Examinatio n WBC

Normal Values 5,00010,000/cu.m m

Findings 14

Analysis Low white cell counts are associated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, leukemia (as malignant cells overwhelm the bone marrow), myelofibrosis and aplastic anemia (failure of white and red cell creation, along with poor platelet production). In addition, many common medications can cause leukopenia (see below). HIV and AIDS are also a threat to white cells. Other causes of low white blood cell count include: Influenza, systemic lupus erythematosus, Hodgkin's lymphoma, some types of cancer, typhoid, malaria, tuberculosis, dengu e, Rickettsial infections, enlargement of the spleen, folate deficiencies, psittacosis and s epsis. Many other causes exist, such as a deficiency in certain minerals such as copper and zinc.


14-18 g/dL


Blood loss and bone marrow suppression reduce total RBC count and therefore lower total hemoglobin content. Hemoglobin levels are also lowered in patients who have abnormal types of hemoglobin or hemoglobinopathies. Red blood cells with abnormal types of hemoglobin are often fragile and damaged or destroyed easily in the vascular system. Hemoglobin electrophoresis can distinguish among specific types of abnormal hemoglobin. Normal Normal Normal

Hct Platelet Na

39-54% 150,000450,000 135-145

48% 200,000 136

in postrenal obstruction of urine flow. etc. licorice.3 Decrease in serum potassium is seen usually in states characterized by excess K+ loss.K mEq/L 3. diarrhea. in states characterized by decreased effective circulating blood volume with decreased renal perfusion. Normal Normal Serum urea nitrogen (BUN) is increased in acute and chronic intrinsic renal disease. hypercorticoidism. and familial periodic paralysis. Cl Glucose BUN 90-110 mEq/L 70-115 mg/dL 10-20 mg/dL 90 78 50 Creatinine 70-120 umol/L 1. the creatinine clearance is significantly reduced before any rise in serum creatinine occurs. Because of its insensitivity in detecting early renal failure. certain renal tubular defects. Drugs causing hypokalemia include amphotericin. decreased . salicylates. such as in vomiting. carbenicillin. and ticarcillin. carbenoxolone. Redistribution hypokalemia is seen in glucose/insulin therapy. villous adenoma of the colorectum. The renal impairment may be due to intrinsic renal lesions.5-5 mEq/L 3. alkalosis (where serum K+ is lost into cells and into urine). corticosteroids. and in high protein intake states.6 Increase in serum creatinine is seen any renal functional impairment. diuretics.

2 10-40 units/liter 1. Normal Increase of aspartate aminotransferase (AST.8–1. formerly called "SGOT") is seen in any condition involving necrosis of hepatocytes. formerly called "SGPT") is seen in any condition involving necrosis of hepatocytes. or skeletal muscle GGT 0-51 IU/L 55 cells. or obstruction of the lower urinary INR AST 0.. myotonic dystrophy. myocardial cells. osteomalacia. primary and metastatic . hyperthyroidism. including parenchymatous liver diseases with a major cholestatic component (e. and after renal allograft. Lesser elevations of gamma-GT are seen in other liver diseases. cholestatic hepatitis).2 60 tract.g. Drugs causing hepatocellular damage and cholestasis may also cause gamma-GT ALP 32-110 U/L 140 elevation Increased serum alkaline phosphatase is seen in states of increased osteoblastic activity (hyperparathyroidism. Gamma-glutamyltransferase is markedly increased in lesions which cause intrahepatic or extrahepatic obstruction of bile ducts. erythrocytes. myocardial cells.perfusion of the kidney. and in infectious mononucleosis. or skeletal ALT 7-30 units/liter 40 muscle cells. Increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT.

Normal Normal . Isoenzyme determination may help determine the organ/tissue responsible for an alkaline phosphatase Lipase Amylase 10 . and thyrotoxicosis. chronic inflammatory bowel disease. hepatobiliary diseases characterized by some degree of intraor extrahepatic cholestasis. and in sepsis.neoplasms).140 U/L 53-123 units/liter 60 60 elevation.

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