enter value for no: 2 old 4: delete from emp where eno=&no. 7 else 8 dbms_output. ENO ENAME --------. 10 end.---------1 navneet 2 navjot 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------12000 14000 15000 18000 SQL> declare 2 no emp.put_line('record is not found'). 12 end.4 begin 5 select ddate into d1 from order_master where ono=4.put_line('your order is still pending').

eno %type. 9 / Enter value for no: 1 old 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no. 5 if SQL %found then 6 dbms_output.put_line(SQL %rowcount).--------------. SQL> select * from emp. 16 end.salary. 3 name employee. 6 begin 7 open emp_crsr.---------1 navneet 3 permod 4 harish ESAL --------24000 15000 18000 Explicit Cursor: SQL> select * from employee.eno %type.name. 17 / . 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. new 4: update emp set esal=24000 where eno=1. ENO ENAME --------. 14 end loop.-------------------. 4 salary employee. 5 cursor emp_crsr is select eno.--------.SQL> declare 2 no emp.esal %type.ename.ename %type. 10 if(salary>15000)then 11 update employee set esal=10000 where esal<=4500. SQL> declare 2 no employee. 13 exit when emp_crsr %notfound. 12 end if.------------------1 rahul 12000 CHD 110 ADMIN 2 manpreet 4500 patiala 120 MKT 3 reena 23000 panchkula 130 HR 4 sabiha kour 41000 CHD 130 HR 5 gopal 14500 CHD 120 MKT 7 jaspreet 42000 patiala 150 FIn 6 rows selected.--------. 8 end. 7 end if.esal from employee. ENO ENAME ESAL ECITY DNO DNAME --------. 8 loop 9 fetch emp_crsr into no. 15 close emp_crsr. 3 begin 4 update emp set esal=24000 where eno=&no.

put_line('salary is less'). . 11 end.ename.'clerk').put_line('record fetch'). 7 if(emp_cursor %found)then 8 dbms_output. Cursor For loop SQL> select * from emp.esal from employi where dno=p_depno and job=p_job. 5 begin 6 for e1 IN emp_crsr 7 loop 8 if(e1.PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 15 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.put_line('salary is average'). 10 else 11 dbms_output.p_job varchar2) 3 is 4 select eno. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_crsr 3 is 4 select * from emp. 14 end. 10 close emp_cursor. 13 end loop. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Parameterized cursor: SQL> declare 2 cursor emp_cursor(p_depno number. 12 end if. 9 end if.esal<15000) then 9 dbms_output. 5 begin 6 open emp_cursor (10.

UPDATE. implicit statements are created to process these statements. When you execute INSERT. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. When a SELECT. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database.. and %ISOPEN.. Oracle provides few attributes called as implicit cursor attributes to check the status of DML operations. %NOTFOUND. When you fetch a row the current row position moves to next row. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. UPDATE. only one record can be processed at a time. INSERT. The status of the cursor for each of these attributes are defined in the below table. For example. and manipulate this data. They are also created when a SELECT statement that returns just one row is executed. Both implicit and explicit cursors have the same functionality. A cursor can hold more than one row. but can process only one row at a time. PL/SQL returns an error when no data is selected. or DELETE statements the cursor attributes tell us whether any rows are affected and how many have been affected. There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL: Implicit cursors: These are created by default when DML statements like. which is called as current row. %ROWCOUNT.What are Cursors? A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. Explicit cursors: They must be created when you are executing a SELECT statement that returns more than one row. Even though the cursor stores multiple records. INSERT. implicit cursor attributes can be used to find out whether any row has been returned by the SELECT statement. Implicit Cursors: When you execute DML statements like DELETE. The cursor attributes available are %FOUND. but they differ in the way they are accessed. . UPDATE and SELECT statements. and DELETE statements are executed. INTO statement is executed in a PL/SQL Block.

The return value is FALSE. DELETE and UPDATE affect at least one row and if SELECT …. END. the salaries of all the employees in the ‘employee’ table are updated. DELETE and UPDATE do not affect row and if SELECT…. END IF. 'Salaries for 1000 employees are updated' if there are 1000 rows in ‘employee’ table. The return value is TRUE. In the above PL/SQL Block. Else we get a message like for example. %ROWCOUNT Return the number of rows affected by the SQL%ROWCOUNT DML operations INSERT. IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN dbms_output. SELECT For Example: Consider the PL/SQL Block that uses implicit cursor attributes as shown below: DECLARE var_rows number(5). DELETE and UPDATE do not affect even one row and if SELECT …. dbms_output. %NOTFOUND The return value is FALSE. BEGIN UPDATE employee SET salary = salary + 1000.Attributes %FOUND Return Value Example The return value is TRUE. if the DML SQL%FOUND statements like INSERT. if DML SQL%NOTFOUND statements like INSERT.INTO statement return at least one row. ELSIF SQL%FOUND THEN var_rows := SQL%ROWCOUNT.put_line('Salaries for ' || var_rows || 'employees are updated'). If none of the employee’s salary are updated we get a message 'None of the salaries where updated'. DELETE. .INTO statement do not return a row. UPDATE.INTO statement return at least one row. if a DML statement like INSERT. DELETE and UPDATE at least one row and if SELECT …. if DML statements like INSERT.put_line('None of the salaries where updated').INTO statement does not return a row.

OPEN the cursor in the Execution Section.Explicit Cursors An explicit cursor is defined in the declaration section of the PL/SQL Block. • • cursor_name – A suitable name for the cursor. 2) Accessing the records in the cursor: Once the cursor is created in the declaration section we can access the cursor in the execution section of the PL/SQL program. Here ‘emp_tbl’ in the table which contains records of all the employees. How to use Explicit Cursor? There are four steps in using an Explicit Cursor. • • • • DECLARE the cursor in the declaration section. It is created on a SELECT Statement which returns more than one row. In the above example we are creating a cursor ‘emp_cur’ on a query which returns the records of all the employees with salary greater than 5000. CLOSE the cursor in the Execution Section before you end the PL/SQL Block. We can provide a suitable name for the cursor. FETCH the data from cursor into PL/SQL variables or records in the Execution Section. The General Syntax for creating a cursor is as given below: CURSOR cursor_name IS select_statement. 1) Declaring a Cursor in the Declaration Section: DECLARE CURSOR emp_cur IS SELECT * FROM emp_tbl WHERE salary > 5000. How to access an Explicit Cursor? . select_statement – A select query which returns multiple rows.

· If you are fetching a cursor to a PL/SQL Record. create a cursor. Points to remember while fetching a row: · We can fetch the rows in a cursor to a PL/SQL Record or a list of variables created in the PL/SQL Block. records. General Syntax to open a cursor is: OPEN cursor_name. When there is more than one row in a cursor we can use loops along with explicit cursor attributes to fetch all the records. General Form of using an explicit cursor is: DECLARE variables. BEGIN OPEN cursor. CLOSE cursor. END. If you want to fetch after the last row. the first row becomes the current row.These are the three steps in accessing the cursor. . On every fetch statement. OR FETCH cursor_name INTO variable_list. process the records. the program will throw an error. FETCH cursor. 1) Open the cursor. the variables should be listed in the same order in the fetch statement as the columns are present in the cursor. the record should have the same structure as the cursor. the pointer moves to the next row. General Syntax to fetch records from a cursor is: FETCH cursor_name INTO record_name. When a cursor is opened. General Syntax to close a cursor is: CLOSE cursor_name. 3) Close the cursor. 2) Fetch the records in the cursor one at a time. · If you are fetching a cursor to a list of variables. When the data is fetched it is copied to the record or variables and the logical pointer moves to the next row and it becomes the current row.

we are fetching the cursor to the record in line no 9. 9> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. FALSE. Fourth. TRUE. What are Explicit Cursor Attributes? Oracle provides some attributes known as Explicit Cursor Attributes to control the data processing while using cursors. . 11> CLOSE emp_cur. we are closing the cursor in line no 11. Second. 12> END. ' || In the above example. We can also create a record with a cursor by replacing the table name with the cursor name.last_name).6.first_name || ' emp_rec. we are opening the cursor in the execution section in line no 8. These are the attributes available to check the status of an explicit cursor. Sixth. we are displaying the first_name and last_name of the employee in the record emp_rec in line no 10. if fetch statement doesn’t return a row. When does an error occur while accessing an explicit cursor? a) When we try to open a cursor which is not closed in the previous operation.put_line (emp_rec. if fetch statement returns at %NOTFOUND . Third. 10> dbms_output. FALSE. Attributes %FOUND Return values Example TRUE. 7> BEGIN 8> OPEN emp_cur.Lets Look at the example below Example 1: 1> DECLARE 2> emp_rec emp_tbl%rowtype. b) When we try to fetch a cursor after the last operation. we are declaring a cursor ‘emp_cur’ from a select query in line no 3 . first we are creating a record ‘emp_rec’ of the same structure as of table ‘emp_tbl’ in line no 2. if fetch statement doesn’t Cursor_name%NOTFOUND return a row. Fifth. FETCH and CLOSE Statements. if fetch statement returns at Cursor_name%FOUND least one row. 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT * 5> FROM 6> WHERE salary > 10. We use these attributes to avoid errors while accessing cursors through OPEN.

WHILE LOOP and FOR LOOP. Cursor with a Simple Loop: 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name. 16> / In the above example we are using two cursor attributes %ISOPEN and %NOTFOUND. If we do so.salary).%ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN least one row. last_name. Here I will modify the same example for each loops to explain how to use loops with cursors. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. If there is no rows found the program would exit.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. The number of rows fetched by the Cursor_name%ROWCOUNT fetch statement If no row is returned. We can use %FOUND in place of %NOTFOUND and vice versa. a condition which exists when you fetch the cursor after the last row.put_line(emp_cur. 11> EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND. In line no 11. . So use these attributes in appropriate instances. the PL/SQL statement returns an error. it directly moves to line no 9. TRUE. 15> END. In line no 6. salary FROM emp_tbl. 12> dbms_output. if there is a row found the program continues. if the cursor is not opened in the program. if the cursor is already open in Cursor_name%ISNAME the program FALSE. we are using the cursor attribute %ISOPEN to check if the cursor is open. 14> END LOOP. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. if the condition is true the program does not open the cursor again. Using Loops with Explicit Cursors: Oracle provides three types of cursors namely SIMPLE LOOP. 9> LOOP 10> FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_rec. we need to reverse the logic of the program. These loops can be used to process multiple rows in the cursor. 8> END IF. we are using the cursor attribute %NOTFOUND to check whether the fetch returned any row.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur.

salary FROM emp_tbl. 9> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 5> BEGIN . 10> WHILE sales_cur%FOUND THEN 11> LOOP 12> dbms_output. 17> END. 18> / In the above example. salary FROM emp_tbl. 16> END LOOP.last_name 13> || ' ' ||emp_cur. if true the program moves into the while loop. In the loop.. need not open. before fetching the record again. fetch and close the cursor. Let’s use the above example to learn how to use for loops in cursors.put_line(emp_cur. General Syntax for using FOR LOOP: FOR record_name IN cusror_name LOOP process the row. 15> FETCH sales_cur INTO sales_rec. 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. in line no 10 we are using %FOUND to evaluate if the first fetch statement in line no 9 returned a row. last_name.. Cursor with a FOR Loop: When using FOR LOOP you need not declare a record or variables to store the cursor values. always process the record retrieved by the first fetch statement.salary). 4> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype. If the fetch statement is not executed once before the while loop the while condition will return false in the first instance and the while loop is skipped. else you will skip the first row. In the loop we use fetch statement again (line no 15) to process the next row. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name.first_name || ' ' || emp_cur. last_name.Cursor with a While Loop: Lets modify the above program to use while loop. 8> END IF. 5> BEGIN 6> IF NOT sales_cur%ISOPEN THEN 7> OPEN sales_cur. These functions are accomplished by the FOR LOOP automatically. END LOOP. 1> DECLARE 2> CURSOR emp_cur IS 3> SELECT first_name.

1) IN-parameters 2) OUT-parameters 3) IN OUT-parameters . DECLARE 2 3 4 5 BEGIN 6 7 8 9 .product_price * 0 WHERE CURRENT OF product_cur. when the FOR loop is processed a record ‘emp_rec’of structure ‘emp_cur’ gets created.salary). you can reduce the number of lines in the program. NUMBER(4. END LOOP. the cursor is opened.6> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 7> LOOP 8> dbms_output. execution section and exception section similar to a general PL/SQL Block. 12> / In the above example. 13 / VARCHAR2(25) PRIMARY KEY. The header consists of the name of the procedure and the parameters or variables passed to the procedure. A procedure is similar to an anonymous PL/SQL Block but it is named for repeated usage. 11>END. Create a cursor for update Create a following table: CREATE TABLE product ( 2 product_name 3 product_price 4 quantity_on_hand 5 last_stock_date 6 ). A procedure has a header and a body. FOR product_rec IN product_cur LOOP UPDATE product SET product_price = (product_rec.last_name 9> || ' ' ||emp_cur. DATE CURSOR product_cur IS SELECT * FROM product FOR UPDATE OF product_price.97) 10 11 12 END.2). By using FOR Loop in your program.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur.put_line(emp_cur.0). NUMBER(5. The body consists or declaration section. This is similar to a procedure in other programming languages. We can pass parameters to procedures in three ways. the rows are fetched to the record ‘emp_rec’ and the cursor is closed after the last row is processed. What is a Stored Procedure? A stored procedure or in simple a proc is a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific task. 10> END LOOP.

EXECUTE [or EXEC] procedure_name. 13> / How to execute a Stored Procedure? There are two ways to execute a procedure. 1) From the SQL prompt. 5> emp_rec emp_cur%rowtype.A procedure may or may not return any value. last_name. The code between IS and BEGIN forms the Declaration section.marks the beginning of the body of the procedure and is similar to DECLARE in anonymous PL/SQL Blocks.last_name 10> || ' ' ||emp_cur. By using CREATE OR REPLACE together the procedure is created if no other procedure with the same name exists or the existing procedure is replaced with the current code. The syntax within the brackets [ ] indicate they are optional. . IS .put_line(emp_cur. 11> END LOOP. 2) Within another procedure – simply use the procedure name. 6> BEGIN 7> FOR emp_rec in sales_cur 8> LOOP 9> dbms_output. salary FROM emp_tbl.first_name || ' ' ||emp_cur. 12>END.salary). The below example creates a procedure ‘employer_details’ which gives the details of the employee. General Syntax to create a procedure is: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE proc_name [list of parameters] IS Declaration section BEGIN Execution section EXCEPTION Exception section END. procedure_name. 1> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE employer_details 2> IS 3> CURSOR emp_cur IS 4> SELECT first_name.

IN OUT mode Write a procedure to implement IN Mode: SQL> select * from emp. ENO ENAME -----------------1 arpeta 2 arun 3 harish 4 rahul 5 ranjeet ESAL --------12000 15000 20000 14000 45000 SQL> create or replace procedure raise_salary(no IN emp. 4 end raise_salary. ENO --------1 2 3 4 5 ENAME ---------arpeta arun harish rahul ranjeet ESAL --------12000 16000 20000 14000 45000 Write a procedure to implement OUT Mode: SQL> create or replace procedure emp_detail(no IN emp. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. SQL> execute raise_salary(2).salary from emp where eno=no.esal %type) 2 is 3 begin 4 select ename. name OUT emp. 5 / Procedure created. 5 end emp_detail. salary OUT emp. Stored Procedures in PL/SQL A stored procedure has three categories of parameter modes: IN mode.ename %type. OUT mode. we are using backward slash ‘/’ at the end of the program. 6 / Procedure created. .NOTE: In the examples given above. This indicates the oracle engine that the PL/SQL program has ended and it can begin processing the statements.eno %type.esal into name. SQL> select * from emp.eno % type) 2 is begin 3 update emp set esal=esal+1000 where eno=no.esal %type) T emp.

SQL> declare 2 no emp. SQL> / Enter value for eno: 3 old 6: no:=&eno. 9 dbms_output. employee name is: harish employee salary is: 20000 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 6 / Procedure created.ename %type. 5 begin 6 no:=&eno. Fetch the area code from a phone number given using a format procedure code. 3 begin 4 p:=&p.put_line('employee salary is: '||salary). 2 is 3 begin 4 p:=substr(p. new 6: no:=3.name. SQL> declare 2 p varchar2(10). . 5 end format_phone. Write a procedure to implement IN OUT Mode: Format a phone number using a procedure. 7 emp_detail(no. 8 end. Phone number is having a format like 022-2567890.putline("Area Code Is: "||p). 10* end. 6 format_phone(p).The first three digit/ characters are of area code.3). 4 salary emp.esal%type. 3 name emp.putline("Phoneno Is: "||p).salary).put_line('employee name is: '||name). 8 dbms_output. SQL> create or replace procedure format_phone(p in out varchar2(10)). 5 dbms_output.eno %type. 7 dbms_output.1.

. SQL> select * from emp. The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: The simplified syntax for the CREATE FUNCTION statement is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION function_name [(parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] type [.9 / Enter value for p: 1722665626 old 4: p=&p. new 4: p=1722665626. You create a function using the CREATE FUNCTION statement. ENO ENAME ESAL --------. Functions in PL/SQL Write a function to get the salary of employee.])] RETURN type {IS | AS} BEGIN function_body END function_name. 8 end getsal. . 7 return sal.. Phoneno Area Code Is: 172 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 9 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.--------1 arpeta 14000 2 arun 16000 3 harish 20000 4 rahul 18000 5 ranjeet 45000 SQL> create or replace function getsal(no emp. 3 is 4 sal number. 5 begin 6 select esal into sal from emp where eno=no.eno %type) 2 return number. Is: 1722665626 Function: A function is similar to a procedure except that a function must return a value. .---------.

10 .where 1. 10 / CREATE OR REPLACE a function CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh 2 RETURN NUMBER AS 3 x NUMBER(9. 8 return (cnt). OR REPLACE specifies the function that is to replace an existing function if present. 3.2).deptno = p_deptno. type specifies the PL/SQL type of the parameter. 4 begin 5 select count(*) into cnt 6 from employees e 7 where e. 9 .2) comm NUMBER(6. 5 . 7 . The body of a function must return a value of the PL/SQL type specified in the RETURN clau Describe a user-defined function create 2 3 . 9 end. SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_OUTPUT. 8 . 2. 4 / ss_thresh 65400 Calling a Function . 6 RETURN x. 4 BEGIN 5 x := 65400. 6 . 4 . 3 END. table employees( empno NUMBER(4) ename VARCHAR2(8) init VARCHAR2(5) job VARCHAR2(8) mgr NUMBER(4) bdate DATE msal NUMBER(6. create or replace function emp_count(p_deptno in number) 2 return number is 3 cnt number(2) := 0.PUT_LINE('ss_thresh ' || ss_thresh()). 7 END ss_thresh. 8 / Function created.2) deptno NUMBER(2) ) .

It declares the types. sometimes the body is unnecessary. CIRCLE_AREA(12) Calling a Function to a table. AVERAGE_SALARY -------------4071. 9 / Function created. Packages usually have two parts. a specification and a body. 7 END circle_area. variables.14.A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. variables. and subprograms. 6 RETURN v_area. SQL> SQL> select circle_area(12) from dual. 4 BEGIN 5 v_area := v_pi * POWER(p_radius. 2).7525 Packaage:. 3 v_area NUMBER. enhance. or replace a package body without changing the package spec." You can debug. . 8 END average_salary. 7 RETURN v_average_salary. exceptions.CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION circle_area (p_radius IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMB ER AS 2 v_pi NUMBER := 3. SQL> SQL> select average_salary from dual. 3 BEGIN 4 SELECT AVG(salary) 5 INTO v_average_salary 6 FROM employee. You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a "black box. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms. cursors. constants. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION average_salary RETURN NUMBER AS 2 v_average_salary NUMBER. and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. The specification (spec for short) is the interface to the package. 8 / Function created.

3. The package body contains the actual code. These are potentially available to all database users.spec TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id INT. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part. job VARCHAR2. Packages are typically made up of two components: a specification and a body. 5. deptno NUMBER). sal NUMBER. The spec holds public declarations. Packages encapsulate related functionality into one self-contained unit. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. such pragmas must follow the function spec). The procedure hire_employee uses the sequence empno_seq and the function SYSDATE to insert a new employee number and hire date. The package specification generally doesn't contain the code. END emp_actions. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps. The package specification lists the available procedures and functions. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. The package specification contains information about the package. use the SQL statement CREATE PACKAGE. . You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function. and two employment procedures. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER).To create package specs. 4.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. 7. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. which are hidden from code outside the package. 2. a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. 6. comm NUMBER. 1. salary REAL). CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE command: Example of a PL/SQL Package The example below packages a record type. mgr NUMBER. a cursor. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. If necessary.

subprogram_name SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -.object_name package_name. The Syntax for Dot Notation package_name. sal NUMBER. The body of a package is a collection of schema objects that was declared in the specification. Start_Date DATE. City VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). Description VARCHAR2(15 BYTE) ) / NOT NULL. you must use dot notation. deptno). you create the body of the package. End_Date DATE. SYSDATE. Last_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). comm. END fire_employee. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. mgr NUMBER.NEXTVAL. To reference the package's subprograms and objects. mgr. / Creating Packages and call its functions After the specification is created. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id.2). If you perform any initialization in the package body. END hire_employee.job VARCHAR2. SQL> . ename. it is executed once when the package is initially referenced.create demo table create table Employee( ID VARCHAR2(4 BYTE) First_Name VARCHAR2(10 BYTE). sal.type_name package_name. Salary Number(8. comm NUMBER. job. END emp_actions. Table created.

'Alison'. t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name. 'Mathews'. to_date('19781212'. Start_Date.'Robert'. 'Martin'.'Jason'. First_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID.'James'.display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee 2 / . Last_Name.'James'. to_date('19760321'.'David'. 'Cat'. t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name.prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID. 'Green'. to_date('19870730'. Start_Date. E 2 values('03'. t 3 / 1 row created. Last_Name. Last_Name.'Celia'. t 3 / 1 row created.'YYYYMMDD').SQL> -. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. to_date('19901231'. Start_Date.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name.'YYYYMMDD').'Linda'.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. E 2 values('07'. to_date('19960725'. 'Larry'. E 2 values('02'. 'Smith'. E 2 values('08'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. Start_Date. to_date('19840115'. First_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. Start_Date. E 2 values('06'.'YYYYMMDD'). E 2 values('05'. Last_Name. 'Black'. SQL> insert into Employee(ID. First_Name. First_Name. to_date('19821024'. Start_Date. t 3 / 1 row created. t 3 / 1 row created. First_Name.'YYYYMMDD'). SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -. Start_Date. First_Name. t 3 / 1 row created. 'Rice'. E 2 values('04'.'YYYYMMDD'). to_date('19960917'.'YYYYMMDD'). Last_Name. E 2 values ('01'. Start_Date.

4 BEGIN 5 new_qty:= qty*6.ID ---01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 FIRST_NAME ---------Jason Alison James Celia Robert Linda David James LAST_NAME ---------Martin Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry Cat START_DAT --------25-JUL-96 21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 17-SEP-96 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------. 8 END inv_count.78 New York 15-APR-02 1232. SQL> SQL> call inv_pck_spec.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.inv_count(2).78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322. . 5 / Package created.inv_adjust(2000). 13 END.---------25-JUL-06 1234. SQL> SQL> select * from employee.salary) values ('01'. 16 17 END inv_pck_spec.56 Toronto 21-FEB-86 6661. 18 / Package body created. Call completed. 6 INSERT into employee (id. 7 RETURN(new_qty).new_qty).78 Vancouver DESCRIPTION --------------Programmer Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager Tester 8 rows selected. 14 BEGIN -.---------. SQL> SQL> --call inv_pck_spec. 3 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer). 9 10 PROCEDURE inv_adjust(qty integer) is 11 BEGIN 12 DELETE from employee WHERE salary<qty. first_name)values('01'.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334. SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY inv_pck_spec is 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer)RETURN integer is 3 new_qty integer. 'new'). SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE inv_pck_spec as 2 FUNCTION inv_count(qty integer) RETURN integer. 4 END inv_pck_spec.78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.package initialization begins here 15 INSERT into employee (id.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.

SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -.---------21-FEB-86 6661.78 New York DESCRIPTION --------------Tester Tester Manager Tester Tester Manager 7 rows selected.78 Vancouver 15-MAR-90 6544.ID ---02 03 04 05 06 07 01 FIRST_NAME ---------Alison James Celia Robert Linda David new LAST_NAME ---------Mathews Smith Rice Black Green Larry START_DAT --------21-MAR-76 12-DEC-78 24-OCT-82 15-JAN-84 30-JUL-87 31-DEC-90 END_DATE SALARY CITY --------.78 Vancouver 04-JAN-96 4322.---------.clean the table SQL> drop table Employee 2 / Table dropped. .78 New York 12-FEB-98 7897.78 Vancouver 21-APR-99 2344.78 Vancouver 08-AUG-98 2334.