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Assignment Set- 1
Q.1 Write a note on the managerial roles and skills? Ans. Managerial Roles To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. A role is an organized set of behaviors. Henry Mintzberg (1973) has identified ten Sub roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal, informational, and decisional. According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows: 1. Informational roles 2. Decisional roles 3. Interpersonal roles 1. Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminating information as and when required. Following are the main sub-roles, which managers often perform: a. Monitor-collecting information from organizations, both from inside and outside of the organization. b. Disseminator-communicating information to organizational members c. Spokesperson-representing the organization to outsiders 2. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. Again, this role can be subdivided in to the following: a. Entrepreneur-initiating new ideas to improve organizational performance b. Disturbance handlers-taking corrective action to cope with adverse situation c. Resource allocators-allocating human, physical, and monetary resources
d. Negotiator - negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders 3. Interpersonal roles : This role involves activities with people working in the organization. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three subheadings: a. Figurehead-Ceremonial and symbolic role b. Leadership-leading organization in terms of recruiting, motivating etc. c. Liaison-liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities. Management Skills A manager's job is varied and complex. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. What type of skills does a manager need? Robert L. Katz (1974) found that managers needed three essential management skills i. Technical ii. Human iii. Conceptual Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job. Vocational and on the job training programs can be used to develop this type of skill. Human Skill : This is the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not with interpersonal skills, may face difficulty to manage their subordinates. To acquire the Human Skill, it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others, ability to motivate others even in adverse situation, and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way. Conceptual Skill : This is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation and forward a
feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options and choosing the best available option. A mark of a good leader is to be able to provide consistent motivation to his team encouraging them to attain excellence and quality in their performance. A good leader is always looking for ways to improve production and standards. Here are six management skills you can develop as a leader in working to create a quality effective team. This is an important aspect that often gets neglected due the demands on a leader's time and schedule. Observation and regular visits to the work environment are a priority and should be scheduled into the calendar. Observing employees at work, the procedures, interaction and work flow is foundational to implementing adjustments to improve results. To have credibility, a leader needs to be seen and be known to be up to date with what is happening in the work place. 1. Monitor Employee Performance Employee performance needs to be monitored in mutually accepted ways. Policies and procedures need to be clear. Conferencing should be on a regular basis and not just when there is a problem. Assessments and evaluations should not be merely all formality or viewed a necessary paperwork to be done and filed away. Individual and group conferencing should be undertaken not only to monitor performance, but with the expectation of on going professional development and support. There should be frequent encouragement and clear criteria for on going goals both for the group and individual. 2. Implementation of Professional Development Programs A good leader evaluates weaknesses and provides training and development strategies to strengthen the weaker skills in the team. 3. Demonstrates Working Knowledge and Expertise Good leadership comes from a place of strong knowledge and experience of the production and process leading to results. If a leader does not possess all the expertise and knowledge personally, then regular consultations with experts involved in the departments should be held. This is important in order to maintain an accurate and informed overall picture.
A leader considers all the different factors before making a decision. Shaping Behavior When a systematic attempt is made to change individuals’ behaviour by directing their learning in graduated steps. Ans. create confidence in the leadership. They are as follows: 1. a good leader is also able to look towards the future. 5. By developing these six managerial skills builds a solid foundation for success. Positive reinforcement – This is the process of getting something pleasant as a consequence of a desired behavior.4. . Good Decision Making Good leadership is characterized by the ability to make good decisions. one get a commission. While managing the present to ensure ongoing excellence in product and performance. There are four methods of Shaping Behavior. Conducting and evaluating research is an important way of planning and being prepared for the future. Excellent leadership is always pro active rather than reactive. if he/she achieves sales target.2 Discuss the methods of shaping behavior in detail. Q. For example. combined with the willingness and flexibility to adapt and adjust decisions when necessary. it is called shaping behavior. Ability to Conduct and Evaluate Research Ongoing review and research is vital in order to keep on the cutting edge in business. to strengthen the same behavior. Clear firm decisions. For example.
Skinner. The removal of a pleasant stimulus might consist of withholding affection and attention. a fine. 2. iv) Students will study to get good grades. Punishment. Negative reinforcement – This is the process of having a reward taken away as a consequence of a undesired behavior. and v) In these examples. promotions.i) Bonuses paid at the end of a successful business year are an example of positive reinforcement. ii) Employees will work hard for a raise or a promotion. Punishment can be accomplished either by adding an unpleasant stimulus or removing a pleasant stimulus. scholarship is withdrawn from the student who has not done well on the examination. The added unpleasant stimulus might take the form of criticism. iii) Salesmen will increase their efforts to get rewards and bonuses. If a person does not behave as the society or law wants him to do. Just as people engage in behaviors in order to get positive reinforces. they also engage in behaviors to avoid or escape unpleasant conditions. a disapproving look. he is punished by arrest and jail. This is the process of getting a punishment as a consequence of a behavior. Terminating an unpleasant stimulus in order to strengthen or increase the probability of a response is called negative reinforcement. According to B. Accordingly. bonuses. For example. F. a scolding. When a child misbehaves. . are positive reinforces. or a prison sentence. Example: Loss of pay for coming late to office. suspending a driver’s license. awards. the rises. or taking away a privilege such as watching television. good grades.This causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior. punishment is still the most common technique of behavior control in today’s life. certain guidelines would make it more effective thus minimizing its dysfunctional consequences. 3. in situations where punishment is desirable as a means of behavior modification. he is spanked.
Ans.the attention is given to him. Extinction – An alternative to punishing undesirable behavior is extension – the attempt to weaken behavior by attaching no consequences (either positive or negative) to it.a) Praise in public. Personality classifications are based on measuring different variables that the authors believe are important ways in which different people are different from each other. he is probably asking for attention. then such behaviors would become less frequent and eventually die out.3 Explain the classification of personality types given by Myers -Briggs. especially when such behaviors were previously rewarded. Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning. For example. However. c) The punishment should focus on the behavior and not on the person. If . b) Apply punishment before the undesirable behavior has been strongly reinforced. punish in private. Thus. This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable behavior. The rationale for using extinction is that a behavior not followed by any consequence is weakened. he will continue to exhibit that behavior. The goal of defining personality types is to be able to efficiently describe patterns that every person falls into that make that person similar to some people but different from most people. There are a lot of different ways of thinking about and looking at personality types. . Both punishment and extinction weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency Q. the punishment should immediately follow the undesirable behavior. some patience and time may be needed for it to be effective. They strengthen a response and increase the probability of repetition. if a student in the class is highly mischievous and disturbs the class. It is equivalent to ignoring the behavior. This means that if rewards were removed from behaviors that were previously reinforced. 4.
and that can vary independently from each other. usually represented by letters from the variables. the total number of possible personality types on the MBTI is 2x2x2x2. asks several questions of individual. which is self-administered. e. Each variable is described as a choice between two opposite traits (also known as a dichotomy): Attitude: Extrovert or Introvert? [Is the person more outgoing or more reserved?] Function: Sensing or Intuitive? [Does the person make judgments more based on experience of the world or more based on intuition?] Function: Thinking or Feeling? [Does the person use rational thinking or emotional feelings most to make decisions?] Lifestyle: Judgment or Perception? [Does the person tend to make decisions about whether things are good or bad. relies on intuition and uses rational thought. The theory goes on to make conjectures about what this kind of person is likely to be good at. but is not quick to judgment. or does the person have more of a "live-and-let-live" attitude?] Each one of these variables on the MBTI yields an answer on one side or the other. what that person's vulnerabilities are more likely to be. The theory is that these four domains combine to create different types of people. ISFJ. At the end. and what other personality types the person is more or less likely to get along with. The MBTI. Because there are four variables each with two possible values.Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter. Someone who is "ENTP" would be described as a person who is outgoing. and that each of the 16 categories is different from the others.g. first published their "MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI)" in 1962. The result is that every person who takes the MBTI is given one of the 16 personality types. . or 16. each of which is designed to shed light on one of these four dichotomies. Isabel Briggs Myers. These were based on ideas originally presented by the psychiatrist Carl Jung. ESTJ. ISTJ. the responses determine whether you fall on one side or the other of each of the four dichotomies. ENTP. They based it on four different variables that they felt help distinguish different kinds of people.
people who score weakly toward one side or the other of one of the personality variables are given the same personality interpretation as people who strongly manifest that trait. It forces people's description into categories. There are many common criticisms of this assessment.4 What are the factors influencing perception? Ans. frequently when a group of people is about to work closely together or spend time together. Common ones include: 1. for example. halfway between any of the dichotomies. Some psychotherapists also use the MBTI to help clients understand themselves better and think more objectively about why and how things are difficult or what might be a pitfall in the future.Because of these interpretations. we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. Q. There is not much scientific evidence that these four traits vary independently of each other. which may or may not accurately reflect how they actually are. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception These factors can reside: i) In the perceiver ii) In the Object or target being perceived or . like in a company or on a committee. Therefore. 2. Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and action in response to these stimuli. many like to use this quick assessment to make people to think about themselves and how they relate to the world. 3. Through the perceptual process. it may be that being strongly on one side of any one of these affects how you score on the others. and doesn't allow for people to be. The assessment asks people about how they think about themselves.
regardless of the intention of the subordinates. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. most of whom are male. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization . 1. For example. Mr.iii) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made. Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception.Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers self- concept. a negative self-concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. This attitude with doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for. we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state.a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceiver’s attitudes affect perception. When in a negative mood. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. When in a positive mood. For example. . we form more positive impressions of other. in an organizational context. we tend to evaluate others unfavorably. d) Self . a boss who is insecure perceives a sub ordinate's efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. Personal insecurity can be translated into the perception that others are out to "get my job". Mr. that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. In contrast. In addition.
People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people. iv. 2. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalking and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal i. Nonverbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits. One's own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in other. Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. what one person notices in a situation can differ from what other perceive.e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it. f) Cognitive structure: Cognitive structure. For example. sound. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. an individual's pattern of thinking. Characteristics of the Target: Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. such as height. Because our individual interests differ considerably. iii. ii. Physical appearance pals a big role in our perception of others. g) Expectations: Finally. weight. Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. Verbal Communication from targets also affects our perception of them. and appearance. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives other than he environmental situation. the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. . more readily. Motions. expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. also affects perception.
Characteristics of the Situation: The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place. position.. Solanki is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. marital status. Solanki. Ramani. the need to love (good relations with the environment. Motivating factors are achievement. to love and to be loved). and posture all in a attempt to form an impression of the target.e individual's behaviours can be accounted for by the situation. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors. responsibility. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. recognition. Ramani leading HR consultant. health insurance. etc. Q. adoration. In this situation. fellowship. resting. and hours worked per week) of employees that significantly affect their job satisfaction. recognition. There are particular demographic traits (age. education level. status. security needs (pension. the HR consultant. Solanki is the VP. tenure. the job conducted. body movements. and that it may not reflect the individual's disposition. 3. need to self-esteem (selfconfidence. Motivating factors in the working environment result in the job satisfaction of the person while protective ones dissatisfy him.The perceiver deciphers eye contact. the quality of the physical environment in which they work. facial expressions. friendship. Ans. Assume that you are Ms. etc. drinking. Numerous research results show that there are many factors affecting the job satisfaction. etc. These are: physiological needs (eating. to be given importance. promotion and the factors related to the job itself for personal development.HR of a leading Financial services company. He is having a meeting with Ms. Mr. Maslow connects the creation of the existence of people's sense of satisfaction with the maintenance of the classified needs. has an influence on the perceiver's impression of the target. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behaviour. years in service.g.). etc. Satisfying factors motivate workers while dissatisfying ones prevent. degree of fulfillment in their work.5 Mr. e. the quality of one's relationship with their supervisor. we assume that + i. What suggestions you will give to Mr.). for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction.) need of self- .
etc. The individual's willingness to get . sex is also found to have an influence on job satisfaction. socio-political. that increased job satisfaction produces improve job performance -. but their performance certainly doesn't improve. That may make them more satisfied with their "work" in the short run. Besides. having the decision making power. and achievement and recognition at work result in satisfaction while the management policy. etc. For example. technical. improved job satisfaction can sometimes decrease job performance. Similarly.. Kose has also found a meaningful relation between the age and job satisfaction.in fact. Factors related to the job itself such as using talents. and the situation often returns quickly to normal. There is a strong connection between feeling secure and saying one is satisfied with a job. recognition have influence on the job satisfaction. you could let workers sometime sit around all day and do nothing. The most significant of the factors affecting performance are economical. cultural and demographical ones. affected each other reciprocally. all affect job satisfaction negatively. responsibility. most efforts to improve performance seem to center on improving the conditions surrounding the work. by some researchers. The job itself (the work conducted). Studies conducted in five different countries prove that the elder workers are more satisfied. relations with the managers and colleagues result in dissatisfaction. and they have great impact upon performance. Wahba has found out that male librarians give more importance to personal development and free decision making in their jobs than the female librarians.actualization (maximization of the latent[potential] power and capacity. lack of communications. However. development of abilities. Age is one of the factors affecting job satisfaction. independence on the job and the unit where the individual works. but they usually result only in short-term improvements in attitudes and productivity. Job satisfaction and devotion to the job. It has been asserted that participating in the management. These are worthwhile efforts.) Insufficient education. creativity. lack of job definitions. and the female librarians are more dissatisfied than the male librarians. People who state their job is secure have a much larger probability of reporting themselves happy with their work. inability to select qualified workers for the job. There is no strong acceptance among researchers. consultants. have positive impact upon the job satisfaction.
relatives. Humanists . Maslow is a humanistic psychologist. There is a consistent relationship between the professional status and the job satisfaction. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. Most workers like their work if they have little supervision. and job satisfaction is related to education. No meaningful relationship between the job satisfaction and age. Job satisfaction varies a lot. (Researches suggests.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of the “VARK-LEARNING” a learning and training solutions company 1. What all needs do it takes care off according to maslow’s need hierarchy 4. ex. under the variable of social conditions. On the contrary. High levels of job satisfaction are observed in those professions which are deemed of good standing in the society. What all aspects does it takes care of according to the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy? Ans. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know may be their friends. The least satisfied workers are those in service occupations and managers that work for others.a result. professional experience. Humanists do not believe that human beings are pushed and pulled by mechanical forces. It recognizes good performances and give fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. level of wage. sex and professional group was found. his/her endeavor and expectation of maintaining the result will push him/her to show the highest performance. as the workers deem themselves relatively in good position. The workers usually compare their working conditions with the conditions of the society. They simply like what they do. professional experience has been claimed to increase job satisfaction. education level. the greater the job satisfaction). If the social conditions are worse than the individual's working conditions. Ethnic and religious orientation is associated to work attitudes. either of stimuli and reinforcements (behaviorism) or of unconscious instinctual impulses (psychoanalysis). Q. But. many workers are satisfied in even the least prestigious jobs. the higher the prestige of the job. 3. then this will result in satisfaction of the individual. Colleagues batch mates. The difference between the results that the individual desire and those s/he maintained will affect his/her satisfaction.
Needs of Love. "self-actualizing person. These include needs for understanding. esthetic appreciation and purely spiritual needs. Beyond these needs. the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction. This involves both giving and receiving love. Safety Needs When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer controlling thoughts and behaviors. All of his basic needs are instinctual. They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs. the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied. affection and the sense of belonging. food. Children often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe. "healthy personality". Humans seek the frontiers of creativity. Maslow's basic needs are as follows: Physiological Needs These are biological needs. Humans start with a very weak disposition that is then fashioned fully as the person grows. Affection and Belongingness When the needs for safety and for physiological well-being are satisfied. higher levels of needs exist. If the environment is right. water. and so on. nor the third until the second has been satisfied. the needs for security can become active. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. In the levels of the five basic needs. or as Maslow calls this level. affection and belongingness can emerge. people will grow straight and beautiful." Maslow has set up a hierarchic theory of needs. the next class of needs for love. If the environment is not "right" (and mostly it is not) they will not grow tall and straight and beautiful. They believe that humans strive for an upper level of capabilities. They consist of needs for oxygen. actualizing the potentials they have inherited. This has been labeled "fully functioning person". . Maslow has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Adults have little awareness of their security needs except in times of emergency or periods of disorganization in the social structure (such as widespread rioting).focus upon potentials. the highest reaches of consciousness and wisdom. and a relatively constant body temperature. equivalent of instincts in animals.
Opening risky issues. Learning. high level of self-respect. These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. . firmly based. and respect from others. Indicators include: Creativity. Flexibility. Confidence. He recommends ways education can switch from its usual personstunting tactics to person-growing approaches. the person feels self-confident and valuable as a person in the world." These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness. It is not always clear what a person wants when there is a need for self-actualization. the needs for esteem can become dominant. When these needs are satisfied. High morale. When these needs are frustrated. or lacking self. restless. The person feels on edge. tense. lower levels representing the lower needs. Maslow states that educators should respond to the potential an individual has for growing into a self-actualizing person of his/her own kind. Listening. with the larger. weak. not loved or accepted. Concern for people. helpless and worthless. Changing/confirming roles. and the upper point representing the need for self-actualization. Assertiveness. lacking something. unsafe. then and only then are the needs for selfactualization activated. Identifying strengths and weaknesses. Maslow believes that the only reason that people would not move well in direction of self-actualization is because of hindrances placed in their way by society. He states that education is one of these hindrances. Success. the person feels inferior. Humans have a need for a stable.Needs for Esteem When the first three classes of needs are satisfied. The hierarchic theory is often represented as a pyramid." "A musician must make music. Ten points that educators should address are listed: Questioning performance. in short. Testing new ground. Needs for Self-Actualization When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied. and a poet must write. an artist must paint. Open relationships. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do. If a person is hungry.esteem. Reviewing/clarify objective. Pride. Initiative. Performing: Groups reach a conclusion and implement the solution to their issue. it is very easy to know what the person is restless about. etc.
the group disbands in the adjournment phase. Such a distinction is similar to Bales' (1950) equilibrium model which states that a group continuously divides its attention between instrumental (task-related) needs and expressive . This phase was added when Tuckman and Jensen's updated their original review of the literature in 1977.Adjourning: As the group project ends. Each of the four stages in the Forming-storming-norming-performing-adjourning model proposed by Tuckman involves two aspects: interpersonal relationships and task behaviors.
train them to do it precisely in one best way. His scientific principles of management stressed the following principles: 1. Discipline: this is essential for the smooth running of business and is dependent on good leadership. He insisted the use of time-and-motion study as a means of standardizing work activities. Max Weber. the effect was to remove human variability. Answer: The Classical Era We see this trend to continue in what is called as the classical era which covers the period between 1900 to mid 1930s. to find the optimum mode of performance. Mary parker Follet and Chester Barnard. a mining engineer and manager by profession.1 Write a note on classical era for evolution of Organization behaviour. 4. Select the best person to perform the job thus designed. in breaking down each task to its smallest unit to find what Taylor called „„the one best way‟‟ to do each job. authority should be matched with corresponding responsibility. Taylor was one of the first to attempt to systematically analyze human behavior at work. he laid down what he called 14 principles of management. 2. the first general theories of management began to evolve and the main contributors during this era were Frederick Taylor. The results were dramatic. specifying the precise way in which the work is to be done. defined the nature and working patterns of the twentieth-century organization in his book. clear and fair arguments. His scientific approach called for detailed observation and measurement of even the most routine work. This theory is also called the Administrative Theory. assign the worker’s task accordingly. General and Industrial Management. 5. published in 1916.MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior Assignment Set. He stressed on selecting the right people for the job. . Henri Fayol. 2. Use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing work. With passing time. Train the worker to do the work efficiently. with productivity increasing significantly. Henri Fayol .2 Q. 3. In it. new organizational functions like personnel and quality control were created. Shift all responsibility for the organization of work from the worker to the manager. 3. Frederick Taylor’s main emphasis was on finding one best way of doing each job. Hence he lay the ground for the mass production techniques that dominated management thinking in the first half of the twentieth century. Of course. Division of work: tasks should be divided up with employees specializing in a limited set of tasks so that expertise is developed and productivity increased. and the judicious application of penalties. leaving the workers with the task of implementation. Monitor worker performances to ensure that appropriate work procedures are followed and that appropriate results are achieved. He favoured wage plans to motivate the workers. Authority and responsibility: authority is the right to give orders and entails enforcing them with rewards and penalties. managers should do all the thinking relating to the planning and design of work. The principles of the theory are: 1.
that Fayol stated. as are the advantages that can sometimes be obtained by making a decision as a group—bringing different sources of ideas. Individual creativity. an employee should receive orders from one superior only. reality testing. and moral . order. encourage effort.4. 8. 7. Order: both materials and personnel must always be in their proper place. uniqueness. Psychologist Irving Janis defines groupthink as: "a mode of thinking people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group. otherwise authority. 5. 11. organizing. and independent thinking are lost in the pursuit of group cohesiveness. The management functions. Esprit de corps: efforts must be made to promote harmony within the organization and prevent dissension and divisiveness. Remuneration of personnel: this may be achieved by various methods but it should be fair. Fayol was also one of the first people to characterize a commercial organization‟s activities into its basic components. and stability are threatened. 10. when the members' striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. 12. but sideways communication between those of equivalent rank in different departments can be desirable so long as superiors are kept informed. Groupthink refers to a deterioration of mental efficiency. co-coordinating and controlling. even today. 13. people must be suited to their posts so there must be careful organization of work and selection of personnel. such as size and the capabilities of the personnel. 14. Answer. 6. 9. Unity of command: for any action whatsoever.2 . What is groupthink. list these functions as the core of their activities. discipline. Unity of direction: a group of activities concerned with a single objective should be co-coordinated by a single plan under one head. Many practicing managers. Centralization: the extent to which orders should be issued only from the top of the organization is a problem which should take into account its characteristics. Explain. and experience together to solve a problem. Initiative: all employees should be encouraged to exercise initiative within limits imposed by the requirements of authority and discipline. consisted of planning. Stability of tenure of personnel: rapid turnover of personnel should be avoided because of the time required for the development of expertise. commanding. and not lead to overpayment. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: individual or group goals must not be allowed to override those of the business.Groupthink occurs when the pressure to conform within a group interferes with that group's analysis of a problem and causes poor group decision making. Scalar chain (line of authority): communications should normally flow up and down the line of authority running from the top to the bottom of the organization. Equity: personnel must be treated with kindness and justice. knowledge. Q.
the same processes which enhance the group's operation can backfire and lead to disastrous results. The group feels morally right. intimidating bosses.judgment that results from in-group pressures. it is hard to correct errors. How Groupthink Works Janis identified seven points on how groupthink works. the group does not survey the objectives to be fulfilled and the values implicated by the choice. consequently. there is pressure for uniformity. stereotypical views of opponents are created and used. through the membership. and instead make them worse. groups are supposed to be better than individuals at making complex decisions. closed mindedness. group pressure is applied to bring the dissident into line. they keep them to themselves. Third. they fail to work out contingency plans. First. without a survey of the full range of alternatives. and pressures toward uniformity." If any difference does occur. And if the social support is geared toward supporting the group's "accepted wisdom. Group members not only serve to bring new ideas into the discussion but also act as error-correcting mechanisms. Group-think occurs when a group feels too good about itself. Messengers of difference are dismissed. which is especially critical for new ideas." It can also refer to the tendency of groups to agree with powerful. Finally. But when new perspectives are rejected (as in the "not invented here" syndrome). If individuals have questions. the members spend little time deliberating about how the chosen policy might be hindered by bureaucratic inertia or sabotaged by political opponents. the group fails to reexamine the course of action initially preferred by the majority of members from the standpoint of the nonobvious risks and drawbacks that had not been considered when it was originally evaluated. Warnings are ignored. Groups also provide social support. a variety of differing perspectives are brought to bear. Linked to this attitude of perfection is a correlative close mindedness. Fifth. Negative. the members make little or no attempt to obtain information from experts who can supply sound estimates of gains and losses to be expected from alternative courses of action. A certain amount of self-censorship occurs. Indeed." the elements that can make groups better decision makers than individuals become inverted. Janis also mentions "the emergence of self-appointed mindguards—members who protect the group from adverse information that might shatter their shared complacency. The concept of groupthink provides a summary explanation of reasons groups sometimes make poor decisions. because." If these precipitating problems support . selective bias is shown in the way the group reacts to factual information and relevant judgments from experts. Second. the group's discussions are limited to a few alternative courses of action (often only two). Seventh. the members neglect courses of action initially evaluated as unsatisfactory—they spend little or no time discussing whether they have overlooked nonobvious gain. Just as groups can work to promote effective thinking/decision making. Three general problems seem to be at work: overestimation of group power and morality. This lack of dissent results in what Janis calls an "illusion of unanimity. Fourth. The group feels both invulnerable and optimistic. Sixth.
there are predisposing conditions as well. and it is the desire to preserve cohesion that is an underlying dynamic of groupthink. and an absence of decision-making procedures. Frequently groupthinking groups are removed from interaction with others. Maintaining the good feelings that come from such cohesion become part of the group's "hidden agenda. like exhaustion. Janis suggests four conditions that predispose a group to groupthink: cohesiveness." can also contribute to groupthink. aim for proper and balanced staff work. and temperate. and 4) can the preliminary recommendation be improved? In order to prevent group isolation. High-quality decisions are not made through intimidation. including the development of an agenda. When powerful leaders want to "get their way" they can overtly and covertly pressure the group into agreement. Decision making tears at the fabric of group cohesion. present competing views. A template for discussion might also be useful. One suggestion is to use an "options memo technique" in which information is presented as a problem statement. 2) is the judgment correct? (the logic may be fine. there is the cohesion process itself. a list of options. How to Avoid Groupthink There are several things businesspeople can do to avoid groupthink: follow good meeting procedures. or what Janis calls "norms requiring methodological procedures for dealing with decision making tasks. then move on to brainstorming for the last 20-30 percent of the meeting. and a preliminary recommendation. Finally. Some bosses have no idea why people do not speak up.tendencies to groupthink. the lack of a template or protocol for decision making. Leadership almost always involves getting work done through others. To avoid groupthink. it may be helpful to bring in new participants on a regular basis. group isolation/ insulation. while the reason they do not is because they are likely to be attacked. and attend to correlative meeting problems. an alternative is to rebuild cohesion each time. But if decisions lower group cohesion it is not necessary to avoid decisions. Bosses encourage the best performance from groups when they can alert them to the kind of review that is expected. As a group "hangs together" and members grow to like each other. If the leader can be clear." The insulation of the policy-making group is another factor. but the judgment may be poor). 3) are there any problems or errors remaining in the preliminary recommendation?. perhaps because of their position within the organization. it is vital for the group leader to become a statesperson or conductor instead of a partisan virtuoso. Lack of impartial leadership is a third contributing cause. whether intentional or unintentional. leader intimidation. . there is a great likelihood that norms of disagreement will develop. there will be greater pressure not to introduce disturbing information and opinions that might tear at that cohesiveness. use outside experts. and invite the group to meet offsite so that changes in settings and surroundings are a stimulant. The group then looks at the preliminary recommendation with at least four questions in mind: 1) is the logic correct? (in selecting the preliminary recommendation from among the options). Finally. One way to accomplish this rebuilding is to complete decision making by about 65 percent of the way through the meeting.
Professional negotiators are often specialized. and the sequence and stages in which all of these play out. The study of the subject is called negotiation theory.more helpfully .interests). the issues (positions and . One view of negotiation involves three basic elements: process. The substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda. and everyday life. and group decision making improved. now around less threatening. Because of the flaws of individual decision making—selective perception. limited knowledge.People who have differed before have a chance to continue to interact. Processes and tools include the steps that will be followed and the roles taken in both preparing for and negotiating with the other parties. and the agreement(s) reached at the end. future-oriented items. while groupthink is kept to a minimum. or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. Another view of negotiation comprises 4 elements: strategy. and tactics. The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the context of the negotiations. the place where groups do their decision-making work. Groupthink is the result of flawed procedures. behavior and substance. limited time—most important decisions today are made in groups. but they often do not. hostage negotiators. peace negotiators. to produce an agreement upon courses of action. parenting. It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. poor leadership. divorce. the communication between them and the styles they adopt. legal proceedings. Tactics include more detailed statements and actions and .3 Explain the process of Negotiation? Answer. or may work under other titles. the parties to the negotiations. Behavior refers to the relationships among these parties. among nations and in personal situations such as marriage. both sides make an argument as to the merits of their "case" and then the arbitrator decides the outcome for both parties. the tactics used by the parties. Meetings. process and tools. There are many different ways to segment negotiation to gain a greater understanding of the essential parts. legislators or brokers. Negotiation typically manifests itself with a trained negotiator acting on behalf of a particular organization or position. Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes. non-profit organizations. It can be compared to mediation where a disinterested third party listens to each sides' arguments and attempts to help craft an agreement between the parties. such as diplomats. This meeting technique allows for decompression. have a bad reputation these days.typically including relationship and the final outcome. and an unmanaged desire for the maintenance of group cohesion and its good feelings. government branches. such as union negotiators. to bargain for individual or collective advantage. It is also related to arbitration which. Strategy comprises the top level goals . the options. And groups can do a spectacular job. insulation. These factors can be addressed positively. and for rebonding of the group. largely because of processes such as groupthink. excessive selfinterest. leverage buyout negotiators. Negotiation occurs in business. Q. as with a legal proceeding.
Another negotiation tactic is bad guy/good guy. Hear theirs. It is not magic and is not a substitute for thinking. Discuss the different categories of environmental stressors. and so should not be omitted. Note also that in practice.Argue: Support your case. The bottom line is to use what works. It is an easy trap to try to jump to the end with a solution that is inadequate and unacceptable. Close: Reach final agreement. Answer. you may find variations on these. Explore: Seek understanding and possibility. stages running parallel and even out of order. stages overlapping. higher-value and slower negotiations. It is particularly suited to more complex.It must be noted that stress factors are subjective and what one person may find stressful. The good guy blames the bad guy for all the difficulties while trying to get concessions and agreement from the opponent This is a unique combination framework that puts together the best of many other approaches to negotiation. If something does not seem to be working. to a straight forward presentation of demands or setting of preconditions to more deceptive approaches such as cherry picking. Bad guy/good guy tactic is when one negotiator acts as a bad guy by using anger and threats. try to figure out why and either fix the problem or try something else.4 The environmental stressors have a great impact on work performance and adjustment of the individual in an organization. psychological and emotional responses from the individual. Package:Assemble potential trades.Formally. Understand them. Q. Although there are commonalities across negotiations. Prepare: Know what you want. for example there may be loops back to previous stages. each one is different and the greatest skill is to be able to read the situation in the moment and adapt as appropriate. a stressor is defined as an event or context that elevates adrenaline and triggers the stress response which results in . Intimidation and salami tactics may also play a part in swaying the outcome of negotiations. particularly towards the end. This process is intended to help you negotiate. The other negotiator acts as a good guy by being considerate and understanding. Sustain: Make sure what is agreed happens. The way in which we experience and react to stress is described as an emotional condition which triggers physical. Skilled negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from negotiation hypnosis. Expose theirs. asserting that these have become integral to modern day negotiation success. others may not necessarily experience as negatively. There are deliberately a larger number of stages in this process as it is designed to break down important activities during negotiation. Open: Put your case.responses to others' statements and actions. Signal: Indicate your readiness to work together. but do not use it blindly. Some add to this persuasion and influence.
g. These stressors may range from the posture we adapt. It can impact concentration and reduce the ability to perform complex tasks. as people in a noisy environment tend to become more irritable and less willing to help one another. It often results in conflicting feelings and a sense of an inappropriate reaction or response to a situation. ‡ Installing partitions or physical barriers to reduce or deaden sound.these are the stressors in the environments in which we operate and will range from parental pressure. It can also undermine teamwork. to household pressure. crime etc. overcrowding)‡ Daily stress events (e. ‡ Obvious stressors . intermittent or unpredictable noise can cause tension and headaches as well as raise people's blood pressure. For example underdeveloped emotional intelligence where self-awareness is not apparent. to role pressure. ‡ Hidden stressors .g. Examples of Stress Triggers ‡ Environmental stressors (elevated sound levels. lost keys) ‡ Life changes (e. Types of Environmental Stressors Noise Research has demonstrated that high levels of background noise can severely impair one¶s ability to concentrate. traffic. role strain.these we carry around inside of us. divorce.the body being thrown out of balance as it is forced to respond.there are also those situations which obviously do or are intended to bring about stress. lack of control) Stressors usually fall into one of four categories: ‡ Internal stressors .these are factors which cause stress but where the underlying cause is difficult to identify. They are self owned stressors. ‡ External stressors . For example a work deadline would be an imposed obvious stressor where as the death of a loved one would be un-imposed but an obvious one.g. to work pressure. over-illumination. traffic. bereavement) ‡ W orkplace stressors (e. Solutions to noise at work can involve: ‡ Arranging to work from a home office. to addictions and assessment of life/personal satisfaction or simply not getting enough sleep. It has been shown that excessive. .
A variety of factors can contribute to the problem of poor air quality. they also help to absorb pollutants in the air. Other sources of poor air quality include smoking. Solutions to poor air quality at work may involve: ‡ Opening windows. ionization by electrical equipment. light that is too bright or light that shines directly into one¶s eyes can cause eye strain and increase fatigue. Unfortunately. You will probably find that improving the quality of light will also improve the quality of your working environment. ‡ Banning smoking indoors. as well as impair one is ability to concentrate. using earplugs! Lighting Poor lighting. Daylight which measures 10. heating and air conditioning systems. overcrowding (too many people in a small space). solvents or other chemicals from carpets.000 lux (equivalent to a bright sunny day) is known to trigger a release of chemicals in the body that brings about a sense of psychological well-being. ‡ If all else fails.‡ Scheduling work tasks so that those requiring the most focus can be completed when the environment is more peaceful. ‡ Using dehumidifiers when humidity is a problem or humidifiers if it is too dry. including a high concentration of pollutants in the air. ‡ Trimming bushes that are in front of windows. Solutions to poor light conditions at work may include: ‡ Arranging work spaces to be near a window. ‡ W henever possible. In addition to lighting conditions. painting walls with lighter colours. most types of artificial light do not seem to have the same effect on mood. such as insufficient light. Most people are happiest in bright daylight. pollution. ‡ Using meeting rooms separate from the main source of noise. evaporation of water from plant pots or the plants themselves will help to raise humidity when the air is too dry. and excess humidity or dryness. furniture or paint. ‡ Installing brighter light bulbs in work areas or using full-spectrum bulbs in desk lamps. the quality of light is also important. checking into thepossibility of installing skylights. allowing natural light to shine through open doors and windows. . Poor AirQuality Research has shown that poor air quality at work can trigger headaches and tiredness. poor air circulation or inadequate ventilation. ‡ Introducing plants ± not only do plants raise the amount of oxygen in the air and reduce stuffiness.
rest your muscles and prevent muscle tension or soreness. Solutions to disorganization can involve: ‡ Contracting with janitorial services to ensure the workplace is kept clean. loss of interest in work or other activities ‡ Problems sleeping ‡ Fatigue. ‡ Developing systems for organizing product. .‡ Keeping yourself hydrated by drinking water. information. Stress and performance For the most part. Negative stress also seems to have a self-building facet where once stressed. mouse. messy. keyboard. ‡ Organizing work materials and accessories to improve efficiency and reduce the distance and frequency of reaches. Taking the time to arrange one¶s working environment is key to working comfortably and avoiding injury. Furniture and Ergonomics Poorly designed furniture. or the improper use of quality furniture. ‡ Implementing on. The distraction of working in an area that is disorganized. unmanaged and results in adverse symptoms and experiences. additional factors just keep contributing to the stress and increase the stress levels while decreasing performance and functioning. as often the ideal solution may not be immediately obvious. Some of the negative consequences include: ‡ Feeling anxious. Stress however is only negative when it is excessive. ‡ Storing or discarding unnecessary furniture.or off-site storage systems. breaks and exercises that allow you to vary your posture. Clutter and Disorganization Another source of environmental stress can be a work environment that is dirty. Prolonged ergonomic problems can produce serious injuries. equipment and office products. or uncomfortable. ‡ Organizing your workday to include tasks. The most common of these is backache. ‡ Trouble concentrating ‡ Muscle tension or headaches ‡ Stomach problems ‡ Social withdrawal ‡ Loss of sex drive ‡ Using alcohol or drugs to cope It is clear that with these symptoms the individual's performance at work. untidy and chaotic can make it more difficult to achieve your goals. ‡ Arranging computer work stations so that correct postures are used when working with the monitor. and documents. and equipment. or depressed ‡ Apathy. Solutions to ergonomic concerns at work may involve: ‡ Ensuring that office chairs are properly adjusted to reduce the risk of injury to the body. home and in social settings will be adversely affected. ‡ Consulting with a professional who can give you expert advice. generally contributes to a variety of aches and pains. people view stress as a negative factor. irritable.
while making an observational study at G l o b a l G r e e n c o n s u l t a n t s . People who are able to bestow rewards or perceived rewards hold power. Dutta . like anything else. Character or ethics. It is the use of knowledge and expertise that confers power. giving up all power can be very powerful. An organization dealing with recycling of plastic products waste etc. with their ability to give raises. Patnayak and Mr. knowledge in itself is not powerful.He is an aggressive person. Punishment. Money can have power. Those who have the ability to create a negative outcome for a counterpart have the power of punishment. 7. 3. 4. We have videotaped many negotiation case studies in which the turning point came when a woman casually touched a man’s hand or arm to make her point. Ritu observes that he frequently punishes the non-performers and also give them warnings regarding suspension etc. Rewards. hold power over employees. The more trustworthy individuals are. 2. If a kidnapper threatens a hostage with death enough times. Of course. Mr. She makes the following observation about two key people in the organization. Thus. This helps HR to decide about giving a bonus or promotion to employees. Managers who have the authority to reprimand and fire employees hold this type of power. Dealing with someone of the opposite sex can confer power. Powerlessness. In some instances. Dutta belongs to.5 Given below are certain instances observed by the summer trainee Ritu. For example. State troopers and highway patrol officers who have the ability to give out speeding tickets also have this power. He frequently loses his temper. But money. People who have knowledge or expertise can wield tremendous power. 2. Position.E x plain the type of power they use often ANS: Ten Types of Power 1. 1. However. Gender. holds very little power if it is not distributed. the marketing manager has little power to influence the decisions that affect the finance department. the hostage may just challenge the kidnapper to . a marketing manager can influence the decisions that affect the marketing department. Some measure of power is conferred on the basis of one’s formal position in an organization. 5. Supervisors. Now ex plain what base of power does Mr. Patnayak He is a very friendly person and encourages his team members by giving those recommendations and appreciations. the more power they have in negotiations.Q. Mr. The big issue here is whether they do what they say they are going to do²even when they no longer feel like doing it. you could be an incredibly bright person and still be powerless. Knowledge or expertise. 6.
dependency types will become inspired and strive to be acceptable with independent thinking coworkers. invariably the names of Mother Teresa. ‡ Associates influence the level of individual motivation. It is accepted because efficiency is created by repetitive action.go ahead and kill him. ‡ In a team-motivated environment. Kennedy.´ 9. the side with the least interest in what is being negotiated holds the most power. the kidnapper actually loses power. man¶s motivation is influenced by changing ambitions and/or leadership style he works under or socializes with. but bizarre or irrational behavior can confer a tremendous amount of power. Craziness. Reward motivated Materialism Recognition motivated Social status High level of supervision Command-and-control Peer motivated To be like others Status quo Dependency Resist change Low Authority motivated Follows policy Threat. They will find a way to escape if trapped. throughout a lifetime. If you are buying a house and you really do not care if you purchase the house you are currently negotiating for or the one down the street. ³What do all three of these leaders have in common?´ participants usually respond. and Ronald Reagan come up. Lack of interest or desire. as in many other areas of life. they do not want to learn another. you will most likely hold more power in the negotiation²unless. Once acquiring a skill. the sellers could care less if they sell the house today or live in it for another ten years! 10. Leadership style influence level of motivation. of course. Leadership Style versus Motivation Leadership Style Motivation Type Motivation is Based on: Personality Type Efficiency Limited supervision Worker with decision making responsibility Self motivated Creativity Leader of ideas or people. or control over his own death. Reaction to Change Command-andcontrol leadership is the primary style in our society. fear motivated Reacts to force ‡ Self-motivated or visionaries will not accept authority controlled environments. However. Charisma or personal power. Independent Achiever Thrives on change High Team motivated Mixed styles Goal motivated Opportunity Personality type and efficiency depends on leader's skill and/or the work environment he's created. The worker adapts to level three with an occasional trip to level two Worker responsibility is just the opposite. Those who have been exposed to this type of behavior tend to avoid such individuals. At the point that the hostage gives up power. teaching people to resist change. ³Passion and confidence in what they believe in. Command-and-control leadership drains off ambition while worker responsibility increases ambition. In negotiations. these individuals are not given many tasks to accomplish because others are afraid to ask them. When we ask. 8. When we ask participants in our seminars for examples of leaders who have had charisma or personal power. John F. This may sound funny. As a result. it motivates people to thrive on change by seeking . Every organization has someone who blows up or behaves irrationally when confronted with problems.
With today’s changing technology. are searching for ways to solve and prevent problems. The leading edge is exciting while the trailing edge is a drag. management and front line workers.Problems are always out of control. Command and Control Leadership . . The ability to adapt is achieved through selfdevelopment programs. management and workers unite to prevent or solve problems. Under worker responsibility. A downward spiral of management implementing more control and workers resisting control develop. Reaction to Efficiency The efficiency of advancing technology is forcing change. In level one. ambitions will be associated with maintaining the status quo. Managers focus on worker control. Supervisors are only concerned with elements that management thinks are important. Workers goal is to find ways to do little as possible. developing attitudes and learning a professional skill. If workers have conflicts with their supervisors. as a result. Reaction to Learning Habits In level two. motivation level will depend on the leadership style they work under. but they don’t have the authority to take action and have learned not to be concerned. This brings us to work habits. Playing catch-up drains motivation while leaders of change inspire motivation. Out of training and on the job. ambitions will be associated with opportunity. Getting the job done is down the list. creating a combative environment. management must find ways to solve all problems and find alternative methods. As a result. Abused Workers Lack of leadership skills and the desire for power creates elementary problems. finding ways to achieve goals. an individual must be willing to abandoned old skills and learn new ones. They will continually expand their skills as the need or as opportunity arises. Because level one thrives on change. young workers are establishing work habits. Dependency of Authority Elementary are dealt with by management when large enough to be recognized. It is up to the individual or business to decide which side of change they want to be on. together.challenges. management considers the opinions or concerns of people on the front line to be trivial. they establish another. Every goal is a learning process that requires all the elements in level one. Level one is the leader of changing technology. Getting the job done is the primary goal of management and workers. Decisions are made on the front line where alternative methods are analyzed. Front line employees may be aware conflicts. Under command-andcontrol leadership. In level three management makes all decision. management takes action only when problems become too big to ignore. Being able to prevent problems is a motivating force. Once they conquer one goal. finding ways to create efficiency. Team Motivated Elementary problems are prevented or solved at the source. they will find ways to increase the magnitude of problems. Under worker responsibility. they adapt to whatever methods gets things done with the least amount of effort. Reaction to Goals Self-motivated people are goal motivated. Under command-and-control leadership. the leading edge or trailing edge.
adds to the motivating force. they frequently call meetings of employees. layoffs. This environment is found in level one. Selfmotivated projects' is the ability to start and finish what one has started. This is why most people quit before they get a good start. People. fear and failure become a challenge by itself. team motivation is extremely powerful. In this environment. They have also formed groups at different levels to clarify doubts and ex plain the perspective of change. The CEO is a visionary in customer service and employee leadership. First requirement is interest. Q. a challenge is Presented and a goal set. Long-term benefits are achieved when the employee feels the job could not have been done without them.edition of the magazine. They develop skills and confidence. .6 Fashion4Now is a famous and old magazine. With a common goal. are the winners.Companies that attract and keep this type of person stay on the leading edge of technology. which is another barrier. The employees' goals are the same as the CEO’s. Answer: Typically. This means they were faced with a challenge. As a result. each member seeks to be a leader of quality input. W hen action is taken. they had the responsibility and authority to take action. who find ways to overcome barriers and hang in there.). The ability to finish challenging projects is the secret to being a winner. For this reason. Examples of organization-wide change might include a change in mission. etc. then he will lead in such a way that trains subordinates to lead by control. Analyze the situation in the context of organizational change and elaborate why the top management is following the discussed practices and what approach is most evident in the context.. restructuring to self-managed teams. the employees' goals are quitting time and payday. By itself. which means. modifying a program. As a result. Most people. They also decide the redefine the policies and culture of window to truth To start implementing. do not finish what they start. it builds positive self-esteem. others do care and team members are needed for achieving the goal. as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person. new technologies. Self-motivated projects are difficult because no one cares if they succeed.g. restructuring operations (e. The exchange of ideas. Reaction to Recognition Recognition is important. then asking questions which inspires' the learning process. The top management decides to start the e. which are required steps to larger projects. this change. If the CEO desires control. working alone. W ith information. its benefits are short lived. team members support each other until success is achieved. information and testing the results. risk. etc. the barriers of persistence. the concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change. Team Motivated Projects Everyone can be inspired to achievement in a team-motivated environment.
The levels of organizational change Perhaps the most difficult decision to make is at what "level" to start. After a mission has been defined and a SWOT (strengths." Level 4 . or 5) the only mandate they have is to refine what mission already exists. an organization can then define its measures. or 3) management doesn't know where else to start. reengineering focuses on making major structural changes to everyday with the goal of substantially improving productivity." Level 2 . Consider using a consultant. what it is "good" at. and what the future will be like." Some General Guidelines to Organization-Wide Change 1. Management generates alternate "scenarios" of the future. 4) management is too afraid to start at level 1 because of the changes needed to really meet future requirements. "Moving from the Future to your Strategy. Rather than focus on modest improvements. quality or customer satisfaction.Reengineering (Structurally Changing) Your Processes Either as an aftermath or consequence of level one or two work or as an independent action. goals. major collaborations.mergers. etc. "rightsizing". Often this term designates a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way the organization operates. Ensure the consultant is highly experienced in organizationwide change. new programs such as Total Quality Management. Measurement system etc. To read more about level 4 organizational changes and how it compares to level 3. More information on this is in the next article. organizations start out with few assumptions about the business itself. weaknesses. either assuming that 1) the future will be like the past or at least predictable. please see "A Tale of Three Villages. Unfortunately. opportunities and threats) analysis is completed. Level 1. "Moving from the Future to your Strategy.defining what business(es) to be in and their "Core Competencies Many attempts at strategic planning start at this level. Some experts refer to organizational transformation. etc. and then under what circumstances a business should use them. defines opportunities based on these possible futures. level three work focuses on fundamentally changing how work is accomplished. strategies. Ask to see references and check the references. . 2) the future is embodied in the CEO's "vision for the future". efficiency. To read more about level 3 organizational changes. often with considerable effect. More information on this is in the next article.Incrementally Changing your Processes Level 4 organizational changes are focusing in making many small changes to existing work processes. There are four levels of organizational change: First let's describe these levels. making improvements on how a buggy whip for horse-drawn carriages is made will rarely come up with the idea that buggy whips are no longer necessary because cars have been invented.shaping and anticipating the future At this level. assesses its strengths and weaknesses in these scenarios changes its mission. re-engineering. Oftentimes organizations put in considerable effort into getting every employee focused on making these small changes. please see "A Tale of Three Villages." Level 3 .
Plan the change. including new forms and structures. understand it and manage it. Include closure in the plan. but rather to expect it. 13. 11. Get as much feedback as practical from employees. Organization-wide change can be highly stressful. Read some resources about organizational change. 8. This includes granting them the authority and responsibility to get the job done. As much as possible. Communicate what you're doing about it. work with a team of employees to manage the change. How do you plan to reach the goals.2. 7. 14. Communicate what was done and how it worked out. including what they think are the problems and what should be done to resolve them. Job descriptions are often complained about. 10. If possible. what will you need to reach the goals. . Have someone in charge of the plan. W idely communicate the potential need for change. Don't seek to control change. and they should know who that person is. End up having every employee ultimately reporting to one person. Delegate decisions to employees as much as possible. Take care of yourself first. Don't get wrapped up in doing change for the sake of change. Keep focused on meeting the needs of your customer or clients. The process won't be an "aha!" It will take longer than you think. not on each part by itself. how long might it take and how will you know when you've reached your goals or not? Focus on the coordination of the departments/programs in your organization. Know why you're making the change. 12. 4. 3. Acknowledge and celebrate your accomplishments. if possible. What goal(s) do you hope to accomplish? 6. 9. Keep perspective. but they are useful in specifying who reports to whom. let them decide how to do the project.
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