Metals that form cations with different charges Chromium Iron Cobalt Copper Tin Mercury Lead Cr2

+ Cr3+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Co2+ Co3+ Cu+ Cu2+ Sn2+ Sn4+ Hg2+ Hg22+ Pb2+ Pb4+ chromium (II) ion chromium (III) ion iron (II) ion iron (III) ion cobalt (II) ion cobalt (III) ion copper (I) ion copper (II) ion tin (II) ion tin (IV) ion mercury (I) ion mercury (II) ion lead (II) ion lead (IV) ion chromous chromic ferrous ferric cobaltous colbatic cuprous cupric stannous stannic mercurous mercuric plumbous plumbic

Some Common Polyatomic Ions Hydronium ion Ammonium ion Acetate ion Carbonate ion Hydrogen carbonate ion (bicarbonate ion) Chromate ion Dichromate ion Cyanide ion Hypochlorite ion Chlorite ion Chlorate ion Perchlorate ion H3O+ NH4+ CH3CO2– CO32– HCO3– CrO42– Cr2O72– CN– ClO– ClO2– ClO3– ClO4– Nitrite ion Nitrate ion

(memorize these) NO2– NO3– MnO4– PO43– HPO42– H2PO4– SO32– SO42– HSO4–

Permanganate ion Phosphate ion Hydrogen phosphate Dihydrogen phosphate Sulfite ion Sulfate ion Hydrogen sulfate ion (bisulfate ion) Hydroxide ion Peroxide

OH– O22–

These are named as ionic compounds with the number of water molecules indicated using the prefixes: Hemi Mono Di Tri Tetra Penta ½ 1 2 3 4 5 Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca 6 7 8 9 10 MgSO4 * 7H2O CaSO4 * ½ H2O BaCl2 * 6H2O Molecular Compounds: magnesium sulfate heptahydrate calcium sulfate hemihydrates barium chloride hexahydrate We name molecular compounds by naming the first atom and then the second as if it were an anion. ClO2– chlorate. octa-. H+. di-. For oxyacids. The number of each element is indicated by using the prefix system. These are called hydrates. HCl HBr HCN H2S hydrochloric acid hydrobromic acid hydrocyanic acid hydrosulfuric acid hydrogen chloride hydrogen bromide 2. when dissolved in water. tetra-. Mono-. acids containing oxygen. 1. H2SO3 H2SO4 HClO HClO2 HClO3 HClO4 sulfite ion. hexa-. ClO3– perchlorate. SO42– hypochlorite. SO32– sulfate ion. hepta-. ClO– chlroite. ClO4– . There are two types: acids that contain oxygen and those that do not. nonaMono is never used with the first element The o or a in the suffix is usually dropped when the element starts with an o Acids Acid – substances that produce hydrogen ions. penta-. e. For binary acids in water that do not contain oxygen name as hydro-(base name of the nonmetal + ic) acid. They are composed of hydrogens and a non-metal.Some ionic compounds contain a specific number of water molecules within its structure that is associated with its formula. tri-.g. the name is based on the suffix of the anion Oxyanions ending in –ite Oxyanions ending in –ate _________ous acid _________ic acid sulfurous acid sulfuric acid hypochlorous acid chlorous acid chloric acid perchloric acid e.g. hexa-.

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