IALA Maritime Buoyage System Navigation Aids During the IALA conference in November 1980 two navigation marking

systems, ie the System A (red colour for the left hand of the ship) and the System B (red colour for the right hand of the ship), were combined into one - the IALA System. In the IALA System the regional (of the systems A and B) principle of painting of the lateral signs was maintained. The countries that accepted the red colour for the left hand lateral sings were included in the region A. The countries that use the green colour for the left hand lateral signs were included in the region B. In the both regions, the fairway direction is the one leading from the sea (when a different manner is used than an adequate notice is provided).

Following to the division into the IALA System regions, marine maps contain respective notice, ie the "IALA System Region A" or the "IALA System Region B". The IALA System has five types of signs that are used in various associations. The signs have specific identification elements that make them easily recognizable to the sailors. The lateral signs in

and the green colour . In the Region B the colours are reversed. but the other four signs are common for these both regions. When the path is divided on a fairway. then the direction of the main path is shown with a modified lateral buoy in order to indicate the direction of this main path. and the red colour . ie the red colour is used for the right side. .the Regions A and B are different. during the day and night. The lateral buoys and marks are placed according to the direction accepted for marking of the right and left side of the fairway.for the left side. In the Region A. the green colour is used to mark the right side of the fairway.to mark the left side.

. The cardinal buoys have mainly the shape of columns or poles. and their topmarks (two cones) are painted black.Modified Lateral Buoys and Marks for the Region A Modified Lateral Buoys and Marks for the Region B Cardinal Buoys indicate that the deepest water occurs at the side of the mark�s name. The arrangement of cones at the top is an indication of the black stripe (or stripes) position on the buoy. east or west from the hazard. yellow and black stripes. • cones with tops up: the black stripe is above the yellow one. They are placed to the north. They are painted in horizontal. south.

The flashing light has 60 or 50 flashes per minute. cones with bases towards one another: the black stripes above and below the yellow one. cones with tops towards one another: the black stripe with the yellow stripes above and below.• • • cones with tops down: the black stripe is under the yellow one. The fast flashing light has 120 or 100 flashings per minute. Cardinal buoys are equipped with white light characterised by a special rhythm. The main types of rhythms are as follows: flashing (Q) or fast flashing (VQ). The lights in individual quadrants have the following characteristics: .

in the respective quadrants E. These are the only marks painted in vertical stripes (red . Their may have a shape of a sphere. The light is white . 6 and 9. eg a fairway axis or as approach signs. The safe water marks appearance is completely different from the one of the buoys that indicate the hazard. W quadrant: VQ(9) or Q(9) with a blackout afterwards.• • • • N quadrant: VQ or Q . E quadrant: VQ(3) or Q(3) with a blackout afterwards. 6 and 9 hours on the clock dial. They can be used to mark. Marks indicating Isolated dangers are placed directly over minor obstacles around which the water is navigable. Marks indicating Safe water. however.3.a group flash light Fl(2) with two flashes in a group. with a red sphere as a topmark. however. S and W facilitates the identification of the cardinal buoys. The topmarks consists of two black spheres one above the other. they are difficult to confuse with the cardinal buoys. The have shapes of columns. poles or other. They are black with horizontal red stripes. The number of flashes . their rhythm is very different and cannot be confused with the rhythm of the white light used in the cardinal buoys. as the number can be associated with the positions of the 3.continuous. S quadrant: VQ(6) or Q(6) with a long flash and a blackout. a column or a pole. They indicate that water is navigable around the mark and they do not show any hazards. A longer flash (not less than 2 seconds) just after the VQ (6) or Q (6) is typical of the S quadrant. There are two other marks with white light.

then they must have a cylindrical and not conical shape. As in poor visibility it is possible to mistake the yellow colour for the white. The duplicating mark should stay until the news about the new danger has been adequately announced. eg the left side of the fairway. The light (if installed) is also yellow. ie if special marks have been used to mark. the yellow lights of the special marks cannot have the rhythm adopted for marks with the white light.and white). occulting. The "new danger" mark should be equipped with a Racon sending out the letter "D" in the Morse Code. then its colour is white and its rhythm may be isophase. These special marks are painted yellow and have a topmark in the shape of a yellow lying cross (X). Assignment . Special Buoys and Marks do not represent navigational aids. The special marks may have letters or numbers painted on them. long flash or the Morse Code letter "A". Attention is being drawn to the fact that a "new danger" that has not yet been announced in nautical documents may be indicated with a duplicating mark being identical (in all details) with the principal mark. New danger. When the light is installed. The shape of the special marks cannot be confused with the shape of navigational marks. They indicate a special area or an object mentioned on maps or in other nautical documents and publications.

In D-Watch II (IALA Maritime Buoyage System) Submitted by: D/c Ballesteros. Jeremy John D/c Odchigue. Ray Mark Submitted to: OIC Wenna Leah Mulat .

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