1
n
0
< n m ,
Let us choose = 1. Then, we see that
1
n
0
< 1 n 2 .
Thus, for = 1, we get m = 2 satisfying the required condi
tion.
If we choose = 0.3, then
1
n
0
< 0.3 n 4 .
Therefore, m = 4 works for = 0.3.
In general, for any > 0, we can nd a natural number
m such that m > 1 or >
1
m
, by Archimedean property of
real numbers. Further,
1
n
<
1
m
for all n m. It follows that
given > 0, there exists a positive integer m (depending on
) such that
1
n
0
< n m .
lim
n
1
n
= 0.
1.1.3 Limit Point of a Sequence
Let be any real number and < a
n
> be any sequence.
Then for any > 0, the open interval ( , + ) denes
a neighborhood of . If every neighborhood of contains
innitely many members of < a
n
>, then is said to be a
limit point or cluster point of the sequence < a
n
>.
For example, 0 is a limit point of the sequence <
1
n
>. For,
given any > 0, there exists a positive integer m such that
1
n
0
n=1
a
n
or
a
n
.
In what follows, we shall use the notation
a
n
. The term
a
n
is called nth or general term of the series
a
n
.
If a
n
> 0 for all n, that is, all the terms of the series are
positive, then
a
n
is said to be series of positive terms. For
example,
n
2
= 1
2
+ 2
2
+ 3
2
+ .........,
is a series of positive terms.
1.2.2 Behavior of Innite Series
Let
a
n
be an innite series. Then the sequence < S
n
>,
where S
n
= a
1
+ a
2
+ a
3
+ ..... + a
n
, is called sequence of
partial sums of the series
a
n
.
The series
a
n
is said to be convergent if < S
n
> is
convergent. For example, consider the series
1
2
n
. In this
case,
S
n
=
1
2
+
1
2
2
+ ..... +
1
2
n
=
1
2
(1
1
2
n
)
1
1
2
= 1
1
2
n
.
lim
n
S
n
= 1.
So < S
n
> is convergent. Hence the series
1
2
n
is conver
gent.
The series
a
n
is said to be divergent if < S
n
> is diver
gent. For example, the series
n is divergent since
lim
n
S
n
= lim
n
(1 + 2 + ... + n) = lim
n
n(n + 1)
2
= .
The series
a
n
is said to be oscillatory if < S
n
> is
oscillatory. For example, the series
(1)
n
is oscillatory
since in this case < S
2n
>=< 1 > and < S
2n+1
>=< 1 >.
Remarks:
1. The behavior of an innite series depends on the behav
ior of its sequence of partial sums.
2. If the sequence of partial sums < S
n
> of a series
a
n
converges to l(say), then we say that the series converges
to l. We also dene the limit l as the sum of the series
a
n
and write
a
n
= l.
3. The sequence of partial sums of a positive term series is
always monotonically increasing. Therefore, a positive
term series either converges or diverges to . In other
words, a positive term series can neither oscillate nor
diverge to .
Ex. 1.1. Test the behavior of the series
(i)
1
n(n+1)
(ii)
1
n+
n+1
Sol. (i) Converges to 1. (ii) Divergent.
1.2.3 Cauchys General Principle of Con
vergence
An innite series
a
n
is convergent if and only if given
any > 0, there exists a positive integer m such that
a
m+1
+ a
m+2
+ ..... + a
n
 < for all n m.
Proof. Let S
n
denote the nth partial sum of the series
a
n
.
Then, S
n
= a
1
+a
2
+.....+a
n
. Also,
a
n
is convergent if and
only if < S
n
> is convergent. Thus, to prove the Cauchys
General Principle of Convergence it is sucient to establish
that < S
n
> is convergent if and only if given any > 0,
there exists a positive integer m such that S
n
S
m
 < for
all n m.
Suppose that the sequence < S
n
> converges to l. There
fore, given any > 0, there exists a positive integer m such
that for all n m,
S
n
l <
2
.
In particular, for n = m
S
m
l <
2
.
4
Therefore,
S
n
S
m
 = S
n
l + l S
m

S
n
l +S
m
l <
2
+
2
= .
for all n m.
Conversely, assume that given any > 0, there exists a
positive integer m such that
S
n
S
m
 < n m. (1.2.1)
So, for = 1, there exists some integer m
0
such that
S
n
S
m
 < 1 n m
0
.
S
m
0
1 < S
n
< S
m
0
+ 1 n m
0
.
If k = min.{S
m
0
1, S
1
, S
2
, ....., S
m
0
+ 1} and
K = max.{S
m
0
1, S
1
, S
2
, ....., S
m
0
+ 1}, then
k S
n
K for all n. This shows that < S
n
> is bounded.
Therefore, by BolzanoWeierstrass theorem, < S
n
> has a
cluster point (say). We shall prove that < S
n
> converges
to .
In view of (1.2.1), given any > 0, there exists a positive
integer m
1
such that
S
n
S
m
1
 <
3
n m
1
. (1.2.2)
Since is a cluster point of < S
n
>, so for the above choice
of > 0 and m
1
, there exists a positive integer m
2
> m
1
such
that
S
m
2
 <
3
n m
1
. (1.2.3)
Again, m
2
> m
1
. So from (1.2.2)
S
m
2
S
m
1
 <
3
. (1.2.4)
In view of (1.2.2), (1.2.3) and (1.2.4), we have
S
n
 = S
n
S
m
1
+ S
m
1
S
m
2
+ S
m
2

S
n
S
m
1
 +S
m
1
S
m
2
 +S
m
2

<
3
+
3
+
3
= , n m
1
.
Thus, < S
n
> converges to . This completes the proof.
Ex. 1.2. Using Cauchys general principle of convergence,
show that the series
1
n
is not convergent.
Sol. Let, if possible, the series
1
n
is convergent. Then,
Cauchys general principle of convergence, for any =
1
2
,
there exists a positive integer m such that
1
m + 1
+
1
m + 2
+ ..... +
1
n
<
1
2
n m.
Taking n = 2m, we have
1
m + 1
+
1
m + 2
+ ..... +
1
2m
<
1
2
.
But
1
m + 1
+
1
m + 2
+ ..... +
1
2m
>
1
m + m
+
1
m + m
+ ..... +
1
2m
=
m
2m
=
1
2
.
Thus, we reach at a contradiction. Hence, the series
1
n
is divergent.
1.2.4 Necessary Condition for Convergence
If a positive term series
a
n
is convergent, then
lim
n
a
n
= 0.
Proof. Let S
n
denote the nth partial sum of the series
a
n
.
Then, we have S
n
= a
1
+ a
2
+ ..... + a
n
,
S
n+1
= a
1
+ a
2
+ ..... + a
n
+ a
n+1
.
a
n
= S
n+1
S
n
.
Suppose the series
a
n
converges to l. Then,
lim
n
S
n
= l. Therefore,
lim
n
a
n
= lim
n
S
n
lim
n
S
n+1
= l l = 0.
Remark: If lim
n
a
n
= 0,, then the series
a
n
need not
be convergent. For example, consider the series
1
n
. In this
case, lim
n
1
n
= 0. But the series
1
n
is divergent since
it is a pseries with p = 1.
On the other hand, if lim
n
a
n
= 0, then the series
a
n
will be divergent. For example, the series
n
2
is divergent
since lim
n
n
2
= 0.
Theorem 1.3. Let
a
n
and
b
n
be two series converging
to l and l
.
(ii) the series
(a
n
b
n
) converges to l l
.
(iii) the series
(ca
n
) converges to cl.
Proof. Let S
n
, S
n
and T
n
be the nth partial sums of
a
n
,
b
n
,
(a
n
+ b
n
), respectively. Therefore,
S
n
= a
1
+ a
2
+ ..... + a
n
,
S
n
= b
1
+ b
2
+ ..... + b
n
,
T
n
= (a
1
+ b
1
) + (a
2
+ b
2
) + ..... + (a
n
+ b
n
).
T
n
= S
n
+ S
n
. Since
a
n
and
b
n
converge to l and
l
, so lim
n
S
n
= l and lim
n
S
n
= l
. It follows that
lim
n
T
n
= l + l
.
The reader can similarly prove (ii) and (iii).
Remarks:
1. The above theorem suggests that if any two convergent
series are added or subtracted term by term, the result
ing series is also convergent. Similarly, if each term of a
convergent series is multiplied by a constant, the result
ing series is convergent.
2. The sum of two nonconvergent series may be conver
gent. For example,
(1)
n
and
(1)
n1
are non
convergent series. But the series
(1)
n
+ (1)
n1
converges to 0.
3. The sum of a convergent series and a divergent series is
always divergent.
5
Theorem 1.4. Addition or omission of a nite number of
terms in an innite series does not alter its behavior.
Proof. To prove the theorem it is sucient to show that the
series
a
1
+ a
2
+ ..... + a
m
+ a
m+1
+ a
m+2
+ .....
and
a
m+1
+ a
m+2
+ .....
have same behavior.
Let S
n
and T
n
denote the nth partial sums of the two
series. Then,
S
n
= a
1
+ a
2
+ ..... + a
n
and
T
n
= a
m+1
+ a
m+2
+ ..... + a
m+n
.
Obviously, T
n
= S
n+m
S
m
. Here S
m
is a constant, being
sum of nite number of terms. Therefore,
lim
n
T
n
= lim
n
S
n+m
S
m
= lim
n
S
n
S
m
.
This shows that lim
n
T
n
is nite or innite or it does
not exist according as lim
n
S
n
is nite or innite or it
does not exist. Therefore, the sequences < T
n
> and < S
n
>
converge, diverge or oscillate together. This completes the
proof.
1.2.5 Behavior of Geometric Series
The series
ar
n1
= a+ar +ar
2
+..... is a geometric series
or geometric progression (G.P.) with common ratio r. In this
case, we have
S
n
= a+ar +ar
2
+... +ar
n1
=
a(1r
n
)
1r
if r = 1
na if r = 1
lim
n
S
n
=
a
1r
if 1 < r < 1
if r 1
0 or a if r = 1
or if r < 1
This shows that the geometric series
ar
n1
is convergent
for r < 1, divergent for r 1, oscillates nitely for r = 1
and oscillates innitely for r < 1.
Ex. 1.3. Examine the convergence of the series
(i)
3
4
n1
(ii)
3
5
+
4
5
2
+
3
5
3
+
4
5
4
+ ....
Sol. (i) Convergent. (ii) Convergent to 19/24.
1.2.6 Comparison Tests
(1) If
a
n
and
b
n
are two positive term series a
n
b
n
for all n, then convergence of
b
n
implies the convergence
of
a
n
and divergence of
a
n
implies the divergence of
b
n
.
Proof. Let < S
n
> and < S
n
> be the sequences of partial
sums so that
S
n
= a
1
+ a
2
+ ..... + a
n
S
n
= b
1
+ b
2
+ ..... + b
n
Since a
n
b
n
, therefore S
n
S
n
, and consequently
lim
n
S
n
lim
n
S
n
. (1.2.5)
If
b
n
is convergent, then lim
n
S
n
is nite. Therefore,
(1.2.5) suggests that lim
n
S
n
is nite. Hence,
a
n
is also
convergent.
If
a
n
is divergent, then lim
n
S
n
= . Therefore,
(1.2.5) suggests that lim
n
S
n
is innite. Hence,
b
n
is
divergent.
(2) Let
a
n
and
b
n
be two positive term series such that
lim
n
a
n
b
n
= l .
(i) If l is nite and nonzero, then
a
n
and
b
n
converge
or diverge together.
(ii) If l = 0 and
b
n
converges, then
a
n
also converges.
(iii) If l = and
a
n
diverges, then
b
n
also diverges.
Proof. (i) Given that
lim
n
a
n
b
n
= l.
Therefore given > 0, there exists a positive integer m
such that for all n m
a
n
b
n
l
<
or
(l )b
n
< a
n
< (l + )b
n
. (1.2.6)
Given that l is nonzero limit of the sequence <
a
n
b
n
>,
where a
n
and b
n
are positive for all n. It follows that l
is also positive. Therefore, we can choose > 0 such that
l > 0. Let l = k and l + = K. So (1.2.6) becomes
kb
n
< a
n
< Kb
n
. (1.2.7)
Now if
a
n
converges, then in view of comparison test
(1), left inequality in (1.2.7), that is, kb
n
< a
n
suggests that
b
n
also converges. Similarly, the right inequality in (1.2.7),
that is, a
n
< Kb
n
implies that if
b
n
converges, then
a
n
converges.
If
a
n
diverges, then right inequality in (1.2.7) shows that
b
n
also diverges. Again left inequality in (1.2.7) reveals
that divergence of
b
n
implies the divergence of
a
n
.
Hence,
a
n
and
b
n
converge or diverge together.
(ii) If l = 0, then (1.2.7) leads to
b
n
< a
n
< b
n
.
Here in view of the right inequality, we conclude that
convergence of
b
n
implies the convergence of
a
n
.
(iii) In case l = , we have lim
n
b
n
a
n
= 0 . Therefore,
given > 0, there exists a positive integer m
0
such that for
all n m
0
,
a
n
< b
n
< a
n
.
Again, the right inequality suggests that divergence of
b
n
implies the divergence of
a
n
.
6
Remark: If there exists two positive numbers k and K,
and a positive integer m such that kb
n
< a
n
< Kb
n
for all
n m, then the series
a
n
and
b
n
converge or diverge
together.
(3) Let
a
n
and
b
n
be two positive term series such that
a
n+1
a
n
<
b
n+1
b
n
. Then convergence of
b
n
implies the conver
gence of
a
n
and divergence of
a
n
implies the divergence
of
b
n
.
Proof. Let S
n
and S
n
denote the partial sums of the series
a
n
and
b
n
, respectively. Then, we have
S
n
= a
1
+ a
2
+ a
3
+ ..... + a
n
= a
1
1 +
a
2
a
1
+
a
3
a
1
+ ..... +
a
n
a
1
= a
1
1 +
a
2
a
1
+
a
3
a
2
.
a
2
a
1
+ ..... +
a
n
a
n1
.
a
n1
a
n2
...
a
2
a
1
< a
1
1 +
b
2
b
1
+
b
3
b
2
.
b
2
b
1
+ ..... +
b
n
b
n1
.
b
n1
b
n2
...
b
2
b
1
= a
1
1 +
b
2
b
1
+
b
3
b
1
+ ..... +
b
n
b
1
a
n+1
a
n
<
b
n+1
b
n
=
a
1
b
1
(b
1
+ b
2
+ b
3
+ ..... + b
n
)
=
a
1
b
1
n
,
Thus, S
n
<
a
1
b
1
n
. Now, if
b
n
is convergent, then
limit of S
n
is nite. It follows that limit of S
n
is nite.
Hence, the series
a
n
is convergent.
Similarly, if
a
n
is divergent, then limit of S
n
is innite
and consequently limit of S
n
is innite. Therefore,
b
n
is
divergent.
1.2.7 Behavior of Hyper harmonic or p
series
The series
1
n
p
, where p is any real number, is known as
hyper harmonic or pseries. This series converges for p > 1
and diverges for p 1.
Proof. Let p > 1. Then we have
1
n
p
= 1 +
1
2
p
+
1
3
p
+ ....
= 1 +
1
2
p
+
1
3
p
1
4
p
+
1
5
p
+
1
6
p
+
1
7
p
+ ....
< 1 +
1
2
p
+
1
2
p
1
4
p
+
1
4
p
+
1
4
p
+
1
4
p
+ ....
= 1 +
2
2
p
+
4
4
p
+ ....
= 1 +
1
2
p1
+
1
2
p1
2
+ ....
1
n
p
<
1
2
p1
n1
.
The series
1
2
p1
n1
is a G.P. with common ratio
1
2
p1
< 1, since p > 1. Therefore,
1
2
p1
n1
is conver
gent. Hence, by comparison test,
1
n
p
is convergent.
If p = 1, then the series becomes
1
n
= 1 +
1
2
+
1
3
+ ....
= 1 +
1
2
+
1
3
+
1
4
1
5
+
1
6
+
1
7
+
1
8
+ ....
>
1
2
+
1
4
+
1
4
1
8
+
1
8
+
1
8
+
1
8
+ ....
=
1
2
+
1
2
+
1
2
+ ....
1
n
>
1
2
.
The series
1
2
being a G.P. with common ratio 1 is diver
gent. Hence, by comparison test,
1
n
is also divergent.
If p < 1, then
1
n
p
1
n
for all n. But the series
1
n
is divergent. Therefore, by comparison test,
1
n
p
is also
divergent.
Ex. 1.4. Examine the convergence of the series
(i)
1
n!
(ii)
1
log n
(iii)
n+1
n(2n1)
(iv)
(
n
4
+ 1
n
4
1)
(v)
1
2
2
+1
+
2
3
2
+1
+
3
4
2
+1
+ ......
(vi)
1
n
sin
1
n
(vii)
x
n1
1+x
n
, (x > 0)
Sol. (i) Convergent (n! > 2
n1
)
(ii) Divergent (log n < n n 2)
(iii) Convergent (b
n
=
1
n
) (iv) Convergent (b
n
=
1
n
2
)
(v) Convergent (a
n
=
n
(n+1)
2
+1
, b
n
=
1
n
3/2
)
(vi) Convergent (b
n
=
1
n
2
) (vi) Convergent for 0 < x < 1,
(b
n
= x
n
) and diverges for x 1 (a
n
= 1/2 and 1/x 0).
1.2.8 DAlemberts Ratio Test
A positive term series
a
n
is convergent if lim
n
a
n
a
n+1
> 1
and divergent if lim
n
a
n
a
n+1
< 1.
Proof. Let lim
n
a
n
a
n+1
= l. Then by denition of limit,
given any > 0, there exists a positive integer m such that
for all n m,
l <
a
n
a
n+1
< l +
or
1
l
>
a
n+1
a
n
>
1
l +
7
or
(l )
n
(l )
n+1
>
a
n+1
a
n
>
(l + )
n
(l + )
n+1
or
b
n+1
b
n
>
a
n+1
a
n
>
c
n+1
c
n
, (1.2.8)
where b
n
=
1
(l)
n
and c
n
=
1
(l+)
n
.
If l > 1, then we can choose > 0 such that l > 1.
Therefore, the series
b
n
=
1
(l)
n
being a G.P. with
common ratio
1
l
< 1, is convergent. Also, from (1.2.9), we
have
a
n+1
a
n
<
b
n+1
b
n
. Then by comparison test (3), it follows
that the series
a
n
is convergent.
If l < 1, then one can choose > 0 such that l + < 1.
Therefore, the series
c
n
=
1
(l+)
n
being a G.P. with
common ratio
1
l+
> 1, is divergent. Again, from (1.2.7), we
have
a
n+1
a
n
>
c
n+1
c
n
. Therefore, by comparison test (3),
a
n
is divergent.
Remark: The ratio test fails in the case lim
n
a
n
a
n+1
= 1.
For example, consider the series
1
n
and
1
n
2
. For the rst
series,
lim
n
a
n
a
n+1
= lim
n
n + 1
n
= 1.
For the second series
lim
n
a
n
a
n+1
= lim
n
(n + 1)
2
n
2
= 1.
But the series
1
n
being a pseries with p = 1, is diver
gent, whereas the series
1
n
being a pseries with p = 2, is
divergent.
Ex. 1.5. Examine the convergence of the series
(i)
n!
n
n
(ii)
1
2
+
1.3
2.5
+
1.3.5
2.5.8
+ ......
(iii) 1 +
x
2
2
+
x
4
4
+
x
6
6
+ ......
Sol. (i) Convergent (e > 1)
(ii) Convergent (a
n
=
1.3.5...(2n1)
2.5.8...(3n1)
, 3/2 > 1)
(iii) Convergent for x
2
< 1 and div. for x
2
1 (a
n
=
x
2n
2n
)
1.2.9 Cauchys Root Test
If a positive term series
a
n
is convergent if lim
n
a
1
n
n
< 1
and divergent if lim
n
a
1
n
n
> 1.
Proof. Let lim
n
a
n
a
n+1
= l. Then by denition of limit,
given any > 0, there exists a positive integer m such that
for all n m,
l < a
1
n
n
< l +
or (l )
n
< a
n
< (l + )
n
or b
n
< a
n
< c
n
, (1.2.9)
where b
n
= (l )
n
and c
n
= (l + )
n
.
If l < 1, then one can choose > 0 such that l + < 1.
Therefore, the series
c
n
=
(l + )
n
being a G.P. with
common ratio l + < 1, is convergent. Again, from (1.2.9),
we have a
n
< c
n
. Therefore, by comparison test (1),
a
n
is
convergent.
If l > 1, then we can choose > 0 such that l > 1.
Therefore, the series
b
n
=
(l )
n
being a G.P. with
common ratio l > 1, is divergent. Also, from (1.2.9), we
have a
n
> b
n
. Then by comparison test (1), it follows that
the series
a
n
is divergent.
Remark: The root test is inconclusive in the case
lim
n
a
1
n
n
= 1. For example, consider the series
1
n
and
1
n
2
. For the rst series,
lim
n
a
1
n
n
= lim
n
1
n
1
n
= 1,
and for the second one
lim
n
a
1
n
n
= lim
n
1
n
1
n
2
= 1.
But the series
1
n
2
is convergent, whereas the series
1
n
is
divergent.
Ex. 1.6. Examine the convergence of the series
(i)
n
n
2
(n+1)
n
2
(ii)
1 +
1
n
n
x
n
Sol. (i) Convergent (1/e < 1)
(ii) Convergent for x < 1 and divergent for x 1
1.2.10 Raabes Test
A positive term series
a
n
is convergent if lim
n
n
a
n
a
n+1
1
> 1
and divergent if lim
n
n
a
n
a
n+1
1
< 1.
Proof. Let lim
n
n
a
n
a
n+1
1
b
n
(say) is convergent.
By comparison test, the series
a
n
is convergent
if
a
n+1
a
n
<
b
n+1
b
n
,
that is, if
a
n+1
a
n
<
n
p
(n + 1)
p
,
that is, if
a
n
a
n+1
>
1 +
1
n
p
,
that is, if
a
n
a
n+1
> 1 +
p
n
+
p(p 1)
2
.
1
n
2
+ .... ,
8
that is, if n
a
n
a
n+1
1
> p +
p(p 1)
2
.
1
n
+ .... ,
that is, if lim
n
n
a
n
a
n+1
1
p ,
that is, if l p ,
which is true. Therefore,
a
n
is convergent.
If l < 1, one can choose a number p such that l p < 1.
Then the pseries
1
n
p
=
b
n
(say) is divergent. Again,
by comparison test, the series
a
n
is divergent
if
a
n+1
a
n
>
b
n+1
b
n
.
Proceeding in a way similar to the previous case, we can
obtain
l p ,
which is true. Therefore,
a
n
is divergent.
Remark: The root test is does not yield any information in
the case lim
n
n
a
n
a
n+1
1
a
n
a
n+1
1
= lim
n
n
n + 1
n
1
= 1,
and for the second one
lim
n
n
a
n
a
n+1
1
= 1,
But the series
1
n
is divergent, whereas the series
1
n(log n)
2
is convergent.
Ex. 1.7. Test the convergence of the series
(i)
1
2
.
x
2
2
+
1.3
2.4
.
x
4
4
+
1.3.5
2.4.6
.
x
6
6
+ ......
(ii) 1 +
a
1!
+
a(a+1)
2!
+
a(a+1)(a+2)
3!
+ ......
Sol. (i) Convergent x
2
1 and divergent for x
2
> 1
(a
n
=
1.3.5...(2n1)
2.4.6...2n
.
x
2n
2n
)
(ii) Convergent for a 0 and divergent for a > 0
1.2.11 Logarithmic Test
A positive term series
a
n
is convergent if
lim
n
nlog
a
n
a
n+1
> 1 and divergent if lim
n
nlog
a
n
a
n+1
<
1.
Proof. Let lim
n
nlog
a
n
a
n+1
= l. If l > 1, we can choose a
number p such that l p > 1. Then the pseries
1
n
p
=
b
n
(say) is convergent.
By comparison test, the series
a
n
is convergent
if
a
n+1
a
n
<
b
n+1
b
n
,
that is, if
a
n+1
a
n
<
n
p
(n + 1)
p
,
that is, if
a
n
a
n+1
>
1 +
1
n
p
,
that is, if log
a
n
a
n+1
> p log
1 +
1
n
,
that is, if log
a
n
a
n+1
> p
1
n
1
n
2
+ ....
,
that is, if nlog
a
n
a
n+1
> p
1
1
n
+ ....
,
that is, if lim
n
nlog
a
n
a
n+1
p ,
that is, if l p ,
which is true. Therefore,
a
n
is convergent.
If l < 1, one can choose a number p such that l p < 1.
Then the pseries
1
n
p
=
b
n
(say) is divergent. Again,
by comparison test, the series
a
n
is divergent
if
a
n+1
a
n
>
b
n+1
b
n
.
Proceeding in a way similar to the previous case, we can
obtain
l p ,
which is true. Therefore,
a
n
is divergent.
Remarks:
1. The logarithmic test does not yield any information in
the case lim
n
nlog
a
n
a
n+1
= 1.
2. The logarithmic test is applied when the ratio test fails
and the limit of ratio test involves e.
Ex. 1.8. Examine the convergence of the series
1 +
x
2
+
2!
3
2
x
2
+
3!
4
3
x
3
+ ......(x > 0).
Sol. (i) Convergent x < e and divergent for x e.
1.2.12 Cauchys Integral Test
Let f be a continuous, nonnegative and a decreasing func
tion of x, for all x 1. If a
n
= f(n) for all n 1, then series
a
n
and the sequence < I
n
>, where I
n
=
n
1
f(x)dx, both
converge or diverge together.
Proof. For a natural number n, we can choose a real number
x such that
n + 1 x > n.
Since f is a decreasing function of x, so
f(n + 1) f(x) < f(n).
n+1
n
f(n +1)dx
n+1
n
f(x)dx <
n+1
n
f(n)dx.
f(n + 1)
n+1
n
f(x)dx < f(n).
9
a
n+1
n+1
n
f(x)dx < a
n
.
Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, ..., n 1 and adding the resulting
inequalities, we get
a
2
+ a
3
+ ... + a
n
n
1
f(x)dx < a
1
+ a
2
+ ... + a
n1
.
S
n
a
1
I
n
< S
n
a
n
, where S
n
= a
1
+a
2
+... +a
n
.
Since a
n
0, so S
n
a
n
S
n
. Therefore,
S
n
a
1
I
n
< S
n
. (1.2.10)
If
a
n
is convergent, then limit of S
n
is nite. So second
part of the inequality (1.2.10) suggests that limit of I
n
is
nite. So I
n
is also convergent.
If I
n
is also convergent, that is, limit of I
n
is nite, then
from the rst part of the inequality (1.2.10) we see that limit
of S
n
is nite, which in turn implies that
a
n
is convergent.
Thus,
a
n
and I
n
converge together. Similarly, again us
ing the inequality (1.2.10), we can that
a
n
and I
n
diverge
together.
Ex. 1.9. Using integral test, discuss the behavior of the
series
(i)
1
n
p
(p > 0)
(ii)
1
n(log n)
p
(p > 0)
Sol. Converges for p > 1 and diverges for p 1.
1.2.13 Alternating Series
A series of the form
n=1
(1)
n1
a
n
= a
1
a
2
+ a
3
a
4
+ ..... ,
where a
n
> 0 for all n, is called an alternating series. There
fore, in an alternating series, positive and negative terms
appear alternatively.
In what follows, we discuss a test given by Leibnitz for the
convergence of an alternating series.
1.2.14 Leibnitzs Test
An alternating series
(1)
n1
a
n
converges if < a
n
>
monotonically decreases to 0 as n .
Proof. Let S
n
denote the nth partial sum of the series
(1)
n1
a
n
so that
S
2n
= a
1
a
2
+ a
3
a
4
+ ..... + a
2n1
a
2n
= a
1
[(a
2
a
3
) + (a
4
a
5
)+
..... + (a
2n2
a
2n1
) + a
2n
]
a
1
( a
n
> 0 and a
n
a
n+1
n)
Thus, < S
2n
> is bounded above.
Also, S
2n+2
S
2n
= a
2n+1
a
2n+2
0 for all n. Therefore,
< S
2n
> is monotonically increasing.
We know that a monotonically increasing and bounded
above sequence is convergent. Therefore, < S
2n
> is conver
gent. Let limit of S
2n
be l. Also, given that limit of a
n
is 0.
Therefore, we have
lim
n
S
2n+1
= lim
n
(S
2n
+ a
2n+1
) = l + 0 = l.
Thus, both the sequences < S
2n
> and < S
2n+1
> converge
to l. Therefore, given > 0, there exist positive integers m
1
and m
2
such that
S
2n
l < n m
1
,
S
2n+1
l < n m
2
.
If we choose m =maxi.{m
1
, m
2
}, then
S
n
l < n m .
So the sequence < S
n
> also converges to l. Hence, the
series
(1)
n1
a
n
is convergent.
Ex. 1.10. Determine the behavior of the series
(i)
(1)
n1
n
10n1
(ii)
log 2
2
2
log 3
3
2
+
log 4
4
2
.......
Sol. (i) Divergent (ii) Convergent (f(x) = log x/x
2
decreases
if x > e
1/2
. )
1.2.15 Absolute and Conditional Conver
gence
A series
a
n
is said to be absolutely convergent if
a
n
 is
convergent.
For example, the series
(1)
n1 1
n
2
is absolutely conver
gent since
(1)
n1 1
n
2
=
1
n
2
is convergent.
If
a
n
is convergent but
a
n
 is not convergent, then
the series
a
n
is said to be conditionally convergent or non
absolutely convergent or semiconvergent.
For example, the series
(1)
n1 1
n
is conditional con
vergent since
(1)
n1 1
n
=
1
n
is divergent but
(1)
n1 1
n
is convergent.
Theorem 1.5. Every absolutely convergent series is conver
gent.
Proof. Let
a
n
be an absolutely convergent series. Then,
a
n
 is convergent. So by Cauchys principle of conver
gence, given any > 0, there exists a positive integer m such
that
a
m
 +a
m+1
 + ..... +a
n
 < n m
a
m
+ a
m+1
+ ..... + a
n
 < n m
( a
m
+ a
m+1
+ ... + a
n
 a
m
 +a
m+1
 + ... +a
n
)
Hence, by Cauchys principle of convergence, the series
a
n
is convergent.
Ex. 1.11. Discuss the absolute convergence of the series
(i) 1 +
x
1!
+
x
2
2!
+ ......
10
(ii) x
x
3
3
+
x
5
5
.......
(iii)
(1)
n1
sin
1
n
(iv)
(1)
n
(x+1)
n
2
n
n
2
Sol. (i) Absolutely convergent (ii) Convergent if 1 x 1
and absolutely convergent if 1 < x < 1 (iii) Conditionally
convergent (iv) Absolutely convergent if 3 x 1.
1.2.16 Tips for applying dierent tests
Here, we give some useful tips for applying dierent tests of
convergence.
If nth term of a series of positive terms does not tend to
0, then the series is divergent.
If nth term of a series of positive terms tends to 0 and
does not involve factorials or exponents involving n, one
should apply comparison test.
If it seems dicult to apply comparison test or the nth
term of the series of positive terms involves factorials,
the ratio test is applied.
If nth term of a series of positive terms contains expo
nents involving n, the root test is suitable.
If the ratio test fails and its limit does not involve e,
Raabes test can be tried. In case, the limit of ratio test
involves e, we apply the logarithmic test.
To test the behavior of an arbitrary termed series, one
should apply the ratio test. In case the ratio test fails
and the series contains positive and negative terms al
ternatively, the Leibnitzs test is suggested.
11