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THE DOCTOR. .

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LITERATURE.R. .H. EDITED BY WILLIAM ANDREWS.S. HAMILTON. ETC. Author of "Bygone England. KENT. etc.. & CO." HULL: WILLIAM ANDREWS & CO. FOLK-LORE. LONDON SIMPKIN. MARSHALL. LTD.THE DOCTOR IN HISTORY." "Old Church Lore. F... THE HULL PRESS. 1896.

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literature. of the medical pro- If the same welcome be given 1 to this work as was accorded to those have previously produced. . William Andrews. Hull. The Hull Press. etc. 11th. N I the folio wingf pages I have attempted to bring together from the pens of several authors the who have written expressly for this book. fession.. my labours will not have been in vain. November 1895. phases of the history.Biomedisil wz 330 Ipreface. more interesting folk-lore.

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Robinson. ^HYSiciANS AND eminiscences. . 90 Literary Doctors.R. a. By Tom - AND Medicine. :er's By Cuming Walters - - 42 70 76 Doctor of Physic.s ' By W.s. By . - Meat and Drink.s 8 NO Patients ING 22 f. H.h. By William Andrews. By John THEIR Nicholson Fees.e Penny J. .r. - f. . A. By Thomas Frost Old Doctors. m. By Thomas - - 140 Strange Story of the Fight with the Small-Pox. " in By Cuming Walters - - 102 Doctor Time of Pestilence. - xon.L. :iNG By William Andrews. : By with some Personal Andrew James Symington. 3uR Fathers were Physicked. Langford. - - 167 181 - - - - - 192 >. f.n. By William Frost - E. By Mrs. 209 A.(Tontcnte. Wall By Thomas Frost - - - - Doctors. y Thomas Frost - 153 By Thomas Frost siscENCEs OF THE Cholera.r.d. . G. )octors Ns' .al 216 234 Folk-Lore. By William Andrews. . H. 125 iebanks and Medicine. Thompson Shakespeare Knew. By A.d.s. f. 24 32 ioLD-HEADED Cane.r. - - 1 FOR THE King's Evil.h. Linnc-yus Banks ERS AND Body-Snatchers.s.h. 252 285 . ll.r.r-Surgeoxs.s. F.

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Book Prophet Ezekiel allusions to the Jewish custom of the barber shaving the head as a sign of mourning. 36arber:*Surgeon6. We (v. or to state his position more precisely.r. . bygone times. LITERATURE. f. the barber acted as a kind of surgeon. In the remote past the art of surgery and the trade of barber were combined. AND FOLK-LORE.THE DOCTOR IN HISTORY.h. THE calling of the find 1) barber in the is of great of the antiquity. By William Andrews. and practised surgery and medicine.s. whom they assisted in surgical to about the twelfth The clergy up century had the care of men's bodies as well as of their souls. in all It is clear that in parts of the civilized world. he practised phlebotomy. Barbers appear to have gained their experience from the monks operations.

It wa customary to put blood in their windows t attract the attention of the public. and a instance it was formed. but they were per mitted to dispense medicine. ii other places. and they were not slow to avai themselves of the opportunities the chang In London. the barbers advertised their blood letting in a most objectionable manner.2 THE DOCTOR. TJie operations of surgery involved the sheddin of blood. obits of They attended the deceased members and it funerals their ai wiv( Eventually was transformed into a semi-soci . and we presume afforded them. After muct consideration and discussion. An ordinano Thames und( tl was passed in 1307.. and it was felt that this was incompatible with the functions of the clergy. directing the barbers to ha\ the blood " privily carried into the pain of paying two shillings to the use of Sheriffs. In tl seems that the chief object w." At first an early period in London the barbers we" gild banded together. the bringing together of the members at rehgio" observances. in 1163 the counci of Tours. The edict of Tours must have given satisfactioi to the barbers. forbade tb clergy to act as surgeons. under Pope Alexander III.

oak boards. being It seems to high by long." It the painting of Holbein. "on 10ft. preserved. The painting seen at still and may be the Barber- Surgeons' Hall. are told. wood engraving calls Pepys this "not a is though a good and last picture. the increased in London Company first Barbers importance. Li the year of the reign of Edward IV. was sworn the Guildhall. Monk well Street. In the in- Leisure Hour for September 1895. the first master at the Barbers' Company. are some it. London. gild. teresting details respecting that are well worth reproducing." 5ft. (1462) the barbers were incorporated by a royal charter. Holbein painted picture of Henry VIII. London. vertical 2in. and religious trade gild. and it was confirmed by succeeding monarchs. Richard of le Barber. ''It is painted. we llin. have been be^un about . is and the Barber-Surgeons. We of the give a carefully executed celebrated pleasant largest picture. As of time progressed.BARBER-SURGEONS. A change of title occurred in 1540. 3 and subsequently became a In 1308. and it was then named the Company a of Barber-Surgeons.

for instance. holding erect his sword of state. figure to is the king's right. is The outermost figure to the left. dinous appointments. was not always in the background. 1541. and about him are the leading members portraits of the fraternity. king's physician. to The names over the heads appear in have been added Charles I.'s time. "The men whose The first appear in the picture. site and the thus indicating Bridewell as the of ceremony. its place. for the old engraving in the College of Surg^eons has a window in St. and finished after Holbein's death in 1543. John Chambre.4 THE DOCTOR." says the Leisure Hour. the back row of heads are post-Holbeinic." is The king represented wearing his robes. and it is significant that only two portraits in the back is row are so distinguished. and it has evidently been altered since its first delivery. Fellow and Warden hind him ' of Merton. too. and seated on a chair of state. and. both clerical and is Be- the Doctor Butts of Shakespeare's Henry VIIL' — the Sir William Butts who was the king's and Princess Mary's physician. with his hands in his gown. omitted. ''are not nonentities. and happy in his multitulay. according to some all critics. The tablet. showing the old tower of Bride's. and . Dr.

Disputes were frequent. In the back row the only names given are those of Christopher Salmond and William In the reign of follows Tilley. serjeant-surgeon to and author of Man. Behind Butts Alsop. and Richard Ferris (also serjeant-surgeon to the king). The barbers acted often and the suro-eons increased their income by the use of the razor and shears. but they all could not be. Then come in the undernamed : Nicholas Simpson.' ^ the king. of the Bodie of Next to Sir John Aylefi". At ." was in force: — "No Henry VIII. enforced. surgeon The Anatomie him is mew's Hospital. an exceptionally good portrait. whose wife portrait is 5 Iviiowii by Holbein's is splendid of her.BARBER-SURGEOKS. an enactment as person using any shaving or barbery in London shall occupy any surgery. man silver (one of the witnesses to the king's James Monforde (who gave the company the hammer still used by the Master in fine presiding at the courts). except of drawing teeth. portrait). John Pen (another Nicholas Alcocke. letting of blood. the king's apothecary. figure is To the king's left the first to Bartholo- Thomas Vicary. or at events were not." Laws were made. Edmund Harwill). as suro^eons. or other matter.

and white. We know that in the days of old bleeding was a frequent occurrence. was likewise to have a gully-pot and a red rag. in his " J. period vigorous this attempts were made to confine each to their legitimate work. but Much has been written on we believe that the following are the facts of the matter. to denote the particular nature of their vocations. 1797. The barber's pole." The Rev. with no appendage but the surgeons'. Saywell has a note on bleeding " (1885): — "Towards History and Annals of Northallerton the early jjart of this . July 17th. it is said. arm The when not was hung at the door as a In course of time a painted pole was displayed instead of that used in the operation. to have other blue . L. owes its origin to the barber-surgeons. for tying the in use. still in barbers and surgeons were each to use a sign]. "by a statute. or pole which the barber-surgeon kept it ready for use. and round was bound a supply of of the patient.6 THE DOCTOR. stick. stated. this topic. and during the operation the patient used to grasp a stafi. pole [as a theirs The barbers were striped. force. bandages pole. Lord Thurlow addressing the House of Lords. sign. which was to be the same in other respects.

" the operation was one shilling. repaired to a surgeon to be bled. arms and serving on and thus be enabled without hindrance to attend to their professional duties. The charge for Parliament was petitioned. Timbs. the year nearly all the robust male adults. the London. for The barber-surgeons last in lino-ered a longf time. . Mr. that surgeons in 1542. The request was granted. the he of Great Suffolk Street." 7 observes Mr. "a singular custom prevailed in the town and neighbourhood In the spring of of Northallerton (Yorkshire). vivid left on record that Middleditch's had a recollection of dentistry.BARBER-SURGEONS. John popular writer. named Middleditch. and occasionally females. Saywell. a process which they considered essentially conduced to vigorous health. praying might be exempt from bearing juries. In 1745. and to the present time medical men enjoy the privileges wanted by so \or\cr ag-o. century. in the Borough. the surgeons and the barbers separated Act of Parliament. only dying in 1821.

r. THE as practice of touching for the cure of scrofula king's evil — a disease more generally known a long period —prevailed for in England. and also to have the gift of healing infirmities evil. William of Malmesbury compiled "Chronicle of the Kings of England. Edward the Confessor who reigned to this from 1042 in 1066. the kino's of this realm. as it called the king's and that were.s.h. About his in a century after the death of Edward the Confessor. was inspired with the gift of prophecy.IToucbtno for tbe Ikiiio't? Evil. '' Edward the Conthought." The first . and disease left commonly virtue. appears to be the first monarch singular country who employed this mode of treatment. a portion of inheritance to his successors. writing the king." " he As in it has been of says Holinshed. f. By William Andrews. Holinshed has placed on record some interesting details respecting fessor." and this work is the earliest allusion to the subject.

an allusion to this singular superstition in Macheth. since work in this good King my : here-remain in England. published 9 of the ''Chronicle" it was in 1577. To the succeeding royalty he The healing benediction. which it will be interesting to reproduce. and from Shakespeare drew There much is material for his historical dramas. in Malcolm and Macduff are England. virtue. A most miraculous Which often. What's the disease he means 1 'Tis called the evil Malcolm." throne . leaves With this strange He hath a heavenly gift of prophecy. Doctor. 'tis Hanging a golden stamp about Put on with holy prayers : and spoken.TOUCHING FOn THE KING'S edition EVIL. I've seen him and do. The mere despair he cures. "in a room in the King's palace " (the palace of King- Edward the Confessor) :— forth I pray you? " Malcolm. sir ! There are a crew of wretched souls his cure : That stay their . malady convinces The great assay of art but at his touch his Such sanctity hath heaven given hand They presently amend. Doctor. their necks. Malcolm. Himself best knows All swoln but strangely visited people ulcerous. Comes the King xVye. I thank you. of surgery. Macduff. How he solicits heaven. pitiful to the eye. And sundry blessings hang about his That speak him full of grace.

lived in the reigns Edward III. Lord Bench. Bradwardine. and they recommended the sufferers to seek cure by royal touch. emulated the Confessor.. Lancaster. which he gave instructions for the disease. the did not practise the first of the Plantagenet line. and learn Kichard II.. in which it is clearly stated that the king performed Gaddesden. and from his statements we that both kings kept up the observance. Henry from a " IV. It is generally believed that the rite." by of Sir John Fortesque." preserved This pamphlet is among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum. .10 THE DOCTOR. treatise in certain in cures by touch. We know this fact from a record made by Peter of Blois.. John of wrote a the days of Edward II. History does not furnish any facts respecting touching by the four kings of the House of Normandy. Norman monarchs Henry II. touched for the This we learn of Defence written to the title House of Lancaster. Archbishop of Canterof bury.. for several if modes of treatment failed. Chief Justice the Court of King's " He speaks of the practice as belonging to the kings of England from time immemorial. the royal chaplain. the first king of the House of evil.

Henry piece. William Clowes.600. '' is a repugnant to is nature. above man's will. May God cure thee Coming back to the history of our own country. I.TOUCHING FOR THE KING'S The earliest EVIL. VII. when at the Court of Francis in 1527. ("The King !") touches thee. was the to give a small gold known as a touch-piece.. XIV. act. under .. Henry VIII. Cardinal Wolsey. On words: Easter Sunday. 1686. of we find that in the reign Queen Elizabeth. to those undergoing the ceremony. even by Divine inspiration and wonderful work and power of God.. During the reign of the next monarch. and expectation. the Court " Surgeon. was at this period largely practised in France. disease The king's queen's evil. and deahng with the more interesting passages bearing on this theme. to little attention appears to have been given It the subject." In this reign. Louis touched 1. believed firmly in the efficacy of the royal touch. witnessed the king touch two hundred people. of 11 king of the first House Tudor." he says. te is recorded to have '^ He Dieu used these cjueisseJ' Le Roy te touche. which grievous malady known to be miraculously cured and healed by the sacred hands of the Queen's most Royal Majesty.

the to Duke of Monmouth. so silver rite of was substituted. During the rising in the West of England. nive Donum Sanatio'idH. was. and chiefly relate to the times the afflicted might attend the In course of court to receive the royal touch. published during the reign are preserved at the State Paper Office. touched several per- sons for the time. One had '' of the charges made high against him on his trial at Edinburgh for treason. and he was unable to present gold touch-pieces.'" a book was published by William Fookes bearing and conditions of people from various testimony to the cures effected by royal touch on all sorts parts of the country.12 THE DOCTOR. that he touched children of the King's Evil. said a be the rightful heir to the throne. and many received the touch only. During the Commonwealth we have not any trace of Cromwell touching for the malady. particular attention to the No fewer than eleven proclamations of Charles I. title the of " Charisma. time the king's pecuniary means became limited. with evil. . having witnessed the ceremony at Taunton. The Stuarts paid practice. newspaper of the success." Two witnesses proved the charge. who claimed and.

1660." This he said to every one particular. the chirurgeons cause the sick to be brought or led up to the throne. while the repeats ' first chaplaine That is ye true light which came into ye . "began first to touch for ye evil.TOUCHING FOR THE KING'S EVIL. at which instant a chaplaine in his fermalities says : — ' He put his hands upon them and healed in them. The ceremony was often performed w^itn esses on a Sunday.. Evelyn and Pepys were of these proceedings. according to : custome thus Sitting under his state in the Banqueting House. When they have been in the all . first year of the reign of Charles six thousand seven hundred and twenty-five persons were brought to His Majesty to be healed. they come up again same order and the other chaplaine kneel- ing. Under date of 6th July." writes Evelyn. and in their Diaries have recorded interesting particulars. who puts them about the necks of the touched as they passe. During the II. totched. ye king strokes their faces and cheeks with both his hands at once. 13 No sooner had another Stuart obtained the per- Enghsh crown than the ceremony was again formed. "His Majesty. where. and having an angel of gold strung on white ribbon on his arme. they kneeling. delivers them one by one to His Majestic.

the first time I ever which he did with great gravity. Charles II. prayers for the sick. and refers to '' his Diary. and seemed to me is to be an ugly office and a simple one." he writes. 1661. In the year 1682 he performed the thousand five rite eight hundred times. and there saw the saw him do it it." In Evelyn's Diary on March 28th. No person was allowed to enter the King's presence for the purpose of receiving the rite without first obtaining a certificate from the minister of his parish from whence he came. so great a concourse of people with their children to be touched for the evil. Then follows an epistle (as world.' at first a gospel) with the liturgy. and then the Lord Chamberlain and the Comptroller of the Household bring ewer. '' ''There was. 1684. for his Majesty to wash. King heal. there a record of a serious accident. Went to the Banquet House. during his reign touched nearly a hundred thousand persons." Samuel Pepys witnessed the it ceremony on in April 13th.14 THE DOCTOR." According to Macaulay. and towel. that six or seven were crushed to death by pressing at the chirurgeon's door for tickets. with some alteration. a basin. nor .

Surrey.TOUCHING FOR THE KING'S unless EVIL. "Certificates called the kings Evill. for the Evill headed thus. the daughter of Richard Massey. 1683. Pd.." Old parish accounts often contain entries ." Sarah Massey. 15 he had not previously II. had a certificate from the minister and churchwardens of " Bisley. for in the county of was touch certified order to obtayne for her cure. daughter in of John his Dickens. Majesty's 14th. 1683. A proclamation of Charles dated January 9th. had a certificate from the minister and churchwardens of Bisley. 1st April 1688. the following item "1683 00. ^. We cull from the churchwardens' accounts of : Terling. Minister. Thomas Collier. Henry Pater. ordered a register of the certificates to be made." : com- monly Two entries occur as follow " Elizabeth ColHer and Thomas Collier the children of Senior. August 7th 1686." Deer. John Birch.00. Here is a record drawn from the Old : Town's Book of Birmingham "March and Anne Warwick. for his Majestie's order for touching A page in the register book is of Bisley. of Elizabeth. Henry Grove. __ _.jrchwardens. Birmingham. Essex." ] Chui J I. been touched..06. .

shire : "1641. York- similar to the following. and that it was in administering Poor Law Relief that the grants were made. 1894. show that general belief the touching by the in the virtue of at the King was unshaken It end of the seventeenth century. is 74b. In Vol. occurs the following: . fo." " The following extracts.16 . 38 of the Corporation Records. 156b). following " : the Ordered that Elizabeth Trevis haue x*^ given her for to be touched charges in carrying her daughter to for the Evill. for the disease is called Euill which - her - soone Thorn visited withall 0. ''from the city of Minute Books of the Corporation of the York. from Ecclesfield. on March 12th. must be borne in mind that these Minutes do not record the acts of individuals. 1678 (fo. under the date of February 28th. 6. 1671." London A few years later. but were those of the Corporation of what was at that time one of the most important cities in the country. 8. Given to John Parkin wife towards her trauell to London to get cure of his Matie." says a contributor to The Reliquary of January. THE DOCTOR.

when James persons was at '^ Chester. about £10. touched eight in hundred persons Chester. daughter of Abel Mope . ten was granted for carrying of Judith Gibbons & her Child & one Dorothy Browne to London to be touched by his Majestie in order to be healed of the Kingfs Evil. this matter. of the Corporation of Preston.TOUCHING FOR THE KING'S " EVIL. and the amount w^ould have been much greater but for the vigilance of . undermentioned in : each of them towards their charge going to Chester to get his Majesty's touch —Anne. daughter Richard Letmore. to contain at least two references In the year 1682 the '' bailiffs were instructed to layer. in order to the procuring of His Majesty's touch. pay unto James Harrison. the council Bailiff' passed a vote that the pay unto the 5s. 249b). '^ 1687 (fo. 17 Anne Thornton to haue x^ for goeing to London to be touched for the euill. the choir of the Cathedral of The ceremony cost." The Kecords Lancashire." It is recorded that James II.000 a year." II." And shillings again on March 3. brick- towards carrying his son to London. we learn from Macaulay. Five years later. 10s.

then a child. Johnson. in went up to London with his mother the the stage coach that he might have the royal touch. "yieldiDg to the superstitious notion which. creatures "Give the poor some money. and those who came for William III. Dr. the royal whose business it was to examine the appUcants. 1712. it is wonderful to think. appeared an official to touch announcement that the queen intended for the evil. prevailed so long in this country as to the virtue of regal touch (a notion to which a man of such inquiry . "and more the sense. declined to have anything to do with a ceremony he regarded as an imposture. three benefit of He was then '' between two and years of age. rite. surgeons. hand on a God give you better health. for tiie cure." " On one occasion only was he induced to lay his sufferer." he said. His mother. when he heard that at the close of Lent his palace was besieged by a crowd of sick." The next and she Gazette of to wear the crown was Queen Anne. revived In the London March 12th. and send them away." writes Boswell. In Lent of that year. and to distinguish those who came the gold." he said.18 THE DOCTOR. "It is a silly superstition.

could give credit). where he Mrs. After the death of Queen Anne. indeed. Johnson to his death. 19 and such judgment as Carte. Johnson. Being ' asked had. the scene as it remained upon his fancy. then a physician in Lichfield. and Mrs. (GOLD). carried him to London. acted by the advice of the celebrated Sir Floyer. Piozzi has preserved his ver}^ picturesque description of TOUCH-PIECE OF CHARLES II. ' He he a confused but somehow a in sort of solemn recollection of a lady long black hood." diamonds and a however. was without any The malady remained with Dr.' if he could remember Queen A_nne. although the service remained in the " Book of Common Prayer " as late as 1719. . was actually touched by Queen Anne. Hector informed me. John Johnson used to talk of this very frankly. the historian. no other English sovereign kept up the custom.' effect. This touch.TOUCHING FOR THE KING'S EVIL. as Mr. said.

at Holyrood House. probably presented in the form of alms. It was of about six shilHngs and eight pence in value. and was a current coin of the period. Henry VII. On one side of the coin was a figure of the angel Michael overcoming the dragon." and it will not be without interest to direct attention to some of the more notable of examples. and on the other a ship on the waves. gave a small gold coin known as the angel noble. (silver). TOUCH-PIECES OF JAMES 11. A small and it sum money was given by it Edward I. The latest instance we have found in of the ceremony being performed was October.20 THE DOCTOR. II. touched a In the preceding pages we have referred to '' touch pieces. During the residence of Charles on the continent. and the smallest gold coin issued.. has been sus^o^ested that was (gold). Edward. 1745. those who visited him to . when Charles child.

with other specimens. Johnson in the British may. TOUCn-PIECE OF ANNE (GOLD). 187-211. " touch-pieces were made expressly for presentation at the healings. one of gold and the other of but they were not half the size of silver.TOUCHING FOR THE KING'S receive the royal rite EVIL. but they were not equal given. II. They were small gold medals resembhng angels. p. x. . in in value to the angels previously a However they met James want when gold was had two kinds of OTeat demand. In a carefully-compiled article in the Archceo- loglccd Journal. be seen Museum. Queen Anne gave James II. a touch-piece larger than that of The touch- piece presented by this Queen to Dr. those given by Charles a little II. 21 had to give him " gold. will be found some interesting particulars of touch-pieces. vol.. and to it we are indebted for the few details we have given bearing on this part of our subject. but after the Restoration. touch pieces.

thus attended." The was popular. In the days of Queen Anne. and we visits in a meet with the physicians making their carriage and pair. Lex "For there must now be a little coach and two horses. It seems that increased fees were expected with the introduction of the carriage. a doctor would even drive half-a-dozen horses attached to his . sitting sideways on foot-clothes. and physicians vied with in each other making the greatest display. and popped into their pocket. half-a-piece " and. He must have cut an undignified figure as he rode through the streets of London and our chief towns. before the ^ reign of Charles II. on horseback." says the author. being is their usual fee left but ill taken. in A curious note appears on this subject Talionis. and possibly may cause the patient to send for his worship twice before he will come again in the carriage hazard of another angel.IDisitinQ f patiente. A change came after the Restoration.. ^HE doctor made his daily rounds.

VISITING PATIENTS. It is now driven days of for use and not for display as in the Queen Anne. rule. and we predict the time not far when it will be more generally ridden by members of the medical profession. . chariot. 23 and not fewer than four was the general In our own time the doctor's carriage and pair is to be seen in all directions. We distant have seen the bicycle used by doctors of is good standing.

" tasted. Doctors usually the office. etc. Next a chief officer of the household is sees that every article on the table free from poison. Let us imagine ourselves in an old English home.r.Hesa^ing fIDcat an& 2)rinh. assayers of food. By William Andrews. and by their unremitting attention crime to their duties was to a great extent prevented. king to the days of James the chief fear. filled appointed. As a precaution against murder. is and. f. FROM the time of our down earliest Norman I. salt is also tested.h.. in the presence of the "taker of assay.. people of the land partook of their food in Treachery was a not infrequent occurrence. In a royal household the physician acted as assayer. The bread about and the to be consumed is cut. . the palace of a king. The cloth is laid by sub- ordinate servants. but not without considerable ceremony. and poison was much used were as a means of taking life. drink.s. The knives. or the stronghold of a leading nobleman.

tests and the loyalty of the steward and cook by compelling them to partake of small quantities of the food prepared before it is taken to the table. the assayer proceeds to the kitchen. each dish was covered. and the contents tasted small pieces of the more substantial viands were tasted. . The crusts of closed pies were raised. been completed. spoons. 25 and table linen are kissed by a responsible person. and then chief servant removes the covering of the table. The time of bringing up the meats having arrived.ASSAYING MEAT AND DRINK. and not a single article of food was suffered to leave the kitchen After the ceremony had without being assayed. so that assurance might be given that they were free from poison. covered with a lid. Then the is salt dish is in a and the bread wrapped is napkin. risk they ran the of a severe floo-oino- and sometimes even death at the hands of a hano'man. If any person attempted or the covered salt to touch the covered bread after the spreading of the coverlet. Pieces of bread were cut and dipped into every mess. The coverlet remains until the head of the household comes to take his his repast. no matter . and were afterwards eaten by cook and steward. and afterwards the whole table covered with a fair white cloth.

and took up much time. it customary to assign to him an assayer. The bearers on no account were permitted to linger on the way. In the stately homes of old England. a marshal with office wand of preceding the procession. We produce from the Rev. and these were taken by servitors to the banqueting hall. as a mark was of respect to the distinguished visitor. . On no pretext were the covers to be removed until the proper time. bearing his staff of office. far better to suffer that than be suspected of tampering with the food. Charles Bullock's interesting volume entitled '^ How they Lived in the Olden Time. and by the servants appointed for that purpose. If very hot. music little unpleasant as possible was usually performed. It will be observed that the steward. This entailed con- siderable ceremony. which was to be kept out of sight.26 if THE DOCTOR. render the delay as to the guests. heads the procession. hot or cold. the bearers might perhaps protect their hands with bread. it Each dish as was brought to the table was again tasted in the presence of the personage who To purposed partaking of it. no matter if their hands were burnt they must bear the pain." a picture of bringing in the dinner.

forming the pertaining to . that Sir Piers Exton intended poisoning the King. . the to King "sat dowaie dyner. an omission of the at official. edition 1548. History furnishes a 27 notable instance of II. When Richard was Pontefract Castle. forbade the ^' esquire whiche accustumed to serve and take the BKJNGING IN THE DINNER. to again use that manner of service. assaye beefore Kyng Picharde." of the esquire why he duties He replied that Sir Piers had forbidden him perhis position. folio 14.ASSAYING .MEAT AND DRINK. we gather from HalVs to use Chronicle." According to Hall. the chronicler's w^as words. and was served withoute curtesie or assaye at the sodayne he much mervaylyng mutacion of the thynge. and. demanded did not do his duty.

which were translated Walpole. and exclaimed. as the others had done. they both retired. and along her a married one. visited England and wrote a graphic account of his travels in the country. of upon the head the assayer. . and a table-cloth. a German tutor. ''The devil take Henry of Lancaster and thee together.28 THE DOCTOR. one with the rod again." Paul Hentzner. At last came was an a unmarried (we were with told she Countess). salt-cellar and the other with a bread : and a plate of when they had kneeled. iiiiniediately The King struck picked up a carving-knife. it so entertaining and informing that well is merits stated." it entered the room bearing a rod. he spread upon the table. etc. reproduction. they.. Then came two others. along with him another who had which. for Queen Elizabeth notice is at Greenwich Palace. and placed what was brought upon the with the same ceremonies table. but is The rather long. and after kneeling again. into English by Horace The work contains a curious account of the ceremonies of laying the cloth. in 1598. after they had both kneeled three times. too. retired performed by lady the first. '' ''A gentleman. with the utmost veneration.

29 the former was dressed she prostrated herself graceful white silk. approached the table. much care as if the Queen when they had waited there of the time. table.ASSAYING MEAT AND DRINK. bringing course of twenty-four in at each turn a in dishes. where. with a golden rose upon their backs. lifted the meat off the table and conveyed it into the Queen's inner and more private chamber. after she had chosen for herself. who when in three times the most manner. served plate. and rubbed the plates with bread and salt with as had been present a little . the rest goes to the ladies of the Court. can be selected found being carefully for this service.for half-an-hour too^ether. bearing a tasting-knife in . who." . clothed in scarlet. these dishes were received by a gentleman in the same order they were brought. twelve trumpets and two kettle-drums hall rino. the Yeomen Guard entered bareheaded. with particular solemnity. which that and stoutest men England. while the lady-taster eat. a number of unmarried ladies appeared. were bringing dinner. most of it gilt . made the the end At of the ceremonial. for and placed upon the gave to each guard a mouthful to poison. consists fear of During the time that of the tallest in all this guard.

and drank it under the eye of ASSAYINO^WINE. of an assayer tasting wine. and poured into the inverted cover a of the wine. When little he arrived at the he removed the lid of the cup. his master.30 THE DOCTOR. hall. it is related on reliable to a chain of a charm was attached . authority. We give an illustration. The middle of the twelfth century is most probably the period represented. hall. once in the buttery and again in the The butler drank of the wine in the buttery. reproduced from an ancient manuscript. In the ancient assay cup. Drink as well as food had to be assayed twice. and then handed it to the cup-bearer in a covered vessel.

usually regarded as the horn of the unicorn.ASSAYING MEAT AND DRINK. Edward IV. to use the words of an old writer." cuppe ys a grete pece of a The water used for washing the hands of the great had to be tasted by the it yeoman who placed was on the table. contained in the This ceremony had to be performed in the presence of an assayer. . and. ornamented with pearls and a great sapphire. to prove that no poison fluid. or 31 embedded in the bottom of the carbuncle vessel. presented to the ambassadors of Charles of Burgundy a costly assay cup of gold. ''in the myddes of the Vnicornes home. This was generally a valuable or a piece of tusk of a narwhal. and which was believed to have the power of neutralising or even detect- ing the presence of poison. gold.

such was also used to carry as seeds." Aeschylus tells us. relics to the pilgrim's which was four and hollow at the top to carry away It from the Holy Land. or silk-worms' eggs. or Greeks forbade to be exported. the chib field pohce constable. is the baton marshal. contraband goods. An enormous amount of interest centres around the walking stick. m. Some people smuggle diamonds into the United States in that way. Prometheus' he conveyed reed. fire or " marthex. T mace staff.d. In history we may go back feet long. in w4iich as to wretched mortals. is a well-known fable. The but a stick of oflftce. being ornamental and merely symbolical. HE stick takes of many of a forms. It is Turks. and there are few families in which we do not find an old stick handed down . It of a is the sceptre kings. which the Chinese. occasionally used for eluding the customs now.By Tom Robinson.

33 Such an inheritance was at one time a common possession of those who belonged to the medical profession. of Physicians possesses at the present time the gold cane which Radcliife. Pitcairn. clear that the last I think. and it will be seen that it has not a gold knob. and which Mrs. rosemary and camphor. generation after generation. even to the bed-side. Mead. KADCLIFFES CANE. was due entirely to the fact that the handle of the cane could be. but consists of an enIt is. and was. quite custom which the doctors of the in century always followed carrying their stick about with them. The College Askew. a representation of this cane.THE GOLD-HEADED CANE. graved handle or crook. and Baillie successively carried about with them. Baillie presented to that learned body. such as filled with strong smelling disinfectants. . The drawing here given is DR.

smooth and varnished. superstitious times who in worked upon the ignorance of conjuror the credulous. The stick of the physician's cane was probably a relic of the legerdemain of the healer.34 THE DOCTOR. This stick was as long as a footman's. Before Howard exposed the deadly sanitary it state of the prisons of this country. and we know quite a number of dividuals who carry about with them bags of camphor during the prevalence of an epidemic. to destroy any poison in the air which might be floating about chiefly to prevent but him smelling unpleasant odours. so powerful was the noxious effluvium filthy which exhaled from their bodies. A and belief in the protective power of camphor herbs is still other pleasant-smelling in in- existence. because there is These baubles a strong conservative instinct in the race w^hich clings with tremendous . The modern always uses a w^and in his entertainment. One. The bouquet which the chaplain always carried when accompanying a prisoner to Tyburn. die hard. this The doctor held for against his nose obviously two reasons. was used for the same defensive purpose. w^as the custom to sprinkle aromatic herbs before the prisoners.

THE GOLD-HEADED CANE. entertained at his house at well. 35 tenacity to anything which has the sanction of antiquity. striped blue and white. and a heroic bleeder. including Boswell and Dr. The white stripe represented the bandage used to bind up the wound on the arm. Grove Camberof his many of the most distinguished men time." The wig also constituted an essential part of the dress of the older physicians. and who Hill. It was a three . practice of The the bleeders continued in fashion in England until the beginning of this century. — if they choose to to What's that me —I lets 'em. was bold in his treatment of disease. and symbolical of the blue venous blood. emblems of the phlebotomist. and of the Philosophical Society who was President of London. and sweats 'em die. I physics. who possessed high literary attainments. John Coutsley Lettsom. The and is barber's pole is still seen even in London. Johnson. which was so ungrudgingly given by the from almost all sufferers maladies. " He used to say of himself : When Then patients sick to me apply. and enlightened whose writings shew he was an physician. bleeds.

36 THE DOCTOR. dress interesting to contrast the and mode of practice built is of the modern physician with those calling of medicine. so have all the adventitious and unnecessary surroundings of dress disappeared. clothes well trimmed. and of all its humbler followers to "go about doing difficulties are good. velvet coat with stiff skirts. and this tailed one. Slowly but surely as the true nature and progress of disease has become known. The enormous. this was but running through is whole history of medicine a magnificent desire on the part of those who have made a mark. and vital chemistry. as was the custom." colossal. and now we All the may meet in the the most eminent of our doctors. the labour is but there could be no convictions were Credulity is there no perplexities. who It up the honourable so easy to laugh at those who practised the art of medicine before modern scientific investigation had laid naked so many of the secrets of physiology. inevitable. pathology. clad same garments as a man on Change. and when they rode in their gilt carriages with two running footmen. the disease of . large cuffs and buckled shoes. made quite an imposing show. It is no one would be better recognised. with silk stockings.

and that is behind and above this big round w^orld a supreme being. The physician has to knock at the temple of the human frame. which no man has. a man's and checks all scientific investigation. but when men have thought more to doubt.THE GOLD-HEADED CANE. w^ill The union of Intellect and Piety grow stronger as the world grows older. is and with the recognition that a limit to the human intellect. 37 Accepting kills all things and underintellect standing nothing. that the universe not only embraces material phenomena. weigh in the physical balance or distil from a retort. a feeble intellect. or ever will. For surely the study of Nature any of its manifold aspects has a direct tendency to . but it also includes the sublime and the moral attributes. his subject But the there investigator must approach with humility. that around the intellect is the atmosphere of spiritual convictions from which our highest and best impulses spring. make men sceptical. deeply they will cease An idea is in the air that the study of science This in is has a tendency to an error. they began to doubt. When men began to think. and patiently pick up the knowledge which nature always gives to those who love her best.

\ notwithstanding his biting wit. feel We as if distinguish right and wrong. select a J If we would few names from the number of of medical felt celebrities the past who have will * this elevating influence. . the following l readily occur to us. and Newton. Kepler. We we were 1 responsible for our conduct. Astley Cooper. Graves Watson. had. as the following extract i from a lecture which he \ delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons will prove. Amongst those ^ lead us into the inscrutable. [ The latter. Linacre. who is chiefly remembered as a coiner i of quaint sayings and personal originality." j The noiseless tread of time will cause many \ i . a deep sense of j the nobility and the sacredness of his calling. who j demonstrate the ennobling influence of science us only let j name Boyle. Sydenham. matter. future state seems indigenous to the mind ofj man. but when we examine our something sensitive bodies. and Abernethy.. we feel that there and intelligible which inhabits our We 1 naturally believe in the existence of a first cause. 1 38 THE DOCTOR. ! We feel our own free agency. and the belief in a . He we call says: — "When is we examine our j j bodies see an assemblance of organs formed of what we minds. Brodie. Bacon.

noble workers the field life of medicine who have shown by their daily that they never flinched from the arduous duties. The public are loyal to the profession of medicine. aye and the dangers of their profession. it buoyant hope." which show us the possibilities Doctors ought to be great burden mission is lifters. integrity. and seldom do of that calling we hear of any members says to a who abuse their high privileges. which has around a halo of sympathy and of encouragement. and although the history of medicine claims no monopoly of these alike. yet they are the handmaids of greatness without them no human being say. but steadfastly plodded on. Their to carry into the itself chamber of disease that and even of death —that calm courage. . virtues. life and honesty of are attributes which grace the any man. Originality. for they serve all men . '^ will ever win that true success which enables us to look back upon such lives and Here are of examples the race. Their work man : — is an absorbing work it " You have placed in your hands the lives . but 39 now household words rest assured that the we may wreath of memory will cluster round the brows in of these grand. doctors whose names are to be forgotten.— THE GOLD-HEADED CANE.

or human beings than famine. human to race. which institution. and College of Surgeons are not cramped and hindered by legislative . but let you must night and day the one abiding thought be concentrated upon the good of humanity." and there is no field of professional experience which has given us so many men who have as nobly done their duty as the doctors of the past and of the present day. by not worshipping at the foot of Quackery. and already do we an increase in the average lives of the race. The medical tendency to profession has so far escaped the pernicious tendency of is modern thought. or Superstition. hamper every . College of Physicians. No one need despair of the . medical schools. it is of the You with are the true soldier whose business happiness contact. future in that direction indiscretion and ignorplague. to give Hfe and health and in those whom you come You must not lean upon the baubles of your callino^. The public must veil help to tear away the which hides the Truth.40 THE DOCTOR. of a We seem to be on find the threshold new era in the treatment of disease. This is a noteworthy fact our hospitals. so as to inspire confidence. ance kill more pestilence. Chicanery.

and with a never-failing sense of their responsibilities. silently. .THE GOLD-HEADED CANE. do they educate and pass through their gates the doctors of the future his finger at — and no man dare point and say he does not any one of these. do his duty. 41 but unostentatiously. interference .

wonder- . It astrologers. and the dealers in magic at times and in all parts achieved their successes in their patients. or that among the civilizations. Paracelsus himself combined astrology with alchemy and medicine. is magic often supersedes medicine. or it ? combined with Ceremonies which impress the mind and act upon the imagination considerably aid the physician in his treatment of susceptible persons. no matter what remedy then. COLEKIDGE ment physician hope." once said that in the treat'^ of nervous cases is he is the best who the most ingenious inspirer of are The great "faith cures" worked by all such physicians.flDaoic an5 fIDc&icine. by inspiring hope The more surprising. and relied more upon magic than upon was the crowd of charlatans. Is it among the more infant childlike races. credulous the invalid the more easy the cure. and often his host of follow^ers went further than their master. specific remedies. By Cuming Walters. to find that is applied.

he will not hear a word Of Galen." There has generally been all sufficient superstition in races to make amulets the popular means of averting calamity and preserving from sickness. and their sort 43 who substituted magic for medicine. the coins of St. fevers . written in the form of a triangle. An excellent Paracelsian. sufficed to cure agues and ofl" the Abraxas stones warded epidemics . to say nothing of races. and cured epilepsy. the Romans. and the Arabs. He deals all With spirits. or carrying a talisman. and in the eighth . less civilized have thoroughly believed that disease can be charmed awa}^ by the simple expedient of wearing a token." the impostor described as " A rare physician. Helena served as talismans. under heavy penalties to make or to sell the charms. The magical formula of Abracadabra. workers. that Ben Jonson scourged with the lash of his satire in " The Alchemist. The Greeks. and has done Strange cures with mineral physic. the Turks. the Jews. So strong was the belief in these magical protectors in the fourth century that the clergy were forbidden.MAGIC AND MEDICINE. or his tedious recipes. and who had so great an influence in England three centuries ago. he .

but by rehgious and particularly by the ''temple- . century the Christian Church forbade amulets to be longer worn. offerings. and that nothing could without giving instant come in contact with it warning to the seat of life. The Greeks and the Romans beheved that the finger in question contained a vein communicating directly with the heart. For this reason they were accustomed to stir up mixtures and potions it with this " medicated finger. not by means of observances.C. art regarded sickness as the result of the operation of malevolent deities who were either to be propitiated sacrifices." as was called. whose books on the healing date back to 1500 B. by prayers. The early Greeks when suffering from disease were cured.44 THE DOCTOR. charms. and or to be over- come with the aid of friendly gods. medicine. Thus do we unknowingly keep alive the superstitions of other times. and when the ring became the sj^mbol of marriage that finger was chosen of all others for the wearing of it.. The Hindoos. In this connection the it may left be mentioned that custom of placing the wedding-ring upon the fourth finger of the hand owes to its origin to the ancients who resorted magic for the cure of their ailments.

After performance of this ceremony the invalid may many hope to recover. his side.C. in 460 B.. It was Hippocrates. it is even now common for the lower classes to ascribe sickness to the visitation of spirits (Nisse). care it taken to remove the mould and to return before the setting: of the . and is poured over the not a the syllable being uttered the while. some dry mould brought from a beino- and heated." in 45 which they dreamt dreams which the priests interpreted. or fihngs of silver. and in which were found the suggestions for remedy." The Shetlander who has cures a " stitch in to himself by applying the affected part. and that could not for be combated or cured by magic. who first proclaimed that disease was it not of supernatural origin. supposed to have caught his left shoulder. ofrave. sleep. The mixture is taken to the place where the man illness. or of any metal that has is been inherited. who must be mollified by pouring liquor into a it goblet and mixing with the filings of a bride- ring. centuries later in But many Europe the Black Art had In Sweden greater sway than rational treatment. Consecrated grave-mould is supposed by primitive races to have particular properties as a medicine.MAGIC AND MEDICINE.

for example. the reward. the when all ordinary a remedies have failed. This races. landers in mystic potions. In Tibet. whom in the and shot at the image hope that the wound would be transferred to the real '* person. magic for rites also a remedy disease. Lady Katharine Fowlis made a model in clay of a person she wished to afflict. Lamas make dummy to represent the sick person. which taken out and burned. is Perhaps the least harmful of the in the washing of a cat viously the water which had preinvalid's served for an ablutions. custom of substitution " is found in many and is one of the most interesting subjects introduced to the student of folk-lore. and they adorn the image with the trinkets. the Lamas appropriating in ornaments as a Sir Walter Scott tells of a similar case which occurred Scotland. pills. the confident belief being that the disease would this by means be transferred '^ to the animal. We have only to turn to Scott's to find Demonology and Witchcraft" hundreds of instances of the unshaken belief of the High. By it is ceremonies and prayers is sickness after of the patient laid upon the dummy. is of Orkney. drugs.46 THE DOCTOR In the neighbouring resorted to as isles sun. and drops .

and "the proprietor of a patent medicine who should in those days have attested his having wrought such miracles as we see sometimes mio^ht have forfeited his life. and.000 eTews . At the time of the Black Plague of the in the fourteenth century the fanaticism sacrifice French led them to 12. or someone. By means of his medicines she cured the most stubborn diseases. and by no means confined to savage nations or to very ancient times. obtained the reputation of a wise woman. but had appeared to her as an apparition. she was said. before which she was arraigned." advertised The idea of sacrificing something. extremely common. in ordered to be burnt. Bessie Dunlop by told the Court. and grew so rich that the eye of the law was drawn upon her. and not even wholesale burnings of the dealers 47 in white magic could induce the people to forsake their superstitions.MAGIC AND MEDICINE. the Scottish law did not acquit those who accomplished even praiseworthy actions. after her confession was made. As Scott one of his chapters. of the given to magic elixirs her Thome Reid. who had been her to killed in battle centuries before. to appease affliction the anger of the powers is who bring upon mankind. and begged fly with him to Elf-land.

48 THE DOCTOR. and even in England and Wales it has been practised with variations and some modification. in various parts of Scotland. In the Ingoldsby Legends may be read a ghastly account of a similar sacrifice in Spain. of course. In Cornwall. in order to secure the good-will of the over-ruling powers on behalf of the Queen. been of animals only. consequence of a disease among the to perform an incantation. Every fire in the houses was extinguished . these being deemed the " cause of the " affliction. . but the germ of the old and worse ritual in the custom. cattle. This custom in Ireland. The sacrifices in these cases have. and the wheel was then turned from east to west over the nine spindles long enough to produce heifer. is found in In 1767. Israelites by torture and burning. Even in comparatively modern times the and practice of sacrificing in order to cure or avert disease has not been unknown^ this in civilized lands. agreed They carried to the top of Carnmoor a wheel and nine spindles of oak- wood. They then sacrificed a which they cut in pieces and burnt while yet alive. the people of Mull. own hearths prevalent from the while an old man repeated the is words of incantation. fire by friction. too. Finally they lighted their pile.

" has related how he hiaiself. wrapping the skin about the sick person. and Sir H. a calf was burnt alive to arrest the murrain.volume. in 49 1800. and then eating the sheep. during infancy. underwent a mysterious cure for the " falhng sickness. and the party were admitted to a long." In Ireland a cure for small-pox consisted in sacrificing a sheep to a wooden image. and the scene must have the " I 4 been as eerie as the lover of mystery or believer in witchcraft could have desired." He was carried secretly away to a lonely hut on the distant moor. Gr. In one corner sat an old silent. low -roofed apartment. No word was spoken.MAGIC AND MEDICINE. shooting heavy sparks up through the hole in the roof. woman. wrinkled and huge peat-fire busily knitting . In Scotland strange and weird customs linger. Reid in his entertainina. Mr. for in animals for human 1678 four men were actually prosecuted for "sacrificing a bull in a heathenish manner for the recovery of the health of Custane Mackenzie. was . dimly lighted from two small windows. and filling the apartment with smoke. Laurence Gomrae has traced the sacrifice of custom back to the sickness. "'Tween Gloamin' and the Mirk. a blazed on the open hearth.

' made to drink from and the ] beverage so taken was regarded as a sovereign specific for epilepsy. in order to prepare powders. took deliberately from the seven large smooth in round stones. placed on a three-legged stool in the middle of the floor" rose. to a ! mixture for the i while in Caithness the patient was a suicide's skull. In i Kirkwall a small portion of the human skull . creatures are credited with opening graves for the purpose of taking out joints of the fingers and toes of dead bodies. with her dull dark eyes closed. with some of the winding-sheet. the enchantress muttered some mystic words . was taken from the graveyard and grated powder cure of in order to be used in a fits . and open white palms outstretched. \ In 1643 one John Drugh j was indicted for this despoiling of corpses for some i such purpose. (the writer continues). they were planted one by one irreofular circle an about me . The Australian aborigines had | . it was over as ' — the ! tremulous patient was taken up cured " ' In Scotland the belief to in witches who have maladies rash to is power both cure and to cause it so deeply founded that its would be These deny continued existence.50 THE DOCTOR. "the old woman and with the aid of immense fire tono^s.

he relates in his Table Talk. the flesh and by drinking the blood of the a man absorbs the nature or the life of the deceased into his cannibalism own a body. there asleep. and valour man was communicated all to the body be subjected to the treatment. but for spirit. in and the culmination is found the devouring of enemies. Analogies may found among savage tribes over the world. but because the ^^'idespread primitive idea prevails that by eating slain. and thouofht that the of the dead streno^th. not out of revenge. couraofe. of the a savage hill-tribe in India. When Coleridge w^as a little bo}^ at the Blue Coat School. a belief not altogether dissimilar to this." was a ''charm for one's foot when which its he believed had been in the school since . origin has medical which the forti- most depraved superstition suggested and fied. 51 They rubbed weak persons with the fat of a corpse. and here we see the development of the magic power of the medicines which the is not only efficacious for the body. The Lhoosai.MAGIC AND MEDICINE. In other words. teach their young warriors to eat a piece of the liver first man they kill in order to streno^then their hearts.

are method of cure invested common enough among the primitive races.— 52 « THE DOCTOR. by which a simple with marvel. leaders. where the cramp most frequently occurred. pressing the sole of the foot on the cold floor. Its potency lay in the " Crosses three words to ease us." a few Charms is like this. in foundation the time of King Edward VI. and not infrequently provide the key to the solution of mystery of the magician's triumph." we make Two for the thieves. The superstitious red man is completely at the to possess mercy of the medicine-man who claims supernatural powers. upon getting out of bed. and one for '' : The same charm served Coleridge quaintly adds cramp in the leg. and then repeating this charm. for Christ Jesus. and to who assumes carries the ability work marvellous cures by magic. with Each him a North American Indian medicine bag obtained under very curious cir- . priests. The of cunning or medicine-men ignorant nations maintain their ascendency by ascribing to miracle the simplest feats they perform. and Really. I can safely in affirm that I do not remember an instance in which the cramp did not go away seconds.

A for traveller tells us that a drought had withered the maize fields. never part with life. and when he has discovered the animal he turns its of his vision. and at last falls asleej) from sheer exhaustion. and drinks nothing for several days. that is the medicine-man of the tribe held in highest honour. his All things are possible to him. this it is the treasure of his a sacred possession. and act as an all-powerful talisman. should do so reptile. cumstances. He Hes down eats alone in the woods upon a litter of twigs. and regarded as a worker of veritable miracles. he must seek as his medicine. it skin into a pouch. a charm against It is all maladies. his rites. after this. the rain to descend.MAGIC AND MEDICINE. will In peace or war he talisman . — or —and whatever or beast. Then he dreams bird. He goes forth upon the quest directly his strength has returned. the rivers to deepen. and the medicine-man was sent . and his incantations he causes the sun to shine. By prayers. and a protection from foes. 53 When in he is approaching manhood he sets forth is search of the patent drug which all to shield him from danger. the plants to thrive. or forms the subject of his dream. scarcely necessary to add. and wears ever afterwards round his neck.

but without but at last recourse was made to Wak-aBuffalo dah-ha-Ku. compel the rain to fall. and carried an arrow expected of in his hand. and cared not whether the rain came or stayed and the third who wore a beaver . "he harangued the good of his tribe if people. or the White Hair. skin. Much was were not the him. another On suc- ceeding days success . who possessed a shield coloured with red lightnings. and that rain he not bring the much desired life he was content to live for the rest of his with the old first women and warded off the dogs. to On the first day one Wah-ku. because the beaver was always wet and required no rain. or the Elk. protesting that for the he was willing to did sacrifice himself. was tried. and pour the water over the ." we are told. He failed . the red lightnings on his shield rain-clouds. But as for him. or the Shield. failed. asserted that the medicine-man had because his shield the rain clouds the second.54 THE DOCTOR. but so did Om-pah. who wore a head-dress made of a raven's skin. Taking by medicine-lodge. came to the front. because the raven w^as a bird that soared above the storm. " and the his people station disappointed. would attract the and his arrow would pierce them.

but establishing in everybody's mind a firm and deep conviction of his power.MAGIC x\ND MEDICINE. strung his bow. influence of the medicine-man in time of is sickness illustrated in the narrative of Mr." The Kane. came up from the and made ready horizon. cannon was To the Indians the The like the voice of thunder. man was marriage loaded offer with valuable gifts their mothers hastened to . At once he assumed his station on the roof of the his lodge. daughters to him in and the elder medicine-men hastened from the Just a lodo^e to enrol him in their order. shot his arrow Lo. unobserved by the noisy swiftly multitude. of who wrote "The Wanderings an Artist. He heard a great noise in one of the girl and found that a handsome Indian . and as the cloud impended into the sky. over the village. and their joy knew no bounds." villages. a steamer fired a salute from a twelve roar of the pounder gun. wetting the rain-maker to the skin. thirsty fields. . . successful medicine. arrested the attention of his fellows by his loud and exultant speech . before sunset his quick eyes discovered black cloud which. 55 It chanced that as he ended his oration. arrow . . the rain descended in torrents.

to be worse for the treatment. who surrounded him This lasted beating drums with half-an-hour. for he darted suddenly upon the girl. He commenced by singing and gesticulating in a violent manner. the others sticks. middle of the room. was extremely The medicine-man sat in the ." the medicine-man his declared he had his got and held hands to mouth. and Mr. Then the medicine-man determined on a radical cure of the j^atient. and it was found that he held a piece of cartilage This was cut in half into the between the finger and thumb. and girl of he had guaranteed to rid the her disease which afflicted her side. and shook her for several This increased her agony. minutes. that 'though the doctor if was perfectly the patient seemed.56 THE DOCTOR. Kane records satisfied. crossed-legged and naked a wooden dish filled with water was before him. . '' but it. leaving the spectators to believe that he had torn out the disease with his teeth. two. ill. fire. and was now destroying it by drowning. Eventually he withdrew his hand from the bowl. After this he plunged his hands into a bowl of water. and half cast into the water. dug his teeth into her side (for she was undressed). So ended the operation. anything.

prethe workers of miracles and enchantments. In his recent collection of is Egyptian Tales. Mr. and its head on the east side of the hall. And the duck was laid on the west side of the hall. The belief in 57 in mao:ic was intyrained the Egyptians.. its And head the duck fluttered along the ground. King.' Let it not be man. my lord our cattle. who desired to put this marvellous power to the proceeds : — test. and head was cut off. His Majesty caused an ox to be . And they brought likewise a goose before him. notwithstanding that the art was trust far in advanced with them. of medicine ferred to who. behold we do not even thus to a duck And Dedi said. MAGTC AND MEDICINE. He was brought before the King. and he did even so unto it. and came likewise part and when it had come part to the duck stood and quacked.' And its was brouo-ht unto him. and the story thus ' " His Majesty said. spake his magic speech. A man named Dedi was over life said to have such powers and death that he could restore the head that had been smitten from the body. Flinders-Petrie able to supply a striking instance of this credulity. And Dedi . Let one bring that his me ' a prisoner who a is in prison punishment may be fulfilled.

soothsayers." This story prepares us in every way for the information that the Egyptians." or. despite their great knowledge of the curative powers of herbs and drugs. preferred to rely upon in their enchanters. and rewards. and followed him with his halter trailing on the ground." devotes a very interesting and entertaining . his physicians who '[ from that distinction were deprived of honours . And Dedi spake his magic speech. chapter to medicine as regarded and practised by the Celestials. all the merest empirics. From this we learn that while i there are plenty of doctors in the land. in his ''Society in China. though ascended on a dragon to other words. learnt that the blood circulates in the body. and magicians time of illness and peril. disease brings no The " cure any \ odium upon the quack. And the ox stood upright behind him. and they have not yet . they are \ one and folly. who prey on dread to the j the and the failure of the ! uneducated people. ignorance. be a guest on high. in small-pox. and head cast on the ground.58 THE DOCTOR. Professor Douglas. died of could not save him I when the late Emperor . The Chinese are centuries behind ! other nations in medicine. its brought. or i that a limb may be removed with beneficial effects .

and that the pulses communicate with the various organs of the body. Good results may be obtained. Hydrophobia is common among to Pasteur the half-starved curs which infest the streets. and the cure for it — quite oil. When cholera or any other pestilence sweeps over the land. fresh tops of stag-horns. it is believed. patient's but he a needle to the liver expects him be immediately cured. and the hinges are the wife.MAGIC AND MEDICINE. in 59 case of some diseases or accidents. so they resort to charms. dried red-spotted lizardskins. and such hke. this to be rolled over the wound. unknown — is the curd of the black pea dried and pulverised. They and the believe that arteries and veins are one same. the Chinese feel the helplessness of their physicians. bones and teeth of dragons (when obtainable)." The heart is the husband." and they must be brought into agreement. shavings of rhinoceros-horns. . tortoise-shell. by such tonics as dog-flesh. or evil arises. then broken open. mixed with is hemp and formed into a large ball . dyspepsia the thrusts For and doctor has into no nostrum. The object of the physician is to " the gate of life. strengthen the breath. stimulate " restore harmony. offering of gifts to the gods and to the by way of staying the plague.

from such facts \ as these that a Galen in China would have a vast \ revolution to undertake. therefore. the philosopher's stone. and given wine in doses of is i one-fifth of an ounce. ' It will be seen. and that a thousand . If. be told not to poison himself. \ and uproot the superstitions of i The great value which the Chinese | attach to the bones. teeth. Galens at least would be required to overcome the prejudices the race. until it and kept on rolling like has lost its hair- i appearance. and the fault tiger's.60 THE DOCTOR. and eyes of ' . i the prescription does not work. however. tusks. horns. To complete the cure the in a i jDatient must abstain from eating "anything i state of decomposition. and ! sometimes as much as a thousand taels of silver j are given for a pound's weight of the precious root. ground up. but of not to be blamed for is He has done his best. but hydrophobia continues. and toes of a in '. and the elixir of life. a fatal result course the Chinese doctor that. is may occur. by the way. obviously the The Chinese as ginseng believe in j astrology." While the tiger being : caught. A plant known and is said to greatly prolong sweeten existence. the patient is j strongly commended to \ try the tiger effect of " the skull." He might just as well .

abandoned and not even the physician who deals in most extensively decoctions person's will magic pills. the recognised cure for diabetes animal's teeth and the same may be used for epilepsy. this world and the next. The Eskimo. A dose is of tigers' bones inspires courage an elephant's eye burnt to powder and mixed with human milk of a sovereign remedy for inflammation elephants' the eye . This made them useful as friends and dangerous as enemies. and enjoyed the unlimited confidence of They were said to have equal power over heaven and earth. and gave charms against disease. among all . of the Eskimos were called angekoks.MAGIC AND MEDICINE. ointments. therefore. animals 61 may be judged from various tonics and remedies which are in great request classes. and attempt to save the obstinate life. is But if the patient cannot eat rice his case as hopeless. . they appear to . These medicine- men have a profound belief in themselves. The medicine-men the people. pulverised bones cure is indigestion a preparation of elephants' ivory . and to jugglery though they resort and ventriloquism have no to deceiv^e their visitors. set out upon no enterprise without consulting the angekoks. blessings. who granted exorcised demons.

help of . destroyers. They render help in the time of . and may even act as avengers or ." points out that has always ! been to the interests of the medicine-men and the | priests to sustain " and mature superstitions or \ reHgious ideas. Therefore. They must therefore themselves in 1 appear discover to believe them . they may even own | new precepts of divinity to their ^ advantage. danger. whom and directed. Nansen. none other than the souls . ministering called tornat. | especially of grandfathers but not infrequently souls i the tornat are supposed to be the fairies. In the latter case they show themselves ' and so frighten to death the persons vengeance reports.62 THE DOCTOR. of is I departed animals. his '' Dr. ! Their particular powers. or of The angekok : assumed to have several of these councillors always at hand." that The Greenlanders work with the believe ' the angekoks spirits. ! Nansen also the angekoks are the of all wisest the craftiest Eskimos. as ghosts. are idea that they perpetrating an imposture. are derived from more than human sources. they think. who dead are often . is ' against as Dr. of persons. j j They assert that they have the power of conversing . in it j Eskimo Life. and thereby increase both their power ! and their revenues.

beating on drums burstino^ forth into diabolical shrieks of lauofhter and all sorts of other tricks. but for the spirits whose agent he Apparently these spirits have similar ideas to the London consulting physician." they who by soul. ventriloquising. of spirits. and that disturbance. The lamps are extinguished. in his " Mr.MAGIC AND MEDICINE. which occur as a rule in the winter. floor. conjuring up powerful revelations. with spirits. and of obtaining and work upon ''They influence their countrymen principally through their mystic exorcisms and seances. Theodore Bent. Ruined Cities of Mashonaland. sits upon the By dint of a horrible noise so that the whole house changing his voice." make the reciting They cure not diseases charms. but . moaning. is he persuades his companions that he spirits visited by the various it is he personates. when they are living in houses. He demands for himself. and large "give men a new fees. bellowing and shrieking. and skins hung before the windows. The angekok himself making shakes. Mtoko by name. he is. The explorer desired to interview a chief. explains. and whining. groaning. 63 of travelling in the under-world." gives a specimen of the credulity excited by the medicine-men.

The reason. Lobengula refused to have portrait taken i because he believed that by means of the image of himself he could be magically infected with a \ : dread disease. he afterchief's father visit. ^ permission was refused. Bent belonged i had sent him purposely to cast a glamour over him. A chief called . ! away. had boiled his family He had been j | convinced by the native doctors that after death the souls of the chiefs passed into the bodies of I . "Adventures and. among savage tribes told by i the two hospital nurses who a a year or so ago in ' produced a lively book. that the witches could. is i has already been referred belief in akin to that of the i witchcraft during the middle ages : namely. which to.— 64 THE DOCTOR." Mashonatheir i One morning whose kraal native entered i camp. of such beliefs The dreadful results is . by sticking pins into the w^ax i image of a person. bring upon that • person agonising maladies. : The chief thought that the "white lady" who i ruled over the nation to which Mr. bringing a tale of horror. was that the had and ] died shortly after another white man's ] the common behef was that he had been bewitched. wards ascertained. It may be remembered that the ill-fated his . Maronka. was about forty miles alive. This idea of substitution.

MAGIC AND MEDICINE.
lions.

65

His medicine-men had

" smelt

out

"

his

own
told

family as witches, and boiling alive was the

requisite punishment.

Mr. Rider Haggard has
in

many such

stories as this

his

books on
in

South Africa.

The Zulu doctors were

the

habit, .not only of ''smelling
evil
spirits,

out" witches and

but of sprinkling the soldiers with
in

medicine,
into
battle.

order

to

"

put

a

great

heart
in

them,"

and

ensure

their

victory

Customs

like these

gave Charles Dickens his

opportunity of writing two of his most scathing
satires

— "The

Noble
of

Savage"

and

''The
refused

Medicine

Man

Civilisation."

He

to subscribe to the popular

and amiable sentiment

that the African barbarian
survival,

was an interesting
Indian was

or

that

the

Ojibbeway

picturesque.

After a severe indictment of them,
in

Dickens instanced their customs

medicine as a
"

proof of their irremediable depravity.
the noble savage finds himself a
wrote,
friends,
''

When
his
is

little

unwell," he

and mentions the circumstance to
it is

immediately perceived that he
of
witchcraft.

under the influence

A

learned

personage, called an Iniyanger, or
is

Witch Doctor,
or smell

sent for to

Nooker the Umtargartie,

66

THE DOCTOR.
witch.

out the

The male

inhabitants

of the

kraal being seated on the ground, the
doctor,

learned

got up like a grizzly bear, appears and

administers a dance of the most terrific nature,

during the exhibition of which remedy he incessantly gnashes his teeth, and howls,
original physician to

— 'I

am

the

Nooker the Umtargartie.
connection with any other
!

Yow, yow, yow
establishment.

!

No

Till, til], till

All other Umtar-

garties are feigned Umtargarties, Boroo,

Boroo

!

but I perceive here a genuine and real Umtargartie,
I,

Hoosh, Hoosh, Hoosh
original

!

in

whose blood,
will

the

Imyanger and
mine
!'

Nookerer,

wash these

bear's claws of
is

All this time

the learned physician
attentive
faces
for

looking out

among

the

some unfortunate man who

owes him a cow, or who has given him any small
offence, or against

whom, without

offence,
fails

he has

conceived a

spite.

Him

he never
is

to

Nooker

as the Umtargartie,

and he

instantly killed."

This

is

no burlesque, and I have given the record

in Dickens's inimitable langfuao^e because it

most

vividly sets before us the

custom of the medicine-

men
of

of barbarous races.

But the medicine-men
to

Longfel Iowa's

description, the

appease and console

men who came Hiawatha, who

MAGIC AND MEDICINE.
"

G7

Walked

in silent, grave procession,

Bearing each a pouch of healing,

Skin of beaver, lynx, or
Filled with magic roots

otter,

and simples,

Filled with very potent medicines,"

—these

may

be accepted as the milder type of

magicians who,

among

a primitive people, claimed

not only to be able to heal the living, but to
restore the dead.

Mr. Austine Waddell,

in his
tells
is

exhaustive work
us that a very

on the Buddhism of Tibet,
popular form
physician
"

of

Buddha

as

"the

supreme

or Buddhist ^sculapius, the idea of

whom
cine.

is

derived from an ancient legend of the

"medicine-king" who dispensed spiritual medi-

The images

of this

Buddha

are worshipped

as fetishes,

and they cure by sympathetic magic.

The

supplicant, after

bowing and praying, rubs

his finger over the eye, knee, or particular part of

the image corresponding to the affected part on
his

own

body, and then applies the finger carrying
afflicted spot.
is

this

hallowed touch to the

Mr.
rather
it

Waddell says that

this constant friction
;

detrimental to the features of the god
is

whether

beneficial to the

man's body

is

of course largely

a matter of faith

and circumstances.

As

mig-ht

. ,

68

THE DOCTOR.
ward
off

;

be expected, talismans to

evils

fromj
all
^

malignant planets and demons, whence come
diseases, are in

great request.

The

eating of the!
isj

paper on which a charm has been written

considered by the Tibetan to be the easiest andj

most certain method of curing a malady, and thej
spells

which the Lamas use
or
edible

in this

way

are called

i

" za-yig,"

letters.

A
these

still

more:
|

mystical

w^ay

of

applying
is

remedies,

according to Mr. Waddell,
of

by the washings!
in

the
habit

reflection

of the
in

writing

a

mirror,
|

a

common
In Gambia,

other

quarters

of

the-

globe.
is
in,

for instance,

this treatment]

relied

upon by the

natives.

A

doctor

is

called!

he examines the patient, and then

sits

down!
I

at the bedside

and writes

in

Arabic characters on

a slate some sentences from the Koran.
is

The
is

slate;
j

then washed, and the dirty infusion
the
patient.

drunk
ink

by

In

Tibet,

Chinese

isj

smeared on wood, and every twenty-nine daysl
the inscription reflected in a mirror. the mirror during the reflection
beer,
is

The
in a

face of;

washed withcup
for]

and the drainings are collected
This
is

the patient's use.
evil

a special cure for the of Tibet can also]

eye.

The medicine-men
charms
against

supply

bullets

and

weapons,

MAGIC AND MEDICINE.
charms
for

69

the

clawing of animals, charms to

ward

oiF cholera,
broils.

and even charms
This
is

to

prevent

domestic

surely evidence of high

civilisation.

It

would be hopeless to endeavour to exhaust

this subject.

Only a few

selected instances can

be given to illustrate
played,

how

large a part magic has
in

and
is

still

plays,

the
its

healing

art.

Medicine
yet,

by no means freed of

superstitions

and the success of quack advertisements of

the

day abundantly proves that
is

the
that

civilised

public

still

prone

to

believe

universal

remedies are obtainable, and that miracles can be

wrought.

Modern medical
when

science,

as one

of

its

great

exponents has pointed out, plays a waiting game
miracles are spoken
of,

and when magic
"

is

claimed to supersede specific remedies.
it
is

When

asked to believe
of laws

in

the violent and erratic

violation

of matter

and

force,

science

stands on an impregnable rock, fenced round by

bulwarks of logical
bastions

fact,

and

flanked

by the

of knowledge

of nature and her con-

stitution."

And
will

as

exact

knowledge spreads,

Prospero
his
stafl",

have no alternative but to break
it

and bury

fathoms deep.

Cbauccr'6 2)octor ot pb^oic.
By W. H. Thompson.

IN

the

"

Canterbury
gallery

Tales
of
life,

"

we have
a

an

inimitable
portraits,

fourteenth

century
great
in

drawn

from

with

all

master's delicacy of finish and touch.

And

none of these pictures does Chaucer excel himself

more than

in

that of his " Doctor of Physic."
it

We may
no mere

take

for

granted that the portrait

is

fanciful

one,

with

its

pre-Raphaelite

minuteness of

detail,

sketched with the poet's

own
is

peculiar

skill.

yet altogether
the
"

With what mischievous and playful and good-natured humour
!

man
With
In

of medicine presented to us
us there was a doctour of phisike

all this

world ne was there none like him

To speak

of phisike

and

of surgerie."

What manner
medical

of
?

man was
In

this

paragon of
appearance
" Clothes are

knowledge

personal

he was somewhat of an exquisite.
unspeakably
significant
"

saith

the

immortal
his

Teufelsdrockh, and every practitioner

who has

clientele largely 71 yet to make knows the impoi-tance of beino^ well dressed. even perhaps given to holding his j)urse strings somewhat tightly." For. and fair to judge his doctor fear. he was acquainted with all the authorities. For was no But of great nourishing and digestable. and a blue and white furred hood. To-day. kept that he won in pestilence. from ^sculapius and Galen down to Gaddesden. *' Of his diet it measureable was superfluity. the . by contemporary standards. "He He was but easy of expense. "In sanguine and Lined with in perse he clad was all tafFata and with sendall. Chaucer's trrave efraduate was apparelled in a purple surcoat. we little is he would be largely regarded as quack." and yet no luxurious sybarite by any means was he. " Gold in physic is a cordial." The science of medicine since Chaucer's it is day only has made extraordinary advances. It better than a charlatan and a true. he. ancient and modern. as the poet adds with his characteristic merry sly humour." A man of simple habits.CHAUCER'S DOCTOR OF PHYSIC. Therefore he loved gold in special.

91.—A866. " anthor of the Rosa Anglica. This is the recipe of Gaddesden for this (the the small-pox.) impotence of the professors of the healing arts at that period.72 THE DOCTOR. fol. (From Harleian M. and ." the- great Enghsh this book of fourteenth century medicine." to illustrate GEOFFREY CHAUCER.S." which Leland only serves calls a medical learned " "large and the work. the eruption) "After cause appearance of the whole body of your patient to be wrapped in red scarlet cloth. last But named luminary little of physic would aid him This very on the road to true knowledge. Rose.

" epilepsy. 73 command everything about red. of And where engendered. and bind it about the patient's neck. or dry. we must take with a good deal of reservation his statement that his doctor " Knew Were the cause of every malady it of cold.CHAUCER'S DOCTOR OF PHYSIC. and then go to church. in the time of vintage after the feast of the Holy Cross. some of the remedies prescribed for . he orders the patient " To " cure " and his parents to fast three days. and I cured him without leaving any marks. was in manner England I treated the son of the noble king of when he had the small-pox. and then on Sunday the priest must read over the patient's head the gospel for September." was to be to exorcised by such a assert that it remedy we venture must have been largely a case of faith-healing." Anyhow. the bed to be It made this This is an excellent cure. or hot. Seeing then that such was the condition of the science of medicine in Chaucer's da^'S. or moist. After this the priest shall write out this portion of the gospel reverently. If epilepsy as this. The patient must first confess. and he must have mass on Friday and Saturday. and he shall be cured. and what humour.

with quite the standing of an accredited medical man of to-day. craftily do her intents. or sick. Master Bailly was no particular respecter of persons. to us the charlatanry in make the doctor in was supposed to be a person of importance the eyes of his fellow pilgrims. In dealing with his patients he was guided by "natural magic. is evidenced Bailly by the manner in which mine host addresses him.." as Roger Bacon it. yet he was all .74 THE DOCTOR. To make in certain ascendents. would have seemed extraordinary enough to The poet ''little in tells us the doctor's study was but the Bible." So that in spite his of what appears up." To his this practice Chaucer alludes of in another of poems. ''sick the man." and the "drugs. All this magic naturell. indeed." and that though a " perfect the practitioner." which his friends the apothecaries were so ready to supply. he was somewhat of a Philistine . his scientific knowledge was astronomy. the " "House Fame. the calls better part of medicine. Images— lo through which To make a man be whole magic. us. which con well." ground of i.e. *' astrology. on the contrary." And That clerks eke.

the host addresses him declaring prelate. The doctor's contribution to the " is Canterbury Tales. looks to tell to the physician he a tale of " honest matter. . also him to be a ''proper man. in keeping . no unworthy predecessor of those who to-day. he to may us have. the as " doctor of physic presented a sterling gentleman. still follow in his footsteps. on more modern lines." too. whatever foibles " is sound moral advice.CHAUCER'S DOCTOR OF PHYSIC." and Hke a After the story of chicanery related it is by the Canon's Yeoman. Doctor of Physic. respect to this 75 " man of medicine. with his character and concludes with some Therefore. of a serious." Such is his bearincr towards him throuo^hout. It is as " Sir . sober kind.

5. an American writer on this (Dr. in his "Medical Thoughts of Shakespeare") strove to show that . be regarded as applicable to the former. Wall. and the contempt which our great dramatic poet frequently expresses in his works for medical practitioners must. we have glimpses of the it medical profession in France. subject Rush Field. H. shrubs. plants. mickle is the powerful grace that lies In herbs.— ^be 2)octoi6 Sbakc6peate Ikncw. "By medicine life may be prolong'd. — Borneo and Juliet. For nought so vile that on the earth doth live But to the earth some special good doth give Nor ought so good. latter. just what in the it was in England same century when it was known genuine to Shakespeare. stumbling on abuse. and their true qualities. strained from that fair use Revolts from true birth. For one more or less physician there were thousands of charlatans and quacks. not to the In 1884. Cymheline V. " 0. interesting volume which Gaston Boissier devoted to her and letters. but. By a." and in the amusing. in fairness." . which show us was in her time and country." IN works Walckenaer's " Memoirs of Madame de Sevigne.

"as a by which deaths are produced through the poison. our great philosophic all 77 poet and playwright's opinion of one. and ladies and gentlemen of the Court were decimated." he says. at Versailles and Saint- where the King and Queen were attacked.THE DOCTORS SHAKESPEARE KNEW. Corbinelle's threatened insanity. " increasing folk.were rapidly direction. Fashionable sick used up with pleasure-making. and of his taking *' potable gold" as a remedy for headache. means of and generally treats them with fairl}^ contempt. and he rather displayed respect and less scientific regard for the genuine. At a time when she was o^rowino^ old. tool '^ the medical practitioners was a low He uses them frequently. can be very readily demonstrated by anyone at plays. she writes also of small-pox and other fevers having permanently settled Germain. all familiar with his But to return to Madame de Sevigne. of Madame de la Fayette's being consumed by slow fever. more or professors of the healing art. and cases of apoplexy in and every rheumatism . through disappointed . and La of Roche confined to his armchair by gout. when her letters speak so sadly of the dying condition of Cardinal de Retz at Conimercy." that in doing That he might it do this.

to the great scandal of the Faculty unable to save her . when you re-appear ." of She says the extract periwinkles " endowed Madame de Writing to her so Grignam with a second youth. she beo-s her not to negflect ^'cherry taking ''extract acid. applied a plaster to Madame Fouquet which the dying Queen. fidgetting ambitioD. battled women to in- cluded. Madame doctor in Sevigne wrote of her as " the best classes ." When writing her dauofhter. tainted with morbid fancies and suspicion." daughter. and the Princess de Tarente all served out drugs to her people at Vitre. agitating without aim." of periwinkles. with one anobher possess marvellous secrets whereby obstinate complaints should be immediately cured.78 THE DOCTOR." such medicines as water. cured her. the upper she has rare and valuable compounds of which she gives us three pinches with prodigious to effect." "uric and "powdered crab's-eyes." found themselves in the doctor's hands. without motive. " If 3^ou use it. and were far more ready to select practitioners who promised magically those swift and easy cures. painless nor pleasur" Everybody. than who spoke " of slow and gradual recovery by means which were neither able." says Boissur." "viper-broth.

" she says to her daughter. still retained their ancient medical reputa- treated the rheumatism her leo* '' with WILLIAM SHAKKSPEARE. . fair 79 people will cry. so that as they rotted like away her pains might " It's a pity in way decrease.' then periwinkle.' " answer ' On the She tells. taken off while wet twice a day.THE DOCTORS SHAKESPEARE KNEW. ' O'er what blessed flower I will can she have walked. who tion. and buried in the earth. too.) plants bruised and applied twice a day . how in the Capuchins. (The Stratford Portrait." you ran and told the surgeons this.

80 THE DOCTOR. it. using a scarlet cloth them dry upon. that adopted in England when Shakespeare we recall the advice of that eminent gentleman. The touch ghastly of a dead man's hand use. all For fever of kinds. the dog dies and the patient a quantity recovers. pills week only. it with an egg. that a drauofht of water drunk from a skull murdered man's had wonderful medicinal properties. as a sure remedy in certain In other instances we find that certain made from the gibbets. ." Turning- from these illustrations of medical practice in France to see how identical it is with lived. "There an abbe here who making a great bother by curing by sympathy. and gives it to a . dog . " for they roar with laughter at but I do not care a fig for them. so they say. who recommends their faces once a to wipe cases. were popular as medicine. people to wash Andrew Rourde. skulls of murderers taken for down from and ground to powder that purpose. They say he has cured of people. he takes the patient's spittle and mingles . was another remedy in common and the powder of mummy was a ." In hke way is Madame de Scudery is tells Bassy. and that the blood of a dragon was absolutely miraculous in the cures it effected.

born in Brussels.THE DOCTORS SHAKESPEARE KNEW. for both evil and good. was through what he for Speaking of digestion. a of the famous disciple inventor of the camera . wonderful cure for 81 certain grave complaints. inclined to that pretender Paracelsus. and determined that the only way by which he it. a spiritual activity. if a mystic by inclination. Fludd. abundantly Van Helmont. apparent. Dr. illiterate He rejected Galen. the son of a nobleman. working in a very mysteriously complicated way. for Bacon. It has been said that he was one of Lord Bacon's disciples. but for that assertion there certainly is no sufficient foundation. practised both medicine and magic medicinally. called and utterly destroy Archceus. That the seventeenth century physician himself was not always proof against these is products of ancient ignorance and superstition. and very carefully educated for his profession. he denied was either chemical or mechanical in nature. was logical in reasoning. and the strange doings of quack accoucheurs are not less absurdly terrible. Love-philtres were also regarded from a medicinal point of view. In England in Van Helmont had an English follower the person of another physician. but the result of this Archceus. could defy disease. that its it instance.

gatherer. Thus credulous 1.) Greatrake (afterwards executed high treason) asserted that every diseased . and conjecturally the photographer. not to the wound. first ^' obscura. blood. turpentine. had been awakening great He to hired a large house in Lincoln's Inn Fields." for 2." Comedy of Errors. all which vast crowds of patients of all kinds and conditions crowded daily." '' For. as Shakespeare wrote. where his magical sensation.). was not to look behind. while gathering. linseed oil. for that deprived the plants of their medicinal value." which Paracelsus the powder of " was the " sword-salve of (composed of moss taken from the skull of a gibbetted murderer. His grand quack remedy was sympathy. kept "in a cool place!" left Certain plants pulled up with the hand were but the regarded as a sure remedy in fever cases. This was applied.82 THE DOCTOR. who came supposed a London from cures Ireland. of warm human etc. Amongst to other physicians of Shakespeare's century was Mr. clamtheir ourinty to be cured. with "a grave and (" simple countenence. says an eye-witness. Valentine Greatrake. fools are caught. He received them in order. but to the sword that inflicted it. human suet.

Evremond wrote. nor in any other kind of learning— some book also can read no letters in the — so far forth that common cures. in its preamble. and that by his prayers and laying on of hands the devil could be cast out." In an Act of Parliament which was passed in the year 1511.THE DOCTORS SHAKESPEARE KNEW. . patrons. all believing that power from heaven was in his hands. as smiths. and nothing meet therefore pleasure of God. boldly and accostumand things of partly ably took upon them great in great difficulty. 83 person was possessed by a devil. Catholics and Protestants visited liim from every part. artificers. and even some of the most learned and eminent people of the time were amongst his St. to the high dis- . which they used sorceries and witchcraft. that '' the science and cunning of Physic and Surgery " was exercised persons. we read. and partly supplied such medicines unto the diseased as are very noisome. Lord Conway sent for him to cure an incurable disease from which his wife was suffering. " You can hardly imagine in what a reputation he gained a short time. of by ''a great multitude of ignorant whom the greater part have no manner of insight in the same. and women. " etc. weavers.

" in This is not the stern. with their " Distinguished cheaters. "Therein the patient must minister unto himself. A large number of the to pretended remedies thus used in medical practice are clearly traceable back the ancient Magi. gazing in mine eyes. as well as priests and astrologers." There is no depreciation of the healing art in Shakespeare's painting of Lear's physician." who did not pretend to " raze out the written troubles of the brain. And many such libertines of sin. With these facts before you." but said. Do you remember source. feeling pulse. grave doctor "Macbeth. in the other lines from this poet which the speaks of '' This as pernicious slave. turn to your Shakespeare. outfacing me. and see how he regarded the popular delusions thus created and fostered." who "forsooth took on him face. who sold poison to Romeo in a very different way to that in which the physician in Cymbeline supplied a deadly drug to the " I Queen. cried out I was possessed." says he. as't a conjurer." — Comedy of Errors. my and with no were. and. . beseech your grace. prating mountebanks.84 THE DOCTOR. as there is of the "caitiff wretch" of an apothecary. who were professors of medicine.

" Paracelsus '" play both " Galen and mentioned. asked to and does describe what he been sees. I say we must not In are so stain our judgment. '' If thou liadst as born blind. and their names then represented rival schools of medicine." the foregoing descriptions of in you will recognize medicinal delusions the interview between not be Helena and the King. and the congregated college have concluded that labouring art can never ransom Nature from her maid estate." Caius In the "Merry Wives of Windsor" we have ''Master that calls himself doctor of . see in Henry VI." In "All's well that Ends Well. 85 speaking in solemn earnestness. " without offence (my conscience bids have commanded of me ask) wherefore you me these most poisonous compounds. thou might'st all well have known colours our names as thus to name the several we do wear. supposed is to be miraculously cured of blindness. How we smartly and merrily Shakespeare wTote of such cures as Greatrake professed to effect.THE DOCTORS SHAKESPEARE KNEW. who so says. wdiere Simpcox.. or corrupt our hope. to prostitute our past-cure this malady to empirics. when our most learned doctors leave us. we " may credulous of cure.

and often. very strangely. Dr. some as their nature incurable. Caius was a real name borne by physician to a learned gentleman who was In Cymbeline Cornelius. His friends. illness." and called by Dame Quickly a "fool in and physician. Shakespeare's Sem- pronius says." and Lord Bacon of work on says of The Advancement " Learning." Physicians. Of dealers in poison who visited . thrice in his gave him " o'er. gained great in reputation to Europe chiefly by restoring Charles V." The two were Shakespeare's time very commonly combined. Queen Elizabeth." to die as they do by their ignorant We have spoken of the sword-salve cure for wounds. a Amongst the doctors of our poet's time it was common custom to throw up cases when they them *' believed hopeless. who. is physic. like physicians. in the sixteenth century. is the name of the physician This again was the name of a real physician.86 THE DOCTOR. In the enquiry of diseases. as we have shown. so that Sylla triumvirs never prescribed so many men edicts. health after a tediously long We may presume that Shakespeare was familiar with the fact. and others as past the period of cure. they in do abandon the cures of many.

" . Who minister'st a potion unto me That thou would'st tremble to receive thyself. we get : a glimpse in Hamlet. To please the fool. ai. fairs and market-places. That nature works.d death. Or tie my treasure up in silken bags. through which secret By turning o'er authorities. Have studied physic. and to my aid. stones. I have Together with my practice.— — — 87 THE DOCTORS SHAKESPEARE KNEW. And I can speake of the disturbances of her cures . no cataplasm so rare all Collected from simples that have virtue. In the same play the true physician receives full Cerimon says of himself " 'Tis : known. Pericles. it. Helicarnus . and which doth give me A more content in course of true delight Than to be thirsty after tottering honour. the blest infusions That dwell in vegitives. the thin?^ from death. in metals. that but dip a knife in Where Under it draws blood. So mortal." the moon can save hit There is a at doctors who gave others remedies they had not enough faith in to adopt for themselves " : Thou speakst like a physician." — appreciation. made familiar To me. and attracted crowds by of a the aid " stage fool." where Laertes says " I bought an unction of a mountebank. I ever art.

who has saved her : from the grave. who by you have been restored. . who time was a Fellow of the College of Surgeons son-in-law." as Ward says his in his . Diary of the Marquis of Dorchester." lines of the And Gower. says " Reverend Sir. adds " In reverend Cerimon there well appears The worth that learned charity aye wears. turning to Cerimon. in and . Earl of Derby. bone-setting. — And " one of the two listening gentlemen adds Your honour has through Ephesus pour'd forth Your charity. . . perhaps." : And Pericles. with his supposed dead wife in his arms. who " was famous for chirurgerie. some thought of the Eliza- bethan nobleman." " Cerimon : I hold it ever Virtue and cunning (wisdom) were endowment greater Than nobleness and riches. when Shakespeare wrote the above lines." There was. The gods can have no mortal officer More like a god than you. and hundreds call themselves Your creatures.— 88 — THE DOCTOR. speaking the concluding : play. Hall. hospitalite. Edmund. a or of the poet's in gentleman who resided a fine Stratford-on-Avon. Dr. in old half timber .

— . Shake- speare bequeathed his house and grounds. Gent He Mark svsanna Y^ daughter AND CO HEIRE OF WiLL.Body of John Hall. quid desit adest fidissima conjux vitie Et Comitem nunc quoque mortis habet. Hall occupied when he died. In terris omnes. : : Hallius hie situs est medica celeberrimus arte Expectans regni gaudia Iseta Dei Dignus erat mentis qui Nestora vinceret annis." . Gent. and known as Hall's Croft. ShAKESPEARE. To his wife. sed rapit iequa dies Ne tumulo. house still 89 standing. THE DOCTORS SHAKESPEARE KNEW. Hee Deceased Nove^ 25 a^ 1635 AGED 60. His grave is it near that of his glorious father-in-law. and on is the following inscription " : Here Lyeth Y^. which Dr. the poet's elder daughter.

Nothing in. Parker Peps and Mr. it must be admitted by even of his inimitable the greatest admirers among whom the be counted. the two members who officiate at the closing scene in ."— his clerk. writer of this paper successful in must was not his delineations of the medical profession. and notably of lawyers and lawyers' clerks. Mr. the stationer. genius. in fiction can excel his legal characters ''Bleak for instance. the law But a life-like doctor cannot be found works. Tulkinghorn.Dict^cne' 2)octor6. The most strongly marked of the faculty of these are Dr. he skill has given us some good touches of his in his presentments of other professions. Pilkins. House. Mr. By Thomas Frost. Guppy. Snagsby. in his and Mr. and the nearest approaches to such a description are the merest sketches. his Though the most humorous of as well as his life most pathetic pictures human in are drawn from humbler walks the pilgrimage of humanity. DICKENS.

Slammer described as also ^ye have only a sketch. Dombey. "one of the Court physicians. a tendency Dickens seems to have had at difficulty in resisting. and a assisting at man of immense reputation of great families. Pilkins to the in Court physician. in conjunction this little Parker Peps. the life 91 of Mrs. "her grace. the duchess" or "her ladyship" Mrs." But in interlude. verge on caricature. the tw^o actors in which do not appear again. and that of the slightest character." we gather from the . to room with his hands behind the unspeakable admiration of the family surgeon.DICKENS' DOCTORS. Dr. who had regularly puffed the case for the last six all weeks among his friends and acquaintances as one to which he was in hourly expectation. all times some Of Dr. of being summoned with Dr." for is the increase introduced "walking up and down the drawinghim. mingles with the touching sadness of the death. with suppressed by the author. difficulty in which a sense of humour. day and night. the obsequiousness of Mr. which the substitutes for wdth assumed obliviousness. Parker Peps. Dombey. is Though he popular "one of the most personages in his own circle. and the manner latter.

we are for the medical profession had been educated ' but his training seems to have left no traces of his it upon his character or i conversation. received his challenge to the former by . .. told. . round top of his head. \ incidents in which he appears only that he was i ! very irascible." the kindness profession. brought from his with broad snuffy upper lip. He prefers to dabble in 1 literature and music for his own amusement. who " had gone out a poor ship's surgeon. ' I i 92 THE DOCTOR. is Allan i Woodcourt. and the interrupted duel with Winkle." —the dinner. of the in medical characters Dickens' novels. but not quite the best. and a j broad Scotch tongue. at the circle in which this ! " little fat w^ith a ring of upright black hair . who had mistake. it. in conjunction j ' with " a testy medical man." and an extensive bald plain on the ' was one of the most popular personages. and had come home nothing called in better. and i look to his friends for the means of living. too j prosaic an occupation for himself \ One of the best. Allan Woodcourt has characterises of heart which it the I and exemplifies very pleasingly in '. young man hastily is when I the death of Nemo a discovered. As we read of his furious jealousy j ' of Jingle. we wonder man. Harold Skimpole.

the weak-minded victim of the long-drawn Chancery his suit. Jarndyce. 93 the scene with the brickmaker's wife. can pursue your art for own sake. and never turn anything. moving on by the police. the forlorn waif who is kept continually tenderly." its head is as sound as his heart ' ' is soft. but the ambition that calmly trusts itself to such a road. instead of spasmodically trying to fly over it.DICKENS' DOCTORS. says Richard to him. All generous spirits are ambitious. " a (as man whose most men's hopes and aims may sometimes lie sometimes do. I suppose . is Allan. too." this briefly and can strike a purpose out of a world of difference trait What of we see in sketched to the want of of earnestness purpose and steadfastness ! pursuit in the character of young Carstone Even of Allan stronger testimony to the good qualities Woodcourt is borne by Mr. the ordinary level will be high enough if it should prove to be a way of usefulness and good service leading to no other. and can put your hand to the plough . and w4th poor Jo. says that gentleman. is the kind I care for." The love passages of this . It is Woodcourt's estimable kind. And "You. but to after whom all. How he deals with Richard Carstone. I dare say) above the ordinary level.

: young man with the equally estimable Esther Summerson. the genial in " but mistaken father of Grace and Marion.94 THE DOCTOR. gigantic practical joke as something too absurd to be considered seriously by any practical man. are very pleasing." The i The doctor is "a great of his philosopher. in I which occurs towards the close of the There is another medical character one of the Christmas stories which. When he hears his daugfhters conversing about their lovers. whose everything on the surface of the ocean of irresistible. Jeddler. development of character I in that class of mean Dr. . might have been made better but for the extent to which the exigencies of space limited the author in the stories. and none of them more so than one story. Battle of Life. "his reflections as . was the w^hile there was nothing in conditions of his existence to suggest anything that was beneath. but a inclination to laugh at life modern Democritus. one of Dickens' most charming j | presentments of English maidenhood." He is not of the cynical school. good as it is. in the His system of belief had been beginning part and parcel of the battle ground on which he lived. and the heart and mystery philosophy was to look upon the world as a .

we life are not told what his experiences of had been. The doctor never dreamed of inquiring whether his children. of all loves and and the idle imposition practised on themselves by young people who believe for a moment in that there could be anything serious always deceived such bubbles. scarcely satisfactory. a bubble on ? surface. But then he and generous was a A kind man by nature." Dr. or either of them. why should he have engagement of Grace life's is. were hmited at folly first to certain merry meditations on the likings. 95 he looked after them. Had they been unhappy. and heard the purport of their discourse. helped in any way to make the scheme a serious philosopher. he had stumbled by chance over that . Jeddler is a widower married . one would suppose that he would have been more disposed to be cynical and pessimistic than to regard life's incidents as provocative of merriment. "He was sorry. yet. one. as an idle folly. "for her sake —sorry for them both —that life it should be such a very ridiculous business as was. and were —always. soon to burst Dickens' explanation from this point of view." says the novelist. if they had been regarded the happy.DICKENS' DOCTORS.

which some of every deep-anchored. philosopher's stone common (much more the easily discovered than the object of alchemist's researches) which sometimes trips up kind and property of generous men. creature." Then. — even is with mine.96 THE DOCTOR. find him acknowledging that ''It's a world all its of hearts. and Kenge. he felt that the world in the doctor's love. is the portion human as was more serious than he had thought and understood a little "how unit such a in trifle the absence of the great absurd account had stricken him to the ground. that while we life find all the traits in and incidents of professional the lawyers of Dickens' creation. and a serious world with folly. and many named . and his arms are about them both." to be observed. and Vholes others that might be in Wickfield. it. but they are so . and every precious thing to poor account. when he and we full his daughters are again together in the old home. and has the fatal turning gold to dross." But when sorrow had humbled heart. there is little or nothing of the kind in his doctors. Such traits are abundant in his presentments of Tulkinghorn. which was enough to swamp It the whole world. however.

Jeddler." as the facetious designates Sam the young men quahfying themselves for the exercise of the profession by ''walking the hospitals. we descend to the ''sawbones in training.. or m.d. we are struck at once with the difference.r. CHARLES DICKENS. when from adding to the his full-blown medical practitioner. 97 completely absent from his portrayals of Allan Woodcourt and Dr. This is not the case.c.DICKENS' DOCTORS. however. name the Weller initials m. or with to the stories in which they his lawyers. loss without any appear. If we compare them with of the clergymen Mrs. that the two men might as well have been of any other profession." The medical students . Oliphant.s.

Pickwick. in the Strand. and chaffing the police. that often outraged propriety. and the Judge and Jury Club. in Their after-amusements were found strolling through the streets in threes and fours. Dickens must often in his reporting days have witnessed the next morning appearances of these young men at Bow Street police-court. ringing door bells. . in Maiden in Lane. the Coal Hole. The news- papers of the day record their frequent appearances at the police-courts Bow Street and Marlborough Street of on charges rowdyism in the streets at or after midnight. who edited a vile publication called The To'wn.98 THE DOCTOR. the latter Leicester presided over by Renton Nicholson. Square. the novelist's of early days were — it would perhaps be fairer to say that a large proportion of them were —a turbulent and disorderly element in the social life of the metropolis. when they came out from their favourite places of amusement. first The appearance of two specimens of this variety of the immature medico in the humorous pages of the '' Pickwick Papers " is described as follows in the low cockney vernacular of Sam Weller. singing at the top of their voices comic songs." he tells Mr. the Cider Cellars. '' One on 'em.

Benjamin Allen. buttoned up to his appeared number of pepper-and-salt coloured minating boots." The gentleman is Mr. vich he's a-openin' like steam. black chin. which the legs. was not graced by the smallest that a approach altogether to appendage. who novelist as '^ is described by the a coarse. thick-set young man. and a white face cut rather long. Bob Sawyer. stout. with black hair cut rather short. barnacles the tother one —him the — has got a barrel of oysters atween his knees. and emitted a fragrant odour of full-flavoured Cubas. and as fast as he eats 'em he takes a aim with the shells at young Dropsy." This gentleman's '^ companion is Mr. his and wore a white neckerchief. Below was usual ter- single-breasted surtout. and vile a-drinkin' in brandy neat. sleeves.DICKENS' DOCTORS. who's a-sittin' down latter fast asleep in the chimbley corner. '^ 99 is has got his legs on the table. He was embellished with spectacles. who was habited in a coarse blue coat . He presented rather mildewy appearance. and although there his was quite enough of face to it admit of the encroachment of a shirt-collar. in a pair his of imperfectly polished in Although it coat was short the disclosed no vestige of a linen wrist- band.

partook of the nature and quahties of sort of slovenly is both.100 THE DOCTOR. and looked. which. is when '' it assumes character. When relieved from attendance at the hospitals. flirt with barmaids and are to whom their attentions not unfrequently of an objectionable character. without being either a great-coat or a surtout. He eschewed gloves. and less agreeable than they imagine contrast them to be." The conversation perfectly in of these budding: their surgreons is harmony with outward aspect. The between the graphic power displayed by Dickens in his delineation of the . upon the whole. they lounge at tavern bars. of the " cases " at the hospital and the '' subjects at the time being on the dissecting tables of the anatomical lecture-rooms. a serious Their discourse. like something a dissipated Robinson Crusoe. of an equally He wore a pair of plaid trousers : and a large rough double-breasted waistcoat out of doors he carried a thick stick with a big top." and " had about him that smartness and swao^gering gait which to peculiar young gentlemen who smoke by in the streets by day. and do various facetious other acts and deeds description. and waitresses. shout and scream in the waiters same by night. call their Christian names.

in these respects. stand as The physician and the surgeon apart. clerical portrait. as may be seen every day in the newspaper records of the courts of law and of pohce. as profession. but her genius as a writer of fiction runs in a groove essentially different from that of Dickens.DICKENS' DOCTORS. may help us to understand the causes his doctors so which render much less effective than his lawyers. busy barrister or as the clergy Dickens has not given as a probably for a similar reason. on the other hand. Oliphant. and Mrs. excels in her delineations of every grade of the Anglican hierarchy . of his presentments Jeddler. characters of 101 Bob Sawyer and Ben to Allen. of Allan Woodcourt and Dr. and the indistinctiveness. The legal profession presents more variety than the medical. and comes before us more prominently in conjunction with incidents of a striking character. . solicitor much from the do.

however. so commonly pursuit. By Cuming Walters. and perhaps even a novel with a purpose . No such rule applies. and to trust to briefless barristers for a continuous supply of romances. might almost seem that failure in law was the most important step towards success in authorship. Indeed.]famou6 Xitcraip Doctore. philosophical essays. literature extra or as a as have the It is members quite of the other liberal professions. and either never practised or forsook practising in order to it engage in literary labours. No detail is more frequently discovered in the biographies of eminent authors than that they were called to the Bar. to medical men. Not only do w^e find the writing of books wise than text-books and technical treatises — other—rarer . and it is usual to recruit the ranks of critics extensively from the law. expected that a clergyman should write poems. and no such comment would be justified in their case. MEDICAL made adopted it men have not an serious calling.

FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS.
with them, but
instances
it it

103

curiously happens that in most

has been the successful practitioner,
the hospitals or waiting for
author.
(if

not the
calls,

man walking who has turned
these

And we
I

shall find

that

medico-literati

may

coin

the

phrase) have often been

among

the most hardis

working
that

in their profession,

and the wonder

they

were able to enter upon a second
it

pursuit and to follow
in

with so

much
I

zeal.

For,

most

of

the

examples

shall

advance,

literature

was more than a pastime with these
indulged in
it.

men who

It

was chosen by some
for its

for its lucrativeness,

and by the majority

capacity to enhance their reputation or to bring

them enduring fame.
said,

This

that the names of

much may be safely many excellent doctors
aw^ay

would have faded from public remembrance ere
this,

and

would have passed
to

wnth the

generation

which

they

belonged,

had not
In not

literature given

them
the

lasting luminance.
fact
is

a

few^

instances

already

forgotten

or wholly ignored that certain successful writers

once wrote

"

M.D."

after

their names.
classic
"

Who
Religio
at

cares that the

author of that
degrees
at

Medici

"

took his

Leyden and

Oxford, and dispensed medicine to the end of his

104
life?

THE DOCTOR.

Who

cares

that the
in Verse,"

author

of

"The

Borough," ''Tales

and ''The Parish
?

Register/' was apprenticed to a surgeon
cares

Who
as

that

the

writer

of

such

dramas

^'Virginius,"

"William

Tell,"

and "The Hunch?

back," was trained for a physician

Who

cares

that

the

author
Pickle,"

of

"

Roderick
"

Random,"
of

" Peregrine

and

The Expedition

Humphrey

Clinker

"

was a surgeon's

assistant

and acted as surgeon's mate

in the unfortunate

Carthagena expedition, before trying (unsuccessfully)

to
all,

obtain a practice in

London

?

And,

above

who

cares that the
"

author of

"The
the
"

Deserted Village
studied

and

"

The Vicar

of Wakefield"

physic

in

Edinburgh

and

on

Continent, and, as Boswell was informed,

was

enabled to pursue his travels on foot, partly by

demanding
disputant,

at Universities to enter the lists as a

by which, according

to the

custom of

many

of them, he was entitled to the j)remium of

a crown,

when
?

luckily for

him

his challenge

was

not accepted

"

Such

are a few of the examples

which immediately occur to the mind when the

whole subject
It

is

contemplated.
in

would be impossible

the compass

of a

short article to deal systematically and compre-

FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS.
hensively with doctors

105

who became

authors, or to

make out

a complete hst of their

names with an

account of the works w^hich entitled them to the
designation.

Any
is

facts

now adduced must be
and sequence
so
I

considered arbitrary and capricious, so far as the
choice of
little

them

concerned

;

is

attempted that the reader

will pardon,

trust,

a possible leap from Galen to Goldsmith,

from Sir Thomas Browne to Tobias Smollett,

and from Sir John Blackmore to Conan Doyle.
I put aside those

members
on

of the profession
professional

who

have

simply
is

written
legion,

subjects.

Their name
cases such

but in the great majority of

work

as this w^ould not strictly justify
literati.

their inclusion

among the
as

And, on the
category

other hand,
for

we cannot

find a place in the

such

men

Goethe or Sainte-Beuve, for
it

though both studied medicine,

seems to have

been purely wdth a view to the extension of their

knowledge and not with any more practical or
material object.

Sainte-Beuve,

it

is

true, for a

short time in his youth entertained some thought
of

adopting

the profession

;

but

Goethe

only

dipped into the subject with the same

spirit that

he

dipped

into

experimental

chemistry

and

astrology.

106

THE DOCTOR.
us, then, refer to a

Let

few types certain of
of

instant recognition.

The most notable
OHver
Wendell
a

modern
a

instances
specialist

is

Dr.
his

Holmes,

in

profession,

hard-working

physician, and the author of valuable treatises on

medical
position

who nevertheless occupied the of being among the four chief poets whom
art,

America has produced, and one of the most
versatile of the litterateurs of the century.

He

went

to the Paris

Medical Schools shortly after
;

he had graduated at Harvard
physician at Boston
;

he practised as a

and

for nearly forty years

he was Professor of Physiology.

Yet he had

time to write the most delightful and original of
philosophical essays, to publish novels of which
at
least
"

one

" Elsie

Yenner
as

:

A
;

Romance
to
in

of

Destiny
orations
verse,

will

rank

a

classic

deliver

and after-dinner speeches

sparkling

and to write exquisite poems
language on
a

in rich

and
of

felicitous

wonderful

variety

themes, the complete collection of which makes a

very substantial volume.

In

all

his

work Dr.

Holmes showed himself to be the profound student
of nature and of humanity with
interests
;

many varying

yet

we can

often trace the hand of the

physician in the work of the essayist and poet.

"

FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS.
His novels were
ardent
special studies

107

which only the would

physiologist

and

metaphysician

have cared to

discuss, or, at all events,

would have

discussed so well.

Both "Elsie Venner" and
deal

"The Guardian Angel"
problems of heredity,

with

the occult

and those problems are

treated with the power of the specialist in certain

branches of science.
character
of

Still

more strongly

is

the
a

the

medical

man

displayed in

number
subject,

of the poems,

some by reason of

their

and some by the figures and imagery they

contain.
will

The well-known

"

Stethoscope Song
in

immediately suggest

itself

illustration.
less

But, for j)urposes of quotation, I prefer a

popular

poem

of

rare

beauty,

which

more
trans-

strikingly manifests the writer's

power of

muting the hard dry
gleaming poetry.
first

facts of science into light

and

I refer to

what he

called at

"The Anatomist's Hymn," but "The Living Temple." It is one of
in the "

afterwards

the inter-

polated poems

Autocrat"

series of papers,

and to

my

thinking invests
functions

the

human body
unimagined

and

its

physical

with

charms.

Take, for instance, this poetic exposition of our
respiration, the scientific correctness

and exactness


108

THE DOCTOR.

of which need no explanation to readers of this

volume

:

"The smooth, soft air with pulse-like waves Flows murmuring through its hidden oaves, Whose streams of brightening purple rush Fired with a new and livelier blush.
While
all

their

burden of decay
steals

The ebbing current

away,

And
From

red with Nature's flame they start
the

warm

fountains of the heart.

No

rest that throbbing slave

may
jet

ask,

For ever quivering

o'er his task.

While

far

and wide a crimson
fill

Leaps forth to

the

woven net
crossing tides

Which
The

in

unnumbered
burning

flood of

life divides.

Then kindling each decaying part
Creeps back to find the throbbing heart.

But warmed
Its living

v/ith that

unchanging flame

Behold the outward moving frame,
marbles jointed strong

With

glistening

band and

silvery thong,

And linked to reason's guiding reins By myriad rings in trembling chains,
Each graven with the threaded zone

Which

claims

it

as the master's own."

There

is

an almost

irresistible

temptation to

linger over Dr.

Oliver Wendell Holmes' books,
is

so intensely interesting

his personality

and so
other

fascinating

is

his

work.

But

several

need be said except that youthful writing a experience may have aided him scathing denunciation of the Quack. and was never forbearing with the lash than w^hen these impostors of his day were under his hand for side flagellation." The poet was a severe castigator." In the same year he published " The Pleasures of the Imagina- tion. and three years later became. Johnson records that Akenside was known as a poet better than as a doctor. At the age of twenty he went to Leyden." his greatest work.FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS. and Dr. who less insults victim whom he kills. but he sought a liveli- hood as a physician. (as Dr. In Mark Aken- we come to a better specimen of the class which we are considering. Little success attended him. Dutch published a thesis. To Crabbe's connection with surgery early little I have already incidentally referred. Johnson writes) " a doctor of physick. having. who believed wholly in the potence of " of the oxymel of " first squills. and inasmuch as he abandoned the calling for the his in ministry. 109 eminent poets of the profession demand attention. and would have been reduced to great exigencies but . This was followed by still a collection of odes. however. according to the custom of the Universities." and the Parish Doctor.

As . whom Johnson extensive himself records that "by his con- versation and accomplishments he obtained a very practice. was a crude but ostentatious preface to a translation of Ovid. for the generosity of " Thus supported. was eventually knighted. his degree of reputation . and he sprang into favour." they that reject him. A physician in a great city. who wished to keep " up the high price of medicine. His last and his worst. and became physician-general literary work. is. know not with Sir Yet it was otherwise of Samuel Garth. "seems to be the mere play-thing of Fortune ." as Johnson put it . and of regular learning against licentious usurpation of medical authority. and the Apothecaries. Garth was on the side of charity against the intrigues of interest. for the most part. to the army. but never attained any great extent of practice. he gradually advanced in medical reputation. or eminence of popularity. . know not his excellence his deficiency." His principal poem was "The Dispensary." relating to a controversy of the time between the College of Physicians. doctor and poet. totally casual they that employ him." his biographer continues musingly. an ardent friend.no THE DOCTOR. who desired to give gratuitous advice to the poor.

except that on poem he Blenheim. . is he died. at the early age of thirty-three. fact calling attention to the that the "Dispensary" poem had been an corrected in every edition. curious fact about his writings." the John who may be ranked among it is physicians. letters though doubtful whether he of enjoyed a better fate as a man than did either Akenside or Garth. Johnson did not rate Phillips very highly ." and he was meditating an epic on "The Last Day" when One it is." and this he followed sort of official up by a was commemoration of the victory of o-reatest Blenheim." doctor. but that " natural deficience cannot be supplied. practised. a Ill matter of fact his in writing was invariably mediocre. change was improvement. Dr.FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS. His achievement a poem in two books on "Cider. did his The sturdy utmost to rehabilitate the damaged reputation of Blackmore. He "The sprang into sudden popularity by the publication of a whimsical and clever medley called Silver Shilling. unkindly remarked that "every Phillips. tobacco in every He sang the praises of wrote. and Pope. he said that what study could confer he obtained. however. small as worthy of mention.

he starts. The King knighted him and gave the critics him other advances. regard as the most remarkable of whom we may all the compounds of physician-poets with can become acquainted. or in and for the greatest part passing up and down the streets. and published successively a " Paraphrase on the Book . for all that was heavy and ridiculous Notwithstanding this he persevered. constituted himself his champion. related." This work passed through several editions with rapidity. books. in coffee-houses. whom we Blackmore obtained an undeserved success. a heroic poem and in in ten on Prince Arthur. His first work. which was followed by unmerited ridicule.word in poetry. " such catches was written. and Johnson. and two extra books were added to it. contemporary wits. prodigious worker. by and such occasional uncertain hours as his profession afforded. but assailed furiously him.112 THE DOCTOR. and his name became a by." as Bos well termed all is When and a said and done the fact remains that Blackmore was a man of uncommon character. who hated every form of injustice. For the truth about Blackmore we must seek the medium between the extremes and of the censure of of of Johnson's praise his enemies — the " malignity it.

" a '' 113 Satire on Wit. how " Elijah. "England's Arch-Poet" could never have idled (as Swift described him) hour." ''The Nature of Man. perhaps. his "Advices" to painters." —an epic a Philosophical to celebrate the Poem." and a perverted reason or of the Conspiracy against host of others which his fantastic fancy suggested." —an epic in twelve books — " A History King William. 8 himself thought him a shallow ill-read But . his one so long his What with his heroic poems." Redemption." "Advice to Poets Duke i( of Marlborough. of Job. and weavers. Johnson man. his name would only have lived the satires of his remorseless of Blackmore's only is critics. to He of had laid himself learning. was author. and but Johnson's good-natured attempt to save him in from oblivion. or known such erratic in a voluminous system. poets." poem in ten books — "Creation.FAMOUS LITER AIIY DOCTORS." " Alfred " a A New Version of the Psalms. Never. open the imputation despising and Dr. and his prose contributions to periodical publications. away an Of all that he w^rote. treatises on smallpox and other diseases. his theological controversies. One saying worth noting here. a few passages from his "Arthur" and for " Creation " are alone remembered.

wrote half a dozen several dramas." a work of such magnitude that it ran to twenty-six volumes. but those talents are separated. nothing for the service of mankind affirmed that learning as to physic I expressly must be joined with native first genius to if make a physician of the rank . is insecure.114 THE DOCTOR.d. natural history. William Fullarton Gumming. a copy of which was presented to the King of Sweden. still that a man a of native sagacity and diligence practiser will prove a more able and useful scholar ideas. Dr. was a fairly tensive litterateur. novels. but w^hose fame transient. said : Blackmore superficial — "I only undervalued false or that signifies . medicine. or. and philosophy. m. Sir John Hill. and procured for the author the distinction of being included in the Order of the Polar Star. learning. at least. an ex- eighteenth century physician. and do insist. and His chef d'ceuvre was '' The Vegetable System. and in addition to producing treatises on botany. call for very brief notice before we pass on to a few of greater importance. a son of Burns' ." than heavy notional en- cumbered with a heap of confused One was or two other doctors who in their time enjoyed a reputation as writers.. I asserted.

John Brown. '' and as a result wrote The Notes of a Wanderer. the story of Bab and of Marjorie will be read . be confused with the great divine. work and the recreations of other m. who ''Bab the in memorable and his Friends. but to saunter about without an object. 115 ''Bonnie Leslie.d." was compelled to travel in mild climates for his health. (not to John Chalmers. and these sketches .— FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS. to stray hither and thither \vatchinof the races. but to catch the hundred peculiarities of a new people. under the name of duced Pen Oliver. writer romantic and " Sir Henry volume Charley Thompson. travelling He is tells us that the real pleasure of not to boast of how many lions one may have slain in a single day. also deserves of to be noted as a very graceful stories . As long as lovers of the animal creation are to be found. not to buy." a work abounding in poetic descriptions of the charming scenery of the East. diffident and most delightful gave us of Dr. to enter bazaars." prolittle some years ago a strange enjoyed a season's which success " Kingston's Aunt. Thomas Chalmers)." was practice at Edinburgh. to inhale the moral atmosphere of places visited." That most authors. Dr.

Warren. who faithfully performed ." was the author of " Of a very different nature Ten Thousand a Year. were exposures intended for a past generation. politician. for the type out-of-date. or those dozen other works with the bare is titles of which the present reading public scarcely acquainted. is Samuel novelist. the chief consulting physician Scotland during the last century. treats. brutes of whom outlive he the almost genial humanised doctor's will probably more ambitious ''Horse Subsecivse" and ''John Leech and other Papers. David Macbeth Moir. achieved literary fame " sought and with two volumes on The Intellectual Powers." They enjoyed a popularity scarcely commensurate with their actual merits. Tittlebat Titmouse is not much studied now. John Aberin crombie." Dr. the general corruption which prevailed in public life. Yet there it are passages in the work which should save it from absolute neglect. the and the society of which the novel abuses prevalent. and its has for over half a century kept alive." and " The Moral Feelings.116 THE DOCTOR. author's name This is more than late his " Passages from the Diary of a Physician" could have done. and office-seeker. physician. lawyer.

and whose hfe was almost wholly devoted to the service of his fellows. Tailor. His con- some four hundred of which he tributed to ^'Maga. 117 the arduous duties of a medical practitioner in Edinburgh." Quiet humour and deep simple a love humanity. His poems fill large volumes ." a standard work on the poetry of too. and Poetical Literature of the past Half-century. Medical treatises. thouofh their ness deliofhtful vein of reflective- and their charm of expression neglect. his prose works are by no means his " Sketches of the is meagre or unimportant. came from his pen is and his " Life of Mansie Wauch. reverential feehng." one of the most agreeable of genuine Scotch sketches. His biographer correctly summed up the merits of the worthy doctor as a literary worker in the words " Good sound him. was the famous "Delta" of BlachwoocV s Magazine. direct.FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS." alone. are out of fashion now. . and from himself pathos. poems. should preserve them from absolute The heavy two labours of his profession did not seem to check his literary productiveness. a simple healthy be. his period. sense. feeling. and originahty of thought— all these are . excited and exalted though these may never fail He of draws from nature.

The unexpected use to which Mr." has excited much interest and . R. fact Undoubtedly he exemplifies the medical it that the hand can scarcely concealed when takes to the pen. and I refrain from a more precise examination of them. nature. for his novels in and stories abound allusions which only his study. and serve. Some- thing of the same could be said of Smollett's work. His reading and observation largely provide the technique of his romances. as the main facts of his career are sufficiently well known. — in several of his novels. to keep his memory Of Dr. the most conspicuous instance of the hour of the doctor turned author. thouo-h the medical knowledgfe of less the author was often turned to agreeable account. ill found " Delta's " writings. most of Smollet's references on were the reverse of delectable. Blackmore has turned his knowledge of medicine— for he studied medicine as well as law seriously in his youth last. this score In fact. notably in the '' Perly cross. Conan Doyle. no detailed notice is requisite. training. and experience as a doctor could suggest.118 THE DOCTOR. D. with his own admirable green. and his literary work promises to bring him both fame be and fortune.

. The . incidents in ' The medical Perly cross. The book contains an admirably-described case of is catalepsy. he such a case could be dealt with best in Paris. although we have young found men later ' rising now^ w^ill make it otherwise before is very long. At the time spoken of Parisian surgeons.' The key to this difficulty on (p. attention this 119 is among I the profession.'" he says. England as in the metropolis of France. excelled in the art of surgery . though they could hardly be received w^ith justice in the present day.FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS. . b^^ No in doubt the opinions expressed one learned doctor were those of the time represented the story. where the technical word introsusception is mentioned as the disease or condition from which the patient suffered. 18) : — 'At present who 159) ' Thomas Waldron. which equally well explained. Speak- ing of the illness of Sir says (p. "are pour- trayed with an accuracy \Yhich shows an intimate knowledge of the profession and its members. headed by the eminent Dupuytren. at the present time such a case could w^ell be treated as by any hospital surgeon in . refrain So marked from that cannot quoting a a singularly interesting criticism penned " by leading physician in the Midlands.

the Greek physician.' and the second. Not to stray.120 THE DOCTOR. but the excuse of his early training. He was so volumin- ous a writer on philosophical subjects that scores . should begun. with which this article. must be counted first among the and most famous of his class who have written literary works. but to get our feet once solid more upon ground. however.' see ' it with your own good work.'" Perhaps I am going too far in claiming: Mr. The keystone knowledge its is position of medical contained in a few words towards close. is cure of the attack skill described with consummate of the whole and power. proves irresistible. In these days of rapid transition from one excitement to another it w^ould be well to take the lesson to heart. we may refer to a classic example. Galen. these sayings Never scamp your How may may be applied in the practice of the profession with profit be learned from a perusal of the ' pages of Perly cross. had have it been aught else but discursive. combined with this curious it manifested in his writing. Blackmore as a medical man who result of has taken to literature. and to remember what the author speaks of things — ' as two fine If you wish to be sure of anything eyes.

philosophers. most famous Arabian calif. But it is more to our purpose to draw attention . a master of the twelfth would occupy a prominent position. and scientific knowledge of and died his time. As it is he is credited with eighty-three is treatises. In addition to preparing this massive work. he seems to have found time to devote himself to various branches of philosophy with such success that later writers were well pleased to trade with the talisman of his name. 121 of books on logic and ethics have been fathered upon him without much question arising as to the unhkelihood of his being the author of so many. which may be accepted as his in part or whole. and left a record of that period. forty-five are proved to be spurious. physiological. Were it worth wdiile to go back to antiquity.. Averrhoes.FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS. the genuineness of which not disputed. in 201. and to the history of foreign nations for further examples of physicians whose writings were not confined to expositions of the of medical system. there are nineteen suspected to bear his name and unjustly. He 130 A. D. then there remain a further fifteen fifteen fragments and commentaries on Hippocrates. and physician to the century. He made was born in himself master of the medical.

and the prospect of many years being him. he indulged in extensive travel. physician to King Charles the In the same year that he graduated at the university of Padua (1610) he was and that '' laureated poet at Paris. unless be Buchanan's. for 1645 he published an elegy on this James I. characteristic the time. and one that deserves to the remarkable career. of Arthur Johnston. and followed up by dedicating a Latin rendering of the Song of Solomon to King Charles. translation of the His Latin Psalms it is held to be unexcelled by any other." Sir Thomas Urquhart recorded. as most deservedly. First. to be held in remembrance. and as a writer of excellent Latin of A of courteous act. He died suddenly . over.. He before was then only three- and-twenty years of age. he settled in His journeying France and became equally well known as a physician verse. and the is still fact that his translation in use sufficiently attests its excellence and value.122 THE DOCTOR. and visited in turn most of the principal foreign seats of learning. Other specimens of poetical his rare culture and his powers were forthcoming. secured him the royal favour and patronage in the English family. and he achieved a European reputation.

but to enough has perhaps been written show that they are no small band so far as numbers go. It to would be a matter of considerable a complete list difiiculty make of literary doctors. zeal we consider the willingness and the with which the writinof members of the medical profession have imparted their knowledge. in learning study . general of perpetual entertainment to the too. and that their influence in the world of books has been very considerable and distinguished. my . the " To be reserved and sordidest piece of in goodness is the covetousness. We owe to them many great works of value to of enduring repute. and in the centuries which have succeeded he has not been displaced in the front rank of refined and deeply versed Latin scholars and poets. a To this (as calling myself Scholar) : I I am obliged by the duty of my condition make not therefore .— FAMOUS LITERARY DOCTORS. When. we are led to believe that they accepted as their motto the noble utterance of Sir chief of literary doctors caitiff : Thomas Browne. while on a visit to Oxford. reader. in 123 1641. but a community. head a grave. and more contemptible than pecuniary Avarice. the student. but a treasure of know^ledge I intend no I Monopoly.

envy no man that. knows more than myself. but for theirs that I study not for themselves. but pity them that know less. that my acquired parts must perish with myself." . or it with intent rather to nourish and keep alive in it mine own head than . I instruct no man an as an exercise of my knowledge.124 THE DOCTOR. nor can be Legacied among my honoured Friends. not for my own sake only. beget and propagate of all in his and in the midst my endeavours there is but one thought that dejects me.

— ^be '' doctor 'Mn time of By William E. to which the general name of plague or pestilence has been given. Ipeetilence. OF the great epidemics \yliich have from time to time devastated Europe. no doubt with perfect truth. principally of artisans and labourers. Sir Thomas Browne's " Ileligio Medici.s.. Between 664 and resulting in 1665 there were many visitations. which had important consequences.l. " I do not feel in . socially and ." sec. ix. rejoice at Famines." pt. The Statute of Labourers declares. A. Great its full Britain has had share. and ii.r. Eclipses. although they were not always identical in form." died the Black in the pestilence known as Death of 1349. me do those sordid and unchristian desires of my profession I not secretly implore and wish for Plagues. that ''a great part of the people. Axon. in expectation of malignant Aspects. heavy mortality. f. Often the dread sisters Famine and Pestilence went hand in hand in the domains of merrie England in the good old times. revolve Ephemerides fatal and Con- Almanacks junctions.

the invasion by his which rival Richard his crown. plague. headache. appearance coincided III. Dr. and became Henry was in VII. Forrester. astrological causes. promising to help the people in their need. bad '' odour." w^e saw both of them die The symptoms were sweating.126 politically. redness. We have from the graphic hand of Chaucer a portrait of a life-like medical man his of the fourin teenth century who had gained money the time of pestilence. though they fortunately did not attain the enormous proportions of the great mortality. Thomas the of suddenfatal. At bubo the end of the fifteenth and middle of the sixteenth century. thirst. gives with which the '* sweat" became ^'We saw two prestys standing togeder and speaking togeder. and some had black spots as noble leech." quacks who put letters on poles and on church doors. on it appeared in our frere Alban. we have Sudor with lost as alternating with Its the Anglicaiius. but He lays stress upon the does not overlook . and suddenly. THE DOCTOR. There were many subsequent outto breaks. a whose soul Forrester complains of the God have mercy. who of London instances during outbreak ness 1485.

but with the entente never more to write in the Englishe tongue partly because the comodite of that which is so written. which have ranged from medicine to theology. but afterwards in Latin and Greek. and 1551. Fourthlv for that the common . defective sanitation which gave the plague 127 some of in its firm hold. 1508. but remaineth enclosed within the seas. oy reason for this change At is first he wrote in English. and approuyng that which they most disalowe. " The Sence y* that tyme diverse other thynges I have written. " whom Gonville The Boke " is of Jhon Caius aganst the sweatyng It opens as to his Sickness an interesting document. passeth not the compasse of Englande. 1517. in disprouyng that which they most approue. for that I thought best to auoide the judgment of the multitude from whom in maters of lernyng a man shal be forced to dissente.DOCTORS IN TIME OF PESTILENCE. The last visitation was the occasion of a treatise by the worthy Cambridge founder. and partly because I thought that labours so taken should be halfe lost set not it among them which by learnyng. stated. The Sudor Anglicanus returned 1528. to and Caius College owes so much. with a long autobiographical passage previous literary labours. Thirdly.

he lays stress upon errors and excess of diet as a strongly cause. better service of their kyng. in as here tofore have comparable learnyng to men of other countries) to stande onely in the Englishe tongue. were either men ." life so euer they should applie But his resolution not to write again in the vulgar tongue was broken by considerations of utility. for he saw that it could not be very ser- viceable to ordinary English people to give them advice as to the treatment of the sweating sickness in a language which they did not understand. furthe settyng and printig of every foolish thyng in englishe. In his account of this dire malady. " co-operating They which had thys sw^eat sore with perille or death.e 128 THE DOCTOR. the adornyng the comon welthe. but to leaue the simplicitie of the same. and to precede further in in many and and to diuerse at knowledges both tono-ues sciences home of and in uniuersities. because to I would countrie geve none example or comfort to my men (who they I be now. and great pleasure and commodite of their own selues. both of phisicke vnperfectly and other matters vndiscretly diminishe the grace of thynges learned set furth in thesame. chiefely But would been. to what kind of them.

The hand- kerchief was to be perfumed. ''Therefore seke you .DOCTORS IN TIME OF PESTILENCE." coulde not waste and consume Against the infection of avoiding carrion. like Dr. For these. bad air he recommends cleane " ''kepyng sanitary Canelles and other suggests general the precautions. and the patient was to have in his mouth "a pece either of setwel." Dr. and Tauerne haunters. moehe evill matter : by their ease and it. a mace. were not renewed very frequently." for purging "and not onely Rosewater it and other perfumes are to be used. bonfires He that midsummer the air. did not omit to warn his readers that even with the aid of his still book a medical man was necessary. and large drinkyng of thother. 129 of welthe. good ale drinkers. were intended for vigils. or of the poorer sorte such as wer idls persones. and in doing so he gives us a glimpse of the quack doctors of the sixteenth century. or of the rote of enula campana wel steped before in vinegre rosate. ease and welfare. Forrester. even in great houses. or berie of Juniper. its rushes and It is to be feared that the rushes which served instead of carpets. Caius. by ye great welfare of the one sorte. heped up in their bodies idlenes. and he thinks would be well to clear the house of dust.

pulters. Egipt or Jury : from y*" seruice of Emperoures. out a good Phisicien. Almaine. or quintessence. meaninge nothng but to abuse your light beheue. penters. moone. and quienes. theselves come from Pole. sope sellers. by blessynges. Inde. by Aurum potahile. promisig helpe of al diseases. by waters sixe monethes in continualle distillinge. auaunters Italic. that I am ashamed to . apotecaries (otherwise then to for their drogges). smockes. and Turkic. brasiers. kinges. Grece. Spaine. with one or two drinckes. and Blowinges. prices as though thei were made of the or sterres. and scorne you behind your backes with their medicines (so filthie. ball car- pewterers. by drynckes of great and hygh sune. and foolysh smokynges of shirts. Fraunce. skille. As simple women. and kerchieffes.130 THE DOCTOR. yea vncurable. hostellers. Hipocriticalle prayenges. shoemaker flie doubt not but you wil is diUgently searche out hosier or : who in knowe to be the best the place where you dwelle and the unlearned as a pestilence to the comune wealth. and mockeries. wyth such other theire phantasies els. Constantiple. painters. as you are or to your hosen or shoes I for the wel-making mending wherof. and knowen to haue and at the leaste be so good to your bodies.

let it ly a good whyle at youre fayth. althouofh thei never so euil fauoured could foolish & foule : as though there as a not be so conninof an EnHishman. al charyte yt you can get. Take also of the best fyne hope. and w^ashe w^ith the w^el water of your eyes." Dr. mixed together. as by deceiptfull ignorance." We need not follow him in the details of the if treatment he recommends in spite of the adoption of his preventive regime the sweating sickness should come.DOCTORS IN TIME OF PESTILENCE. name in 131 theim. a like quantite of full. running stranger (of others I speak not) perfect helth by or so honest learning. but some popular leofo-es games he thought ''rather a laminof of than an exercise. your soule even this confection and use every day in your . trusting the most which you : know not at al. for your single wit and simple belief." The tract ends with the following parody on the nostrums current for the cure of the pestilence '' : Take a it pond of good hard penaunce. and hert. In 1561 there was issued "A newe booke con- teyninge an exortacion to the sicke. and vnderstad least farre foules like to them which thinke be have faire fethers. Caius laid stress upon exercise as an aid to health.

both men and women (Collier's Bih. se necessite so to This medicine was found wryten in it an olde byble boke. Account. on an outbreak from the infected city. and ever as you are able and use them. and from Miles Coverdale's translation of Osiander's sermon. Then. " How whether a Christian man ought to flye the horrible plage of the pestilence.132 lyfe. and kepe them close in a clene conscience from the duste of vayne glory. " Treatise on the Plague relation — not the the only one published in to this epidemic — we are told of his city. THE DOCTOR. fled as we may and learn from Boccaccio. the Dekker is to have " hid at all their synodical heads. also a Thomas Lodge. i. whiles the plages of God ful reigneth." but this events not wholly true. During the plague of London. w^as ''' graduate in medicine. ." which appeared in 1537. experiences of plague-stricken He gives some good advice in relation to the sanitary measures to be taken for the prevention of the plague. 74). The wealthy. take both your handes of good workes commaunded of God. physicians are asserted by in 1G03. and hath been practised " and proved true of mani. the and in his poet. of the plague.

citie. That no person nor persons who are or shalbe any other who shall visited with the said sickness. shall go abrode out of there houses without license of the alderman of the ward such persons inhabite. clauses. Item that none of them soe visited doe goe abroad in any part or place within the like payne. all and commandeth persons and kepe. visited. . . . shall goe abrode out of the upon paine tliat eny person doynge the contrary to be furthwith expulsed out of the said " 2. . . Knight. if Item any person doe company with any persons . down at Chester in November. upon like payne. . three quarters long . maior City of Chester had consideracion of the present state of the said cite somewhat of visited with v/hat is called the plage. . And that every person soe licensed to beare openlie in their . upon the severall pains theirin contayned "Imprimis. citie in the night season. within the said " 5. by the inhabitents thereof.: DOCTORS IN TIME OF PESTILENCE. hands . ense . " 3. . with [the advice] his Bretheren the alderman. orders folowing. upon "4. to be kepte every night. when of the "the right Worshipful Sir John Sauage. The nature Tudor times to 133 of the reo^ulations devised in the ward laid off infection may be gathered from the rules 1574. and divisinge the best meanes and orderlie waies he can. sett forth ordained and appointed (amongst other) the points. Item that the accustomed due watche citie. Justices of peace (through the goodness of God) to within the citie aforesaid avoid the same hath with such advice. which he willeth and to observe articles. . or be of there company. they alsoe to beare . Item the same watchman to apprehend and take up all night walkers and such suspect as shalbe founde within and .

to the street of the house so infected. citie nor any other the xiii^^^i then . the aldermen. hear- after be caste within the walls of the said citie. . " 8.. the persons whose name are subscribed citie inhabiting in a certain lane within the same called . or other open place.— 134 to bring THE DOCTOR. upon pain Item that papers or writing containing us. " In most humble wise complayninge sheweth unto your worships. Item that no person of the said citie doe suffer any their doggs to goe abrode out of their houses or dwellings. untill the same be citie. to this sence Lord haue mercie upon "10. upon paine that euery such dogge presently killed. dore post. your Orators. maior and common of the Citie of Chester. knight. ffirste opened and eired without last recited. and we find certain inhabitants complaining of the disobedience of : infected persons in the following petition '' To the right worshipful Sir John Savage. of every person doing the contrary. so founde abrode shalbe And the owners thereof ponished at his worships pleasure." It has always been found easier to make laws than to have them enforced. Item that no kind or sort of . filth. that further order may be taken with them " 6. counsaile of the same. . as shall appear . upon paine of ffyne and imprisonment at his worships direction. of that . the libities of the said "9. be fixed upon euery house. them to the Justice of peace. within the said place.. side prively nor openlie after daie of this present moneth. the gaile of the Northgate. sheriffs. . muck or at any tyme. upon paine of fyne and imprisonment " 7. or any wares citie of from other place be brought in packs into the said Chester. Item that no donge. Item that no swine be kept. .

" who received £4 "for charges to London and a free guift. by the sufferance God. the apothe- " Chester in the Plantagenet and Tudor Periods. not only of your Orators and their famelyes being in number twenty. to the greate danger and perill. 1894. tfec. and as your worships intend of it your Orators should." * Thos. and where also for the avoidinge of further infection your worships have taken order that all such so infected should observe certaine good necessarye orders by your worships made and provided. of his gracious who by the sufferance of God and infection goodness are clere and safe from any : of the said deceas In consideration whereof your Orators moste humbly beseche your worships for God's sake. but also of the reste of the said citie."^ And in this doing your Orators shall daily pray. but engaged the '^Doctor Smith. same Street with the 135 Pepper Street. That where yt haue pleased God to infect divers persons of the plage.DOCTORS IN TIME OF PESTILENCE." and £39 " for part of his wages for his service in the time of the visitation. pp. During the visitation of the plague at Manat chester in 1645. avoide the dangers of the said deceas with their family. and alsi for the better safty of the citie to take such directions with the said infected persons that they may for clearly be avoided from thens to some other convenient them the time until 1 God shall restore to their former health. Minshull. But so it is. when the place suffered severely. that none of the said persons infected do observe any of the orders by your worships in that case taken. . " the authorities not only provided " cabins Collyhurst for the reception of those disease whom services the of his attacked." by Rupert H. 78-79. Morris. right worships.

The story of Enghsh pestilence closes with the in Great Plague of London 1665. "Almost all other diseases turned to the plague. Phissition.596 of persons. city. and that in this week of highest mortality the deaths really amounted to 12.136 THE DOCTOR.000. £6 2s. Smith." cary. Out perished population 460. 6cl. a sad time it is no boats upon the and grass grown Court. Many some of the and the ejected places of were occupied by the Noncon- formists. and has been seriously argued that the i^ate official figures very much under- the truth. the infection." for £1. for '^ stufFe for ye town's Some ''bottles and stuffe" were unused at the end of the plague. and Acton worked of an sharino^ and gradually eastward estimated by way of of of Holborn. and these were sold to "Mr. It began about the west end of the Hiofhofate.297 deaths. but there w^ere certainly some who stayed in the infected and desolate city. Hampstead. "what river. up and down Whitehall in and nobody but poor wretches the .306 68. "But Lord!" to all all : says Pepys. The complaint of absenteeism was also brought against the physicians. was paid service.000 there died 97." clergy fled. it One witnessed 8. whom week pestilence.

degree the the latter university in 1659. in May and June there were some that could not be mistaken. Walbrook." 137 William Boghurst. Hodges amongst some of who souQfht his counsel at the Christmas of 1664-5. w^ork. street. When great plague broke out he remained at his house in it. and was educated both at Cambridge and Oxford. others only infected by Having disposed of these anxious inquirers. some already fear.DOCTORS IN TIME OF PESTILENCE." The those first doubtful appearances of the plague were noticed by Dr. and Nathaniel Hodges. taking at his m. the doctor . There was unfortunately no lack of Hodges' writings give us a minute account of the " doctor in the time of pestilence.d. he attended to any private business that needed immediate decision. and gave advice to all who sought patients. and in August and September he was overwhelmed with riser. who was an apothe- cary. and then went to his consulting room. ill of the plague. He was an early and after taking a dose of anti-pestilential electuary. and for three hours received a succession of patients. Hodges was the son where he was born in He was a King's scholar at Westnainster. 1629. full each wrote accounts of the plague. of a vicar of Kensington. who was a physician.

breakfasted. useless These proved to be druo^s false Amonofst the were he tried and found " " unicorn's horn and dried toads. prefaced off roast meat and and followed by sack and other wine. Sir who says — " : Thomas Browne. The Corporation of London testified a due sense of Hodges' services by a stipend and the position of physician to the city. A second round of visits did not terminate He was an of tobacco. Returning home. His " Loimologia " is an important contribution to the literature of epidemics. who had thus been a witness of the Carnival of Death in the metropolis of England. may well have pondered on the words of one of his illustrious contemporaries. Disinfectants were burnt on hot coals as he entered their houses. and he also took a lozenge. but his dislike of the Indian until eight or nine in the evening. I have not those strait ligaments.138 THE DOCTOR. which he seems to perhaps on the have drunk plentifully. he dined pickles. Hodges. alarms. and then began his round of visits to patients who were unable to see him at home. narrow obligations to the world as to dote on . or life. enemy weed did not extend to sack. especially two occasions when he thouo^ht he had himself caught the plague.

like vespilloes or grave makers. marshalling the horrors and contemplating the extremities thereof. . or be convulst and tremble at the 139 name of Death. I find not anything therein able to daunt the courage of a man. skeletons. I see not how he can escape this dilemma. Not that I am insensible of the dread rakin^^ and horrour thereof." . or by into the bowels of the deceased. is too sensible or hopeless of the life to come. much a less a well resolved . . Christian.DOCTORS IN TIME OF PESTILENCE. I am become stupid. continual sight of anatomies. For Pagan there may be life . or cadaverous reliques. or : have forgot the apprehension of mortality all but that. some motive to be in love with but for a Christian to be amazed at Death. that he of this life.

Their chief object. but to dispose of their nostrums to the crowds which the entertainment brouo^ht togfether." relates that Borde was a man of great learning. or in company with dant zanies.flDountcbank6 an5 flDcMciue. MOUNTEBANKS—a ing a bench name derived from i^b the Italian words monta banco. a medical practitioner at Winchester. is said to have story been the original ''Merry Andrew. By Thomas Frost. Andrew Borde." down a popular class of public entertainers to the earlier years of the present century. and had travelled on the continent. enjoying the distinction of being one of the physicians of Henry VIIL. Mr. and furnishes some curious information concerning the manners of his age and his supplied his " class. mounttheir atten- — were. who obtained a more than local reputation. George Roberts." of his life is full The of interest. who for Lord Macaulay with much material History of England. however. was not to provide a free entertainment. "Merry Andrews. He made many astronomical .

He was a and the witticisms with which he interspersed his lectures never failed to attract. stages erected for them. and the Bel2ohegor of the prototypes in little-known Italy waiter. markets. many a of and Coryat. . which is replenished with a world of new-fangled trumperies. his medicines. These mounte- banks at one end of their stage place their trunk. After the whole rabble of them has . 141 which may not unfairly be supposed for the purposes of astrology. who made the tour Europe at the beginning of the seventeenth century. and keeping the sheet intended for his burial at the foot of his bed. and addressed those assembled in recommendation of fluent speaker." he and afternoon. you says. calculations. drinking water three times a week. he frequented fairs. "Twice a day. in the morning may see five or six several . ^'that is. wearing a hair-shirt next his skin. and published a narrative of his adventures and experiences.MOUNTEBANKS AND MEDICINE. gives a good account of the mountebanks he saw at Venice. and other places of public resort. . obtaining for him the name of ^' Merry Andrew. to have been He was a celibitarian and an ascetic." continent as Mountebanks dramatist had France. flourished on the well as in England. As a mountebank.

sometimes both. extempore. Then he maketh an oration to the audience of half-an- hour long.— 142 THE DOCTOR. some that are women are attired with habits according to that person they vocal. wherein he doth most hyperbolically extol the virtue of his drugs and confections though many of them are very counterfeit and false. up to the stage. and the musicians singing and playing upon their instruments. apothecary drugs. some wear vizards hke fools in a play. which he doth eftsoons intermingle with . and seasoned with that singular variety of elegant jests and witty conceits. sustain. . The head mountebank. every time he maketh an extemporal delivereth out anything. delivereth commodities by little the jester playing his part. and a commonweal of other trifles. are oils. The principal things that they sell sovereign waters. that they did often strike into his still great admiration strangers. . I often wondered at these natural tell orators. amorous songs printed. He and then little. gotten — whereof begins . —the music sometimes sometimes instrumental. plays. . for they would their tales with such admirable volubility and plausible grace. the principal While the music mountebank opens his trunk and sets abroad his wares. speech.

" presents a scene showing a mountebank's stage at Venice. never valued this ampulla. honourable gentlemen. Wherefore. that they minister passing mirth and laughter to the whole company. at less than but for this time I it am is content to be deprived of for six : six crowns the price. 143 such savoury jests (but spiced now and then with singular scurrility). Take at or leave ! however. having sold as many of their wares as they could. and the discourse of the vendor of quack medicines has a remarkable resemblance to the oratory of the '' Cheap Jacks " of the present day. offer and less in it courtesy I it. I vial. Jonson. when. of which old play-goers may remember hearing " a very good imitation in the drama of The Flowers of the Forest." The entertainment extended over two hours. or eight crowns . in his comedy of " Volpone. their properties would be removed and the stage taken down. which may perhaps consist of a thousand people. know you cannot it me. and to the poor for God's sake." Says Jonson's mounte- bank : ''You all know.MOUNTEBANKS AND MEDICINE. now mark . both ! and I am your service Well I am in a humour at this time to make a present of the small quantity coffer contains : my . to the rich in courtesv.

Leveridge and Penkethman. actors well at known Bartholomew Fair fairs as for many years. you shall not give me nor five. nor two. it will cost you (or six hundred pounds) not bate. on one occasion. you six I asked crowns. and the example was followed by more than one comedian of the next century. Sixpence . nor four. that these mountebanks were riders or posturers." The discourse of the latter . played the mounte- bank on Tower Hill. and six crowns at other times you have paid six crowns. me ." as did Haines as '' Watho Van Claturbank. nor one. nor three. appeared at country " Doctor Leverigo also and his Jack-Pudding Pinkanello. and that the amount was the charge made for the permission accorded them to perform in the city. Later in the century. mountebanks of our own in we find the accounts of the for Chamberlain of the Corporation of Worcester the year 1631 the following item "They yeald account of : money by them 58s." received of mounte- banks to the use of the poor It is suggested by Mr." the expect no lower price. however. nor half a ducat. for I will Returning' to country.— 144 THE DOCTOR. John Noake. the eccentric Earl of Rochester. High German Doctor. 9d.

and nasieties from a plethory or a cachochymy. and in the rear a man with a plumed hat blows a trumpet. and travelled through kino^doms. arising either empyemas. of several lords. am now become havino^ the Esculapius of at been educated twelve fifty-two universities. Hypocrates. and an array of boxes and bottles seen at the back of the stage. headed with an engraving representing him addressing a crowd from a stage.MOUNTEBANKS AND MEDICINE. blind or lame. and the entire legion of 10 . syncopes. and been counsellor to the counsellors of several monarchs." says the discourse thus azar. curable or incurable. I have been prevailed upon to oblige the world with this notice. may know where to repair for cure. young or old. vertiginous vapours. " Having studied Galen. Albumand Paracelsus. in his Beside him stands a Harlequin. " I the ao^e . entreaties By the earnest prayers and earls. hydrocephalous dysenteries. odontalgic or podagrical inflammations. that all persons. headed. was published as 145 a broadside. paralytic paroxysms. in all cephalalgias. A gouty patient occupies a high-backed is arm-chair. pericardium. with a bottle of medicine right hand. at and last honourable personages. deaf and dumb. dukes. palpitations of the .

hydrotically. it is A . pneumatically. trunk its pristine functions. cipiis — Down with your dust. natural. as Nature requires." The mountebanking quack flourished in great state in the first half of the last century. is Nature's palladium. re-enthrone the deposed archeus. drachm of a worth a bushel of March dust for. if man chance to have his brains beat out. lethiferous .corporeal compages. in the only sovereign remedy the w^orld. Ve^tienti occurite morho. — Be not ohsta. health's magazine it works it seven manner of ways. . so that it aifecteth the cure either poppis. annihilates all nosotrophical morbific ideas of the whole. Prin- —No cure no pecunia primum. in fine. QucPTcndo sick too late. distempers. cathartically. all supernatural fermentations and ebullitions. This .146 THE DOCTOR. or his head dropped off. for scorns to be confined to any particular mode of operation . hypnotically. . believe me. matically. " A . parts. will recall the fleeting spirit. gentlemen. two drops —I say two drops ! gentlemen — seasonably the applied. and animal is so that this. money. and. cement the discontinuity of the minutes restore lifeless and to in six all . vital. or synedochically extinguishes it mundifies the hypogastrium.

Tour through England. He cures was dressed in black velvet. But his amusements on the stage are worth the sixpence. and those apothecary.— MOUNTEBANKS AND MEDICINE. with this motto ARGENTO LABORAT FABER. silver : trimmed with and in as yellow is the colour given by the it dukes England. the is market towns twenty miles round prodigy and a how so wise a people as the English are gulled by such pickpockets. enter the inn. He erected stages in . turned up with red in blue. only : a plain coat-of-arms on each. blue his merry-andrew. but there was no coronet on the coach. and that his name beinsf Smith." published the folio win Of account of one " 147 in 1723. without the pills. the motto was a in pun upon his name. in a yellow livery. gives whom was six the author saw at Winchester George Inn. and had in his coach a woman that danced on the ropes. and sells his packets all it for sixpence a-piece. a chaise and four. In the morning he is dressed up in a fine . The footmen his yellow were in his tumblers his and trumpeters. . I found this great equipage belonged to a mountebank. and spokesman. a calash and four. I went out to see what duke was . I : As I sitting at the saw a coach with bay horses. He all diseases. four gentlemen on horseback. Upou enquiry.

In the towns he visited these men were sent round to announce his lectures on electricity and the microscope." A passage in a letter written by the second 1774. one may judge from his musical ? followers. with red collars. with a negro of horses. my uncle." Nearly twenty years later. blowing trumpets. replied if Some itinerant mountebank. shows that still Lord Lyttelton. Katerfelto.— U8 brocade THE DOCTOR. and hand-bills. followed by a couple of attendants with French horns. attended by two servants in green liveries. a chaise passed along. travelled through pair Durham and in a carriage. I really spoke with all the indifference of an innocent mind : nor did it occur to me that the Right Reverend Father in God. for his chamber practice. the famous quack. and gets large fees. said Who can that my father I. when he gives advice. be. distributing There seems that to be good ground called for believing among what may be the amateur . about the year this style of travelling was then : kept up by mountebanks. night-gown. He says " As a family party of us were crossing the road on the side of Hagley Park. had sometimes been pleased to travel with servants similarly accoutred.

such as Rochester. who was a good amateur draughtsman. representing a mountebank and by a crowd.MOUNTEBANKS AND MEDICINE. and at no time influenced by his priestly vocation. 149 mountebanks. surrounded An inscription described the former Mr. and the latter as the Rev. named Bossy. used he to mount a on Tower Hill and Covent Garden Market said. as his zany on a stage. a medical practitioner at York. a rather roughly executed picture. a German staofe quack. in oil colours. Dibdin found in the possession of Mr." Dr. we must count the author of " Tristram Shandy. Laurence Sterne. as that both ends of . but before it it is dismissed as unworthy of belief. that he may have his indulged in such a freak on some occasion during the period of his life in which he developed worst moral deficiencies. in order. Atkinson. T. Mr. The story is a strange one. who was an octogenarian. much It is quite conceivable. and that he and Brydges each painted the other's portrait in the picture. James Atkinson. alternately. In the early years of the present century. therefore. Dibdin that his father had been acquainted with Sterne. told Dr. Brydges. must be remembered that the droll clerical story-writer was a and whimsical character.

with his hand on his heart. . long fallen from his still The quack may be found vending his pills in the open-air markets of . Yorkshire and Lancashire but he does not mount a stage. said that on one of these occasions. and relate the wonderful cures the doctor had performed upon her. "It is is no lie. and gravely replied.150 THE DOCTOR. and ended his days with a fair competence. The mountebank has former high estate. profit London might It is by his experience and skill. but quickly recovering his presence of he stepped forward. a parrot that had learned some coarse language from the porters and costermongers frequenting the market. criticism roar of laughter with which this was received by the rough audience disconcerted Bossy for a moment mind. ! Lying old " when the The old woman concluded her narrative. and resembles his predecessors of the last century only in the fluency and volubility of his discourse on the virtues of his potions. exclaimed. to when he had induced an old woman mount his sta^e in the latter place. . you wicked bird! — it is all true as de Gospel !" Bossy attained consider- able reputation. and sometimes used it in a manner that seemed " very apt to the occasion.

or within a year or two of that time. Only a few years shares in later. that he saw one York about in 1860. and probably in many other places. and had come to be applied to those itinerant circus companies who gave making gratuitous their gains performances in the open air. The present company of writer remembers seeing the circus John show Clarke performing on a piece of w^aste ground at Lower Norwood. a lottery in sixpenny at was similarly conducted Alfreton. pills." Even the name had long time ceased to be connected with the vending of medicines. Derbyshire. when the clown w^ent of the among the spectators selling tickets at a entitling the holder to participate shilling each. ." and adds that self in shabby black neck-cloth. in a drawing. etc. The author of the paper on " mountebanks m the "Book states of Days (edited by at Robert Chambers). by the sale of lottery tickets. who "sold medicines on a stage but without the Merry Andrew "he presented himwith a dirty white before that clothes. That must have been about 1835. 151 and plasters. papier mache tea trays. the prizes in w^hich w^ere Britannia metal tea pots and milk ewers.MOUNTEBANKS AND MEDICINE. cotton gown pieces. or the music. the old style.

Thirty or forty years ago. of former times. his zany.152 THE DOCTOR. to the provisions of the though contrary Act. But in these survivals remind us rather oi' Belphego7\ the pathetic drama of that name. can now only be met with Italy. with and his musicians. Another of this fraternity was seen at Marseilles by an English this tourist a few years later. of L' Elisor with his gorgeous as equipage and his musical old play-goers remember by the the personation of the character famous Lablache. . Dulcamara attendants. who drawn up behind the Louvre. in the opera than of d'Ainore. used and advertise his father. and drowned the the suflering patients with the crash of a march. in the provincial towns of France and and even there but seldom. to practise dentistry had a flourishing dentist's practice in one of the narrow streets near the cathedral of Notre Dame. and in instance some musicians accompanied the cries of mountebank's phaeton. there was a in a carriage man who. Lottery The mountebank doctor his carriage.

we hear of an epidemic of small-pox in some town where the practice of vaccine inoculation has been both instructive and consolatory to turn our thoughts back to the time. writing from Adrianople to a lady friend in the spring of 1717. it is at the present day. when. flashed that light in the concluding portion of her letter. it may seem may be verified by reference to the annual bills of mortality of the city of London. before the introduction of that practice. neglected. in This fearful state of things had prevailed England from the time of the Plantagenets. of all the deaths in excess of those occurring in the ordinary course of nature. a gleam of light was flashed upon the medical darkness of western Europe from the east. to the This statement. in the first quarter of the eighteenth century. startling as present generation.— Ztbc Strange Stor? of the Jfigbt witb the SmalUpoy. Frost. By Thomas WHEN. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. when that horrible disease caused ten per cent. as follows : .

People send to one another to know any of their family has a mind to have the small-pox . invention of ingrafting^ which is the term they give it There a set of old women who make is their business to perform the operation every autumn. and on her return to England introduce inoculation made great into exertions to use. . in the the great heat if month of September.. so fatal and the so amongst us. general The small-pox. many years the horrible distemper continued to rage unchecked." on my own This intention she carried into practice. since I intend to try little son. that they take the small-pox here by way of diversion. Every year thousands undergo this operation and the French ambassador says pleasantly. wound with shell. general it The how- medical profession opposed ever. make parties for this purpose. 154 " will THE DOCTOR. and a much matter and in this as can lie upon the head of her needle. mediately rips open that you offer to her with a large needle (which gives you no more pain than a puts into the vein as common little scratch). that for so strongly. I am going to tell you a thing that make you wish yourself here. to and asks what vein you please have opened. is here entirely is harmless. died in it . Apropos of distempers. There no example of any one that has satisfied it and you may believe I am well of the safety of this experiment. Such announce- . and after that binds up the hollow bit of veins. and when they are met (commonly fifteen or sixteen together). when they abated. as they take the waters in is other countries. manner opens four or five . . by it. the old full of woman comes She im- with a nut-shell the matter of the best sort of small-pox.

stating that " there were only twenty-one persons then lying passed. in General to hold the Sessions there This is. on Monday next. ments — 155 as the following were. in ill of the small-pox. " 4. however. for instance "Nov. " Cocksedge. that was only thought desirable to advertise when the epidemic w^as thought to be abating. appears to be in eleven houses. and that the truth may be constantly . to acquaint the PUBLIC that the next General Quarter Sessions of the Peace will be held at the sign of the Pickerel in IxwoRTH. Upon the strictest Inquiry in made it of the present state of the SMALL-POX Beccles." Later on in the same year (1744) an advertiseclergy. ment appeared. and medical practitioners of the town. without advertisements in appearing of the number of cases of the disease certain towns. 1755. not in unfrequent the newspapers the : "WHEREAS usually held. Edmund's. therefore. or it when : had abated. signed by the church- wardens." Scarcely a week those days. Town of Bury St. for which it reason might be of exceeding ill consequence to the Country . and no more. in consequence. Clerk of the Peace. where the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace of that Division are is now afflicted with the Small -Pox.— THE FIGHT WITH THE SMALL-POX. Take the following. Careful study of a large number it of these announcements shows.

1757. being in as usual. that this public notice . Blowers. in all probability. Colchester — and : this statement is signed by three ministers and six medical practitioners. 22nd. though still upon by a large proportion of the medical was growing at this time. " OsM." The frow^ned practice of inoculation. the same be weekly advertised alternately in the us. Rector. Clarke and Is. "upon a strict inquiry made by the through their respective parishes. In the Ipswich Jouriial of Jan. from the following advertisement "Colchester. 1762. by reason of the parishes not far small-]30x several off.— 156 — THE DOCTOR. it thought proper by some of the principal inhabitants and traders in the town. and as by this practice the distemper may be continued much longer in the town than is it otherwise would. there is but six persons now to afflicted with the small-pox in this town. announced clerks us. The Practice of bringing people out of the country into town to be inoculated for the Small-pox being very prejudicial to the town in many respects. but especially to the Trade thereof. delivered to and attested by them. the following appeared — " There will be no fair this year at Bildestone on Ash Wednesday." wit. Churchwardens. as appears : profession." it In the following year we find that. Ipswich and Norwich papers by " Tho. Page. " this May 12. will known.

" The "great numbers" this notice as of persons referred to in having "gone into the practice" of inoculation for the small-pox appear to have been chiefly old women. as in Turkey. with the utmost severity that the law they might not will permit. . which encourages great numbers to go into the practice. appeared an in the newspapers. stipulation in which there was express that applicants must have had the . is curiously attested by the frequency with which etc. the persons who have caused to this public notice to be given have no objection surgeons carrying on the practice in houses properly situated for the purpose. " only who announced that he had of the met with but one accident out many hundreds he has had under his cure. 157 should be given that they are determined to prosecute any person or persons whomsoever. . and by some of these it was carried on in until the passing of the Vaccination Act 1840. to be." The prevalence last century. Five guineas was the fee advertised in the Ipsivich Journal in 1761 for performing the operation by Robert Sutton. . that shall hereafter bring into this town. But that found be thought discouragers of a practice so as inoculation is salutary and beneficial to mankind.THE FIGHT WITH THE SMALL-POX.. of this hideous disease in the it and the dread which inspired. or who shall receive into their houses in the town as lodgers. any person or persons for that purpose. an operator in Kent. advertisements for servants.

" \ WANTED. j and in a letter directed to A. . " may hear of a very good place. at Mr. of himself. in a | who can drive four horses. in Colchester. Such a one. or to the Printer of this paper. whose age between 18 : and 25 years.B." : i " WANTED. . a Journeyman Baker. . Sudbury. and ride A Single Man. and i such announcements might be increased to any extent. John Stow. A housemaid or footman whose face j bore the traces of this disease would not. by giving a description abilities. the last century the marks would increase their chances of obtaining employment very considerably. The dates range from 1755 to 1781. Such an one. at the ] present day.158 THE DOCTOR. Leach. well ] j i recommended. must have had the Small-pox. Wm. and has had the Small-pox. culled from the fysiuich Journal and the Salisbury and Winchester Journal." Such a person may hear of a good place by applying to Mr. at | i "Wanted an Apprentice to an eminent Surgeon If he has not in full j practice in the county of Suffolk. show that in . postillion well. had the . \ hear of good encouragement. as Coachman. > small-pox. find their appearance much in their ! ' favour . J. that is a good j I workman. his age. who can be gentleman's family. at Mistley Thorne. about Michaelmas.. inquiring of will Mr. " \ ^ A Three Years' APPRENTICE is wanted to use the Sea is i between Manningtree and London. and has had the Small-Pox. and know how to drive in London. i Kendall's. in Essex. but the following selection of advertise\ ments.

under a year old. to take care of a lusty child. of age. — Enquire of John Fox. If Inquire further of Eleanor Onyon. frugal had the Small-pox. between 28 and 40 years Housekeeper." "WANTED.THE FIGHT WITH THE SMALL-POX. though nearly twenty years elapsed . 1762. before he enters on business. he need not apply. June 15th. Mercer. and Garter. it is 159 expected he will be inoculated for it." last of these It was about the time when the advertisements appeared that Jenner commenced his inquiries concerning the prophylactic virtues of cow-pox. cannot bring a good character from their and has had the Small-pox. a YOUNG MAN. at Dedham." "Colchester. fashionable dresser. 30. and be further informed. and can write "WANTED. — he has not had WANTED for a gentleman that lives most part of the year in London." or small family. a NURSEMAID.B. who has had Small-pox. so they have no incumbrances. in a large family. None need apply who last place . " Wanted immediately. in is town or well versed in the different branches of a Gardener. Andover. Her character must be unexceptionable. If he can write it will be the more agreeable. a STOUT WOMAN. and lived in families Any person answering this description at the Star may enquire of Mrs. a Stout Lad as an Apprentice to a Currier. and handsome manner. either a Maid or Widow. has had the Small-pox." " N. about the or a widow without children. to be as Companion and One that has been brought up in a genteel. and by no means a of credit. the Small-pox. Essex. that has A Genteel Person. who a good hand. Small-Pox. single." ~ " WANTS a place in a large country.

" But when he had various of traced out the nature of these diseases. by those of whom he mentioned and we learn from one of his biographers that. and the ascertained which them possessed protective virtue against small-pox. he was again foiled by learning that in some cases when what he now called the true cow-pox broke out among the cattle on a dairy farm. capable being communicated to the hands of the milkers and that such sores when so communicated were all called cow-pox. " both his own observation and that of other medical to men of his acquaintance proved called him that what was commonly cow-pox was not a certain preventive of smrall-pox. at the outset.160 THE DOCTOR before they were sufficiently advanced to enable him to make the results known." These repeated failures per- plexed him. kinds of eruption on their teats. His idea of about the total usinof vaccine inoculation to brinof extinction of small pox was scouted his professional brethren to it. and had been communicated to the milkers. He conceived the . time stimulated. they subsequently had small-pox. But he ascertained by assiduous inquiry and personal investigation that cows were liable all to various of . but at the same instead of discouraging him.

and when he London for that purpose. while disease to still of its protective enabling beings. A from dairymaid. It was not 11 1798 that this obstacle was overcome. and then. virus 161 idea that the of cow-pox might undergo it some change which deprived power. The disappearance of the cow-pox from the dairies in the neighbourhood of his country practice in Gloucestershire prevented him from visited making further experiments . and the boy was afterwards inoculated with the virus of small pox. . and Jenner introduced it into two incisions in the arms of a boy about eight years of transferred ran ill age. who her had contracted cow-pox one of employer's cows. he had the mortification of finding that no one could be found who would until consent to be operated upon. but w^as not until 1796 that he had the opportunity. which produced no effect.- THE FIGHT WITH THE SMALL-POX. He was now prepared to submit his theory toit the test of experiment. The disease thus its ordinary course without any effects. it to communicate a human virus Following up the inquiry from this point. he at length discovered that the w^as capable of imparting protection against small-pox only in a certain condition of the pustule. afforded the matter.

A lady. received for vaccination many years after its introduction the most violent opposition. the results of the earlier experiments having been confirmed by a series of vaccinations. including several who were But. Bettany. inoculation for small-pox. — like all -innovations on established practices. vaccine inoculation began to spread. so did a certain Dr. as inoculation for small-pox Just had been denounced from the pulpit and " diabolical in " medical treatises as a operation and a wicked interference with the designs of Providence. Jenner made his discovery In the following year. several months after- wards without public. . followed by inoculation for small-pox effect. and had grown hairy one country district all it over body and in was ." it is stated by Mr. indeed.— 162 THE DOCTOR. when introduced by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. " complained that since her daughter had been vaccinated she coughed her like a cow. Squirrel denounce vaccination as an attempt to chanofe ^'the established stories laws of nature. the practice being taken up by many of Jenner's friends." The most absurd effects alleged to were circulated of the " have followed vaccination. like not in the medical the profession.

THE FIGHT WITH THE SMALL-POX." that manner bellowed There were detect even doctors who pretended to resem- blances to bovine visages in the countenances of children. stated 163 that vaccination had been discontinued inoculated in there. previous to the knowledge of vaccine inoculation. Many derived considerable portion of their income from as fees for inoculation for small-pox. himself many provincial newspapers and the income of Dr. charged five guineas for the in operation. day after day. of Dudley. we have seen. at one time physician to the Small- Pox Hospital. Booker. to by vaccination ! Self-interest may have had as much a to do as prejudice in prompting the practitioners opposition of the profession. as they did not hesitate declare. gave the following striking testimony to its beneficial effects : — " I have. sevei^al (and once as many as eight) victims of the small-pox. and advertised . frequently buried. because those who had been like bulls. But . Dr. it continued to make way. VYoodville. The Rev. Sutton. Notwithstanding the prejudice and interested antagonism to which the new^ practice was exposed. produced. is said to have sunk in one year from a thousand pounds to a hundred on his adopting the practice of vaccination.

operations were continued few years with much success. villages. that the j i Poyal College of Physicians should be requested to inquire and report on the progress of vaccination. set forth that. ceasing. has lately • been devouring vast numbers. to i promote vaccination and its in London .! . some hundreds of thousands of persons had been vaccinated in ' the British Islands. where obstinacy and prejudice have precluded the Jennerian pro| tective blessing. and upwards of eight hundred . within eight years from the discovery of vaccination. which appeared in the j following year. \ The report. like In the surrounding it i an insatiable Moloch. who then held i the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer. Two years prior to Lord Henry Petty. establishment in 1808. the Royal Jennerian Institution was founded under royal patronage. carried a motion in the House of Commons. introduced among have us nearly four years ago. • and elsewhere for a ." : In 1803. howon the \ ever. the parish has i i ' since been blessed with this ' invaluable boon of Divine Providence (cow pox). 164 THE DOCTOR. and with Jenner as president. of the National | : Vaccine Institution this event. only fallen \ two victims a prey to the above i ravaging disorder (small pox).

loss . the value of the practice seemed firmly established. and that the practice had been generally adopted on the continent of Europe. infectious. and whom it attacked. of time.THE FIGHT WITH THE SMALL POX. nor previous preparation that it was not . and extensive experience of the vaccination. Considering that small- pox destroyed one-sixth of those and that nearly one-tenth. appeared never to have failed as a certain preservative against small-pox that it was unattended by danger . nor productive of other diseases it that might be performed with safety on persons of . from state- ments and the reports and testimonials sent to Jenner. This report did public opinion. and also the number. and perfectly free from that it required neither confinement. conducted. properly . thousand in 165 our East Indian possessions. fever. in some years more in than that proportion. advocates of feeble conipared of with its the and imperfect testimonies few opponents. was taken into consideration its by the county magistrates. of the entire mortality London was caused by respectability. much to advance vaccination in At it the next quarter sessions held at Stafford. who. considered themselves justified in placing it on record — "That vaccine inoculation. it.

since which ! small-pox has become a thing of the past. I . however." It times and seasons was not. until 1840 that the results of the labours of eTenner. the report of the Royal College of Physicians. 166 THE DOCTOR.1 . all ^ every age and sex. except in cases ^ where it has been conserved by prejudice ^ and ignorance. and at of the year. and I the opinions of nearly the entire medical fession pro- received legislative endorsement by the! passing of the Vaccination Act.

When. I there saw a human skeleton which was affirmed by the lecturer. Scotia Nova Gardens. I heard the horrible relic story which the sight of that ghastly recalled to of mortality my a all the incidents connected with vision it immediately passed before like my to mental hideous phantasmagoria. By Thomas Frost. The vividness w4th which they came back me may be accounted for by the deep impression w^hich .Burkere an& ffio&\)^Snatcbcr6. to be that of John Bishop. then located in Tichborne Street. Dr. one of the slums then existing in the north-eastern quarter of London. Sexton. and I was only ten of age when mind. at a house in who was hanged Italian in 1831. T T OW recollections will crowd upon the mind is when a train of thouo^ht ideas ! set in motion by the association of ago. I visited Dr. many years Kahn's anatomical museum. for the murder of an boy named Carlo Ferrari. Though years nearly forty years had elapsed since the commission of the crime.

a fearful excitement had been created in all parts of the country by stories of murders committed and graves robbed of their ghastly tenants for the purpose of supplying with ''subjects" the dissecting tables of the London and Edinburgh In the latter city two schools of anatomy. of disabling their victims by means of a pitch plaster suddenly clapped on the mouth. miscreants named Burke and Hare had been for their crimes convicted of murder for this purpose. Every person who was .168 THE DOCTOR. years will readily understand At the time when the in public mind was harrowed by the narration the horrible the newspapers of circumstances connected with the murder. popularly named after one of them. they made upon occurrence. and one of them hanged not abated. . but the scare had Stories were told with appalling frequency of corpses missing from lonely graveyards and of narrow escapes from murder in frequented places. my mind at the time of their will Those whose memories sixty carry them back this. and for some time previously. little Chloroform had not then been discovered. but the Scotch professors of the art of murder had introduced the practice.

to leave their houses after niofhtfall. and persons who lived in lonely places. business-like so much the manner which the wretches of their concerned in the crime hawked the corpse victim from one school of anatomy to another. when. corpses became an established As the dark nights of the late autumn w^ere came on. and also of neighbours combining to assist in watching graves of deceased members of each others' families. the fears of the timid and nervous doubled. A few years ago. I was one day exchanging reminiscences of a long bygone generation with a brother journalist. with whom my the parents acquainted. he placed in of the trial of the murderers my hands a report of Carlo Ferrari." and the watching of graves to prevent the removal of newly-buried practice. or in the ill-lighted parts of towns. and the equally cool and business-like manner in which the matter was dealt with by those with . No me in feature of the as horrible record impressed cool. which appeared to have been detached from a volume of criminal trials. became I afraid remember were hearing such fears expressed by several persons at Croydon. on this gruesome subject being mentioned. 169 missing was thought to have been " burked.BURKERS AND BODY-SNATCHERS.

be worth telling. but when the body-snatchers were specially employed to procure some particular corpse. but the did not restrain most zealous in their profession from this occasionally engaging these of a men in employment. The procuring fact. As an illustration of the times in which such horrors were possible. so certain it. was he of completing This was usually an still it expensive undertaking. and of which a post mortem examination was of the greatest to science. at this distance of time from the event. and as certainly as the Resurrectionist undertook the task. the story of the murder of Carlo Ferrari may. in a regular trade. and the biographer of Sir Astley Cooper states that " the Resurrection-men were occasionally employed on expeditions into the country to obtain possession of the bodies of those who had been subjected to some important operation. of corpses for anatomical purposes was. In the autumn of . their nefarious occupation whom brought them in contact. the incidental expenses were often as much more." The " price subject ranged from seven to twelve *' guineas.170 THE DOCTOR. interest Scarcely any distance from difficulty London in was considered an insuperable the attaining of this object.

in Bishop's house. known as Nova Scotia Gardens. who had succeeded in the tenancy a glass-blower named Thomas Williams. a man named John Bishop. in the poverty- stricken district of Bethnal Green. but " had long been suspected of body-snatching. who had formerly been a butcher. as of a scuffle.BURKERS AND BODY-SNATCHERS. accompanied by two other men. At noon the same day these two men were in a neighbouring public-house. there lived in one of a 171 row of small houses. The house adjoining Bishop's was occupied by a man named Woodcock. 1831. He had formerly been a carrier at Highgate." as the practice of robbing graves was termed. one of whom was known as James May. but for the last few years had been suspected of following the same ghastly and revolting occupation . and had no visible means of honest living. with his wife and three children. He had the look of a man whose original rustic stolidity had been supercharged with cockney cunning. About two o'clock on the morning of the 4th of November. Woodcock was awakened by a noise. of mild and inoffensive demeanour. simple-looking man. described as a little. and afterwards heard two leave it men and and return in a few minutes. when he of Bishop recognised the voices as those Williams.

porter and asked the Receiving a a '' subject " was wanted. called Next morning. they asked him to allow "it" to remain there until the next morning. and afterwards returned to the vehicle. to which he consented. man were carrying something in which they placed entered. negative reply. and then rub the teeth together. carrying something in a sack. Bishop and May if presented themselves at Guy's Hospital. the two traffickers human called at Grainger's anatomical theatre. in Half-an-hour flesh later. when the former and the third in a sack. May named Mills.172 THE DOCTOR. In the afternoon three as Bishop. The three men then About seven was driven same evening. ''a South wark." declined. men ahghted them from a cab at Nova Scotia Gardens. they The a offer being went away. where May was seen by a waiter to pour water on a handkerchief containing human teeth. public-house. remarking that they were w^orth two pounds to him. on upon a dentist sold a Newington Causeway. and o'clock the it the cab. off. about fourteen years of age. in Webb Street. accompanied by Williams. two of being recognised as Bishop and WilUams. and told the curator they had very fresh male subject. and . and later in on they were.

purpose. as if much force had been used out. and repeated their ceding evening. it bell of King's College was rung. and receiving an indifferent answer. apparently that of a boy or a woman. the predeclined. and the porter. On examining them. accompanied by Williams Shields. which was again Shortly afterwards. About midnight. and sack. if May asked him anything was wanted. wrench them Two hours later. 173 dozen teeth to him for a guinea. as was given it. they went to Guy's Hospital. on going to the gate. age. Mills found that morsels of the adhering to to gums and splinters of the jaw were them. through which the porter saw a small foot protruding. to them they had left and placed in a large hamper. and on similar business. added that they had a male " subject.BURKERS AND BODY-SNATCHERS. observing that they were the teeth of a boy fourteen years of age. whom he had seen there seems. The porter inquired the and was told they . to and a man named there the in the remove the it " subject " left evening before. Bishop and May called again at the anatomical theatre in offer of Southwark. found May. which Shields had brought for the There was a hole in the sack. the there Bishop and before." a boy about fourteen years of price.

conceived suspicions of foul play. porter." They then time. who immediately gave information to the In order to detain the men until the arrival of the police. with an oath. and the four . and communicated them at Partridge.' 174 THE DOCTOR. Several constables were soon on the spot. It was taken into a room. That gentleman thereupon examined the corpse. and the out of the sack by May. the demonstrator anatomy. and clenched. and they followed to a room adjoining the dissecting room. Nine guineas were offered. and went outside. ''Never Bishop then said to the is mind May. it was opened. police. returning at the stipulated accompanied by Williams and Shields. refused. left The observing a cut on the left temple. the demonstrator showed them a £50 note. it shall come in for nine in half-an-hour. that the arm was bent and the fingers once to Mr. the latter carrying on his head the hamper containing the corpse brought from Guy's Hospital. Partridge. where corpse turned porter. and mentioned its condition to the secretary. observing that he must get it changed for gold before he could pay them. wanted twelve guineas He him then said he in would ask Mr. went away. for it. which May. he drunk.

BURKERS AND BODY-SNATCHERS. which was displayed on the wall of the room. was employed in the hamper. was heard by a constable to say. They by were all then removed to the The evidence given that at the coroner's inquest left Partridge and two other surgeons the no doubt unfortunate lad. cells. alleging . had been by a violent blow on the back of the neck." " It was the blood that Volunteering to give evidence. sold us. and Bishop said he was only removing the corpse from St. but declined to name the place whence he had got it. Thomas's Hospital to King's College. in a subdued tone. murder. said he Shields. men were in 175 arrested. which had affected the spinal cord. to May. On being charged on suspicion with having unlawful possession of a corpse. and taken to the station-house Vine Street. after reading a bill relating to the and Bishop. A similar was made by Williams. he said he got the corpse from a grave. The four accused men were present in custody during the inquiry. and had merely statement Bishop. which he did exercise of his vocation. Covent Garden. who was known to carry the as a porter. to May said he had nothing accompanied do with it. respecting whose killed identity there was no evidence.

and a shirt- found in one spot. New^ Kent they found a pair of breeches. . At May's Road. and in another a coat." Shields was eventually discharged from custody. a large hamper. and a brad-awl. to and afterwards Guy's Hospital. who promised him get for a '' he could if subject it " above nine guineas him. " That is the instrument I punched the teeth out with. On a second visit to Bishop's house the garden was dug over.176 THE DOCTOR that the information would get into trouble two watchmen. at Bow Street When the brad-awl was produced police-court. subsequently all meeting Bishop. May also made took a voluntary statement. a vest with blood on the collar and one shoulder. May said. and a shirt with the front torn. and a jacket. to the effect that he got two ^'subjects" from the country. which he first to Grainger's theatre of anatomy. trousers. The houses of Bishop and May had police. trousers. house in Dorset Street. been promptly visited and searched by the who found at the former's a sack. he would sell for The inquest was adjourned. who had large families. and the police proceeded with their investigation. the last showing recent bloodstains. stained with blood at the back.

The day to incidents of the crime. The Bishop's garden corresponded with the description given of those worn by him when he was last seen. clothes found in nor his miserable Drury Lane. and the mystery in which the identity of the victim was for some time veiled. created so much excitement in the public mind. when the corpse was recognised by a foreigner named Brun as that of a boy named Carlo Ferrari. in or near He had been Nova seen by several persons Scotia Gardens on the 3rd of since. but he had not been seen had he returned on that day to lodgings in Charles Street. of living by The boy picked up the means exhibiting a tortoise and a pair of white mice in the streets. November. on the following day. but had not seen since July. before. whom he had brought from Italy two years 1830. 12 . identity of the victim remained a mystery The until the 19th of November.BURKERS AND BODY-SNATCHERS. 177 but the other three prisoners were coramitted for trial on the capital charge. and a little boy who played with Bishop's children stated that they had. showm him two white mice in a cage similar to the one carried by Ferrari. as revealed from day. a fortnight after the murder.

early December. of a and a determined therefore. when the prisoners were placed in the dock in that at the Old Bailey. sternness. A who was was second officer of the vessel in which May sent out to Sydney. as might be expected of those who could afford to pay that price for the gratification of their love of the sensational. but in case the sentence tion for life. The May's was commuted into transportasea-faring relative of mine. except in the case of May. the court for was crowded. quite his different-looking man. room. it was listened to with the The witnesses for the defence were few. the occupants of which. to two at companions in crime. with features expressive will. Though the evidence was but a recapitulation of the story told before in the police-court and the inquestutmost avidity. who were duly hanged Newgate. described him as an athletic. for whom an alibi was established in respect of the time betw^een the afternoon of the day preceding the murder and noon on the following day.178 THE DOCTOR. and a guinea each was paid seats in the gallery. . prisoners were sentenced to death. wiry-looking man. had taken their seats the day before. all fashionably dressed. and their evidence valueless.

. 179 Burke and Hare. by . structure.BURKERS AND BODY-SNATCHERS. were disposed to . created such a vividly the temptation to prices paid and exposed so murder afforded by the for ^'subjects. and the deeds of scare. and does not prevent is exhumation. was asked whether the state of the law prevented teachers of anatomy from obtaining the body of any person. let his situation in life be what it may. Sir Astley Cooper." that the by surgeons of attention parhament was directed to the matter. only adds to result of this Nobody secured by the law it the price of the subject. and a Select Committee of the House of Commons was the facilities appointed to inquire and report as to for obtaining which might be given purposes in bodies for anatomical a legitimate manner. obtain. they might : He replied — be " The law no does not prevent our obtaining the body of an individual if we think proper . I could The law only enhances the the . which. not whom. who was one of the eminent surgeons who gave evidence before this committee. if I ." The inquiry was the passing of the Anatomy Act. dissect. The crime of these men. price. in consequence of some peculiarity of desirous of procuring. for there is person.

. if unclaimed by the relatives. : may be placed at the disposal of the schools of . ^ j which the bodies of persons dying in hospitals and workhouses.: 1 180 THE DOCTOR. | anatomy.

were its victims that the ignorant it populace of the capital attributed administered by the doctors.1Remini6ccnce9 of tbe Cbolcra. reached St. known as the cholera morbus. IT for is now more than sixty years since the it strange and mysterious visitation. Coming first from India. made its first appearance in this country. and carried off. which fearsome name that of Asiatic cholera since has been substituted. and was with great was suppressed. There it raged with 'fearful severity. Petersburg. from the banks of the Ganges and the Indus. and desolating the most considerable towns of that country. as was then considered. or anywhere west of the Ural Mountains. to poison A it fearful tumult was excited by difficulty that it this belief. Death more than a thousand persons features of the So dreadful were the so rapidly unknown malady. the dread pestilence moved steadily westward and north-westward until. mowing down as with the scythe of daily. . By Thomas Frost. creeping along the rivers of all it Kussia.

and so paralysed was the arm of justice by the influence of terror that nothing was done to vindicate the majesty of the law. 1832. Petersburg. and wherever appeared created the profoundest awe terror. 182 THE DOCTOR. Everyone it who could afford to leave Paris fled from with precipitation. It was hinted that the ravages of this new and dreadful disease were caused by the poisoning of the meat sold in the markets and the water in the public fountains and the dwellers in the slums became so infuriated by this horrible and absurd rumour that mobs perambulated the streets howling for vengeance on the poisoners. from four to five hundred and during April they rose to a total for the month of twelve thousand seven hundred. and soon raged there with greater virulence than it had exhibited in any other city in Europe except St. the dire disease spread rapidly From Russia into almost it every country in Europe. Many unfortunate persons were murdered in the streets on being denounced as the perpetrators of these imaginary crimes.. and the most bewildering broke out In Paris it with extreme malignity in March. The deaths soon reached daily. The . and the city was abandoned to legislative labours desolation and anarchy.

183 Chambers were suspended.REMIlSriSCENCES OF of the two THE CHOLERA. I at have a vivid recollection of the mingled awe this fell disease inspired it and terror which it when had to was announced that its had crossed the sea and It made first victims in this country. its which served to augment virulence and render those of a nervous liable to temperament more be attacked by its it. where my parents then . across the continent from rivers. and the were the first peers and deputies flight. The first death at Low^er Norwood. it Hence appeared. Many generations had passed pestilence away since anything like a in had been known created England. his family continued to with an occasional sojourn of a few days Neuilly. and indeed had no knowledge what- ever of the disease. to set the example of though Louis Phihppe and reside at the Tuileries. and the panic cholera therefore a among all classes of the people. its it raged without check wherever w4th which terror it and the rapidity carried off victims added to the inspired by its approaches. made its way town town on the banks of the great England it but into was imported by sick sailors. Doctors were utterly unacquainted with proper treatment.

the burial-ground of the wrapped in a sheet coated with pitch. the corpse being afterwards found rigid and distorted. the lessons which the former should have taught had not been so well learned as they should have been. sometimes carrying victims from one side of a street and sparing the other side. I remember a case at Mitcham. in w^as buried the same night by chapel. a woman. and rushed out of the house. to die alone.184 THE DOCTOR. and such was the dread of infection that the corpse torchlight. Though the first a period of seventeen years separated cholera epidemic from the second. unreasoning terror in only a little less degree than that of 1832. was that of resided. a wild. in which the women attending a patient were seized with a panic on the approach of death. with which these reminiscences are inspired chiefly concerned. The apparently disease erratic manner in which the off* spread. situated only two from doors my father's house. sometimes smiting every member of a family . He died in a few hours from the time he experienced the premonitory symptoms. the pastor of the Independent Chapel. leaving the poor wretch. and the latter.

whether from carelessness or from ignorance. and no other case in the same row. one of several narrow. I remember all two cases at Croydon in which the the inmates of the houses in which disease manifested off its dread presence were carried by it. There were three victims in that house. . James's Road. and passing over street.— REMINISCENCES OF THE CHOLERA. dying like Byron's Haidee. They had not victims given sufficient attention to the laws of health to understand that the disease found its where those laws were neglected. but had become overshadowed by the approach to the railway bridge. or in the neighbourhood. all the other to persons houses in the same was a puzzle who had given no disease. in The other case occurred King Street. attention to the causes of the it and were content to regard as a sign of the wrath of God. closely- built streets in the centre of the town. for. child. One occurred in a cottage in St. one of a row which had originally been level with the road. reasoning about the matter as little as did the Israelites off at whose relatives were swept Kibroth-hattaavah. in 185 one house. and the the victims were a latter widow and her only not alone.

it. a tabular eminence overlooking the town. though the nurses and doctors assured that him that she had passed away." fell A remarkable disease incident occurred while the full was in the swing of its ravages. Warrenne was bv misadventure There her husband went. 186 THE DOCTOR. a low-lying and densely populated quarter.. and heard with a shock which the reader may imagine that she was dead. and in the thirteenth century the scene of the tournament in which the son of Earl slain. to the grave unborn. to ascertain her condition. He seems to have been unable to realise that his wife was really dead. lie And went down wherein Blossom and bough withered with one blight. she held within A second principle of life. which might Have dawned But a fair and sinless child of sin closed its little being without light. he expressed a wish to see the corpse and take it to his home. attacked by at once removed a temporary hospital on Duppas that had been established Hill. yet lingered lifeless The idea life in the form that was as apparently grew upon him he gazed . The was to wife of a working man and living in the Old Town. on his return from labour. When the poor fellow had in some degree re- covered from the blow.

The The first dark day of nothingness. And marked The rapture The The languor of repose that's there. now. one treacherous hour. REMINISCENCES OF THE CHOLERA. but for these. yet dwells upon Yes. As if to him it could impart The doom he dreads. the mild angelic air. He So still might doubt the tyrant's power so calm. cold Obstruction's apathy Appals the gazing mourner's heart. weeps not.— . Ere the day of death is fled. And — but That for that sad shrouded eye. . chill. and 187 though he may never he have read the force "The of Giaour. so softly sealed. fixed yet tender traits that streak of the pallid cheek. The first. And Where but for that changeless brow. and these alone. last look by death revealed " ! Whether the it was feeling or reason that inspired life thought that yet lingered in the apparently inanimate." may have finely felt the thought so lines expressed by Byron in the that introduce his picture of the Greece : of his day " He who first hath bent him o'er the dead. aye. Some moments. fires not. danger and distress last of (Before Decay's effacing fingers Have swept the lines where beauty lingers). but not yet rigid form. fair. wins not. .

and the rose-tints return to the pallid cheeks. it was undoubtedly to that inspiration her not preservation dead. in the concoction and advertising mixtures. was Signs returning animation were perceived when the supposed corpse was placed upon the bed. which the loving husband conveyed to his humble dwelling. and leave reader. and the neighbour women who came life. I it draw the curtain upon to the imagination of the Amonof the remedies came into for the cholera which vogue during the prevalence of the epidemic of 1849. that the woman owed For she from of death. salt obtained a considerable degree of repute each other. Like the Greek painter who. conscious of the inadequacy of his art to fully portray the grief of Agamemnon for the loss of his son. covered the countenance of the old king with a the scene.188 THE DOCTOR. the rubbing of the stomach with brandy and . and the chemists vied with the recent as in epidemics of of influenza. veil. various cholera one of the most . in to perform the last sad offices for the dead were there to welcome I will not her on her return to describe attempt to the feelings with which the husband beheld the eyelids of his wife unclose.

concerning which medical opinions differed. and an impure condition of the atmosphere tended to produce their outbreaks.REMINISCENCES OF THE CHOLERA. or rather to the fear inspired by them. for sanitary reforms which ought to have resulted from foresight. The existence of cholera in India. but it is a sad reflection on our to the ravao^es of that we were indebted disease. contaminated sources of water supply. evils But then we had been used intensified to these since the days of the Plantagenets. and the causes which produced had long been known . The lessons of the cholera were not so entirely neglected on this occasion as they were after the epidemic of 1832 leofislation . that was knowm. had been done towards carrying out the recommendations which resulted from them. and with the though they had become . it. and to aggravate their virulence. whatever might be the true causes of zymotic diseases. but so long as its ravages were confined to the people of that country no one seemed to think that It it concerned the people of England. There had been sanitary inquiries by Royal Commissions between 1842 but little and 1849. too. efficacious of 189 which was a preparation of opium and chalk. accumulations of filth.

190 THE DOCTOR. where a constant supply of practically pure water was obtained by boring down to the chalk. Other towns followed the example. closed. Sewerage system works were undertaken where no of drainage called efficient had before existed. one of the foremost being Birmingham. and prepared it to act upon the recommendations of the General Board of Health and to comply with the Sanitary Act in of that year. The the old wells of London were adopted and like course was Croydon. to be done in and in the improvement of the water manufacturhig supply of the large towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire. which received a supply which enabled the inhabitants to dispense with the insalubrious rain-water butt. sanitation has been . had not Malthus taught us that epidemics of disease were one of the means used by divine providence to prevent the numbers of the the human The race ? from exceedino^ means of subsistence cholera epidemic of 1849 roused the public its mind from lethargy. Attention was of to the important questions . sewage disposal and the pollution of rivers and though this much even now remains direction. of population increase and the growth of the large towns.

knowledge of the philosophy of cause and so that we no lonofer reoard the calamities resulting from our own ignorance and neglect of the laws of nature as the inflictions of Providence. cleared 191 of most of its difficulties b}^ better effect. .REMINISCENCES OF THE CHOLERA.

IT is not my intention to go back to those art. Doctors. or when the mistress of every feudal castle. which they were under his gathered Nicholas " —a " belief. or the phase of the moon under indeed. Linn^us Banks. leechcraft. or to dwell on the days when every monastery held within its walls some learned brother accredited to administer to bodies as well as souls diseased. and not only physicked her household. G. skilled in was trained and herbs. ascribed to every plant planet. which old Culpepper compiled well-known Herbal early in the seventeenth century. but was prepared to staunch and dress the gaping wounds received in siege or tournay. . every baronial-hall. those Nor yet have we ought to do with pretenders to science who mingled astrology its all with pharmacy.Some ®l& By Mrs. distilled concocted potions and unguents. Greek fathers of the heahng Hippocrates and Galen. ruling and held that the potency of herbs depended on the conjunction of planets.

193 Medicine and surgery have made rapid strides since the days. spit " .SOME OLD DOCTORS. when in the naval cockpit. man. not a century agone. and when the sputum came tinged with bullet-hole blood. whose acute observation and un- wearied investigations in the past have indissolubly linked their names with discoveries which have revolutionised the practice of both medicine and surgery. And legs may say that wooden in and stumps arms were so common the writer's young days as scarcely to attention attract to — so I ready were army surgeons amputate. In the opinion of Solomon. but think the present work would be incomplete without a record of those men of original mind. and when the doctor cried. to the sufl'ering soldier with a gunshot wound in his chest. "there is nothing new under the sun. the hatchet was the ready implement for amputation. These are not matters on which I have to dwell. and left the poor fellow to his while he en passed passar^^ on I for to cases less hopeless. the rough cautery that of a red hot iron applied to the fizzing flesh " Spit. and on the open battlefield. simply plugged up the fate." and if such was the case in 13 .

So the most starthng and any great fact in perfect revelation of human physiology may have to earlier been dimly perceptible intelligences groping in the dark. with cries pains. in 1607. babe nor mother. until a ray of divine light dispels the mists of and the man." then preparing to devastate our shores and spare neither man nor maid. took his doctor's degree in physic. may have been with the renowned practitioner. how much more of a verity his day. who came into the Thus w^orld when all England was filled wdth alarms of an " Invincible Spanish Armada. developing infinite his crude idea truth.194 THE DOCTOR. must be the truism in ours. and him towards Padua. William Harvey. fall on the sensorium of the final discoverer. then the great and there he seat of academical and medical lore. prestige of With the when he Padua upon him. until his educational course at his bias led Cambridge ended. and the boy grew. was but twenty years of age. realises a great and too out ''Eureka" to an astonished — and often —an unbelieving it world. he was elected Fellow of the College of Physicians (founded by . Yet the scare passed and peace came. faint adumbrations of which may ages.

and in the man of twenty-eight became their Anatomical Reader.).SOME OLD DOCTORS. Dr. folio wino- a sword-thrust or a gun- In spite of opposition his teaching created a discoverer revolution in medical practice. A grand noteworthy appointment this. Harvey made his discovery known a in learned treatise "On be the circulation his of the blood. Linacre in the reign of 1715. and to comprehend why there should be a fluttering or audible beating under the sick one's ribs. since consequent study and investigation led to the discovery that the heart — to speak unscientifically — was a sort of muscular pum pinga engine. daring assertions roused a violent spirit of opposition amongst his medical brethren. to be pumped out its afresh to circulate as before and do appointed work. In 1628. 195 Henry VII." and as may supposed. chano'inof in character its on its course of until it returned to centre. sending the blood circulating along series of blood-vessels to every part of the system. The . even among those who began the first to feel the pulses of their patients for time. the seat life. and wherefore the fatal hemorrhao:e shot wound.

William And when in the fulness of Harvey. The Yet. and to Andreas Csesalpinas. This notable champion was John Freind. time.d. detractors dim the glory of his important revelation. ascribing to the theological physician Servetus. m. and . even in his grave. who had outlived three monarchs. was and his Court to demonstrate the action of the heart and subsidiary organs. These are held by a mere body of men. called before Charles I. their and whilst admitting vague to individual establish conceptions of an elusive mystery.S. made his own exit under Cromwellian rule. P. Fresh honours fell upon him even when too old to bear the burden. other has a world-wide significance. once and for ever William Harvey's inalienable right as sole discoverer. to deal century with these counter-claims. the credit of prior discovery.. a later.. It remained for another learned physician. library. and museum now proud possession of the College of Physicians. to Realdus Columbus.R. distinguished as the Medical Historian.196 THE DOCTOR. he bequeathed infinitely more to posterity in his invaluable discovery than can be summed in the up in the estate. as in his strove to life. in support of his new doctrine.

Harvey. 197 Harveian lecturer to the College of Physicians. The doctor. and as the foremost to advocate . John Freind had a pioneer's claim to distinction. for supposed complicity in the Atterbury the or for skill treatment of disease. to the pernicious use of spirituous liquors. needed no small degree of courage to broach such a subject in those days of general coarse indulgence all among as classes . strange to say. written in part when he was in a prisoner in the Tower Plot. was a Member of his Parliament. a remarkable petition from the '' Royal College of Physicians. as the champion of William m. or learned medical history. especially if his own language was character direct and forcible as that of the petitioners.SOME OLD DOCTORS. at a time when he and his fellows shaved their heads and mounted Ramillies wigs as outward guarantees for the profundity of wisdom enshrined. in his triple as the historian of medicine. or his defence his Harvey.p." And though he might speak but as the mouthit piece of his brother Fellows. and on resuming seat on his release from incarceration. in 1725. he brought before the House restrain of Commons. Therefore. they But apart from of his flowing wig.

' in wisdom hast how manifold are Thou made them Such honours are not paid to the remains of men spent of common years stamp. and in his twentieth year took horse . O Lord.. resolved on striking out a better career for himself. from the to this Church of Martins-in-the-Fields Abbey on March 28th. 1858. His remains were removed St. N. legislative assembly. The Royal College of Surgeons of England have placed this table over the grave of Hunter to record their admiration of his genius as a gifted interpreter of the Divine power and wisdom that works in the laws of organic for life. and their grateful veneration his services to ' mankind as the Father of scientific surgery. In the nave of Westminster is Abbey on a — memorial of polished granite " this inscription Beneath are deposited the remains of John Hunter. John Freind.. on February 14th.B. cause of the temperance before our national m. born at Long Calderwood. claims a niche in our Walhalla of notable old doctors. 1728 . Lanarkshire. And life of no common cabinet stamp was the sandy-headed youth who. Thy works " all. having ten of his learning making. 1793. . died in London on October 10th.198 THE DOCTOR.d.

college the classical elder little packed him to to pick up a refinement along with Latin and Greek. he entered his brother's dissecting room. shocked by the rough of his countrified brother. sure that William speedily foretold a successful future for his new pupil as an anatomist.SOME OLD DOCTORS. At all events he used his interest to place his promising brother under the eminent surgeon of Chelsea Hospital. speech and manners and his need of off education. Back he came from Oxford in haste. In October. and later under another at Then. 1748. to place himself 199 under rising William Hunter. could Irrepressible and hot-tempered sit John dead not down quietly to study languages. In vain. St. or that as a boy upon his father's farm. or he had had access to the books of his medical relations in Glasgow. had roused the the secrets of animated nature. then into note as a medical practitioner and a teacher of anatomy. Bartholomew's. and journeyed to London his elder brother. to study dead bodies in his brother's dissecting . and whether the fitting of joints in cabinet ware had been of initiatory service. observation of the domestic animals and of the of wild inhabitants desire to master it is wood and fell.

•200 THE DOCTOR. he was appointed surgeon extraordinary to His Majesty George III.. London. short where in a comparatively surgeon. time he became house- His appointment as staif-surgeon to our troops on foreign service marked the six intervening years before he settled down to practise in London. room. and sent many were the contributions he home to his brother's to museum. museum from Jermyn and resigned the lease to John. laying the foundation of his collection of comparative anatomy. service he Even while on foreign had amused himself with studying the digestive faculties of snakes and lizards when in a torpid state. In 1776. George's Hospital. as a teacher of surgery a was marked success. though private practice had to grow. and had dissected a number of the lower animals. but eleven years prior to this was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society. He had laboured ten years on human anatomy. His return and anatomy. Then in 1768. shifted himself and his Street to Windmill Street. bachelor. simultaneously with his study of living bodies at St. slightly in advance of his elder brother. and serve as demonstrator to his course of lectures. the William. thus securing .

but to provide and prepare subjects for the museum in the rear of his town house. early and late. endow^ed only with and the accomplishments."' fourteen years younger than himself. independent action for 201 to the latter. w^hich blunt-spoken John designated ''kick-ups. and a faculty house with assemblies of wit and fashion. was at his Box " at Earl's Court. and facilities creating a natural-history museum of his own. His chief workshop. the grounds of which he had converted into a zoological garden. And work hard he his did. swearing being as characteristic as hard work. the brothers had worked together in unison. not merely to maintain extensive and lucrative practice. but now John committed the unpardon- able offence of bringing '^a home to Jermyn Street beauty for filling tocherless bride." no doubt with an irreverent big D as a prefix.SOME OLD DOCTORS. a story told of his facing an escaped There lion and flicking him back to his den with his . and for the valuable and orimnal lectures he dehvered in lanofuaofe forcible and clear. country " so to speak. Hitherto. so many is wild animals were there kept for study. if neither refined nor academic.

Richardson's to account watchful ruse employed cheat executors. . and John Hunter dainty than his fellows. tale is Another told of his intervention between fighting dogs and leopards. frame. and from animals that died in the Tower he was supplied. and obtain the body of O'Brien the it Irish Giant. with the gruesome the Sir W. more But also from travelling shows and menageries. pocket haDclkerchief. showing his fearlessness and his knowledge of leonine nature. Those were the days when surgeons were not particular scalpels.^ so as to convert into the skeleton now in the Hunterian Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. he dragging the infuriated leopards back to their cage by their collars — and for his fainting when the feat was his accomplished. An of element in of humour mingles B. Vol. * absorbing the bulk of his income. was was in not a a burly and heart threatening condition.202 THE DOCTOR. where they obtained subjects for their whether from the resurrection men or w^as not from the gallows. he had to remove viii. that ere long The Asclejyiad. And so rapidly did his museum grow. Lincoln's Inn.

though first his courtly brother. His discoveries placed him far ahead of the science of his time. to 203 what is now Leicester Square. and erect a building in the rear for his collection. a quarrel which transferred William's museum " to the University of Glasgow. ran him Indeed their out of final quarrel and alienation arose a disputed claim to a certain discovery in feminine physiology. alike British and foreign. and demonstration. absorbed as he was in its the pursuit of knowledge. his will. of little which he took heed.SOME OLD DOCTORS." actions " Trans- of the Society testify to the genius and its untiring activity of promoter. brought before the Royal Society. Honours fallen fell upon him thickly as they had on his brother. when he should have worked regardless . How he found time for his many written essays and discourses " on topics wide apart as Gunshot-wounds " and "Teeth" is a marvel. and to leave it. machine wore out No wonder the frail human so early. " in and excluded John from The the so-called Square. earlier in the field close. He had worked rested. Lyceum Modicum became the home of the and the " Leicester " Society for Improvement of Medical and Chirurgical Philosophical Knowledge.

numismatist. John Hunter must last at sixty- of premonitions and attacks have well understood. an antiquary. in became zeal for one in anatomical discovery. the old doctor who lay beneath." if not in birth. younger brother or his his first facilities his introduction.204 THE DOCTOR. all that was rare and curious. hands. yet William. out originally from the tablet in Westminster Abbey to describe what manner of man was brothers. he could not have been his teacher. together. their collecting all that illustrated their theories. Richardson. and died at two. for study. according to Sir B. " W. tentious ruffles. as well as a . the Yet how widely the differed. a victim of one of those fits of passion no man with Setting a diseased heart can indulge in safely. set off by an unpreunder lace wig. with form. and delicate cuffs. Had not William already come to the front when John sought him out. since. they were twins in science. a and wide coat a classical scholar. start in or given his life. personalities of brothers They both stood out his slight among contemporaries. it became imperatively necessary to bracket the two John and William Hunter. Then they worked together. into unprecedented museums. mildly refined face.

the two would have formed one o errand unrivalled collection. gold cane in hand. in drawing-rooms as well as in the Blue-eyed John. Museum Had not . for for empty honours. his science. . was the very heau ideal of a fashionable physician of that day.SOME OLD DOCTORS. yet in brusque and coarse of speech. George his large practice solely to the force of his character. not squeamish in seeking caring to passionate and determined. John was a diamond the rough William the were the gem cut and polished. 205 — Queen Charlotte's medical referee. skill. with high cheek bones. one who shone lecture-hall. despising coteries. naturalist. stepping out from his chariot. the the brothers quarrelled. rough as in manner dress (with not a sign of dilettante ''subjects. and a shaggy his mane of whisker that made keen face a triangle.. . tender of heart. broad. and his So far he was in his brother's antithesis. money only for swell his museum." little frill or ruffle). slightly receding forehead. to its And such two old doctors Surgeons whom England's College of owes Hunterian University of Glasgow the other. and nothing and owing courtly circles. to visit his courtly patients. though created surgeon-extraordinary to III. tangled red hair.

whose to live.S. and that water was the one natural and nutrient beverage. and added a degree of sharpness to his told somewhat the hatchet-shaped lady face. was that men should eat not live to eat. who revolutionized the medical practice of his time. kept a together the nape of the neck with his ribbon tie. is Space limited. out. — filling a pail with food from various dishes in correspondence with the heterogeneous mixture on his patients' plates replies to — and his brusque some other of his patients. at His hair. have per- petuated his name through his oddities. '^ when he afraid timorous who was she had .206 THE DOCTOR. possible to pass by John Abernethy. rather than as a benefactor of his kind. Of these Edward but he has been Jenner stands prominently already dealt with by another hand. It is scarcely F. principle the eccentric physician. who maintained that the stomach was it the chief seat of health or disease. The practical way in which he illustrated his theories respecting overfeeding. was brushed back from fore- head. according as was used or abused. and of course excited envy and antagonism." these other celebrated whom it would be invidious to overlook.R.. and so must be our notes of " old doctors.

an age of drastic purges and much blood-letting. and buy her a skippingwas needed. Bartholomew's Hospital. Many have been the contributions to scientific medicine and surgery since the rough days of the old doctors I have endeavoured to chronicle." will come up shilling to Or when he threw the mother with a from his fee back to a delicate dauofhter. were the pioneers of progress. prohis voked considerable opposition from brethren. where his centenary has recently been celebrated. madam. swallowed a spider. and stronof rope. madam. gold-headed canes and pouncet-boxes. and the spider catch him. stamped upon a biscuit." an intimation that exercise It was an a^e of coarse feedinof drinking. But contemporary affect squibs and satires cannot the real good which has made Abernethy's it name a household word. breeches and buckled shoes. Indeed is has been also on a It stamped medical society he founded at St." '^ 207 Then put a fly in your mouth.SOME OLD DOCTORS. and Abernethy's temperance prinin so much whose advance of his time. satirical medical epigrams he was not slow to cap. but these men of wigs and ties. " Take that. they cleared the . ciples.

208

THE DOCTOR.
for
left

way
and
to

the

men

of this

day and generation,
their

their

mark

on

own

age,

not

be

effaced

by newer and more

advanced
served
as

successors,

to

whom

they

have

stepping-stones.

^be Xee

ipeiin?.

THE
respecting

story

of

the

Lee

Penny
the

is

full

of

historic
it

interest,

and

legends

furnished

Sir

Walter Scott with
'*

some incidents
This amulet
triangular

for his novel the
is

Talisman."

a stone of a deep red colour and
in
size

shape,

about half-an-inch on

each

side,

and

is

set in a silver coin.

The

various

accounts which have come under our notice are

agreed that this curious

relic

of antiquity has

been

in

the Lee family since a period immediately

after the death of

Xing Robert

the Bruce.

The monarch was
having

nearinsf his end,

and as he
for

lay on his death-bed, he

was much troubled

failed to visit in person the

Holy Land
him

to

assist in the Crusade.

His long war with the
it

English had rendered
leave his
in

impossible for

to

kingdom

to fight in a foreign land, even

the cause of religion.
Sir

James Douglas,

his tried

and trusty

friend,

stood beside the bed of his king, and was in sore
distress.

As a last request the king

implored that
14

210

THE DOCTOR.
had
to
left his

as soon as possible after his soul

body

Douoflas

would take his heart

Jerusalem.

On

the honour of a knight, Sir James faithfully
trust.

promised to discharge the

The

king^

died in

1329,

and
Sir

his

heart was

enclosed in a silver case.
it

James suspended
and made
was not

from his neck with a chain, and w^ithout delay

ofathered round
his

him a

suitable retinue,

way towards the Holy Land.

He

destined to reach that country, for on his route

the intelUgence reached him that Alphonso,
of

King

Leon and

Castile,

was waging war with the
of Granada.
it

Moorish

chief,

Osmyn
felt

To

assist the

Christians,

he

was

his

duty,

and

in

accordance with the dying charge of his king.

With courage he engaged

in the fray,

but was

soon surrounded by horsemen, and he

who had

fought so long and bravely, realised that he must

meet
well.

his

doom

far

from the country he loved so
a

He made
it

desperate

effort

to

escape.

The
were

precious casket he took from his neck and
before him, saying,
''

threw

Onward,
!

as thou
will
slain.

wont,
thee."

thou noble heart

Douglas
and was

follow

He

followed

it

After the battle was over the brave kniofht was
found resting on the heart of Bruce.

The mortal


THE LEE PENNY.
211

remains of the valiant knight were carried back
to his

home and
of

buried in his church of St. Bride,

at Douglas.

The heart

Bruce was entrusted to Sir Simon

Locard, and by him borne back to Scotland, and
at last found a resting-place
altar

beneath the high
its

of Melrose

Abbey, and

site

is

still

pointed out.

Mrs.

Hemans wrote
heart
in

a charming

poem

on

Bruce's
:

Melrose

Abbey,

commencing
"

Heart

!

that did'st press forward

still,

Where Where

the trumpet's note rang shrill

;

the knightly swords are crossing,

And

the plumes like sea-foam tossing,
of the charging spear,
!

Leader

Fiery heart

and

liest

thou here

1

May

this

narrow spot inurn
so beat

Aught that could

and burn?"

We

are told the family

name

of Locard was

changed to Lockheart, or Lockhart, from the
circumstance of Sir Simon having carried the key
of

the

casket,

and

was

granted as armorial

insignia, heart with a fetter-lock,
"

with the motto,
to

Corda

serrata

pando."

According

a

contributor to Chambers's "
p.

Book

of Days,"

v., 2,

415, from the a

same

incident,

the

Douglases

bear

human

heart,

imperially

crowned,

and

212

THE DOCTOR.
in

have

their

possession

an

ancient

sword,

emblazoned with two hands holding a heart, and
dated 1329, the year Bruce died.

Lockhart was not daunted
of the
first

at

the

failure

attempt to reach Jerusalem, and, in
as escaped

company with such Scottish knights
and arrived

the fate of their leader, they once more proceeded,
in the

Holy Land, and
adventure

for

some time

fought in the wars against the Saracens.

The Emir

following

is

said

to

have
an
of

befallen him.

He made

prisoner in battle

of wealth and note.

The aged mother

his captive

came

to the Christian

camp

to save her

son from his captivity.
at

Lockhart fixed the price
his prisoner should ran-

which

som himself; and the lady,
proceeded

pulling

out a large embroidered purse,
to
tell

down

the
a

amount.
THE LEE PENNY,

In

this

operation,

pebble inserted in a coin,

some
the

say

of

the

lower

empire,

fell

out

of

purse,

and the Saracen matron
it

testified so

much

haste to recover
a high idea of

as to

mve

the Scottish kniofht
will

its value.

" I

not consent,"

he

said, " to grant

your

son's liberty unless the

amulet be added to the ransom."

The lady not

THE LEE PENNY.
only

213

consented to
in

this,

but

explained

to

Sir

Simon the mode
used.

which the talisman was to be
in

The

water

which

it

was

dipped

operated as a styptic, or a febrifuge, and the

amulet possessed several other properties as a
medical talisman.
Sir

Simon Lockhart,
it

after

much

experience of
it

the wonders which

wrouofht, brouofht
it

to his

own

country, and

left

to his heirs,
it

by w^hom,
is still,

and by Clyde

side in general,

was, and

distinguished by the

name

of the

Lee Penny,

from the name of his native seat of Lee.
Its

virtues were

brought into operation by
in

dropping
afterwards

the

stone
to

water
diseased

w^hich
to

was
drink,

given

the

washing at the same time

the part

affected.

No
or

words

were

used

in

dipping
be

the

stone,

money

permitted

to

taken
all

by

the

servants of Lee.
Scotland, and

People came from

parts of

many

places in England, to carry

away the water

to give to- their cattle.

Some

interesting
in

information respecting this

amulet appears

an account of the Sack and
in

Siege of Newcastle-on-Tyne

1644.

''As one

of the natural sequences," says the writer, " of

prolonged

distress,

caused

by

this

brave but

" Lockhart of Lee. as well as Tynemouth and Shields. it. mad dog. gave a bond for a large for the loan . and keep the marvellous penny with a stone in which it is inserted . foolhardy defence against overwhelming odds." . who. while tents were erected on Bensham Common. Great numbers of poor people were carried off by it . had been dipped in. drinking and it and she used it for bathing in the water she quite recovered. the Corporation. we presume). and the famous to be Lee Penny was brought out of Scotland and the dipped in water for the diseased persons to drink. sum in trust and they thought the charm did so much good. result said to be a perfect cure. some weeks. is The inhabitants (that to say. the plague broke out with fatal violence in Newcastle and Gateshead. to which those infected were removed . near Edinburgh. would not part with We cure is are told that many years ago a remarkable alleged to have been performed on Lady Baird of Sauchton Hall. was seized The Lee Penny was sent for. and ''The most remarkable part of the history. but the proprietor. having been bitten by a with hydrophobia. that they offered to pay the money down. during the following year.214 THE DOCTOR.

. that especially escaped condemnation to when the as Church of Scotland chose cures impeach many other the miraculous. pleased God to annex certain did which the Church not presume to condemn. as Sir so 215 it Walter Scott says. "perhaps was. which savoured of occasioned by sorcery.THE LEE PENNY. in Lanarkshire. to which healing virtues.'" The Lee Penny is preserved at Lee House. and censured the appeal of them. the residence of the present representative of the family. ' excepting only the amulet called the Lee it Penny.

DELIGHTFUL " old Fuller tells us Necessary and ancient their Profession ever since man's body was subject to enmity and casualty. Cupping. but in this case the supposed disease could scarcely have been worse than the supposed prevention. fathers modern The It tortures which our endured under the old treatment are terrible to think of afilicted was not enough that . and especially in bleeding. all were the common applications nearly complaints. ipb\)6icke5. Five times in the year — *'in September.Ibow ®ur ifatbere were By J.d. ll. A." There is no doubt of the necessity calling. Langford. in which such great in and beneficent advance has been made times as in the medical. they were by disease the pains which far they had to suifer from the supposed remedies exceeded those which nature imposed. which proverb truly tells us "is better than cure" . the Bleeding was also used as a preventive. blistering. and antiquity of the doctor's without doubt. before . no profession but there is.

HOW OUR FATHERS WERE
Advent,
Pentecost
before
"

PHYSICKED.
Easter,

217

Lent,

after

and

at
in

—were

the periods at which

men

health were accustomed to "breathe a vayne."

Besides letting of blood, the physician's cane and
the surgeon's club were vigorously used on the

unfortunate

sufferers.

Mr.

J.

C

Jeaffreson, in

his very interesting

"Book about

Doctors," says,

"For many

centuries fustigation was believed in

as a sovereign

remedy

for bodily ailments as well
for

as moral faihngs,

and a beating was prescribed

an ague as frequently as for picking and stealing."

So what with the

lancet and the stick combined,

our fathers must indeed have shuddered at the

approach of any of the " natural shocks that
is

flesh

heir to."

The medicines

of those good old times were of

a very strange and

objectionable

kind.

of the concoctions were
gredients,
to

composed of

Some many inwas

and were formed of abominable, not
materials.

say

disgusting,

All nature

ransacked for out-of-the-way and horrible things

which could be used as drugs and nostrums
suflerin^

for

and
II.,

o^uUible sufferers.

In the

reio^n of

Charles

Dr.

Thomas Sherley "recommended
"

a clumsy and inordinate administration of violent

drugs

"

for

gout.

Calomel

he

habitually

;

218

THE DOCTOR.
Sugar of lead he
;

administered in simple doses.

mixed largely

in his conserves

pulverized
;

human
was
his

bones he was very fond of prescribing
principal
'

and the

ingredient

in

his

gout-powder

raspings of a

human

skull unburied.'
his

But

sweetest compound
strongly

was

'Balsam of
an

Bats,'
for

recommended
persons,

as

unguent

hypochondriacal

into

which

entered

adders, bats, sucking-whelps, earth worms, hogs'
grease, the

marrow

of a stag, and the thigh-bone

of an ox."
confiding

A

good idea of the things sold to a
as

public

cures

for

its

ills

may
:

be

gathered from two verses on Colonel Dalmahoy,
a well-known
"

shall

we

say quack
and

— of the past
pills.

Dalmahoy

sold infusions

lotions,

Decoctions, and gargles, and
Electuaries, powders,

and

potions,
squills.

Spermaciti,

salts,

scammony,

Horse

aloes,

burnt alum, agaric,
dill

Balm, benzoine, blood-stone, and
Castor, camphor,

and acid
every

tartaric,
ill."

With

specifics for

Metals and precious stones were extensively
used
in

the

prescriptions

of

bygone

doctors.

Every metal and every stone was credited with
some
special

and peculiar virtue which
it

it

alone

possessed,

and

was applied as a cure

for that

HOW OUR FATHERS WERE
ailment over which
it

PHYSICKED.

219

had influence and power.
of Stoppings,
in
in

Bacon
body

tells us, "

We

know Diseases

and Suffocations, are the most dangerous
;

the
the
;

minde.

And it is not much otherwise You may take Sarza to open the
open the Spleene
;
;

Liver

Steele to
for the

Floivers of Sulj^hur
for the Braine," for

Lungs

Castoreum
it

each of which parts
specifics

was believed that the
most
efficacious.

named
of

were
Dr.

The
of

prescriptions

Bulleyn,

in

the

reign

Elizabeth, are wonderful examples of
fathers were physicked.

how

our

Here The

are

two of those

quoted by Mr. Jeaffreson.
"

first is
is

An

Embrocation.

after

this

manner
vyolets,
;

:

—An — Px.
barly,

embrocation

made
of

Of a
quince

decoction
seed,

mallowes,
leaves,

lettice
;

one pint

of barly meale, tw^o ounces

of oyle of vyolets and roses, of each, an ounce and
half; of butter, one ounce;
all

and then

seetli

them
and

together

till

they be

like a brouthe,

puttyng
;

thereto, at the ende, foure yolkes of eggs

the maner of applying

is

with peeces of cloth,

dipped in the aforesaid decoction, being actually
hoate."

Our second
noblemen
;" it

is
is

" truly a

medicine for kings and

called

an

220
''

THE DOCTOR.
Electuarium de Gemmis.
;

— Take two drachms
;

of white perles

two

Httle peeees of saphyre

jacinth, corneHne, emerauldes, grannettes, of each

an ounce

;

setwal, the sweete roote dorsnike, the

rind of pomecitron, mase, basal seede, of each

two

drachms

;

of redde

corrall,
;

amber, shewing of
rootes both of white

ivory, of each

two drachms

and red Hchen, ginger, long peper, spicknard,
folium indicum, saffron, cardamon, of each one

drachm

;

of troch diarodon, lignum aloes, of each
;

half a small handful

cinnamon, galinga, zurnbeth,

which

is

a kind of setwal, of each one

drachm and

a half; thin pieces of gold and sylver, of each
half a scruple
;

of musk, half a drachm.

Make
is

your electuary with honey emblici, which
fourth kind of mirobulans with
in equall

the

roses,

strained

partes, as

much

as will

suffice.

This

healeth cold diseases of ye braine, harte, stomack.
It
is

a medicine proved against the tremblynge

of the harte, faynting and swooning, the weakness
of the stomacke, pensiveness, solitarines.

Kings

and noble men have used
It causeth

this for their comfort.

them

to

be bold-spirited, the body
to

to smell wel, and ingendreth
colour."

the face good

The most innocent

articles

used in the old

HOW OUR FATHERS WERE
medicines were
fruits,

PHYSICKED.

221

and herbs, and

veofetables.

To some kinds
Dr.
Bulleyn's
pleasant
quinces,
berries,

special virtues are assigned,

and
very-

"Book
grapes,

of

Simples,"
apples,

is

reading.
cherries,

" Pears,

peaches,
ras-

raisins,

prunes,

oranges,

medlons,

raspberries
lettuces

and
are

strawberries,

spinage,

ginger, and

the good things thrown upon the board."
are told of a prune growing at Norwich,

We
and

known
" very

as the

" black

freere's prune," that it is

delicious

and

pleasaunt,

and
"

no

lesse

profitable unto a hoate

stomacke."

The red

warden

is

of greate virtue, conserved, roasted or
choller."

baken to quench
that
"

We

are also informed

Figges be good agaynst melancholy, and
evil,

the falling

to be eaten.
sufficient

Figges, nuts, and

herb

orrase

do make a

medicine ag-ainst

poison or the pestilence.

Figges make a good

gargarism to cleanse the throates."

Some
curious.

of the Doctor's

prescriptions are

very

He
for

prescribes " a smal

young mouse
a

rosted,"

a child

afflicted

with

nervous

ailment.

Nor

did he disdain to use the snail in

certain cases.

He

tells

us that " Snayles broken
in

from the shelles and sodden

whyte wyne with

oyle and sugar are very holsome, because they be

222

THE DOCTOR.

boat and moist for the straigbtnes of tbe lungs

and cold eougb.
and leven
Snail
will
is

Snails stamped witb campbery,

draw fortb prycks

in

tbe flesb."
in

brotb

not entirely unknown

some

country places, even at tbe present time.
stone

Bezoar
used
in

and

unicorn's

born were

also

confections.

Cancer
still is,

bas always been,

and unfortunately

a terrible and an incurable disease, and bas
all

afforded a fine field for
specifics

kinds of nostrums and
safe
''

wbicb were to produce a "

and

certain cure."

One

of tbese, called a
"

precious
foote,

water," was tbus composed.

Take dove's

a berb so named, Arkangell ivy witb tbe berries,

young

red bryer toppes, and leaves,

wbyte

roses,

tbeyre leaves and buds, red sage, celandyne and

woodbynde, of eacb lyke quantity, cut or cbopped
and put into
clarified

pure

cleane

wbyte
into
it

wyne,

and

boney.

Tben breake

alum glasse

and put
Destill

in a little of

tbe pouder of aloes bepatica.

tbese

together softly in a limbeck e of
tin
;

glasse or

pure

if

not tben in a limbecke

wberein aqua
close.
if it

vitse is

made.

Keep

tbis

water

It will not onely kyll tbe canker (cancer),

be duly washed therewyth

;

but also two

droppes dayly put into tbe eye wyll sharp tbe

— HOW OUR FATHERS WERE syght. enquire and a commission subject. but 3s. and Joanna the desired Stephens £5. was presented to they the House. was thus An appeal was made to Parliament. and vain attempt was made to only £1." In 1739. Bishops. the Physicians.000. the is British Parliament passed an Act which of folly. subscription. by experiment and dissolving power. gulled. and 223 and it breake the pearle spottes.356 raise the sum by raised. and the following extracts will suffice to sufferers show how easily from diseases may be." of the tested medicine.000. which she to possessed it the for She proposed of make a public the sum £5. specially if be dropped in wyth a little fenell water. PHYSICKED. and sometimes : are. Archbishop and Canterbury. was appointed to certificate into the and a of signed by the Peers. unprecedented in the annals quack. ''convinced efficacy. declaring that of were utility. to A was female named have Joanna effected Stephens. This lucky quack says . and close the eyes after. was rewarded with The prescriptions were published. reported some of most extraordinary of cures by only the use a medicine secret.

wild carrot all seeds. honey." and snails. a Decoction." burnt to a blackness —soap and of Our readers will willingly dispense with the directions how these dearly purchased medicines should be prepared. Physician. " ! In being cheated as to cheat In lished 1633. asken keys. hips and hawes." following : his prescription for all kinds of poisons — viz. The Bloud of a : Malard drunke fresh and warme or els dryed to .224 " THE DOCTOR. " the Hoofe of an Oxe cut into parings and boyled with bruised mustard-seed in white wine and faire water. and Pills. My medicines Powder are a Powder. and honey). both " The Decoction is made by boiling some herbs (together with a ball which consists of soap." consists of egg-shells "The calcined. till such a Man may The be | had to perfect the Cure. pub- a | small volume | entitled ' ' Helps | for | | Svddain Accidents Endangering Life. " Surely The pleasure is as great. By of which I Those that | live farre from Physitions or | Chirurgions may happily preserve the Life | a true Friend or Neigh- hour. swine's-cresses burnt to a blackness. Stephen Brasnell. seeds." "The burdock Pills consist of snails calcined. in water. authors is | | Collected out of the best for the generall good.

HOW OUR FATHERS WERE powder. 225 dmnke seeds of in a draught of white The Bloud of a Stagge also in the same manner. Of this I have had happy proofe. Or take . naturall and there let him sweat well. The Rue and in the leaves of Betony boyled together ij white wine." Our author admits that "this may be held to devide live pullets a strange course. scruples (that is fortie graines) of Mithridate is of prepared Chrystall. and so wine. but the same reason that teacheth and pigeons for plague-sores approveth this way of sweating as most apt to draw to itselfe all poysons from the heart and 15 . it and put save his the poysoned partie naked into head. Swallow down at once ." prescription for " those with " Take. one dram (that three all score grains). "take a sound horse. belly take out all his entrayles quickly. all while the body of the horse retains his heate." says our seventeenth century his physician. PHYSICKED. fresh well Butter one ounce. it Mix by together. open alive. or so shillings much of six Beere." There is a much more effective. though a somewhat revolting abilitie. such quantities as you can swallow it and drink presently upon a quarter of a pint of the decoction of French Barley.

it liveth old It biteth also very venomously. And outwardly apply her warme . the bitings of spiders. To is cure her biting. in pounded poultis. all powder and and let it be so big as to cover fast the head like a cap. and leaveth foure small perforations made by her foure foreteeth. But The during this time of sweating he must defend his braine quilt is by wearing on to be his head a a quilt. the shrew-mouse is " Now the shrew-mouse commonly in a little kind of a mouse with a long sharpe snout . then binde it is with a kerchief.226 THE DOCTOR." of which he says '' the garden ones are the worst. parts principall of the patient's body. her flesh if it roasted and eaten the best inward antidote may be had." also There are curious prescriptions for the '^ stings of bees and wasps. inwardly taken. and a short tayle ruinous walls. helpeth much." a morter and applied in manner of a Here is one about that pretty : little animal. which are to be made into a " grosse quilt in sarsnet or calico." and that is outwardly the best thing to be applied the flesh of the same beast that did the hurt." made by taking them up on number of dried herbs." This called " a Nightcap to preserve the Brain." He " tells us that the " flesh of the same beast that biteth.

in Mr." Brunoni all informs us. TroUope gave a short account Notes and Queries of a book by Dr. published at Fabriano It was entitled H Medico Poeta (the Physician a Poet)." in for a The toad comes on this subject. says Trollope. the teeth of a dead man made tion. T.' may think that this was a fit " punishment " death having pashed " the toad to with a brickbat. that " skulls are not of equal value. which did not a endanger it. A. Otherwise Rocket-reeds beaten into powder. in 1726. and mixed with the blond of a dog. good share of atten- and Mr. .HOW OUR FATHERS WERE liver PHYSICKED. and an account Dr. Cammillo Brunoni. " ofives of the medical uses of human Mr. was so hurt by the spouting of a venomous humour from the body of a great toad into my face while I pashed him to death with a brickbat. In 1854. and hath made ever since apt to receive any flux of Some of our readers for Rheume or Inflammation. while I was a student at Cambridge. lighted on Some it of the moisture little my right eye. into a fine powder." the strangest Among things ever used as medicine must be placed human skulls. Bradwell gives a personal anecdote He says : — " Myself. skulls. 227 and skin if it may Or els be had.

those of persons death. salt. who have died a natural Indeed. gelatine. is a mere superstition.228 THE DOCTOR. essence. parts ars poetica and followed by a hundred and all diseases. is And this is clearly because not only the essential spirit of the cranium concentrated therein by the nature of their violent death. them." This very curious book consists of a twelve cantos. that the disease of which they died has essential spirit ! consumed or dissipated the skulls of The murderers and bandits are particularly efficacious.. The notion soldiers drinking out of a skull renders them invulnerable in battle.' as it from the fifteenth century downwards call was the Italian fashion to them. seventy-two sonnets on . on the physical poet . The reason of this is. and are very useful in epilepsy hoemorrhage. but also the force of it is increased by the long exposure to the atmosphere. are good for Httle or nothing. though respectis able writers do maintain that such a practice a proved preventive against scrofula. or ' '' poem in Capitoli. are made from and that have. — a sort of medical drugs. Preparations of volatile etc. occasioned by the heads of such persons being ordinarily placed on spikes over the gates of cities ! Such skulls are used in various manners. spirit.

in Venice. Our selections are from the third volume. of the most extraordinary of or any age. another on blisters." That delightful work. and many others on far less mentionable subjects. having swept together the dirt in the room. was without doubt that In 1651. throws it out of the window. The Memoirs of the Verney Family. Sir Ralph known the as Venice Treacle. Mystic virtues are attributed to a variety of substances. who. is curative means. and on 229 of them. and mineral. Verney was which and the Memoirs furnish following graphic account of this terrible druof. vegetable. by Lady Verney. Isham. We have a sonnet on the stomach-ache. Each sonnet is printed one page. was a concoction Sir of the it most disgusting materials. and says . a sonnet on apoplexy. for her family medicine chest. of a The author's poetical view of the action it black-dose compares to that of a tidy and all active housemaid.HOW OUR FATHERS WERE of the body. animal. a sonnet on purges. functions PHYSICKED. while that opposite occupied by a compendious account in prose of the subject in hand. affords some very striking examples of the medical treatment of poor suifering humanity in the 17th century. medicines of One this. Ralph sends to Mrs.

or Ostridge." at the Ship in published by Thomas Longman. and Papers both its in Italian and Lattin to show virtue." adds Lady Nero's Verney. and hee gives leaden Potts with the Ostridge signe uppon them. white w^ine. traditionally composed by physician. was made of vipers. in Dr. ' ' Paternoster Row.' liquorice. sopra ponte de'Baretteri. John's wort. though their country hotter." " This celebrated and incredibly '' nasty compound. anxious for the credit of British vipers.' 230 " THE DOCTOR. on the right hand going towards St. seeds of treacle mustard. Mark's. and keepes shopp il at the Strazzo. and Indies." The '' recipe given as late as 1739. get the full Vipers are of essential. ' spices from both the red roses. ' and to vipers benefit alive them a dozen w4ne. and so may the more rarify the viperime . opium. tops of St.' should be put into white The English doctor. juice of rough aloes. tops of germander. His price is 19 livres (Venize money) a pound. is hee that most famous for Treacle is called Sig' Antonio Sgobis. and some twenty other herbs. to be mixed with honey ' triple the weight of all the dry species is into an electuary. proves that Venice treacle ' may be made is as well in England. Quincey's English Dispensatory.

are as efficacious and deadly as them. It was used as ' an opiate when some stimulus ' is required at the same time fessedly . and even its advocates allowed that Venice treacle did not suit everyone. that English people ' please themselves much with buying sailor . glister. an overdose was con- dangerous. Wheler.' Ralph could pride himself that his leaden pots contained the genuine horror. was bled. printed London. Another patient. drastic. The treatment was indeed might truly add cruel. who had caught a after had all sorts of " Applications of Blisters and .' For centuries this medical ''horror" was taken by our drastically treated forefathers. Tin Pot at a low price of a dirty with directions in the Italian tongue. ' honey disagrees with some " particular constitutions. PHYSICKED. and we Tom Verney had for this "a tertian ague and a feaver. a cordiall.' and that some base druggists this ' in make wretched stuff of Sir little else than the sweepings of their shops. time of which is the hottest.' But he complains a that the name of Venice goes so far. Sir chill George dancing.— HOW OUR FATHERS WERE juices ' ." and he had "only a vomit. 231 yet the bites of our vipers at the proper year. because. and breathed a vane that is. forsooth.

" Truly I might compare Job's. 232 THE DOCTOR. and if ' ' I see noe danger of Wm. known and as ''The New created quite a panic. abide 4 the same night when he goes let him take the weight of . a drop it was advised to apply a would fech of the skin when touched. I beleeved he had beene well ere this. 3 full spoonfulls of the vomitage liquor in possitt drinke will doe well. one of the most famous physicians of the time. R. may be gathered from a Denton's. Sir Ralph Verney lotion " so virulent. pills and potions." proved very fatal. and writes to his father. my I have taken purges and I vomits.. he had followed your advice by taking of a if vomit. and he to rest may . 100 pounds. and I doe not know what 1 have not had. I have had so many things. so that his Laudanums. then to have beene blooded. The treatment adopted by the doctors prescription of Dr." Then he adds '' It is the best thinge and the surest and the quickest he can yet doe. therefore I pray lett him have one yett. have been blooded. He writes to Sir Ralph Verney." In 1657-58 the epidemic Disease." Denton's cost him " the best part of For an eruption in the leg." ill Young Edmund Verney afflictions to w^as in 1657." Christmas dinner at Dr. and that had not done it.

your town pray have a car of yourself." to prescribe. she ate nor fish. . and it ran generally through it all families. approve of this kind of treatment. 233 v'& of diascordium the next day or the next but . or their own notions of remedies. however. a pancake or eggs." Some their of the ladies of the time did not. he may be blooded in the arm about 20 ounces. we " to anticipate. nor bread." is but drink good ale for : I live by the strength would object Few. but sage possett drink. Lady Fanshawe ill described the disease as " a very kind of fever.HOW OUR FATHERS WERE one PHYSICKED. discs in now and then new But Lady Hobart ventured " If you have a She writes. and most would prefer her " good ale Dr. of which many died. Our plied. We two examples. ." " neither While she suffered from flesh. and preferred own to remedies. or a turnip or carrott. illustrations might be indefinitely multisuffice to but those given will amply in show the way which our fathers were physicked. select the doctor's prescriptions. to her ladyship's advice. and goo to non of them the gretis cordall that of your malt. Denton's 'S^omitts." and the loss of 20 ounces of blood.

Here may be rheumatism. or the " wise woman of its " of his early days . dandelion roots for liver complaint. and unlikely. and which. seen poppy heads for fomentation. have been each of which was alleged to be a certain cure. had been at contemptuously ineffica- rejected in favour of cious compounds. who. leaves. more complex but is There scarcely a market but has a stall kept by a herb woman. studiously — roots. he reverts to some simple thing. out with great care her stock of simples flowers. in hood. ground iv}^ for . TO man likely ease pain and endeavour to effect a cure. and when numberless things tried. will try every suggested remedy. by reason first simplicity. taught him by his old grandmother. or gathered at the proper time. her ample waist encircled by broad tapes from which capacious is suspended a pocket. warm old-fashioned with a little shawl round her shoulders. lays and indispensable.flDcMcal fol\\:^%oi\\ By John Nicholson. is when their virtue strongest.

with superstitious remedies. Not long ago was shewn a large molar. and given fraternity. The patient is placed in front of the operator. it may be. is almost world-wide caused by a little in its extent.MEDICAL FOLK-LORE. by her wares. ring. a qualified medical brotherhood she holds in contempt because of their new-fangled remedies and methods. of up by the duly long standing. and other herbs. well brushed seven times with a black cat's if the cat were willing. if Another cure is more efficacious administered as a surprise. celandine *' 235 all for weak eyes. scientific bearing on the the eye. derisive laughter. that toothache worm situ w4iich I gnaws a hole in the tooth." She can wrought wondrous tales of marvellous cures cases. or the it gold ring of a young maiden or cause to be tail. which when in . It is a common belief. a person having a sty on it have rubbed with a wedding ." to alleviate or cure " ills some of the relate that flesh is heir to. . thus. friendship and general unpleasantness for a time. deals chiefly This chapter. which met by broken which causes. however. for the service of man. or at least those remedies which seem to have no case will . who unexpectedly spits on the eye affected action often leads to angry remonstrance.

The patient then held his or her open mouth over the cup. its had caused owner great pain. t Dyer's English Folk Lore." following was communicated to the Folk Lorn Journal by Wm. the worm. saying. Where but a humour or a worm." " in This superstition was common some years ago Derbyshire.. was placed in a tea-cup or fire other small vessel. 156. and he pointed to the nerve apertures. * in "Much Ado this Nothing. Torquay. was thought. sc. Into this cup the patient breathed hard for a few moments." sj^eaks of curious ''D. where there was an odd as it way of extracting. p. was then put before the patient. 1884 Act ii. : Pengelly. What is ! sigh for the toothache? Leon. February 1st.. "That's where the worm About behef : was!" Shakespeare. . The cup glass. and a live coke from the was dropped in. it was supposed. and then. Pedro. Esq. consisting of dried and powdered herbs. was then taken away. A small quantity of a mixture. and inhaled the smoke as long as it could be borne. and a fresh cup or containing water. the grub or + worm The could be seen in the water. 2.— 236 — THE DOCTOR.

" He saith. It was to . on which the neighbour remarked that she could give a charm of undoubted efficacy." A sit Roumanian charm against toothache is to beside an anthill. was held to it me by the dictator.— MEDICAL FOLK LORE.' The charm. complained to a neighbouring woman that she was suffering from toothache. and he followed him name of and of the Son. being found have been presented to to the sufferer. in This difficulty was obviated by calling to write my ' services. a much sympathy. it spit out over the anthill. a woman at Looe. and as the ants eat the bread the toothache will cease. " Lord. saith. be in writing. to Some time man wished shew me some . and requesting me : from dictation the following words Peter sat in the gate of Jerusalem. and immediately in the him . the wearying pain may be relieved or cured." toothache sufferer called the " love and the does not receive ago. to be correctly written. masticate a crust of bread. " Peter. with the nail of an old or drink the water taken from the tops of three waves. Peter. and worn constantly about the person unfortunately. the pain. and of the Holy Ghost. and follow me. He did so. "Arise." the toothache left the Father. am grievously tormented with the toothache. is In Norfolk. I at once gave it who placed it in a small bag and wore round her neck. Some believe that if you pick the aching tooth coffin. Jesus cometh unto him and I what aileth thee ?" He saith. in south- east Cornwall. would be valueless if the giver and receiver were of the same sex. it but. " 237 Upwards of sixty years ago.

and 'twas worth while to enquire into the affair and publickly admonish the people of the evil of such a course. three pieces of Rowantree. three roots of wormwood. hut his jacket pocket was so filled called it) with odds and ends ("kelterment. George Neilson. met after Sermon. by my Mr. . Session It Feb. hard. withered. The following curious friend." he that he turned all out in order to better the miscellaneous prosecute his search. some people spread treacle on brown paper. three pieces of his shirt. and are here inserted by his consent. and alltogether. dry. three boiled of mugwort. Several of the members gave account that Salt. passages have been transcribed solicitor. disabling disease. of the was represented by some members that the Charms Armstrong. most freely given : "Graitney Kirk. and black . from Kirk Session Records of the parish of Gretna. For the same distressing. Labouring and Spells used at Watshill for Francis under distemper of mind. Among collection I noticed a potato. and anointed his Legs with the water. in Barbara Armstrang's they burned Rowantree and they took three Locks of Francis's hair. antiquity he had found.— 238 THE DOCTOR. that a timely stop be put to such a practice. 1733. 11. the Glasgfow. and apply hot to the part affected. gave great oflfence. and was informed it was kept as a preventive and cure for rheumatism.

and at last Helen Armestrange. the fire with three pieces dipt out of his and a a rag dipt in tallow to be lighted and carried round his bed. assisted her. and withal to keep the door close : She ordered burnt in Slut. John Neilson in Sarkbridge. 25. but wronged him would come no access was to Francis. Mary Tate having been summoned was the and compearing confessed that she had gone to Isabel Pot. legs his and temples be stroaked therewith. tho' distracted. and declared that the s<^ Isabell of ordered South running water to be lifted in the the Father. met after Sermon. around the bed said they carried a candle of the inchantment. with nettle roots. wormwood. southernwood and rowantree. told the said Francis. sups to be put in his mouth.. and all to be kept secret except from near friends : Mary Tate him declared that the said Francis would allow none to touch but her.e. being told by Isabel Pott. declared before the Session this was matter of fact others then present. Session Feb. Devil's them they were using witchcrafts and the Charms that would do no good Mary Tate being : admonished of the Evil of such a course was removed : Not- . that the person who had to the door. Spouse all to Archibald Crighton. mugwort. in parish of RockcliiF. and after tho' distracted. in Rockcliff commonly be given. 1733. told them they were using for one part and the Devils Charms that would do no good. and hands.MEDICAL FOLK-LORE. and three also three locks of his hair to be shirt. at Cross. and to be boiled at night in the house where Francis Armstrong was. and meantime kept the door close. Elder. witch-craft It is called the Wise Woman. i. John Neilson. 239 essayed to put three sups in his mouth. Servant to in Sarkbridge is to be cited as having & '» jrone to the Wise Woman for Consultation. Son and name Holy Ghost. called on. Mary Tate." Graitxey Kirk.

Charms. 158. I am and the evil ague being dismissed. and that is none hereafter pretend Ignorance the Congregation cautioned against such a practice from the Pulpit. . and others her accomplices. Jesus called Peter. rather than medical remedies." all evil ague is Lord The following charm ^ : an old diary of 1751 Pilate. used to be much more evil. Lord. — taken from '' When leaf. is withstanding her acknowledgments of her fault she to be suspended a saci^is. Lord. and from deliver us. and said. prevalent than it Drainaofe and sanitation have banished many evils. and has had of the inter- a clasp.240 THE DOCTOR. a thin 16mo. booklet of 48 printed pages and 42 blank pages. the evil ague may oj'ood depart from them. are very prevalent. but some of the blank inter-leaves have been torn out. Jesus came near He trembled Hke a * and the judge Dyer's English Folk Lore. leaves bears this written sat at the gate One : charm — ^' And Peter of Jerusalem and prayed. lies Rider's British Merlin for 1715 It is before me." to be Ague now is. grant that whosoever weareth these lines in writing. Peter said. and with the the exorcists' charm for the banishment of the evil. p. and Peter sick of an ague. It is bound in parchment with gilt edges. for the cure of ague. which has disappeared.

mixed them wdth great ceremony. Third day never return. Agnes' Eve. and to the great amusement of his companions. He fear had neither the ague. lord's Mr. daughter looked very student. with companions who were law^ students like himself." A strange charm for this dreaded disease was to be spoken up the wide cavernous chimney by the eldest female of the family on St. posing as a ailed her. Mr. nor was He answered.— MEDICAL FOLK-LORE. continuing to play the doctor. medical asked what He was informed she suffered from aoue. Holt observed that the landill. When a young man. gathered sundry herbs. tied it round the neck of the young 16 woman. ." A curious anecdote is related of Lord Chief he. Tremble and quake Tremble and die Second day shiver and learn ! . and. \vho straightway was cured of her ague. " Thus spake she : Tremble and go First ! day shiver and burn ! . He afraid and . in rolled them up parchment. asked 241 Him if He had the aofue. ran up a score at an inn. scrawled some characters on the same. Justice Holt. Holt. which they were not able to pay. w^iosoever bears these words in mind shall never ague or anything else.

party would probably poison The * condition peculiar to the morning Records of York Castle. pines away. 230. had a won- which never failed to cure the ague. p. as so will the disease depart.242 THE DOCTOR. that a person bitten by a dog if liable to the dog which bit them goes mad. After the cure. for though others in the same it district imprison a spider in a box. Many years after. as the very ball who recoghe had made for the and his young woman at the inn. the of it. the owner of the dog it. The charm was handed nised it to the judge. said she a woman was brouofht before him accused of witchcraft. is often compelled to to destroy friends Should he refuse the injured do so. but derful ball. It is a common belief in the north of is England madness. In order to secure the bitten one from such a terrible fate. She denied the charge. and allowed the party to leave the house with hearts as light as their pockets. to help himself difficult position. and.^ companions out of a In the west of England a in a live snail is sewn up bag and worn round the neck as an antidote ague . . the pretending doctor offered to pay the bill. but the grateful landlord and father would not consent. when on the Bench.

a slice of which had it frizzled before the fire. rose. evidence almost incredible in was given of a practice civilised England. some tea afterwards. at Bradfield. she had fished out of the river the body of the dog by which the child had been extracted its bitten. effects foUowinof A wise saw from the doom's bite.)." A a Rector had the " and the . and had she liver. shews age.MEDICAL FOLK-LORE. this 1866." Edda The tells us that " Doa-'s hair heals following incident recorded in the Pall Mall Oct. in Gazette. in spite of this strange Erysipelas It is in Donegal is known as the " rose. but can be cured by a stroker." but died. Sarah Mackness stated that at the request of the mother of the deceased. following a night of debauchery. specific. is 243 said to need "a hair of the dog that bit you." very common. The dog The child had been drowned nine days ate the liver greedily. held on the 5th of October. and had then given to the child to be eaten with some bread. on the body of a child of five years of age. which had died of hydrophobia. 12th. is The following nurse of said to have happened. drank before. (Bucks. most gross superstition Victorian "At an inquest." which doubtless ill refers to the means taken to prevent a doobite.

both to patient and it nurse. nurse of with bog moss.. Tylor. and Mr. 761. tVol. so the of Hull take their suffering children across the Huniber call it to New Holland and back again. in the belief that as the creature dies and wastes away. the ancient Folk Lore Journal." Other people in procure a "hairy worm. p. and generally in vogue. the relic This custom old belief that seems to be of an something of the nature of a hairy caterpillar was the cause of the cough. is said to be not efficient except the In some parts of Yorkapplied as a poultice for sheep's dung is the cure of erysipelas. woman's friends brought the who rubbed bed. as sometimes called ? A change of air is deemed mothers beneficial to the afflicted one. or king-cough. in.244 THE DOCTOR. doctor was called After he was gone. Some it "crossing strange water. of 5." and suspend flannel cover a round the neck of the sufferer. . and then threw a her in is bucket bogwater over This treatment cured the woman.^ shire. the in a stroker. i. so will the cough depart. than w^hooping cough. in his Primitive Culture. but right person does it. What is is more distressing.^ * speaks v.

They the the a fox first little thing in mornino-. various cures are resorted to with the view of allaying the distress. homoeopathic doctrine that what hurts cure. he was informed by an old woman were that she and her brothers were cured of in w4iooping cough required to the following way. a donkey has come in for a share A few days ago. A correspondent of in a Notes and Queries states that when staying village in Oxfordshire. the soon disappear. The Norfolk peasants up a common house when the cough will spider in a piece of muslin. considered a specific for whooping cough in though Yorkshire the same diet cure while rat pie is is adopted for croup. two children living with their . of a curious superstition in Lochee : " Hooping-cough being rather prevalent in Lochee at the present time. the one to be used for tie whooping cough.— MEDICAL FOLK-LORE. Amongst these the old ' fret ' of passing a child beneath the belly of of patronage. go. which was set down as before the fox. 1882. and when drink. where a w^as They he the carried with them a large can of milk. house. and luckless long-legged spinner dies. will 245 also is In Gloucestershire roasted mouse . left. to their a hovel at distance from kept. had taken much as he cared to children shared among them what was (xa^e^^e of The Aberdeen Evening tells 24th August.

it. were infected with the malady. passed and repassed the creatures underneath the animal's belly. A hawker's cart. also. the mothers thought this an excellent opportunity to have their little ones relieved of their hacking cough. the custom was quite common in this quarter. A few years ago. but with the spread of education the people better than to attempt to cure hooping-cough generally know through the agency of a donkey. stationed at either side of little the donkey. warts will make their the appearance will . that blood if of a wart cause other warts. its crumbs which might These were given to the children to eat. Nor mouth was this all . is ''On the west side of the island there a hole in it. has not been ascertained. a rock with through which children are passed from when It suffering whooping-cough or other complaints. a piece of bread was next given to the donkey to eat. they can either . Anyhow." The North British Mail for 20th March 1883. Whether strange proceedings have resulted in banishing the dreaded cough or not. the warts be there. Camperdown Street. The donkey forth. one of the to catch the women holding her apron beneath fall. and The mothers. so as to these make the cure effectual. and with evident satisfaction appeared to think that a cure would in all probability be effected." is a common belief that if you wash your hands in water in wdiich eggs have been boiled. and probably never will be. among other superstitions in Tiree. says. was accordingly stopped. the children were brought the ceremony began. with a donkey yoked to happening to pass.246 parents in THE DOCTOR.

upon she got a piece of lard with the skin and rubbed the warts over with the fat side . who cottage sat on a three-legged stool before her door. says : Lord Bacon. there grew upon both warts. and then impale the poor creature on a thorn others steal a bit of beef. The English Ambassador's lady. repeating forgotten. being then at Paris. . woman far from superstitious. . Natural — I had from . on his arm. which has been Cures are effected by rubbing the warts with something. the while some incantation. at the least an my hands a number of in a hundred month's space. He was told by an aged dame. smoking a short black pipe. be cured or charmed away. when I was about sixteen years old.MEDICAL FOLK-LORE. 247 The in writer once had a row of warts. told who was a me one day : she would help me away with my all warts whereon. throw them over his left all shoulder. rub the beef on the warts. my childhood a wart upon one of my fingers afterwards. not so much in his as Taffy made off with. and then bury the beef History. thirteen left number. which is afterwards allowed to decay. Some rub the warts with a grey snail or slug. to take thirteen bad peas. never heeding where they went.

that it. success The all was. which was to the south. my childhood . for I no sooner handled his foot but I became very well. that within five .— 248 THE DOCTOK. Batten in Westminster Hall. like is They say the done by the rubbing of stick. w^hich arose upon course to-day with Mr. 1664-5) "Homeward. who tells us the whole of his experience. it Will drive away the cramp whenas doth wing." and then burying In Withal's Dictionary (1608) there following couplet '' : is the The bone of a haire's foot closed in a ring." but Pepys. then she nailed the piece of with the fat towards the sun. who showed me my mistake. for company. and it is a strange thing how fancy works. with foot as a comments thereon. in hare's charm He says : — (20 my Jan. upon a post of her chamber window. and so continue. warts with a green elder the stick to rot in muck. it my way buying a hare dis- and taking home. used a for colic. my it hare's foot hath not the joynt in and assures me he about never had the cholique since he carried him . and among the the wart which I had from lard. rest." . weeks' space the warts went quite I away and that wart which had so long endured.

it. a ring made of a hinge of a had the power of relieving cramps. as prevents the troublesome witches from sitting upon the key sleeper's stomach. tied to the of the stable door. 249 "Now mighty well. (22nd.— MEDICAL FOLK-LORE. from is the Boston Hercdd. and truly I can but impute it to my fresh hare's foot. Nails driven in an oak tree prevented the toothache. The chips of a gallows on which several had been hanged. which were also mitigated by having a rusty old sword hanging up by the bedside." " Now I am at a loss to know (March 26) whether it be my hare's foot which is my preservation since I wore . by tumours of the glands. that had served in A halter hanging a criminal was an infallible remedy for a head-ache when tied round the head this affection was equally cured by the moss growing upon and pulverised. when worn effectually in a bag round the neck would cure the ague. for I never had a it fit of collique pill it." The following newspaper 7th cutting 1837. stroking the part nine times but the hand of a man who had been cut down from the gallows was the most efficacious. would night-mare. deterred witches from riding horses over the country. The same amulet. A a stone with a hole in stop it suspended at the head of a bed.) . preserving " : February." . or whether be my taking a of turpentine every morning. the human skull taken as cephalic snuff dried A dead man's hand could dissipate . the hence it was called hag-stone. worth Nothing could be more absurd than the notions regarding of these some coffin supposed cures .

name some part of the etc. and no operation could be performed on any part of the body unless the part. unlucky for and The York the Fabric Rolls * tell us that Maundy Thursday. . was termed olde faders day before Thursday. neck. indicating that the influence of the planets on that day particular is favourable to that part or organ.— 250 — THE DOCTOR. places the Rider's of British Merlin 1715. An old proverb says : " Friday hair. ruling that particular were propitious. " in Shere the dayes people wold that day sheer theyr heddes and clype theyr berdes and poll theyr heedes and so make them honest ayenst Easter Day. Good because Friday. 273. 353. arms. body — face. You'll go the devil afore Monday morn." shewing clipping that hair these days cutting were nails.. Sunday horn. Our forefathers firmly believed in planetary influence on the minds and bodies of men. for planet. tP. opposite the days of the month. breast." same interesting The volumet gives : the following account of charming away fevers "P.

" A quart of whine (wine). I se the fier and said thus. fier. and after theis wordes said xv Pater Noster. 251 Bishopwilton. a penoth of Barbary barck. a haporth of flour of Brimstone for Jonous." . She'took and yong women light a ' w* hirr. and all other. to a rynnyng water. se ye what I burne. ij Isabel Mure and presented. and wypse of straw on the water.MEDICAL FOLK-LORE. Benedicite.' all unkowth evils flee." The following is a reproduction of a receipt for Yellow Jonus (Jaundice) copied from an old book in my possession. " 1528. xv God Ave Maria and tlire credes. a penoth of Tormorch (Turmerich). and went sett it see. and water rynne and the gryse grew. and see flew and nyght fevers and will.

By Andrew James Symington.n. Mackenzie. get large fees but the majority of the profession conscientiously perform their laborious and kindly ministrations ungrudgingly and with moderate remuneration.s. in particular. philan- thropic. or in is any section of the community. f.r. often. and year. and hard-worked. late make their £20.®f pbpeiciane an& tbeir ]fec6. several self- years pass. WITH SOME PERSONAL REMINISCENCES. Those at the head of the profession attain to large incomes. notwithstanding the advance . such as the Dr. This state of matters has prevailed for centuries. which. and. and expensive course of study. To begin is first. in most cases.000 a Noted specialists. taking the different value of many money of into account. before a practice becomes even sustaining. and. sympathetic. IN set of the whole range of professional life. liable to so be called at any hour. as day or night. there medical a long practitioners. is certainly far short of their deserts. .a. with. there no men so self-denying.

that look no further than outsides. noblest and most is difficult science in the world practice is : and that there no other art for the ttiorough education of which the most Whittier observes of the doctor to — " It its so essential. and know upon what tender filaments that . is that " the theory and practice of medicine the . It has been well said. to the loathsome clod and the inanimate ghastly secrets dust ! Of what is of moral ! and physical disease Sir he the depository in says : — Thomas Browne. fees by the middle classes. Men. or by the rural or working population. for being but I. there scale AND THEIR but little FEES." is the special vocation grow familiar with suffering — to and last look upon humanity disrobed of fictitious its pride glory —robbed of all ornaments weak. from erect and god- image. think health an appurtenance unto and quarrel with their constitutions sick . naked fearful like —and undergoing the its metempsychosis." — 253 OF PHYSICIANS medical science. " his " ReHoio Medici. that have examined the parts of man. the living temple of an enshrined divinity. whether as to large fees paid by Royal or titled personages. is chano^e in the of remuneration." their life. hopeless.

exactly 1682. who to cure the said. in Thomas Browne was born London on Norwich the 19th of October. He died at on the 19th of October. finely says of charity " Divinity hath wisely divided the act thereof into many branches. do so . and. His father . many paths unto goodness as many ways as we may do good. " I cannot go body of my patient. no greater charity to his clothe his soul. but I forget my profession and call unto God for his soul." in the : same work. considering the thousand doors that lead to death. I cannot contemn a man but behold him with as much pity It is as I do Lazarus.— 254 THE DOCTOR. There are soul infirmities not only of the body. so many ways we may be charitable. . 1605. and hath taught us. but of and fortunes. in this narrow way. demands very special and reverential mention Sir in these pages. wonder that we are not always fabrick hangs." body than apparel the nakedness of His distinguished position. do thank my God that we can die but once." This model physician. having reached the age of seventy-seven. hand of our for ignorance. which do require the merciful abilities. as a physician and an author.

OF PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FEES. sonorous. and the Restoration. and mother shortly afterwards After travelling as married Sir Thomas Dutton. His friend Evelyn. at times. where the life remaining forty-two years of his were spent. on the Continent. languages. the perfect form or which. and cabinet of collections. His library contained vast stores of learned works on antiquities. he settled a practising physician at Shipley Hall. at Norwich. tells us " His whole house and garden being a paradise rarities. of a good Cheshire family. and the curiosities of erudition. for a time. he led a quiet full studious life. is style of only equalled but not excelled . books. and was often able to assist them their various investigations." in 1671. and that of the best and II. and musical language. alluding to Browne's home. set forth in stately. natural things. but died when his his more illustrious son was a boy. especially medals. He corresponded with the best men in of his day. 255 was a wealthy merchant. issuing volume after volume of profound. and far-reaching thought. and then moved to Norwich. He was knighted by Charles Throughout the troublous times of the Civil War. the Commonwealth. plants. near Halifax. penetrating.

for seems the collocation . scrutinizing sagacity of the living I will only call attention to the . ' — this phrase strikes a key-note to the follow. and the last valediction over. by the best cadenced prose of Milton or Jeremy Taylor. the dissertation. which at discernable large throughout example. John Addington finely Symonds has and truly said. Of the latter work. interred men took little a lasting adieu friends. with the vivid sympathy and writer. " His "Religio Medici.. for what called the musical colour of words." and " Hydrotaphia or Urn of Cyrus. How of simple. and unique feeling for verbal tone. the reverberation of is sounds in cavernous recesses. expecting the their curiosity of future ages should comment on ashes . for may be crumbling stationary cadences. The opening phrase of his dedication to Sir Thomas Le Gros of their — ' When the funeral pyre was out.. the tears quenched in the dust of countless generations.256 THE DOCTOR. sombre harmonies which connecting the ossuaries of the dead. that " the rarer qualities of Sir Thomas Browne's style (are) here displayed in rich maturity and heavy-scented blossom." Burial." have been The Garden my favourites for more than half a century.

17 time and the misty vaporousness of . they seemed not so much to raise sepulchres or it. Of their they made as little account. what impeccable how^ naturally. whereof so little know^n. by transcribing the following grand. '^ and characteristic from his Fraofment on Mummies" is : — "Yet passage in these huge structures and pyramidial immensities of the builders. and this time a complete sentence. as to contemn and disdain astonishinof lookino^ heaven with their audacities.' yet another " Take The brother of death daily haunts us with dying mementoes. the most notable of English Physicians. and planting them on basis. instinct the vowels are arranged how artfully. the rhythm falls ! Take another. them but the hospitia. or while they adorned sepulchres of the lastinof dead. — ' But the iniquity of oblivion blindly scattereth her poppy.— OF PHYSICIANS vocables in this phrase AND THEIR FEES. and deals with the memory of men. defied the crumblino. without distinction to merit of perpetuity. and forward with delioiit to their interment living habitations in those eternal piles. temples to death.touches of oblivion. suggestive.'" I take leave of this. conceiving of inns. 257 — ' Under the drums and trampHngs of three conquests!' And yet with .

asketh of who builded it them is ? and she mumbleth something". and him that had none to help him. and and looketh unto Memphis and and old Thebes. upon a sphinx. making puzzles of Titanian old glories into dreams. now dominant. The blessing of him that was ready to perish . The good physician and values the sympathizing. and the fatherless. profession is a noble and pleasant full though laborious and often of anxiety. in the lano^uaofe of scripture : " When the ear heard me. It can truly be said of the ph3^sician's kind and often ofratuitous services to them. but what he heareth not. as through those deserts. The traveller. me . erections. her cloud.— 258 THE DOCTOR. all Yet were but Babel all vanities. while his sister Oblivion reclineth semisomnous on a pyramid. gifts He and testimonials of gratitude from the poor. and when the eye saw me it gave witness to me because I delivered the poor that cried. even more than the costly presents of the The virtuous poor are always grateful." The medical one. and turning- History sinketh beneath he paceth amazedly her. is Time sadly overcometh sitteth things. is straining mind and body. confidential. comforting the humble friend of the family. gloriously triumphing. rich. then it blessed .

259 and I caused the widow's heart to sing for Among civilisation. stirring up a silent disease. patient. and making a strong body weak. in his "Anatomy of Melancholy." treating of " Physician. these are still represented. sorcerers. thus. savages. as it often falleth out. far more than in their fee. covetous. Many of them. and queer nostrums. is when there no cause.OF PHYSICIANS came upon me joy. honestly and unselfishl}" do everything that can be done for their patients." . AND THEIR FEES. in by impostors and quacks. a rule. Patient. would that Honesty over in every or his Physician. and Physick. will give physic to every one that comes. often produce and wire-draw his cure. ignorance." sensible Burton then quotes the following : Aphorism from Arnoldus — "A wise . and rejoice in being the means of their recovery. Burton. are the medicine men . make a prey of as an hungry Chirurgeon. keep posted up in the medical science of the day. as Members themselves of the profession. to get a fee. he be to not careless Harpylike or." when says astrology. so long as there is any hope of pay. in were then more : — "I vogue than practical require science. and magicians.

not how they might do good unto their poor neighbour. for the man is not able to wage the Physician. Whereby it appeareth that they be for the most part without charity. . I But God will find them out one day doubt not. but upon and try medicinal diet. and ready lands. But now poor in our days physick a remedy prepared only for rich folks. owm how to get money. yet the healing art for not necessarily the operations of occasion deception . and so consequently not the children of God and no doubt but the heavy judgment of God hangeth over their heads. astrology." ^' Empirics and charlatans are the excrescences . of the medical profession all they have obtained is in ages. not first give physick. but Physicians in our time seek only their profits.260 THE DOCTOR. alchemy. . amulets." Latimer thus severely censured the mercenary physicians of his day of Hezekiah that it is : — " Ye is see by the example lawful to use physick. for they are commonly very wealthy. before he proceedeth to medicinal cure. nor the witchcraft. will physician necessity. that they cannot do. charms. God indeed hath made physick for rich and poor. to purchase but to help their neighbour. and not for the poor.

it 261 its magic although has mysteries hke other branches of occult science." Paracelsus. it is simple agent. who styled himself. often believed in their nostrums. and were. or AND THEIR . or . swallowed the prescription and Punch records an extraordinary case of a voracious individual who bolted a door. Some wonderful achieved by means of his apph cation of this and his reputation spread far and wide . We are told of a patient who. fluid. Empirics. we are told. on being take a walk on an told by his doctor to empty stomach. and threw up a window Sydney Smith. sometimes. the Rain-water flesh is heir doctor " all the diseases to which he professed to cure by this cures were. but. instead of the ! medicine prescribed. the prince of of charlatans. amiable and In the year 1776. asked — " Upon whose !" But a truce to stories suggested by the queer nostrums of quacks. . professed to have discovered the elixir of he humbly died at the early age of forty-eight years. FEES.! OF PHYSICIANS necromancy." though he life. however. unselfish. said. was called. styled himself " King Physic. there lived a German '' doctor.

pills. pretext for continuing his he sent her a present of a pair of spring ducks. as he had been that he was being bled to death. and recovered rapidly. although he did not lose a drop of blood. cost five guineas a pair. I knew of a gentleman who. made him think. and he actually died. when streamlets of water set a-trickling told. he declined to accept any fee ! from his patients Dr. man fell in love with a young when he had no longer any visits. lay awake. and slightly pricked. were used. with his eyes bandaged. who was on a dissecting strapped down. Not recipro- . Hay garth. A young medical lady patient. The story is well known the condemned criminal in Paris. made in of Bath. What is yet more remarkable still. His strength gradually ebbed away. The doctor made up a box of bread which were administered as the others had been. and. appearance as Perkin's metallic ones and the which same results followed as when the of laid others. table. seeking relief at his hands. and the patient slept. crowds of maimed and sickly folk Hocked to him. when pills to procure sleep were ordered to be discontinued.262 THE DOCTOR. had a pair of precisely the wooden tractors same shape and .

if upon which he ventured asking the birds had reached her.— OF PHYSICIANS eating his attentions. had such an extensive practice years that his receipts in some as were as much £12. and who grieved over leaving the trees he had j^lanted. !" Her reply was " Quack. in the postscript to his . and the best friends. and presented for life. Generosity was the ruling feature of his life. The kind hearted doctor purchased the from the creditors. . AND THEIR FEES.000 . Lettsom. On one occasion he attended an old American merchant whose affairs had gone wrong." And Dryden. near the close of the last century.. as well as the most learned men I know. place it to his patient Pope. a quaker in the time of George III. the present. and this although half his services were entirely gratuitous. and rendered with unusual solicitude and care to necessitous clergymen and literary men. a few days before his decease. bore the following cordial testimony to the urbanity and courtesy of his medical friends: — ''There is no end of my kind treatment from the Faculty they are in general the most amiable companions. 263 she did not acknowledge to call. quack Dr.

Glynn once attended the only son of a poor peasant woman. and the rank of Baron of the Empire. and delicacies. Dr. the two ornaments of their profession.000 crowns each. after undergoing an operation. with which he purchased the manor of Clapham. he received a fee of £12. gave his physician and his surgeon 75." says I some measure the health which to this work. The King gave him Louis a fee of £6000. speaks in the the profession. same way of translation of Virgil. XIV. his After the mother waited on the doctor. "in "That I have recovered. next to God's mercy. When Dr. to the and care of Dr. a Hertford physician and member of Parliament. bark. attend Charles the First ill of a dangerous fever. . Dimsdale. skill had is lost by too much application owing. whom I can only pay by this acknow^ledgment. a pension for life of £500 per annum. ministering to his wants with port wine. lad's recover}^. in the year 1768." 264 THE DOCTOR. Dr.000. Hobbs. Henry Atkins was to sent for to Scotland by James the Sixth (then an infant). went over to Russia to inoculate the Empress Catherine and her son. he. Guibbons and Dr.

and £650 per annum to life. The physicians who attended Queen had five Caroline hundred guineas.000. hundred guineas each for his attendance Dr. considering the value of money at that time. . but he never received this Dr.OF PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FEES. which was her son's pet. as a fee to show their gratitude. to the apothecaries who waited on him at his coffee houses of call he charged only half a guinea for prescriptions. written without his having seen the patient. in consultation or otherwise. however. he expected two guineas or more. the Second. and like many of his would not accept officers. his son for The other physicians. brethren. and the surgeons three . At home was a guinea.500 per annum for twenty years. and for several years received between £5. was generous to a degree. is as much as that of any living physician.000.000 and £6. fees from curates. Willis was rewarded on George III. A thousand Sir pounds were ordered to be paid to for Edmund King in promptly bleeding Charles fee. which. half-pay his fee and men of letters. by £1. 265 bringing a large wicker basket with an enormous magpie. He had an income one year of £7. the time of George the First. Mead. When But he visited patients of means.

I'll to him. On the lid was One every day. and he her said. Dr. ! send along a box of pills in the afternoon A messenger written it '' brought the box. I'm so glad I have caught you if it The doctor asked tongue. was found to contain twenty guineas He to '' once bluntly told a hon-vivant gentleman !" it Live on sixpence a day." and. said : " Doctor. and earn ago. when the lady appealed was husband. was descending the steps from his door and putting on his gloves. in the street. visit to ! " had only thirty guineas each and ten guineas each visit to Windsor. he observed the look of despair on the young wife's face. till were the old trouble. Once when prescribing diet for a nutritious and expensive young man in consumption. a friend told Long me of a lady in Devon- . and the evidence of straitened circumstances around . Abernethy was annoyed by a lady needlessly consulting him about as he One She 1" morning she came. setting out on his round of visits. Kew. on being opened. asking if there really nothing else he could suggest for her He rephed : " When I think of it. "Stand there I come.— 266 — THE DOCTOR. her tongue." he told her to put out her She did so. On her saying " Yes." and left so.

The physician questions. to She protested that she was quite prepared hear the worst — that she had for long years looked death in the face — that the notices of her . since differed and she could ailed her. to see her when under their and there her what he had got to say.OF PHYSICIANS shire. street in When she reached town. Whenever she to what she believed be a new symptom. hours. and quite need- At length doctors she confided to her friends that so widely. the which the physician lived was blocked After waiting with the carriages of patients. family she knew. she obtain no satisfaction as to what had resolved to go to tow^n and consult one of the Queen's physicians. her turn at last came. who read medical books. A consultation was held in the family. in the hope of his being able to cure her hypochondria. examined enquired if asked a few then she had any friends in tow^n. as he call tell would rather roof. 267 belonging to a. men regarding in this spending all several hundreds a year lessly. AND THEIR FEES. her. way. and at length imagined she had every disease under the discovered sun. she at once went medical oif to consult different it. and her nephew was sent to explain matters to the physician.

sixty-four pounds the . : — In . His earnings nine years of his professional first career progressed thus .— 268 THE DOCTOR. twenty patients were still waiting in the street he was averse to scenes. the year he netted five guineas in the second. in the sixth. The physician said he was busy — more than She all. inform you — that her there is it my is there !" nothing whatever the matter with you This interview fortunately effected her cure. four hundred ten in the in eighth.000. success His achieved the first very gradually. in death were lying her desk. six hundred and year in pounds . tell still persisted. This sum was was for exceptional. and the ninth —the which . and begged of him to and then. a hundred pounds . physician a handsome fee. two hundred pounds pounds . on which melancholy duty to he said: — "Madam. but for many great " years his income was over £15. all written out and filled in. only requiring the date to be etc. addressed.000. in the third. and w^ould much prefer to see her at her friend's house. in the seventh. pounds in fifth. in the fourth. to the great delight of her friends. ninety-six . twenty-six pounds . who paid the Sir Astley Cooper one year received in fees £21.

: — . he found a thousand the cap a draft guineas from the grateful but eccentric old man. but the " But sir. There. A cynical lawyer once advised a young doctor to collect his fees as he went along. addressing Sir Astley. said sir. shall have something better. and the doctor slighted. picking up the cap. I'll pocket the aflront. . take that'' skilful upon which he flung operator. But only when The danger in danger. '' his nightcap at the Sir. the two physicians who were were paid three hundred guineas each patient. quoting the : following verse to back his recommendation " God and the doctor we alike adore. you.— OF PHYSICIANS he secured his — 269 AND THEIR FEES." ^' repHed Sir Astley." in On for reaching home. both are alike requited God is forgotten. weary waiting. It has been told in different ways." The following story illustrates the too frequent sick. when hope makes the heart and also shows on what curious casual incidents the success of a career may sometimes turn." On one occasion when he had performed a perilous surgical operation on a rich West Indian present merchant. not before o'er. hospital appointment — eleven hundred pounds. and attributed to .

when he could not avail himself it but he w^ould go. the same or a similar incident it may have as it repeatedly occurred. his hat Next morning he scented note from the lady. The took brass plate attracted no patients idly months passed fellow and drink. mistress was dangerously lying on the floor her the own doctor was first out. I simply give was narrated to me. and offering to to him professionally her circle . entreating him not to expose her. took a house at a high rent in Harley Street. Freind. A young doctor London.a ! 270 THE DOCTOR. for here regretfully thought what a fool was of his chance. doctor he could The young doctor he was. by George!" took from the house. and exclaiming. When not in a he reached the room. he had enough or sense left fit conscience to know that he was state to j)rescribe. such as to Dr. and try hard to pull himself together. and the the poor to One night him to door-bell title rang — his . drearily. having graduated with honours. and he was sent to fetch find. . inviting him to introduce call. and others . corner. at once. men. . different but. servant man. quite possibly. and bolted received a "Drunk. from a lady of round the as begged come ill.

records: went to in visit Mr. when Mrs. hand clenched. we Sir find that Edward Browne. 271 Before the season was ended.." said the doctor. to the fees paid to physicians. physician to Henry YIII. As Dr. his Journal. it is recorded of a British doctor that he once actuahy took a fee from a dead patient. was founded by Thomas 1518 of . Charles November 20th. London." pub- . 1681. in and that the Boyal College of Physicians Edinburgh was incorjDorated by Charter of II. Edward Ward. 1664. It may be remembered here. Anne Ward gave me my shillings. that the Royal College of Physicians. fee. under ''I the date of February 16th. Opening the that he found for them a guinea. Entering the bedroom immediately after death had taken tightly in place. he observed the right fingers. an old man a feaver. Linacre. who became a distinguished physician London. putting the gold into his pocket. "Ah.OF PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FEES. was clearly me. his practice was yieldin^^ him at the rate of some £1500 a year ! Curiously enough.. the son in of Thomas in Browne." first 10 In a work entitled '^ Levamen Infirmi.

Those that are only licenced is physicians. we find that the scale of lished in the year 1700. thus preserving the bar. though they commonly demand ten shillings. but there is no settled price for the cure. set a bone broke or out of joint . and paid advance. remuneration to surgeons and physicians was as follows :— " To a graduate in physic. though he commonly expects or demands twenty. In the case of lawyers this custom can be traced back to the days of ancient Rome. his due is about ten shilhngs. so that of the suit was all removed. mile. twelvepence a ten groats to for letting journey far or near . Their services were regarded as being gratuitously rendered in the interests of friendship and justice." Till recent times neither barristers nor physicians could recover their fees by legal pro- ceedings against their clients or patients unless a special contract had been made. be his A surgeon's fee is . their due no more than six shillings and eightpence. and blood one shilling of any limb the cutting off or amputation is five pounds. The acknowdedgment given them by chents pecuniary interest in the issue was regarded as an honorarium. and of a value no money could in buy.272 THE DOCTOR. independence and respectability of the .

conveyancers. But all this code of honour was modified when relieved medical practitioners were of 21 and 22 Vict. Equity draftsmen. and such however. could recover reasonable charges for work done. This rule applies to physicians. dentists. and enabled them to recover any court of law^ their reasonable charges as well as costs of medicines and medical appliances used. The following are the charges usually : made by 18 medical practitioners . and the like were always entitled to sue for their fees . the income being indicated by the rental of the house in which they reside. 90. not rendered for payment but acknowledged by the gratitude and honour of his patients. by the Act which applied to the in United Kingdom.). LoxDON Medical Fees. but the valuable services of a consulting physician were of a different kind. surgeons. surgeons. So in the medical profession. cuppers. 273 like. ^'Patients are charged according to their supposed income.— OF PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FEES. The following information is taken from "Everybody's Pocket Cyclopaedia" (Saxon & Co. and apothecaries as defined by the statute.

:74 THE DOCTOR. .

his clothing. He was the means of introducing a pure water supply to the town of Paisley. the thermometer your " Can you not Maker has put in your " inside. siller " ? Wha's going pay good for water that has neither smell nor taste On one occasion. replied indignantly. Kerr's son and assistant. said. always strenuously urging the importance of sanitary matters and good drainage. Shortly after the water had been introduced to the houses. use ness of his flannels by the thermometer. Kerr. when such and things were then but little understood. man far in advance of his day. an elderly gentleman. saying that Kerr about he regulated the thickDr. over eighty years of age. greatly neglected. Kerr. No man . It 275 has been my privilege to know a several I doctors intimately. consulted Dr. whom we then young doctor. and put on clothes when you are cold ? Dr. an old man — who had been accustomed to purchase cart it water from a streets sellinof which went throuofh beino^ the from a barrel — on asked how he " liked the to new water. who was slightly hypochondriac. Our family doctor when was Dr. losing patience." died a few years ago in called " the Canada. was a boy in Paisley. from Stanley.OF PHYSTCTANS AND THEIR FEES.

and equally at home dining with Sir Thomas Brisbane. or drinking a cup of tea at some old woman's kitchen and tried all fireside. when was going to London. He intimate with Dr. I was strugghng for my life. new medicines. He read the Lancet. also parents. Dr. I knew very Good. and accomplished. for three whole consecutive and brought me through. Chalmers. Campbell well. Another model village and country doctor. gentle. and devoted his abilities and energies. and tender-hearted. in typhus fever. He panes had of lately the old fashioned little glass . and that the same results were obtained with wooden ones. to the benefitting of men's souls as well as their bodies. he was a perfect gentleman. showing the power of imagination. Lord Moncriefl'. Lord Cardwell. an intimate friend of of my Largs.276 THE DOCTOR. he gave me had a recent curious illustration. at his request I procured the most recent instruments for him. genial. could possibly have been more considerately kind. In telling me of experiments with Perkin's metallic tractors. On me one occasion. amore. He C071 ever kept himself abreast of the science of the day. Lord Jeffrey. and repeatedly. in 1841. he sat up with nights. etc. when.

and now else !" I can think of nothing- At fire the cholera time the disease." and forthwith she beo^an to sneeze She actually took cold. knitting. prayer-meetings . and. Campbell was laid fact spread like wild- down by The over the village. oi^eiu ! been sitting all this time by window. He said she was only slightly nervous. and plate glass inserted. one I of his patients whom knew. when he prescribed general way. and even it afterwards could scarcely be persuaded that had not been felt an open window. and she at once loudly protested " Me nervous ! ! There is not a nerve in my whole body A West India merchant. insisted on knowing exactly what ailed her. he also told me. taken out of the windows of his house. Dr. close by the gable window. and who. for she said she the cold ! The doctor told me of an old maiden lady who in a consulted him. ''Doctor. On I've suddenly looking round she said. at once. all and would soon be all right. one day said to him. This did not at please her. His mother. sat on an easy chair. " Oh an John. calling one afternoon. for forty years I never knew I had a stomach. who did not know of the change." — 277 OF PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FEES.

" a book which directly speaks heart.278 THE DOCTOR. Campbell. during his last illness. always reminded me of Sir " Thomas Norwich. and there were truly heartfelt rejoicings in the whole district over his recovery. from curiosity. meetings of including the different denominations. Many farewell years ago he went to his rest. " the beloved physician of The following pleasing incident. ran but he never took the trouble it to note them again. since for. I paid visit. him a There are few finer descriptions of the in country doctor than that contained *' Ian Maclaren's Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush. at his request. and. were called by the public all bell- for his recovery man. and philosophical acquirements. Catholics (Dr. home to every true Scottish Dr. the Roman Campbell was a Free Church Elder). I once asked his fees. scientific research. as served no jDurpose. him how he managed visit to get in he never refused to when and sent He said that one year. it kept an account of his gratuitous into three figures . in his large-hearted and genial Christian charity. Browne. he visits. relating to a .

strangers. Mr.or PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FEES. saying that a doctor had come to an urgent case. One in day. and asking if the minister could give him a bed. of Eaglesham. the Rev. His " wife. I wish you would buy that book. and a genius. was paid a sum of money as for compensation refusing tips from visitors. came under visited a 279 my own notice. on the plea that he for his would help to prepare him examination in Hebrew and Greek. full. the quaint originality of whose observations often reminded me of Fuller. that there was no room in the inn. seeing an advertisement of a new book a mao^azine I " was readino^. I often country minister. he would invite for a him to manse month. Winn in o^ it remarked to me. the Church historian. also The old manse servant. knowing the house was do. medical man. or Charles Lamb. asked her husband what they should His reply was. Winning. an original. was ever hospitable knew the of any poor student. a learned man. to read !" cut the leaves. if he Although of limited means. Robert . and lend to me One evenino' a messao-e reached him from the village inn. which required him to stay over night. an intimate friend. Andrew. for Be not forgetful to entertain .

He generally made light of trifling ailments. took out the range. from a distance of nine miles. and worked energetically with her . who attended my family for years. for than discharged on the at the manse. Some time the minister took it. When the widow afterwards sent for his account. and. he off his coat. but as none of them threw fire in suited his purpose. ill. He at once asked to be shown over the house. looked at the different fireplaces. The local medical guest heard of went to see the doctor. first had been more evening he had spent Dr. but eccentric. in blankets had the old lady carried down placed before it. knew of his being suddenly called in to see an old lady who was far o-one in an advanced stag^e of cholera. Stark. made a the recess that would have roasted an ox. with his consent. was a skilful practitioner. went to the kitchen. though we have to sleep on the floor. thereby some have entertained angels unawares. Give him a room. of Glasgow. and for a period of some four months.280 THE DOCTOR. but was most energetic when aroused I by any appearance of danger. visited the minister twice a week." He was accordingly hospitably entertained. after. till his death. it he said there was none.

finding him with a bad cold. medicine. saying. a medical friend. heal thyself!" The doctor's Shakespearian reply was. David Easton. and the steamer. when driving Wioftonshire with the late Dr. on. you are going good company!" which lauofh. found in said. throat husky. odd answer reassured and caused her to In speaking of a Greek gem representing in Cupid and Pysche. on approaching the and was close on a rolled alarmingly." OF PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FEES. " Do you think I am such a fool as to take physic ? Once when accompanying me visit to the coast to one of my children. he said I had not given the correct pronunciation of the names. learn. '' Oh ! we going to the bottom ? " On which he you are going said. I Always . the . eyes red and watery. if in there. you would prescribe placing the hot water and mustard. and. A sir. " Behave yourself. strange lady on board. laid hold of tall. warm gruel. similar 281 In a way he once stayed over night and saved of one of my boys. willing to asked to be put right whereupon. one day. Doctor. and brought her through. lee shore. the whole night. there was a heavy sea pier. dryly. if you feet me so. a are stalwart man. the life One day " I called at his house. the doctor. and going to bed! Physician. in terror.

Then Dr. note-book. to such clergymen. in is anxiety or sorrow. I was engaged the preparation of are : Such cordial tributes good physician's most highly- valued fees " Whene'er your vitality Is feeble in quality. And you fear a fatality May Is the end the strife. it will be seen that. during his last Lover. Jersey. Garth Wilkinson. I is add one more expression of gratitude. kindly lent in me by a his widow when his life. Joe Dickson man I would fix on For putting new wicks on The lamp of life. artists. and literary men. the genial poet lines to first wrote the following Dr. I copied them some years ago from Lover's MS. Dixon. doctor gravely informed said I me ! that I ought to have — Cupped and Physic as have spoken of the kindness of medical men. Helens. in illness. my friend Samuel and his artist. Dr.—— 282 THE DOCTOR. friend and physician. the good family doctor a ." From adduced the many varied facts and incidents in these pages. which instance : a good modern When at St.

runs more peaceably. nothing is more precious or comforting than the sympathy of those who for. Sir Thomas Browne. Next to rehgion. whose services can never be paid by gold.OF PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FEES. 283 true and sympathetic friend." . my old favourite. truly and is not the tears of our own into eyes only. to whom I ever revert with beautifully says: — "It renewed pleasure. and is contented with a narrower channel. which. but of our friends also. as know and fully understand our sufferings. that do exhaust the current of our sorrows. falling many streams.

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125-139 Doctors Shakespeare Knew. 268 Coryat. 30-31 Assaying Meat and Drink. Dr. Dr. xMark. \V. 163-164 Bossy. 249 Croydon. 206-208. 1-7 Barber's Pole. 159 240-241 Akenside. 24-31 Atkins.. quoted. 190 Crusade. 127 Booker. 125. 149 Brown." 259-260 Byron quoted. Abernethy. Rev. a quack. 266 155Advertisements. Reminiscences of. John. 35 Bicycle. Curious treatment for. 111-113 Black Art. Cholera at. E. Dr. Sir Thomas. Queen. Some Old Doctors. 90-101 Dimsdale. . 115 Charms. Sir Astley. Mrs. Burkers and Body-Snatchers. Dr. Dr. 115 Brown. Blood in windows. 114-115 Cupping. 139 Campbell. 52 Strange cure for. Linnaius. Sir James. 253- Bruce. 167 Bishop and Williams. 258. 248 Cooper. 65^ 66 Dickens' Doctors. 168 Dickens. Andrews." 270 . Charms "Anatomv ' of Melan- choly. 185 186. 8-23 . 45 Bleeding.D. The Doctor in the time of Pestilence. hanged. 192-208 Barber-Surgeons. 46 Ague. Dr. on small-pox. H. King Robert the. 5 Doctor in the time of Pestilence. 109 111 William. 124. 195 Colic. Dr.. 171-177 Blackmore. 209 Cumming. 217 Curious prescriptions. 76-89 Dog bites. 283 123. M. 278. 278 Cancer. 133-135 . 216 Blood. 219 Burke and Hare.. 118 Blackmore. 52 Chaucer's Doctor of Physic. bodysnatchers. Dr. Charm. 264 Axon.Jnbey. 1-7 King's Evil.. F. A. 181-191 Circulation of the blood. Satires by. 33 Disputes between surgeons and barbers. 222 Carriages. Circulation of the. R. John. 15 at. 209 Buddhism. 22-23 Celestials and medicine. . 209 Doyle. Charles. 58-61 Chalmers. 7.. Barberfor. Dr. 179. Touching Banks. 24-31 Meat Anne.. 70-75 Chester in plague time. 67-68 Bulleyn. 17 Bishop. 18-19 Assay Cups. 195 Cholera. 264 Disinfectants in sticks. 141 Cramp. 276. Conan. D. 242 Douglas. Curious. W. . 118 " Drunk by George. 226 . Assaying and Drink. John.. G. 23 Birmingham town's book. 167-180 Burning Burton's for disease. 43-44. 15 Bisley. 6. 187 Touching for Surgeons. Charm for. 2 Boke of Jhon Caius. 170.

196 Frost.. 24 Lovxr. 250 Plantagenent kings touching for the evil. 51 Lockhart. 42 Famous Literary Doctors. 2 Gold-headed Cane. roasted. Medical FolkLore. 102-124 Fees. C. ll. 202 Of Physicians and their Fees. Dr. John. 9 Mashonaland. 198 Hunter. 52-56 O'Brien.. 97-98 Strange Fight with the Smallpox. 137 Holbein. eating human. 32 Planetary Influence.. 234 251 North American Lidian medicine men. Arthur. M. John. Credulity in. 88-89 Harvey. 82 Great Plague of London. 61-63 Faith Cures. Samuel. John. 153-154. Mountebanks 140 - and 63-65 Medicine.. Dr. 45 Greatrake. A. to bleed. 57-58 Elizabeth. 210 Hentzner in England. 3 Holmes. 111 Pilgrim's Staff. 205 Newcastle-on-Tyne. 135-136 Mead. 120 Gallows. 1 . Dickens' Doctors. 8-9 Egyptians and Magic. 162 Monks as surgeons. 153-166. 106-108 How our Fathers were Physicked.d. Sir Simon. 159-162 Johnston. 27 Pole. 194-196 Merry Andrew. Dr. 223 Phillips. 275 . 209-215 Lettsom. 265 Medical Folk Lore. Fathers 216 Latimer on Mercenary Physicians. Barber's. Kerr. 16 INDEX. The Magic and Medicine. 28 Hill. Dr. 28-29 Erysipelas. . Sir John.. 282 Freind.. D. 152 140- Mouse. Lady May. 218 Mountebanks and Medicine. London. 32-41 Grave-mould. Giant. 234-251 Medical Students. 273-274 Food taken in fear. J.. 116-118 Montagu. 35-263 Liver. Langford. 221 Moir. Oliver Wendell.2S6 Ecclesfield. 2 forbidden Heart of Bruce. Picture by. William. 251 Jenner. superstitions respecting. 151 Edward the Confessor. 252- 283 Parliament. John. Siege of. prescribed. 136-139 Hall.How our were Physicked. 6 Preston records. 17 Jaundice. 152. 260 Lee Penny. Macbeth quoted. touched for the 18-19 evil. Burkers and 167-180. Snatchers. 141-151 Mercenary Physicians. Queen. 181-191 - Body Galen. 90-101. Valentine. 216-233 Hunter. 211-213 Lotteries. Dr. Reminiscences of the Cholera.. 122-123 Johnson. Thomas. 213 Nicholson. at dinner. 10 Pontefract Castle. 199 Hunterian Museum. Wm. 42-69 Manchester in plague time. Barbers'. Folly of. J. 249 Gild. 243 Eskimo Medicine Men. 260 Metals and precious stones used. 114 Hodges.

227 Small-pox. The Goldheaded Cane. 6 York records. Lord. 33 Rain-water doctor. Sir B. 124-125 Strange Stories. 153-166 Stuart kings touching for the evil. Doctors Shakespeare Smith. 241 Knew.. 181-191 Revolting prescriptions.INDEX.d. 186 Toothache. 225 Richardson. Witty remark. RadclifFe's cane. Medical uses. Chaucer's Doctor of Physic. 147- Tooth-drawing. 65 . 252-283 Walters. 249 Robinson. 16-17 Zulu doctors. Drinking from. 229-233 Visiting Patients. 227 Touching for the King's Evil. 42-69. Literary Doctors. 280-281 Statute of Labourers. Dr. 70-75 ThurloAV. 15 Tudor Kings touching Evil. Charms for. A. 116 Warts. Some Old St. W. 76-89 Stark. Poet's Praise 111 Tournament. 202. 204 Rings from hinges of coffins. 244-246 Wig. 144 Rheumatism. 22-23 Wall. Earl of. Mountebank 148 Witchcraft. 12-14 Suicide's skull. 47-49 Skull. 235-237. 5 Thompson. 11 for the Verney Family. Henry. refuses to touch. Essex. Cuming. 18 Winchester. m. 49-50. H.. Folk-lore of. Of Physicians and their Fees. Old receipt for. Magic and Famous Medicine.. 242 at. 192-208 Agnes' Eve. 11. 115 of. J. Human. 238 Sacrificing for disease. A. 35 William III. 20-21 Terling. 261 Sydney.. Doctors. Samuel. 102-124. 261 Reminiscences of the Cholera. H. 247 W^hooping cough. Tom. 249 Toad. 8-23 Rochester. 262 Strange Story of the Fight with the Small Pox. 50 Symington. Warren. 32-41 28^ Sir Thompson.. 72 Touch-pieces. W. on Barbers and Surgeons. Tobacco..

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h. The works are illustrated by eminent artists. Demy 8vo. f.r.h.r.s. Andrews. etc." "Readable " as well as instructive.h. edited by William Andrews. In this series the following volumes are included.s. E. BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE BYGONE CHESHIRE. by Frederick Ross. by Mrs. edited by DERBYSHIRE. WARWICKSHIRE. 19 .s. by William Andrews. abbeys. Valuable and interesting.s. cloth gilt." Derbyshire Times. Kershaw. These books have been favourably reviewed journals of England and America. edited by Richard Stead. romantic episodes.r.h.s. by David Maxw^ell.h. Carefully history. edited by William Andrews.h. f..s. by William Andrews. in the leading critical written articles by recognised authorities are included on castles. and issued at 6q. LANCASHIRE. edited by George Clinch and S. YORKSHIRE. folk-lore.h.a. The Bygone each. edited by William Andrews. SOUTHWARK. NOTTINGHAMSHIRE..h. traditional stories. biography.s.r. edited by William Andrews.s. legendary lore. edited ESSEX. Boger. f. Series.s.r. LINCOLNSHIRE (2 vols. edited by William f.s. W. f.). f. b. SURREY. curious customs. f.r. f. f." A valuable addition to any library. edited by Ernest Axon. The Globe.a.E. c. KENT. etc. William Andrews.r. LONDON.r. LEICESTERSHIRE. by 'William Stevenson. and by the reproduction of quaint pictures of the olden time. ENGLAND. 7s.— *' —— The Times.h.r. SCOTLAND. f.

R. and bound in a most attractive PRESS OPINIONS. etc." The Scotsman." Barnsley Independent. each telling its tale and pointing its moral in the happiest manner. stories in the collection are well written.H. and the and tasteful appearance. which is . and know exactly the kind of tales that give them pleasure." "Type and illustrations are saying^^a great deal..— — — — — — — — — — — Price 4s. "The stories are good. Edited by WILLIAM ANDREWS.' Fairy Stories by Popular Many charming It is original illustrations are included. 6d. " " We We hope the book will get into many children's hands. .S. "A very delightful volume. book. and illustrated profusely. Yorkshire Post. of the "It is certain to become popular. Something Useful life lessons more than providing enjoyment is attempted. tions are excellent. style." Beview of Reviews." This Volume contains Fifteen Authors." Glasgoiv Herald. . The stories are bright and interesting. which contains a most interesting collection of fairy stories. and eminently qualified for a gift ." worthy The News. volume for its elegant can recommend the stories for their originality. "A handsome gift book. "A welcome addition to fairy books. Demy 8vo. Tl^e cNew Fairy Book. Hull Press." The World." The Literary " In this volume it has been the editor's desire to furnish a fresh collection of fairy stories. beautifully printed in bold clear type. may be learnt from the book. New F. written by authors who love children." The Gentlewoman. Author of "Bygone England. tasteful volume. "All the The illustra- "A World." The Spectator." Westminster Gazette.

written by authors who love children of tales that give them pleasure. All this is as it should be. This Fairy Book differs from most of the others we have seen. queens. Fairy kings. So far as binding. it leaves nothing to be desired. and all the favourite features of fairyland are present and so we are transported to the real kingdom of the fairies.' Very many young readers will warmly thank him for so faithfully performing his loving task. elves. somewhat ambitious attempt . and from first page to last there is not to be found a single dull or uninteresting page. But the contents are equally choice. inasmuch as the tales are as the title of the volume indicates absolutely new. pass in bright procession through the pages. here and there Ghosts. This the contributors to the New Fairy Book have done. and if it should meet with the success it truly deserves. ' — — ' ' . The tales have been judiciously edited.— — — — — " The stories comprised in this volume deserve to be widely known and appreciated. and. course. and the whole get up reflects the highest credit alike on editor and ' ' publishers. " The New Fairy Book' ' sure to win people. and printing go. and know the kind "'The New Fairy Book' is the title of a richly bound volume containing fifteen fairy tales. Mr. and the volume will afford genuine entertainment to all who read it and there should be many these long winter nights. — — "'The New Fairy Book. editor and writers will have every reason to be thankful. and freely illustrated. and worthily fulfil the editor's aim to furnish a fresh collection of fairy stories written by authors who love children." Liverpool Post. The scenes amid which these fairy personages move are not the less beautiful.' edited by William Andrews." is Stamford Mercury. edited by William Andrews. There are some excellent illustrations." Dundee Advertiser. ogres. " Mr." Leeds Mercury. but then the makers of fairy tales must always work more or less from the time-honoured recipe. The writers include several well-known names. as the editor gives assurance. who have one and all written with charm and originality. There are fifteen stories in all. giants. The result is much to our taste. The volume is published as a collection of new stories. The book is well printed. and soon find ourselves absorbed in the adventures of wondrous heroes and the antics of imps. and though the titles chosen suggest in some cases old and familiar stories. attractively bound. Andrews' 'New Fairy Book' is a delightful production. and from this standpoint alone must be pronounced a goodly book. engaging and fresh in manner. everyone of which presents some delightful picture from the imaginative pen. illustrations. it is due to the editor and the authors to say that they have discharged their really very onerous functions with great skill and excellent judgment. It is true that they contain a number of the old ingredients." Birmiufjham Gazette. with here and there a weird episode. is a to add to the delightful repertoire of nursery stories with which the literature of all civilised countries abounds. Andrews has drawn around him a number of skilled story-tellers. . of something amusing. and princesses. its and favour of quite a host of young way to the possession The stories are evidently. simple in style. but their effects are novel and surprising. The tales are brimful of such fairy romance as youthful readers delight in. princes. It promises to be one of the books of the season. fairy queens flit in and out of the scenes castles of enchantment. princes. for they serve up the dishes in varied ways of their own devising.

—— Just published. Marshall. — Methodist Times. healthy and powerful temperance tale. that the red. And all Booksellers. and wrecking the dearest A striking and pitiful tale." The League Journal. the total worker and true friend of the Hull : London William Andrews & Co. as its name implies. Ilkistrations. JACKSON WRAY. —— Crown 8vo. and should find a The Abstainer'' place in every Band of Hope and Sunday School library. and is told in the We have never read anything so lamented author's most graphic style. and every tragical It is a incident had its counterpart among the dwellers in that village. . The Hull Press. to be read by elder scholars. and other Price BY THE REV. it being the last legacy of It is a story with a purpose to advocate the claims The plot is laid in a small village of the East Riding of total abstinence. others who found. when too late. 330 pp. which he knew and loved so well. last from the pen of an indefatigable abstinence cause.' and this book in stern and pathetic powerful since widely-known book. Hamilton. old Aaron Brigham and Little Kitty is touching. " An excellent and interesting story. shaming the Christian Church. " This. sorrow. abounding with rapidly-succeeding incidents.zy y —Joyfill News. doctor. we see enslaving minister and people. " It is just the right sort of book for a prize or present." The Temperance Record. overdrawn. Though terribly realistic. red wine biteth like a serpent. The characters appear to be drawn from life. should give decision to some whose views about Local Option are ' \iz. is "This a powerful story. should find a place in our school libraries. and the author sketches the awful ravages of intemperance in The victims include a minister. "It is written in a graphic and conversational style. in the unfolding of the story. it is sure of a welcome. and The friendship between every chapter has a vivid and terrible interest. not hopes of individuals and families. It is worthy a place in earnestness even excels that every unday chool and village library . which. the author's native district. 3/6. which arrest and sustain the interest of the reader. "The story is one of remarkable power." Advocate. and many that small community. and utter ruin wrought by the demon of strong drink might well rouse every man. and.." The Temperance Chronicle. and child to fight the destroyer." " A Mr. Danesbury House. Alliance News.. J.. as the latest utterance of It one whose writings are so deservedly popular. Jackson Wray. and a fearless exposure of the quiet It drinking that was so common in respectable circles thirty years ago. pathetic interest attaches to this volume. — A — s Portrait of the Author. Simpkin. the picture is drawn from life. Kent & : Co. of Yorkshire. is a temperance story. woman. The scene of the o'er true tale is laid in East Yorkshire. Ltd. The tale of trouble. breaking hearts all round.

). .S. new book. William Andrews' ." " Literary World (Boston. throwing much light on the manners and customs of bygone generations of Churchmen. Newhery House Magazine. "Historic Romance." The Bookhuyer (Neio York." Neiccastle Courant. A work of " The reader will find Chimes.) "A valuable book. lasting interest. and Records. . Mr. and will be read to-day with much interest.' adds another to the .R. ANDREWS." etc. "An interesting." "Famous Frosts and Author Frost Fairs. much in this book to interest. " Mr. and amuse. eO/NTEr4TS: Early Relig-ious Plays being the Story of the English Stage in its Church Cradle Days The Caistor Gad-Whip Manorial Service— Strange Serpent Stories— Church Ales— Rush-Bearing Fish in Lent— Concerning Doles— Church Scrambling Charities—Briefs—Bells and Beacons for Travellers by Night Hour Glasses in Churches— Chained Books in Churches— Funeral Effigies— Torchlight Burials— Simple Memorials of the Early Dead— The Romance of Parish Registers— Dog Whippers and Sluggard Wakers— Odd Items from Old Accounts A carefully compiled Index. ' Curiosities of the Church."— North British Daily Mail." Scotsman. Services. studies of Curious Customs.." Sheffield Independent.——— . ®— press ©pinions.A. Andrews for liaving produced such an interesting book." The AntiqiMvy " A volume of great research and striking interest. and its rich matter for reference by a full and carefully compiled index. Bound in cloth gilt." " Historic Yorkshire. available is made ."— ^mH Exarniner.6s. Cuxiozxim of By WILLIAM of ii)i Cpurcp: F.S. has some quaint illustrations. it should be added. series The book. •' — "An " extremely interesting vohimG. A voluma both entertaining and instructive. : — — — — —^ ILLUSTRATB-D. Andrews is always chatty and expert in making a paper on a dry subject exceedingly readable."— Home " We feel sure that many will feel grateful to Mr. — — — SECOND EDITION. instnict. by which he has done so much to popularise antiquarian studies. . handsomely got up volume.. demy 8uo. An admirable book.H. U.

WILLIAM ANDREWS. and which is also entitled to unstinted praise on the ground of its admirable printing and binding. Andrews.R.''' etc. ' ' . ''Old-Time Punishments. written in a light and easy narrative style.S. .''' " Historic Romanced OOISCTEXISITS." Glasgow " The author has produced a book which is at once entertaining and valuable.." Northern Daily News. being both bound and printed in an artistic fashion.' makes the musty parchments and records he has consulted redolent with life and actuality. and has added to his works a most interesting volume. F.Cheapside Cross— The Biddenden Maids Charity —Plagues and Pestilences— A King Curing an Abbot of Indigestion— The Services and Customs of Royal Oak Day— Marrying in a White Sheet— Marrying under the Gallows— Kissing the Bride— Hot Ale at Weddings —Marrying Children— The Passing Bell— Concerning Coffins. demy 8uo. "Mr." "Contains much that and instruct. Andrews' book does not contain a dull page.H. The Right of Sanetuapy— The Romance of Trial— A Fight between the Mayop of Hull and the Archbishop of York— Chapels on Bridges— Charter House— The old Paul's Easter Sepulchre-St. (Dfb By Author of '' Cpurcp Sore. Curiosities of the Church. interesting volume. subject. . 6s. English Sunday— The Cross. (5"^^^ -^- PRESS OPINIONS The Scotsman. will We "An Herald. Deserves to meet with a very warm welcome. " Mr. "A worthy commend this work on a deeply interesting.The Curfew Bell— Curious Symbols of the Saints —Acrobats on Steeples— A carefully-prepared Index. which. (9-fi^ 1 LLUSTHATBD. The book is handsomely got up." Yorhshire Post. book strongly. is anything but of the dry-as-dust order.. in 'Old Church Lore. "^ European Mail.— Elegantly bound in cloth — — — — gilt." Shields Daily Gazette. interest -1^ .

Drawings by the Author. Contents — Under Watch and Ward — Under Lock and Key— The : Pledging The minstrel in the Olden Time Curious Landholding Customs Curiosities of Slavery in England— Buying and Selling in the Olden Time —Curious Fair Customs Old Prejudices against Coal— The Sedan Chair— Running Footmen The Early Days of the Umbrella A Talk about Tea— Concerning Coifee The Horn Book— Fighting Cocks in Schools Bull Baiting— The Badge of Poverty Patents to wear Xightcaps— A Foolish Fashion Wedding Notices in the Last Century Selling Wives The Story of the Tinder Box The Invention of Friction matches— Body Snatching Christmas under the Commonwealth Under the mistletoe Bough A carefully prepared Index." Manchester Guardian." London Quarterly Review.. condensed. but in every case he has given a description also. "Local archcvologists will give a hearty welcome to this book. and to penetrate into the byways of Liverpool Daily Post." The Antiquary. and in some instances the genealogical information The Tablet.' It is another of Mr. all Mr. Thornely's book will be eagerly sought by lovers of monumental brasses. Demy 8uo. By WILLIAM ANDREWS. Bygone England Social Studies in its Historic Byways and Highways. Price 6s. Engravings from L. 6d.— — — — : — — — El egantly bound in cloth gilt." "The book is M'onderfully readable for its kind." London Qiiarterly Review. is so pleasantly put that many will be tempted to study it. as he has not only figured every monumental brass within the two counties to which he has confined his researches. A delightful volume for all who love to dive into the origin of social habits and customs. printed. historj'. f.. . is of a high order of value. " Mr. Thornely has produced a very interesting volume." Warrington Guardian. which should become popular in Lancashire and Cheshire. and it Mr. nowhere burdened with verbiage. yet sufficiently full to The illustrations of the various brasses serve the purpose in view. By JAMES *' THORNELY. Illustrated ivitli of Lancashire With some Account of the Persons Represented. and is evidently The chapters are well the result of careful and painstaking labour.r. and each copy numbered. The Monumental Brasses and Cheshire. price 7s. ' ' Bound in Only oOO copies cloth gilt. demy 8vo.h. Andrews has done his work with great skill. Andrews' meritorious achievements in the path of popularising architological and old time information without in any way writing down to an ignoble level. Practice of — — — — — — — — — — — — — " We welcome 'Bygone England. and add much value and interest to the work.s." " There is a large mass of information in this capital volume. are exceedingly well done.

the printing and paper being everything the most fastidious could desire.— — —— — — — — —— — — The Press on Messrs. "The book Post. Andrews' establishment. The volume is handsomely bound." North British Daily Mail." Birmingham Daily " " The printers' part is perfectly done. " The book is entitled to unstinted praise on the ground of its admirable printing and binding. like predecessors." "The Gazette." Shields Daily Gazette. Hull Daily Mail." Newcastle Chronicle. letterpress is beautifully clear. remarkably handsome volume." Scotsman. Dock Street. — The Hull 1. Yorkshire "Beautiful work in typography and binding. "The book is excellently printed and bound.'" Printing World. Ty . Most elegantly bound and tastefully printed." Dundee Advertiser. Press. The book is handsomely got up. Andrews is a bookmakei" par excellence. William Andrews & Co/s Printing and Binding." Library Review. is of the all its printed in the exceptionally beautiful style which marks the productions of Mr. Mr. " A " Bygone Scotland ' concludes as follows : The book forms a splendid addition to the works same series all printed at the Hull Press." Manchester Guardian. " Handsomely notice of " printed. "Will bear comparison with the best work of the first publishing firms in London or Edinburgh.' and. is very handsomely got up." Publishers' Circular. typographically equal to the best production of any European capital. "Beautifully bound and printed. Hull. " is handsomely brought out." Daily Chronicle. and well illustrated." " Very pretty binding." India." " The book " A Boston Independent.

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