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Air pollution: Composition and structure of atmosphere; units of measurement, sources of pollutants, classification of pollutants and their effects, air quality monitoring and standards. Brief introduction to Control devices for particulate contaminants gravitational settling chambers, centrifugal collectors, wet collectors, fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators; control devices for gaseous contaminants; automotive emission control, concept of clean and biofuels. Noise pollution: Definition of decibel, sound power level, sound intensity level and sound pressure level; measurement of noise level; basic concept of community noise, transportation noise and industrial noise; acceptable outdoor and indoor noise levels; effects of noise and control measures. Introduction to Solid waste management and environmental impact assessment
1. Composition and structure of atmosphere
Composition of the Atmosphere (http://www.angelfire.com/nj2/weatherfacts/composition.html) Earth¶s lower atmosphere is a mixture of many gases called air. The two main gases in air are nitrogen and oxygen. Together, they form about 99 percent to dry air by volume. The remaining 1 percent is mostly argon and carbon dioxide. The atmosphere also contains tiny amounts of helium, hydrogen, neon, ozone, krypton, and other gases.
y y y y y
Nitrogen- 78% Oxygen- 21% Argon- almost 1% Carbon Dioxide- .03% All Other Gases- .01%
The air this out quickly at altitudes high above Earth¶s surface. Its composition (by percent) remains the same, however, to an altitude of about 80 kilometers. Above this level the air is so thin that it would be considered a vacuum at sea level. Als o, above this level the atmosphere changes to layers of different gases. A layer of oxygen reaches to about 1000 kilometers. Above it is a layer of helium to about 2400 kilometers. Above this is a layer of hydrogen that thins out into space. Gas molecules at the bottom of the atmosphere are squeezed together by the gases above them. As a result, 99 percent of the atmosphere¶s weight is found within about 32 kilometers of Earth¶s surface. Half the atmosphere¶s weight is within 5.5 kilometers. Air always contains some water vapor. Water vapor enters the air by evaporation from the oceans and from water or plants on land. The amount of water vapor varies with location, season, and time of day. Most of the water vapor is near the surface, and the percentage decreases with height. Air also contains ozone, which is a form of oxygen fast that contains 3 oxygen atoms, instead of the normal 2. Ozone forms when ultraviolet rays from the sun act on oxygen in the upper atmosphere. It is concentrated at heights of about 1 0 to 50 kilometers in a region called the ozone layer. Ozone is important because it absorbs 99 percent of the harmful ultraviolet rays. If the atmosphere has less ozone, more ultraviolet rays reach Earth¶s surface, causing more sunburns, skin cancer, and plant damage. Ozone thinning results from the release of gases called chlorofluorocarbons (CFC¶s) into the atmosphere. These gases contain chlorine, fluorine, and carbon. CFC¶s are sued as coolants in air conditioners, to clean electronic components, and in making foam products. The chlorine atoms from the CFC¶s break down ozone in the presence of sunlight. Ozone measurements since the late 1970¶s show a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. From the later 1970¶s to the early 1990¶s, the hold grew larger and more intense. In 1990, the ozone decreased by 50 percent. Extreme thinning of the ozone layer in Antarctica results from the isolated climate and extremely cold winters and early springs. The cold allows clouds to form in the atmosphere containing the ozone layer. Ice particles on these clouds provide places for ozone destruction. The ozone hole is filled when warmer winds from the north mix in ozone-rich air. A similar hole occurs over the Arctic. Winter and spring ozone values over the northern middl e latitudes decreased 6 to 8 percent from 1979 to 1990. Smaller decreases have occurred at lower latitudes. Dust, another part of air, includes tiny grains of rock, dirt, pollen, salt crystals from sea spray, soot from fires, chemicals from factories, and bacteria. Dust helps form fog and rain. Water vapor condenses around some dust grains, forming tiny water droplets.
Structure of the Atmosphere Scientists divide the atmosphere into four layers that are based on temperature changes. The layer closest to the earth is called the troposphere. The troposphere starts at Earth¶s surface. Its thickness depends on the latitude. At the equator the troposphere is about 18 kilometers thick; at the poles it is only about 8 kilometers thick. The gases of the troposphere are essential to life on Earth. Earth¶s weather occurs in the troposphere. Temperatures gradually decrease with altitude in the troposphere. The top of the troposphere is called the tropopause. There, the decrease in temperature stops. At the poles, the tropopause temperature is about 55 degrees Celsius. The second layer is the stratosphere. It reaches from the tropopause to a height of about 50 kilometers from Earth. The stratosphere is clear and dry. It has strong, steady winds and few weather changes. Because of its steady weather conditions, jet aircraft fly in the stratosphere. The lower part of the stratosphere is as cold as the tropopause. Then it warms up steadily to its top, or stratopause. The absorbing or absorption of sunlight by ozone is what makes the stratosphere¶s temperatures increase with height. The ozonosphere is therefore located in the area of the stratosphere. The third and fourth layers are the mesosphere, in which temperatures drop again, and the thermosphere, in which temperatures rise again. The top of the thermosphere is around 500 kilometers from Earth. In the thermosphere, nitrogen and oxygen atoms absorb solar energy, causing the temperature to rise.
can be picked up and rebroadcast by special satellites orbiting high above Earth. the air is highly ionized.At heights between about 65 and 500 k ilometers above Earth. which greatly increases the area in which they can be received. This part to the atmosphere is called the ionosphere. which disrupts radio communication. colored displays of light in the nighttime sky 2. Units of measurement (http://wiki. Since they are electrically charged. the ionized particles interact with air molecules to form auroras.answers. The solar eruptions also send out ionized particles.com/Q/What_is_the_unit_of_measurement_for_air_pollution ) The unit of measurement for air pollution is AQI (air quality index) Answer: Units used include (may or may not be rolled up into a unitless AQI): y y y y y y y y COH . At the poles. It stretches from the lower mesosphere to the top of the thermo sphere. The ionosphere is affected by solar events. These waves. Eruptions on the sun send out large amounts of short-wave radiation. The ions are formed when ultraviolet rays from the sun knock electrons off oxygen atoms. Each layer reflects radio waves of different wavelengths. these particles are deflected by Earth s magnetic field to the North and South Poles. however. The ions and electrons are concentrated in layers at four different levels. The ionosphere does not reflect the waves used to transmit television.Coefficient of Haze opacity (%) for smoke emissions ppm (parts per million) ppb (parts per billion) odor index (unitless) soiling index (unitless) sulfation rates (gm/m2) dustfall in gm/m2 . The ionosphere therefore reflects radio waves back to Earth.
respectively. ppm = Vp/Va where Va and Vp are the air and pollutant volume. The mass of a pollutant p.414 l/g * (T/273.414 * T/273. Therefore.html) Units of measurement Air quality measurement are commonly reported in terms of: y y micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb) For particulate matter.00050 0. corrections to the standard volume must be applied.00037 0. As an example. Combining the equations gives the conversion formula: ppm = [Mp/gMW * 22.414 liters.325 kPa/P) where T and P are the ambient temperature and pressure at the time of measurement. based on the ideal gas law: 22.15K) * (101.at/AIR-EIA/units.(http://www. 101. one mole of an ideal gas occupies 22.000 l/m3 with the pollutant mass in µg (microgram).414 l/g with MW the molecular weight of the pollutant.Mp in grams can therefor be converted to its equivalent volume Vp in liters: Vp = Mp/gMW * 22.325kPa/P] / Va * 1.325 kPa).00048 ppb 0 0 0 0 . respectiviely.15K * 101. For measurements at pressure and temperature other than the standard conditions.00077 0.ess.co. which makes it independent of local temperature and pressure.weight 46 30 64 48 µg/m3 1 1 1 1 ppm 0. ppm is a volume-to-volume ratio. consider the following conversions: Substance Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrogen Oxide Sulphur Dioxide Ozone Mass formula NO2 NO SO2 O3 Mol. sizes are expressed in micron or micrometer. Unit conversions Under standard conditions (0° Centigrade.
particulate matter and fluorine.tutorvista. hydrocarbons. (http://www. Automobiles Back to Top Petrol on combustion produces carbon monoxide.4 benzpyrene. carbon dioxide (CO2). particulate matter and traces of metals. Burning of Fossil Fuels Back to Top Fossil fuels include petroleum and coal. Burning of coal produces a lot of smoke and dust whereas burning of petrol mainly produces sulphur dioxide. sulphur compounds. 3. Incomplete combustion of petrol produces a hydrocarbon. There is more pollution during acceleration and deceleration than during constant speed. etc. organic acids and ammonia and carbon particles. nitrogen. Added to this are also natural causes like the volcanoes. nitrogen oxides.com/content/biology/biology-ii/environment-and-environmentalproblems/air-pollution. sulphur. aldehydes.3. hydrocarbons. anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. Sources of pollutants 1. Industries Back to Top Fertiliser Plants Back to Top They produce oxides. nitrogen oxides.php#section1) Sources of Air Pollution Back to Top Most of the sources of air pollution are related to man's activities as a result of the modern lifestyle. Thermal Plants Back to Top . the pollutants include carbon monoxide (CO). hydrocarbons. In addition to these. atmospheric reactions.
Criteria pollutants refer to six chemicals which occur frequently in ambient air and can injure human health. cyanide. Textile Industries Back to Top They produce cotton dust. . (http://scorecard. carbon dioxide. Volcanic eruptions release oxides of nitrogen that pollute the atmosphere. Decomposition of these matter also produces foul smelling gases. residential buildings (fire places.com/env-releases/def/air_source. surface coatings). Steel Plants Back to Top They produce carbon monoxide. soot and sulphur dioxide. particulate matter. particulate matter. etc. Congress has identifed over 188 of these pollutants. 2. neurological. Area sources are defined as sources that emit less than 10 tons per year of a criteria or hazardous air pollutant or less than 25 tons per year of a combination of polluta nts. respiratory. nitrogen oxides. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) refer to other chemicals which can cause adverse effects to human health or the environment.Since they are coal based the pollutants are fly ash. fuel combustion in non-road machinery.html) Sources of air pollution like factories or cars are usually categorized by regulatory agencies into one of three groups: area. phenol. Decomposition of organic matter under anaerobic conditions produces methane which on being oxidised in the atmosphere produces carbon monoxide. harm the environment or cause property damage: carbon monoxide. landfills and wastewater treatment are significant area sources. and sulfur dioxide. and even the family lawnmower or barbecue grill. Waste disposal in the form of open burning. nitrogen dioxide. lead. chlorine. fluorine. mobile. railroads. and reproductive effects. naphtha vapours. smoke and sulphur dioxide. sulphur dioxide. including substances that cause cancer. boats. Photochemical oxidation of marine organic matter and biological oxidation by marine organisms produce lot of carbon monoxide on the surface of the oceans which enters the atmosphere. ozone. and auto body paint shops. Categorization of a specific source may vary depending on whether it is releasing "criteria" or "hazardous" air pollutants. The category also includes commercial buildings (heating and cooling units. AREA SOURCES Area sources include small pollution sources like dry cleaners. or point. gas stations. surface coatings).goodguide.
3 -butadiene and diesel particulate matter. oil refineries. Motor vehicles are also substantial sources of hazardous air pollutants. point sources like power plants. . Point sources are less important sources of VOCs . airplanes. and hazardous waste incinerators. More on mobile sources. mobile sources are responsible for about 75% of c arbon monoxide pollution. the motor vehicle contribution to carbon monoxide pollution can exceed 90 percent. steel mills. Point sources (predominantly electrical utilities and industrial boiler s) are also major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) . In a typical urban area. In urban areas. accounting for nearly 90% of this criteria air pollutant. Mobile sources contribute significantly to air pollution. at least half of the hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide pollutants come from mobile sources. copper smelters and iron and steel mills contribute the majority of sulfur dioxide emissions. acetaldehyde. power plants. Area sources are responsible for over 50% of particulate matter emissions and more than point or mobile sources for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. trucks and buses) and offroad equipment (such as ships. agricultural and construction equipment). Driving a car is probably a person's single most polluting daily activity. and more oxides of nitrogen emissions than area or point sources. Point sources are defined as those that emit 10 tons per year of any of the criteria pollutants or hazardous air pollutants or 25 tons per year of a mixture of air toxics.Though emissions from individual area sources are relatively small.releasing less than 15% of total volatile organic compounds. Nationwide. formaldehyde. industrial paper mills.particularly where large numbers of sources are located in heavily populated areas. 1. More on area sources. collectively their emissions can be of concern . fertilizer manufacturers. MOBILE SOURCES Mobile sources include both onroad vehicles (such as cars. which contribute significantly to the formation of ground-level ozone.accounting for about 40% of total releases. petroleum refineries. POINT SOURCES Point sources include major industrial facilities like chemical plants. Nationwide. such as the recognized carcinogens benzene.
Thus. headache. photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. biological oxidation by marine organisms. etc.php#section1) Major Pollutants Back to Top There are six main categories of air pollutants: y y y y y y oxides of carbon sulphur dioxide oxides of nitrogen hydrocarbon inorganic particulate matter and aerosols organic particulate matter Harmful Effects of the Pollutants in Air Back to Top The various categories of air pollutants and their harmful effects are summarised in the given table: Pollutant Source/Cause Effect Affects the respiratory activity as haemoglobin has more affinity for Co than for oxygen. . unconsciousness and death due to asphyxiation (lack of oxygen). This results in blurred vision.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-ii/environment-and-environmentalproblems/air-pollution. Carbon monoxide Automobile exhaust. Carbon di oxide Carbon Burning of fossil fuels.4 Classification of pollutants and their effects (http://www.depletion of forests (that remove excess carbon dioxide and help in maintaining the oxygen- Global warming as it is one of the greenhouse gases. CO combines with HB and thus reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
Respiratory problems. increased rate of corrosion of iron. damage to leaves and stomatal tissue in plants. smelting plants. Sulphur dioxide Industries. PAN . Particulate matter Lead halides (lead pollution) Combustion of leaded gasoline products Toxic effect in man. forest fires. zinc and aluminium.a cancerous disease of the lungs Silicon dioxide Stone cutting. petroleum refineries and volcanic eruptions Carcinogenic (may cause leukemia) Chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs) Destroy ozone layer which then permits harmful UV rays to enter the atmosphere. air conditioners. pottery. smelting plants. paint and rubber articles. Nitrogen Oxides Forms photochemical smog. severe headache.peroxylacetyl nitrate Photochemical reactions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. Irritation of eye.leaking fuel tanks. Silicosis. industnal boilers. glass manufacturing and cement industries. Asbestos particles Mining activities Asbestosis . . petroleum refineries and volcanic eruptions. forest fires. at higher concentrations causes leaf damage or affects the photosynthetic activities of plants and causes respiratory problems in mammals.reduced productivity of plants. a cancerous disease. spray cans and cleaning solvents. electric generation plants. steel. damage to leather. burning of fossil fuels. burning of fossil fuels.carbon dioxide ratio). yellowing and damage to limestone and marble. Automobile exhausts.electric generation plants. leaching from toxic waste dumping sites and coal tar lining of some water supply pipes. foam shaving cream. Hydrocarbons Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds(PAC) and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAH) Automobile exhaust and industries. Refngerators. throat and respiratory tract. damage to clothes. yellowing and reduced storage time for paper. industnal boilers.
temperature and humidity.in/airstd.delhigovt. The National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM) network is operated through the respective States Pollution Control Boards. As on March 31. etc Flowers Allergy Microbes Infectious deseases 5. High (H) and Critical (C) for Industrial (I). like Ammonia (NH3). Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) besides the meteorological parameters. the network comprised 290 stations covering over 90 towns/citi es distributed over 24 States and 4 Union Territories. The pollutants monitored are Sulphur dioxide (SO 2).dpcc. In addition to the three conventional parameters. the Ambient Air Quality Status is described in terms of Low (L). (http://www. Air quality monitoring and standards 1. Residential and mixed use (R) areas of Cities/Towns in different States/UTs. 1995. Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). NEERI monitors special parameters.Biological matter like the pollen grains Fungal spores.nic. Nagpur and also through the CPCB. the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI).htm) Air Quality Standards This nation-wide programe was initiated in 1984. Moderate (M). like wind speed & direction. Hydrogen Sulphide (H 2S). virus. NO 2 and SPM and the Notified Ambient Air Quality Standards. Based on Annual Mean Concentration (microgram per cubic meter of ambient air) of SO 2. National Ambient Air quality Standards (NAAQS) POLLUTANTS Time Concentration of Ambient Air Weighted Industrial Residential Sensitive Method of Average Area Rural and area Measurement other area Annual Average 24 hours Annual Average 3 3 3 Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 80 120 g/m 60 80 g/m 15 30 g/m Improved west and Gacke Method Ultraviolet fluorescence Jacab Hochheister g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 Oxides of Nitrogen 80 g/m3 60 g/m3 15 g/m3 . bacteria.
dec. the results and predicted pollution levels are reported in real time.0mg/m3 spectroscopy Annual Average : Annual Arithmetic Mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24-hourly at uniform interval 24 Hours Average : 24-hourly/8-hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. which at high levels can be a threat to human health.75 1.0mg/m3 1.1 m3/minute) Respirable particulate matter sampler AAS method after sampling using EPM 2000 or equivalent filter paper 120 150 g/m3 g/m3 60 100 g/m3 g/m3 50 75 g/m3 g/m3 1.in the case of ozone.0 1. to protect the public health.0mg/m3 2.0mg/m3 4.html) Air Quality Monitoring To protect humans and the environment from damage by air pollution.0mg/m3 10. on DEC's website and through broadcast media. it may exceeded but not two consecutive days. 3.ny. DEC continually measures levels of pollutants in the air. it shall be considered adequate. The levels of air quality necessary with an adequate margin of safety.5 g/m 3 0.gov/chemical/8406.75 g/m 3 Lead as Pb g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 Carbon Monoxide 5. reason to institute regular/continous monitoring and further investigations. 2. However 2% of the time.0mg/m3 Non disbersive infrared 2. vegetation and property. Whenever and wherever two consecutives values exceeds the limit specified above for the respective category. (http://www. .(NO2) 24 hours 120 g/m3 80 g/m3 30 g/m3 modified (NaArsentire method Gas Phase Chemilumine Scene Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) Respirable Particulate Matter (size Less than 10 m) RPM Annual Average 24 hours Annual Average 24 hours Annual Average 24 hours 8 hours 1 hour 360 500 g/m 3 140 200 g/m 3 70 100 g/m 3 g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 High Volume sampling (average flow rate not less than 1. DEC regularly reports the results of these measurements -.0 g/m 3 0.50 0. 1.
5 microns). oxides of nitrogen. using continuous and/or manual instrumentation.5 (fine particulate with diameter less than 2. Monitoring air for pollutants is a complex technical task. but also measurement standards and quality assurance to ensure that the information provides a correct understanding of air quality in New York State. All of the above monitoring is done for the purpose of determining the quality of the ambient air in the state so that programs can be developed to target the appropriate source categories for emission reductions. carbon monoxide). DEC is a partner in the EPA NATTS network. and meteorological data. lead.) . sulfur dioxide. Brief introduction to Control devices for particulate contaminants gravitational settling Chambers Gravity Settling Chambers As the name implies. 6. DEC also operates the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) and the National Ambient Toxics Trend Stations (NATTS) as part of the EPA supported national networks. requiring not only direct measurement. Real time direct reading measurements include gaseous criteria pollutants (ozone. The PAMS network monitors volatile organic compounds as ozone precursors during the summer ozone season. this category of control devices relies upon gravity settling to remove particles from the gas stream. and acid deposition samples are collected manually and shipped to the laboratory for analysis.5. PM2. Filter based PM 2. and these sites have become part of the New York State Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) ambient monitoring network that has been in operation by BAQS since 1990. Gravity settling chambers are used only for very large particles in the upper end of the supercoarse size range (approximately 75 mi rometers and larger). (See the lesson on Control Techniques in Module 3 for more information about terminal settling velocities. The very c low terminal settling velocities of most particles encountered in the field of air pollution limit the usefulness of gravity settling chambers. Ambient air quality reports provide the data and interpretations to the technical community and the public. These sites are part of the federally-mandated National Air Monitoring Stations Network and the State and Local Air Monitoring Stations Network. Methodologies are continually being developed nationally for other compounds of concern.DEC measures air pollutants at more than 80 sites across the state.
The stringent control requirements adopted in the late 1960s through early 1970s have re sulted in a sharp decline in the use of this type of collector. The gas stream enters the cyclone tangentially and creates a weak vortex of spinning gas in the cyclone body. In negative pressure systems. a solids discharge valve is used to prevent air infiltration up through the hopper area. the treated gas is usually discharged directly from the cyclone. The cleaned gas turns and exits the cyclone. There are very few gravity settling chambers still in commercial use. The mass of the particles causes them to move toward the outside of the vortex. the gas stream is either exhausted from a separate stack or from the discharge duct of the fan itself. Large-diameter cyclones are usually one to six feet in diameter. Large-diameter cyclones are used to collect particles ranging in diameters from one-sixteenth inch to more than 6 inches. Centrifugal collectors Mechanical Collectors Mechanical collectors use the inertia of the particles for collection. Most of the large-diameter particles enter a hopper below the cyclonic tubes while the gas stream turns and exits the tube. Large-diameter particles move toward the cyclone body wall and then settle into the hopper of the cyclone. There are two main types of mechanical collectors: (1) large-diameter cyclones. In systems where the cyclone is located before the fan (negative pressure). and (2) smalldiameter multi-cyclones. while small-diameter multi-cyclones usually have diameters between 3 and 12 inches. The particulate-laden gas stream is forced to spin in a cyclonic manner. A typical large-diameter cyclone system is shown in Figure 1. In systems where the large-diameter cyclone is located after the fan (positive pressure). .
Furthermore. A typical application of a conventional multi-cyclone collector is shown in Figure 3. Vanes located on the inlet of each of the tubes create the spinning movement of the gas stream. or twelve inches in diameter. nine. such as the one shown in Figure 2 are capable of removing particles having diameters down to 5 micrometers. the small-diameter multi-cyclones are not generally used for very large diameter material. Conversely. . These have higher gas velocities within the cyclone tubes and different cyclone geometries than those shown in Figure 2. Some mechanical collectors are specially designed to provide high-efficiency particulate matter collection down to a particle size of one micrometer. Small-diameter multi-cyclones. The small-diameter of the cyclone tube creates more rapid spinning of the gas stream than is possible in large-diameter cyclones. the multi-cyclone is located after a small. such as one-eighth inch and above. the particles moving outward in the spinning gas stream have a relatively shorter distance to travel in a small-diameter multi-cyclone tube before they reach the cyclone body wall. In this example. These features allow small-diameter multi-cyclones to collect considerably smaller particles than large-diameter cyclones can. because large particles may plug the spinner vanes in the multi-cyclone tubes.A small-diameter cyclone tube is shown in Figure 2. wood-fired boiler and is used as a precollector for the fabric filter. large numbers of tubes are mounted in parallel in a single collector. Due to the limited gas handling capacity of each tube. Most of the commercial tubes are six.
Removal of the embers is necessary to protect high-efficiency particulate control systems downstream from the mechanical collectors.Mechanical collectors are used whenever the particle size distributions generated by the process are relatively large (greater than 5 micrometers) and/or the control efficiency requirements are in the low-to-moderate range of 50 to 90%. They are also used as the pre-collector of large-diameter embers generated in some combustion systems. The list provided below is not exhaustive (nor is it listed in order of efficiency). These materials can accumulate on the cyclone body wall or the inlet spinner vanes of conventional multi-cyclone collectors. Particulate Wet Scrubbers There are a number of major categories of particulate wet scrubbers. y y y y y y y y y y y y Venturis Impingement and Sieve Plates Spray Towers Mechanically Aided Condensation Growth Packed Beds Ejector Mobile Bed Caternary Grid Froth Tower Oriented Fiber Pad Wetted Mist Eliminators . Most mechanical collectors are not applicable to industrial sources that generate sticky and/or wet particulate matter.
and spray towers. large water droplets that are introduced near the high velocity point at the inlet of the venturi throat. . The gas stream acceleratin g through the holes atomizes some water droplets in the water layer above the plate. which accelerates as it enters the throat. These scrubbers usually have one to three horizontal plates.This lesson discusses only three of the above types of scrubbers: venturis. Particulate matter. is driven into the slow moving. each of which has a large number of small holes. The adjustable dampers in the unit illustrated are used to adjust the open cross-sectional area and thereby affect the speed of the particles entrained in the inlet gas stream. impingeme plate nt scrubbers. Particles impact into these water droplets. Impingement Plate Scrubbers An impingement plate scrubber is shown in Figure 5. Venturi Scrubbers A typical venturi throat is shown in Figure 4.
Scrubbers are by far the most diverse group of air pollution control devices used for particulate control. venturi scrubbers include the following di ferent design types: (1) fixed f throat. .Spray Tower Scrubbers A typical spray tower scrubber is shown in Figure 6. Each of the categories of particulate wet scrubbers listed earlier has a large number of different design types. (3) collision (opposed-adjustable). and (3) baffled spray towers. (2) cyclonic. (2) adjustable throat. The scrubber categories listed above comprise more than fifty different types of scrubbers in common commercial use. For example. Sets of spray nozzles located near the top of the scrubber vessel generate water droplets that impact with particles in the gas stream as the gas stream moves upwards. Spray tower scrubbers include these design types: (1) open. (4) single rod decks. and (5) multiple rod decks. This is the simplest type of particulate wet scrubber in commercial service.
regardless of t which type of particulate matter scrubber is used. The cyclonic separator consists of a cyclonic vessel and a horizontal mist eliminator. 2. It prevents the water droplets from evaporating and inhibiting inertial impaction. It protects the construction materials of the venturi throat. a purged liquid treatment unit. It helps to homogeneously and heterogeneously nucleate vapor phase material emitted from the process before it reaches the scrubbing system. these components are presen in many systems. Scrubber Operating Principles The numerous different types of particulate wet scrubbers mentioned earlier have some important common characteristics. cools the gas stream. wet scrubbing system. located before the venturi scrubber in the system. and sometimes complex. an alkali addition unit to control the liquid pH. 3. For example. Located after the venturi scrubber. The evaporative cooler. which serves the following purpose: 1.Wet Scrubbing Systems Each particulate wet scrubber vessel is part of a large. . There are a wide variety of wet scrubber system designs. which allow for a general discussion about wet scrubber operating principles and applicability. the cyclonic separator removes entrained water droplets from the gas stream leaving the venturi. and a stack. All particulate wet scrubber designs utilize particle and/or droplet inertia as the fundamental force to transfer particles from the gas stream to the liquid stream. The overall scrubbing system includes pumps for liquid recirculation. however. Figure 7 illustrates a venturi scrubber in a scrubbing system. a tank to treat the liquid being recirculated. a fan for gas movement.
or jets of liquid from a plate. The large. This is illustrated in Figure 8. Due to the difference in the velocities of the particles and droplets. are discussed in the lesson on Collection Mechanisms in Module 3. However. sheet. The effectiveness of the impaction increases for larger particles. Particles with too much inertia impact on the water droplet.000micrometer water droplets formed from the inlet stream move relatively slowly compared with the small-diameter particles in the accelerating gas stream. If a significant portion of the particulate matter mass is composed of particles less than 5 micrometers. inertial impaction and interception. particle-laden air is forced to contact the liquid droplets. the velocities of the particle-laden gas stream and the liquid targets vary substantially. water sheet. Note: Two important particle collection mechanisms for scrubbers. The ability of a particulate wet scrubber to remove particles depends on two or more of the following variables: y The size (aerodynamic diameter) of the particle y The velocity of the particle y The velocity of the droplet. care is needed to sel ct e the type of scrubber that is effective in this size range. inertial impaction and interception occur in the venturi throat. or water jet instead of passing around the "target" with the gas stream. 100 to 1.) Collection Efficiency of Wet Scrubbers All of the particulate wet scrubbers in commercial use depend on inertial impaction. . (See the section on Inertial Impaction and Interception in the lesson on Collection Mechanisms. The importance of the difference in velocity and the particle size is discussed in more detail in Module 3. The collection efficiency increases as the gas stream accelerates upon entering the throat. sheets of liquid on a packing material. Accordingly. there are substantial differences in the ability of particulate wet scrubbers to collect particles less than approximately 5 micrometers.Within the scrubber. or jet The venturi scrubber throat shown in Figure 4 illustrates these principles.
Methods of particle collection in this very small size range take advantage of these particles' tendencies to diffuse slowly due to their interactions with gas molecules (Brownian diffusion). where they accumulate. Electrostatic Precipitators Types of Electrostatic Precipitators An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) uses nonuniform. They are compact and can often be retrofitted into existing plants with very limited space. The charged particles move toward an oppositely charged collection surface. Advantages and Disadvantages of Scrubbers Many types of particulate wet scrubbers can provide high efficiency control of particulate matter. (2) negatively charged wetted-wall precipitators. The negatively charged dry precipitators are the type most frequently used on lar ge . these particles are so small that their movement is influenced by collisions with individual molecules in the gas stream. and (3) positively charged two-stage precipitators. One of the main advantages of particulate wet scrubbers is that they are often able to simultaneously collect particulate matter and gaseous pollutants. Also. In other words. There are three main styles of electrostatic precipitators: (1) negatively charged dry precipitators.3-micrometer range. wet scrubbers can often be used on sources that have potentially explosive gases or particulate matter. Wet scrubbers generate a waste stream that must be treated properly. high-voltage fields to apply large electrical charges to particles moving through the field.It should be noted that some types of wet scrubbers have limited capability to remove particles in the less than 0. One of the main disadvantages of particulate wet scrubbers is that they require make -up water to replace the water vaporized into the gas stream and lost to purge liquid and sludge removed from the scrubber system.
applications such as coal-fired boilers. In the remainder of this section. Essentially all of these units are divided into a number of separately energized areas that are termed fields (see Figure 10). which is moving horizontally through the unit (into the photograph shown in Figure 11). A high-voltage electrical charge is applied to the small-diameter electrode shown in the center of the picture. The large vertical surfaces on both sides of the electrode are electrically grounded collection plates. each of which has an equal number of fields in series. Most precipitators have between three and ten fields in series along the gas flow path. The positively charged two-stage precipitators are used only for the removal of mists. Wetted-wall precipitators (sometimes called wet precipitators) are often used to collect mist and/or solid material that is moderately sticky. . become charged and then move to either side. Figure 11 shows a single gas passage in a typical electrostatic precipitator. cement kilns. There is a solid partition or physical separation between the 2 to 8 chambers that are present on the large systems. On large units. the precipitators are divided into a number of separate. and kraft pulp mills. The particles in the gas stream. parallel chambers. Figure 9 shows the scale of a typical electrostatic precipitator used at a coal-fired boiler. the discussions will focus only on negatively charged dry precipitators because these are the most common types of precipitators.
neither of which is highly effective in this particle size range.Advantages and Disadvantages of ESPs Electrostatic precipitators can have very high efficiencies due to the strong electrical forces applied to the small particles. the reason for this decreased efficiency zone is entirely different than that for particulate wet scrubbers.1 to 0. As the resistivity increases. . The shape of the efficiency curve is the combined effect of two particle electrical charging mechanisms. the ability of the particulate matter to conduct electricity decreases. The composition of the particulate matter is very important because it influences the electrical conductivity within the dust layers on the collection plate. an important concept associated with electrostatic precipitators. The efficiency is usually at a minimum in the range of 0. Precipitators can be designed to work in any resistivity range. Resistivity.Collection Efficiency curve for a properly sized and operated electrostatic precipitator is shown in Figure 12. These types of collectors can be used when the gas stream is not explosive and does not contain entrained droplets or other sticky material. It should be noted that this decrease in efficiency occurs in the same particle size range as for particulate wet scrubbers. However. they usually work best when the resistivity is in the moderate range (108 to 1010 ohms-cm). is a measure of the ability of the particulate matter to conduct electricity and is expressed in units of ohm-cm. Collection Efficiency of ESPs The typical Particle Size . however.5 micrometers.
Fabric Filters Operating Principles Fabric filters collect particulate matter on the surfaces of filter bags. The dust cake accumulates on the inside surfaces of the bags. shown in Figure 13.) The fabric material itself can capture particles that have penetrated through the dust layers. dampers are used to isolate a compartment of bags from the inlet gas flow. some of the filtered gas passes in the reverse direction (from the outside of the bag to the inside) in order to remove some of the dust cake. Then. interception. The gas used for reverse air cleaning is re filtered and released. and sieving on already collected particles that have formed a dust layer on the bags. the particle-laden gas stream enters from the bottom and passes into the inside of the bags. (Inertial impaction. In this type of unit. Due to the multiple mechanisms of particle capture possible. When cleaning is necessary. Filtered gas passes through the bags and is exhausted from the unit. and Brownian diffusion are discussed further in the lesson on Collection Mechanisms in Module 3. Types of Fabric Filters A reverse-air-type fabric filter. . is one of the major categories of fabric filters. fabric filters can be highly efficient for the entire particle size range of interest in air pollution control. Brownian diffusion. Electrostatic attraction may also contribute to particle capture in the dust layer and in the fabric itself. It is used mainly for large industrial sources. Most of the particles are captured by inertial impaction. interception.
in the process. Particulate laden gas flows around the outside of the bags. The compressed air pulse generates a pressure wave that moves down each bag and. When cleaning is needed. a very-short-duration pulse of compressed air is injected at the top inside part of each bag in the row of bags being cleaned. Advantages and Disadvantages of Fabric Filters .Another common type of fabric filter is the pulse jet shown in Figure 14. dislodges some of the dust cake from the bag. In this type of unit. the bags are supported on metal wire cages that are suspended from the top of the unit. and a dust cake accumulates on the exterior surfaces.
are often used.5% depending on the characteristics of the particulate matter and the fabric filter design. the particulate wet scrubber is most appropriate.Fabric filters are used in a wide variety of applications where high efficiency particulate collection is needed. they are not used when the gas stream generated by the process equipment includes corrosive materials that could chemically attack the filter media. As mentioned earlier. These materials accumulate on the filter media surface and block gas movement. fabric filters can be very efficient at collecting particles in the entire size range of interest in air pollution control. alternative control techniques. If wet or sticky materials are present with combustible materials or explosive gases or vapors. Fabric filters must be designed carefully if there are potentially combustible or explosive particulate matter. The performance of fabric filters is usually independent of the chemical composition of the particulate matter. If these conditions are severe. . Fabric filters are also not used when there are sticky or wet particles in the gas stream. such as wet scrubbers. General Applicability of Particulate Control Systems Particulate matter control systems are often selected based on the general criteria listed in Figure 15. or vapors in the gas stream being treated. The control efficiencies usually range from 99% to greater than 99. gases. If there is a high concentration of wet and/or sticky particulate matter. However. either a particulate wet scrubber or a wet electrostatic precipitator is used.
to 5-micrometer size range. particulate wet scrubbers.Condensation. Control of gaseous pollutants from stationary sources y y The most common method for controlling gaseous pollutants is the addition of add-on control devices to recover or destroy a pollutant. any of the four main types of particulate control systems could be used. When selecting between mechanical collectors and wet scrubbers. An electrostatic precipitator is not used due to the risk of ignition caused by electrical sparking in the precipitator fields. . . mechanical collectors. Nevertheless.5-micrometer size range. mechanical collectors are the more economical choice.Adsorption. In some cases. and high efficiency control is needed. The next step in the selection process is to determine if the particulate matter and/or gases and vapors in the gas stream are combustible or explosive. and . fabric filters. this chart provides a general indication of the uses and limitations of many commercially available particulate matter control systems. electrostatic precipitators. If a significant portion of the particulate matter is in the 0. conventional electrostatic precipitators. If a significant portion of the gas stream is in the less than 0. They have a lower purchase cost and a lower operating cost than wet scrubbers. a fabric filter can also be used if it includes the appropriate safety equipment. If the dry particulate matter is present in a gas stream that is not combustible or explosive.If the particulate matter is primarily dry. a fabric filter is the most common choice.Incineration (combustion) Absorption .5. the selection depends on the particle size range and the control efficiency requirements. and fabric filters can be used. There are four commonly used control technologies for gaseous pollutants: . then mechanical collectors or particulate wet scrubbers can be used because both of these categories of systems can be designed to minimize t e risks of h ignition. and high efficiency control is needed. or particulate wet scrubbers (certain types) could be used. If most of the particulate matter is larger than 5 micrometers.Absorption. There are numerous exceptions to the general applicability information presented above due to site-specific process conditions and unique particulate matter control systems. If so.
Absorbers are often referred to as scrubbers.Non-regenerative systems have thinner beds of activated carbon. Carbon adsorption systems are either regenerative or non-regenerative. In a non-regenerative adsorber. part of it is taken up by the solid. Activated carbon is the universal standard for purification and removal of trace organic contaminants from liquid and vapor streams.y y y y y y The removal of one or more selected components from a gas mixture by absorption is probably the most important operation in the control of gaseous pollutant emissions. y y . . One potential problem with absorption is the generation of waste-water.Regenerative system usually contains more than one carbon bed. the spent carbon is disposed of when it becomes saturated with the pollutant. The molecules that disappear from the gas either enter the inside of the solid. absorbers can achieve removal efficiencies grater than 95 percent. The principal types of gas absorption equipment include spray towers. or remain on the outside attached to the surface. the liquid absorbs the gas. another bed is being regenerated for future use. Adsorption y When a gas or vapor is brought into contact with a solid. The most common industrial adsorbents are activated carbon. in much the same way that sugar is absorbed in a glass of water when stirred. silica gel. and there are various types of absorption equipment. The former phenomenon is termed absorption (or dissolution) and the latter adsorption. As the gas stream passes through the liquid. and venture scrubbers. packed columns. spray chambers. and alumina. because they have enormous surface areas per unit weight. which converts an air pollution problem to a water pollution problem. . As one bed actively removes pollutants. In general. Absorption is a process in which a gaseous pollutant is dissolved in a liquid.
the gas comes into contact with cold liquid.Condensation y y y y y Condensation is the process of converting a gas or vapor to liquid. Any gas can be reduced to a liquid by lowering its temperature and/or increasing its pressure. such as the outside of the tube. In a surface condenser. Condensers used for pollution control are contact condensers and surface condensers. the gas contacts a cooled surface in which cooled liquid or gas is circulated. . and incinerators to reduce the total gas volume to be treated by more expensive control equipment. Removal efficiencies of condensers typically range from 50 percent to more than 95 percent. They can be used ahead of absorbers. depending on design and applications. Condensers are typically used as pretreatment devices. absorbers. In a contact condenser.
reference sound intensity (W/m2) (3) Sound Pressure Level The Sound Pressure is the force (N) of sound on a surface area (m2) perpendicular to the direction of the sound.in a logarithmic scale named Sound Power Level . named after Alexander Graham Bell. about 140dB. and bel. meaning one-tenth. Sound Power Level Sound power is the energy rate . The Sound Pressure Level: Lp = 10 log( p2 / pref2 ) = 10 log( p / pref )2 = 20 log ( p / pref ) where (4) . 170 dB. W in SI-units) from a sound source. the inventor of the telephone.Lw: Lw = 10 log ( N / N o ) where Lw = Sound Power Level in Decibel (dB) N = sound power (W) (2) y y The lowest sound level that people of excellent hearing can discern has an acoustic sound power about 10-12W. The Sound Intensity Level can be expressed as: LI = 10 log( I / I ref ) where LI = sound intensity level (dB) I = sound intensity (W/m2) Iref = 10-12 . or its abbreviation dB is a measurement of loudness that ranges from the threshold of hearing. a decibel is actually one-tenth of a unit of sound measurement known as a bel.10-12 W . 0 dB The loudest sound generally encountered is that of a jet aircraft with a sound power of 105 W.the energy of sound per unit of time (J/s. The SI-units for Sound Intensity are W/m2.Definition of decibel Definition: A decibel. Sound Intensity Sound Intensity is the Acoustic or Sound Power (W) per unit area. So. The term decibel is actually two words: deci. Sound power can more practically be expressed as a relation to the threshold of hearing . 0dB to the threshold of pain. The SI-units for the Sound Pressure are N/m2 or Pa. which is why the 'B' is always written in upper case as in dB.
equipment.1 watts . The decision on a metric and measurement method would depend on the application.000.reference sound pressure (Pa) y If the pressure is doubled. noise seepage etc must be examined in view of the measurement objective.000. pitch and fluctuation strength. the sound pressure level is increased with 6 dB (20 log (2)) NOISE & NOISE MEASUREMENT How To Measure Noise: Sound Level Meter The softest sound heard by the human ear is 0. power cables. some being isolated source emission. etc. y Tools -keep a list of necessary apparatus including batteries. timers. With reference to sound.000. handy and do a dry run with the equipment prior to actual measurement. conditions in which it spreads and the strength of the noise to inflict hurt . transceivers.Lp = sound pressure level (dB) p = sound pressure (Pa) pref = 2 10-5 .000. the need is to reduce or remove noise.1 watts and the most piercing is 0.000.000. Frequently used tools are the sound level meter (SLM) for noise levels caused by a discrete source and noise surveys. Measures of noise would include sound pressure magnitude and frequency content. Understanding the measure of the problem (does it exist?) is the initial step and will provide a guide to actioning on it (determining noise exposure levels etc). or 1010 . tripods. Measuring for compliance to a statutory standard would be different from that intended for comfort. etc. Step 3 Requirements for measurement. operation and interpreting readings. outside environmental noise.000. the noise dosimeter for personal noise exposure and the integrating sound level meter (ISLM). .000. the regularity and span. Step 1 Why measure? Since noise interferes with meaningful communication. The user's manual will provide details on calibration. Noise is said to be measured when its characteristics are quantified. Step 2 Steps to measure noise.a scale of 10. interior room noise. hearing conservation. noise can be said to be unwanted higher volume sound with no meaning and usually obstructive of communication. communication process. y y y Determine sound measurement items like a sound pressure level for comparison against a reference value and the noise for frequency analysis Determine the nature & origins of the noise. procedure and points of measurement. These tips will help you learn about noise levels and how to do sound measurement.000. loudness.Also identify any other peripheral noises While planning.
y y Documents & records. measurement range. etc A team which is well informed on the plan and prepared with necessary tools . maps. etc to facilitate measurement points and records of weather conditions.have papers on site details.
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