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Held at Protea Ryalls Hotel, Blantyre, Malawi 20-23 February, 2006.

Prepared by: Kenneth J Gondwe The Polytechnic Mechanical Engineering Department Private Bag 303 Chichiri Blantyre3 MALAWI Email:

LIST OF CONTENTS Acronyms and abbreviations Executive summary 1. Introduction 1.1 1.2 2. Background Objectives of the workshop ii iv 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6 7 8 List of participants Workshop evaluation 8 10

Workshop Contents 2.1 The Workshop outline


Workshop Achievements/Conclusions 3.1 3.2 3.3 Attendance Material overage Workshop evaluation

4. 5.

Way Forward Appendices Appendix 1. Appendix 2.

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS APINA BKB BFG CD CH4 CO CO2 CORINAIR COG E EF EMEP FAOSTAT GWG IEA IISI IPCC LPG NGL NH3 NMVOC NOx O3 PM PM2.5 PM10 RFO SAFARI SADC SEI-Y SO2 Air Pollution Information Network for Africa Brown coal briquettes Blast furnace gas Compact disc Methane Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Core Inventory of Air Emissions (Environment) Coke oven gas Emission Emission factor European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization on line database Gas works gas International Energy Agency International Iron and Steel Institute Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Liquefied Petroleum Gas Natural gas liquids Ammonia Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds Nitrogen oxides Ozone Particulate matter An air pollutant consisting of small particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 2.5 microns An air pollutant consisting of small particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 microns Residual fuel oil (also called Heavy Fuel Oil) Southern African Regional Science Initiative Southern African Development Community Stockholm Environment Institute in York Sulphur dioxide ii


Sulphur oxides Task team leader Task team member United Nations United States Environment Protection Agencys Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors United States Geological Survey


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A four-day training workshop on emissions inventory compilation, based on the Air Pollution Information Network for Africa (APINA) Emissions Inventory Manual was held at Protea Ryalls Hotel in Blantyre, Malawi. The workshop participants were from South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania. This was one of the APINA Phase III activities. The workshop covered the following areas: Introduction to emissions inventories; The basics of emissions inventories; General steps in inventory compilation; Approaches to inventory compilation; Types of emission sources; Pollutants covered in the manual; Source sectoral structure of the manual and workbook; Sources of data; Structure of the workbook and Practical sessions on inventory compilation. The workshop achieved its set objectives. All the seven APINA countries attended the workshop. A total of 14 participants were trained, against a target of 10 in the project document. The course materials that included hard copies of the manual and compact discs (CDs) were given to all participants. The budgetary targets were met. The participants were pleased with the quality of organisation of the workshop and the course content. In terms of the way forward, participants agreed to compile their draft national inventories based on year 2000. It was also noted during the training that the Excel spreadsheet and the manual needed to be updated by the lead trainer. These activities were expected to be accomplished before the next training workshop scheduled for September 2006.


1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background The APINA Phase III activities aim to enhance the technical capacity of APINA members in air pollution assessment in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. One of the objectives during this Phase is to ensure that capacity to prepare emissions inventories is developed. Two main activities were proposed, during the first year namely, to train the Task Team Leader (TTL) at the Stockholm Environmental Institute in York (SEI-Y) and organize a training workshop in Malawi for Task Team Members (TTMs) from the seven participating countries. A practical-oriented training workshop was organized at Protea Ryalls Hotel in Blantyre, drawing participants from South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania. The workshop was coordinated by the TTL and facilitated by Mr Harry Vallack from SEI-Y. Mr Grey Munthali, Deputy Director of the Department of Meteorological Services, officially opened the workshop. The workshop report covers the main highlights achieved during the 4-day workshop. 1.2. Objectives of the workshop The main objectives of the training workshop were to train the APINA Emissions Inventory Task Team Members in the use of the revised APINA Emissions Manual, covering all aspects of the methodology for compilation of emissions inventories including: The emission source structure of the manual. The characteristics and major emission sources of the pollutants to be inventoried. Top-down versus bottom up approaches. International databases for the activity data. 2. WORKSHOP CONTENTS 2.1. The workshop outline Part 1: The air pollution problem and the need for emission inventories Emissions, whether at household, urban, peri-urban or regional level, cause multiple environmental problems which include impacts on human and animal health, crops, ecosystems and materials. Compilation of emissions inventories provides valuable data for modelling on movement, deposition of air pollutants and for estimating the effects of air pollutants. The 1

inventories also inform the policy makers and the public on how to prioritise and set objectives for reducing emissions; and to develop current and future mitigation strategies by source. The major emissions and/or precursors included in the APINA emissions inventory manual are sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs).

Figure 1 shows the air pollution cycle that is made up of emissions, transport, deposition and impacts of the air pollutants.

Figure 1: Impacts of air pollution on the environment. Part 2: The basics of emissions inventory compilation The air pollutant emissions inventory, whether natural or anthropogenic, computes a detailed account of the type and quantity of pollutant by source, area and time. The sources could be large or many small sources. The inventory compilation process is complex hence it requires careful and methodical planning and preparations to ensure quality data collection, accurate and timely computation and quality control/ assurance. The APINA emissions inventory manual has benefited from the best available methodologies such as those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/Core Inventory of Air Emissions (EMEP/ CORINAIR), United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA AP-42) and southern Africa regional studies such as the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000. Depending on the availability of data, both bottom-up and top-down approaches could be used.

The APINA manual covers the following sectors: energy, industrial processes, agriculture, vegetation fires and forestry, waste, natural sources and large point sources. Useful international sources of data were covered such as the International Energy Agency (IEA) Energy Statistics and Balances, United Nations (UN) Industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook and the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation online database (FAOSTAT). Participants were also encouraged to use regional sources and data from credible institutions such as SAFARI 2000, national statistical offices, etc. The final part of the presentation covered various aspects of units, prefixes and conversion of units of activity data and emission factors used in the inventory preparation, noting that not all institutions use or apply SI units in the same way. Part 3: Compiling emissions by sector: The energy sources The presentation addressed the following issues: General approach based on: Emission (E)= Emission Factor (EF) x Activity rate Where local EFs are not available, default EFs from USEPA AP-42, IPCC or EMEP/CORINAIR could be used. Emissions from combustion activities. Fuel categories and sources as shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Table 1: Fuel categories

Table 2:

Source sectors

Participants then practiced how to navigate through the worksheet, and did practical exercises based on dummy data.

Part 4: Compiling emissions for the industrial processes sector All non-combustion industrial emissions arising from chemical or physical processes fall under the industrial processes sector. Mineral products. The Chemical Industry. Metals production. The Pulp and Paper Industries. Alcoholic beverages production. Food production. Fugitive emission of particulate matter from major building construction activities. Activity data by year by country could be found in international sources such as: United Nations Industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbooks United States Geological Survey (USGS) (for metals and minerals) International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI) Steel Statistical Yearbook (for pig iron production) Food and Agriculture Organisations on4

line database (FAOSTAT) for production of pulp and paper and fertilizers. Participants then did some practical work using dummy data. Part 5: Compiling emissions for solvents and other product use This source category is not of significance to most countries in Africa. The use of solvents and other products (paints, varnishes, glues) can be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions. Major sources are: Paint application (solvent based). Paint application (water based). Metal degreasing. Dry cleaning of fabrics. Chemical products manufacture. Other uses of solvents. Various subcategories and their respective default emission factors were presented. Part 6: Compiling emissions from agriculture Agriculture is a major economic sector in all the APINA countries. Several types of agricultural practices emit pollutants relevant to: Treatment of livestock manures. Application of fertilizers. Burning of savannas. Burning of agricultural residues.

The first two are sources of ammonia (NH3) emissions; the last two emit a range of air pollutants NOx, sulphur oxides (SOx), CO, NMVOCs, NH3, and particulate matter (PM). Part 7: Compiling emissions from vegetation fires and forestry This forms one of the important sectors for the APINA countries as its impacts are transboundary in nature. Forest fires have been traditionally used for many years in such practices as hunting, opening up of new farm lands and clearing of grazing lands and for forestry management. Further, forest fires may also be caused accidentally by man or naturally by lighting. Emissions included in this sector are CO, NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2), NMVOCs and PM. Part 8: Emissions from treatment and disposal of wastes This presentation covered municipal/commercial/industrial solid emissions arising waste disposal through from waste 5

incineration and ammonia emissions from pit latrines. The emissions included were SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOCs, NH3, and PM. Emissions from landfills, and sewage treatment are mostly methane (CH4)/carbon dioxide (CO2). These are not included in the APINA manual. Part 9: Compiling emissions from large point sources Large point sources were discussed but it was agreed that detailed coverage of the sector should be covered in the next training session. Part 10: Practical sessions in inventory compilation Dummy data was provided to help participants practise working with the Excel spreadsheet. The practical sessions also gave to the participants the opportunity to interact with the trainer and the TTL. This helped to highlight some areas which still required to be simplified, debugged, changed, added or whose default emission factors required further verification. 3. WORKSHOP ACHIEVEMENTS/ CONCLUSIONS 3.1. Attendance All the seven APINA countries attended the workshop. Two participants were invited from each country, and all came with the exception of South Africa, which was only able to send one participant. In addition, Malawi was able to accommodate a self-sponsored additional member from the University of Malawi. Thus a total of 14 participants were trained, against a target of 10 in the project document (see Appendix 1 for list of participants). The quality of participants was very good as evidenced by their active level of participation and contribution to the improvement of the APINA Manual. 3.2. Material coverage All participants received a hard copy of the manual and handouts, in addition to a CD containing all the presentations, practical sessions and the manual. Some materials were also sent to the TTM from South Africa who was unable to attend the workshop. 3.3. Workshop evaluation An evaluation form was designed to get the perceptions of the participants on workshop organisation and quality of the work covered. A copy of the evaluation form is attached as Appendix 2. The overall workshop evaluation score was 4.7 against a maximum of 5.

4. WAY FORWARD Participants agreed to start working on the national inventories based on year 2000. Participants agreed to network and share information before the next training session. The lead trainer would update the APINA manual ready for the next training session.

Appendix 1. List of Participants of the Emissions Inventory Workshop, Ryalls Hotel, Blantyre
Kuvare Venjonoka Air Pollution Control Division, National Environmental Laboratory, P. Bag BR 132, Gaborone, Botswana. P O Box 1342 Mochudi Botswana The Polytechnic, Mechanical Engineering Department P. Bag 303, Chichiri, BT3, Malawi Department of Energy, P/Bag 309, Lilongwe 3, Malawi University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Zomba, Malawi Eduardo Mondlane University, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 257, Maputo, Mozambique Ministry for Coordination of Environmental Affairs, Acordos of Lusaka, Box 2020, Micoa, Maputo, Mozambique Environment and Tourism Department, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, Box 15, Edenvale 1610, South Africa Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, P O Box 35131 Dare s Salaam, Tanzania Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, P O Box 35131 Dare s Salaam, Tanzania Zambia Meteorological Department, P.O. Box 39186, Lusaka, Zambia Copperbelt University Jambo Drive, Riverside, Box 21692, Kitwe Scientific and Industrial Research and Development Centre P O Box 6640 Harare Botswana

Kgotso C. Sebeke Kenneth J. Gondwe (TTL/ Local organiser)



Lewis B. Mhango


Maurice Monjerezi Amino U. Naran


mmonjerezi@chanco.unima.m w


Flix Guimares Paipe


Thandi Radebe

South Africa

Jamidu Katima


Godwill Mrema

Tanzania or

Joseph Kanyanga Henry Mulenga




Caroline Maredza

Godfrey Dombo

University of Zimbabwe Dept of Metallurgical Eng.P.O. Box P167Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe.


Harry Vallack (Trainer/ Facilitator)

Stockholm Environmental Institute, University of York, Sally Building Block D, York YO10 5DD

United Kingdom

Appendix 2. Workshop Evaluation Form and Summary of Results

Please fill in the workshop evaluation form to enable the APINA Secretariat improve the delivery of similar programmes in the future. The ratings are 1 to 5. 1 = unsatisfactory, 5 =Very good. Evaluator: CUMMULATIVE AVERAGE SCORE What is being evaluated? RANGE OF SCORE 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pre-workshop communication, arrangements, etc Travel arrangements Airport arrangements Workshop materials Depth of coverage Delivery methodology Workshop duration Workshop/conference venue Meals and accommodation 5 4.9 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.5 5 5 5 4.8 2 3 4 5 Overall Average 4.7 5

10 Administrative arrangements 11 Overall workshop rating