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Society for Military History
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Society for Military History is an United States-based international organization of scholars who research, write and teach military history of all time periods and places. It includes Naval history, air power history and studies of technology, ideas, and homefronts. It publishes the quarterly refereed journal titled The Journal of Military History. An annual meeting is held every year. Recent meetings have been held in Frederick, Maryland, from April 19-22, 2007; Ogden, Utah, from April 1719, 2008; Murfreesboro, Tennessee 2-5 April 2009 and Lexington, Virginia 20-23 May 2010. The society was established in 1933 as the American Military History Foundation, renamed in 1939 the American Military Institute, and renamed again in 1990 as the Society for Military History. It has over 2,300 members including many prominent scholars, soldiers, and citizens interested in military history. Membership is open to anyone and includes a subscription to the journal. Officers Officers (2009-2010) are: • President Dr. Brian M. Linn • Vice President Dr. Joseph T. Glatthaar • Executive Director Dr. Robert H. Berlin • Treasurer Dr. Graham A. Cosmas • Journal Editor Dr. Bruce Vandervort • Journal Managing Editors James R. Arnold and Roberta Wiener • Recording Secretary & Photographer Thomas Morgan • Webmaster & Newsletter Editor Dr. Kurt Hackemer • Archivist Paul A. Thomsen • Board of Trustees: John F. Guilmartin, Jr., Reina Pennington, Brian Holden Reid, Jennifer Speelman, James Willbanks, Mitchell Yockelson, Tami Biddle, Sebastian Cox, Kelly DeVries, David W. Hogan, Gregory Urwin, Kathleen Broome Williams Former Presidents • Dennis Showalter • Carol Reardon Prizes The Samuel Eliot Morison Prize recognizes not any one specific achievement, but a body of contributions in the field of military history, stretching over time and showing a range of scholarly work contributing significantly to the field. Recent winners include: • Peter Maslowski, 2010 • Richard Kohn, 2009 • Jeremy Black, 2008 • James McPherson, 2007 • Robert Doughty, 2006 • Dennis Showalter, 2005 • Allan R. Millett, 2004 • Edward J. Drea, 2003 • John Shy, 2002 • Richard Overy, 2001 • David M. Glantz, 2000 • Geoffrey N. Parker, 1999 • Stephen E. Ambrose, 1998 • Robert M. Utley, 1997 • John Keegan, 1996 • Martin Blumenson, 1995 Distinguished Book Awards The Society's Distinguished Book Awards recognize the best books written in English on military history, broadly conceived. 2010 • Daniel E. Sutherland, A Savage Conflict: The Decisive Role of Guerrillas in the American Civil War • Edward J. Drea, Japan’s Imperial Army: Its Rise and Fall, 1853-1945
• J.P. Harris, Douglas Haig and the First World War • Spencer C. Tucker, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars 2009 • Ingo Trauschweizer, The Cold War U.S. Army: Building Deterrence for Limited War. • Jamel Ostwald, Vauban Under Siege: Engineering Efficiency and Martial Vigor in the War of the Spanish Succession. • Andy Wiest, Vietnam's Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN. • Philip Sabin, Hans van Wees, and Michael Whitby, ed. The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare. 2008 • Jon Latimer, 1812: War with America • John Lawrence Tone, War and Genocide in Cuba, 1895-1898 • Martha Hannah, Your Death Would Be Mine: Paul and Marie Pireaud in the Great War. • Spencer C. Tucker, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Cold War: A Political, Social and Military History 2007 • John Grenier, The First Way of War: American War Making on the Frontier, 1607-1814. • Robert A. Doughty, Pyrrhic Victory: French Strategy and Operations in the Great War. • Adrian Goldsworthy, Caesar: Life of a Colossus. • Peter Karsten, ed. Encyclopedia of War and American Society. 3 vols. 2006 • H. P. Willmott, The Battle of Leyte Gulf: The Last Fleet Action • George Satterfield, Princes, Posts and Partisans: The Army of Louis XIV and Partisan Warfare in the Netherlands (1673-1678) • Steven E. Woodworth and Kenneth J. Winkle, Atlas of the Civil War • Colin White, ed., Horatio Nelson, The New Letters 2005 • Edward M. Coffman, The Regulars: The American Army, 1898-1941 • Robert M. Citino, Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm: The Evolution of Operational Warfare • James T. Controvich, United States Army Unit and Organizational Histories: A Bibliography 2004 • George C. Rable, Fredericksburg! Fredericksburg! • Terry Copp, Fields of Fire: The Canadians in Normandy • Joshua Brown, ed., A Good Idea of Hell: Letters from a Chasseur a Pied • Michael J. Crawford, ed., The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History: Volume III 1814-1815 2003 • Rick Atkinson, An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942-1943 • Hew Strachan, The First World War. Volume I: To Arms • Stuart Hills, By Tank Into Normandy: A Memoir of the Campaign in North-West Europe From D-Day to VE Day • David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, eds., Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political and Military History (3 vol) 2002 • Mark Stoler, Allies and Adversaries: The Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Grand Alliances, and U.S. Strategy in World War II • Ronald H. Spector, At War At Sea: Sailors and Naval Combat in the Twentieth Century • Robert H. Ferrell, editor, for William S. Triplet, A Youth in the Meuse-Argonne, A Colonel in the Armored Divisions, and In the Philippines and Okinawa Military history • • Military history of the United States • Naval history External links SMH website
United States Army Center of Military History
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
July 1943–present Active United States Army Branch Historical Research Role The Center is a Directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. Part of Collins Hall; Fort McNair Headquarters www.history.army.mil Website The United States Army Center of Military History is a Directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. The Center is responsible for the appropriate use of history throughout the United States Army. Traditionally, this mission has meant recording the official history of the Army in both peace and war, while advising the Army Staff on historical matters. Mission The Center traces its lineage back to historians under the Secretary of War who compiled the Official Records of the Rebellion, a monumental history of the Civil War begun in 1874, and to a similar work on World War I prepared by the Historical Section of the Army War College. The modern organization of the Army's historical efforts dates from the creation of the General Staff historical branch in July 1943 and the subsequent gathering of a large team of historians, translators, editors, and cartographers to record the official history of World War II. This team began publication of the United States Army in World War II series (the well-known "green books"), which numbers 79 volumes. Since then, the Center has produced detailed series on the Army's role in the Korean and Vietnam Wars and has begun a series on the U.S. Army in the Cold War. These works, supplemented by hundreds of monographs and other publications on a rich mix of topics, have made the Center one of the major publishers of military history in the world. Since its formation, the Center has provided historical support to the Army Secretariat and Staff, contributing essential background information for decision making, staff actions, command information programs, and public statements by Army officials. Over the decades it also has progressively expanded its role in the vital areas of military history education, the management of the Army's museum system, and the introduction of automated data-retrieval systems. The Center's work with Army schools ensures that the study of history is a significant part of the training of officers and noncommissioned officers. It also supports the use of history to foster unit pride and give today's soldiers an understanding of the Army's past. Much of this educational work is also performed at field historical offices and in Army museums. The Center thus provides all levels of the Army, as well as other services, government agencies, and the public, with a growing awareness of history that goes well beyond publications alone. Historical activities Under the direction of the Chief of Military history and his principal adviser, the Army’s Chief Historian, CMH’s staff is involved in some 50 major writing projects. Many of these efforts involve new research that ranges from traditional studies in operational and administrative history to the examination of such areas as procurement, peacekeeping, and the global war on terror. Those works under way and projected are described in the Army Historical Program, an annual report to the Chief of Staff on the Army’s historical activities. All Center publications currently in print are listed in the catalog Publications of the United States Army Center of Military History, which explains how to access them. Many publications also appear on the Center’s Web site. In addition, Army historians maintain the organizational history of Army units, allowing the Center to provide units of the Regular Army, the Army National Guard, and the Army Reserve with certificates of their lineage and honors and other historical material concerning their organizations. The Center also determines the official designations for Army units and works with the Army Staff during force reorganizations to preserve units with significant histories, as well as unit properties and related historical artifacts. Underscoring the importance of oral history to an understanding of the past, CMH serves as a clearinghouse for the oral history programs in the Army at all levels of command. It also conducts and preserves its own oral history collections, including those from the Vietnam War, Desert Storm, and the many recent contingency operations. In addition, the Center’s end-of-tour interviews within the Army Secretariat and Staff provide a basis for its annual histories of the Department of the Army. As tangible representations of the service’s mission, military artifacts and art enhance the soldier’s understanding of the profession of arms. CMH manages a system of more than 120 Army museums and their holdings, encompassing some 450,000 artifacts and 15,000 works of military art. The Center also provides professional museum training, staff assistance visits, teams of combat artists such as those deployed under the Vietnam Combat Artists Program, and general museum support throughout the Army. Current projects include the establishment of a National Army Museum at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and a complementary Army Heritage and Educational Center at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. The Chief of Military History is responsible for ensuring the appropriate use of military history in the teaching of strategy, tactics, logistics, and administration. This mission includes a requirement that military leaders at all levels be aware of the value of history in advancing military professionalism. To that end, the Center holds a biennial history
conference and workshop; publishes Army History, a professional bulletin devoted to informing the larger military history education community; and supplies readings for the Army school system, including the ROTC community, and texts and other support for the Army’s staff ride program. In this effort, the Chief of Military History is assisted by a historical advisory committee that includes leading academic historians and representatives of the Army school system. Staff rides enable military leaders to retrace the course of a battle on the ground, deepening their understanding of the recurring fundamentals of military operations. As one of the Army’s major teaching devices, staff rides are particularly dependent on a careful knowledge of military history. Center historians lead rides directed by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff and attended by senior members of the Army Staff. The responsibilities of the Chief of Military History have also thrust the Center into the national and international historical arena. It administers the Army’s far-flung Command History Program, to provide historical support to Army organizations worldwide. In addition, since the first Persian Gulf War, the Center has coordinated the deployment of military history detachments and the collection of historical data during peacekeeping and wartime operations, including those in northern Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Fellowships and publications To stimulate interest in military history in the Army and the nation, CMH sponsors professional programs. • Fellowships: To encourage and support dissertations in military history by graduate students, the Center offers up to four dissertation fellowships each academic year. These fellowships carry a $9,000 stipend and access to the Center’s facilities and expertise. Although the fellowship program broadly defines the history of war on land, it selects winners with a preference for topics on the history of the U.S. Army. Inquiries should be addressed to the Chief Historian. • Publications: The Center is particularly interested in projects of contemporary interest, such as expeditionary combat, multinational peacekeeping, NATO enlargement, humanitarian relief, nation-building, noncombatant evacuation, antiterrorism, and the management of change. In these areas the Center is able to facilitate research, provide graphics and editorial support, and carry manuscripts through to publication. Historical services to the public CMH’s art and documents collections, library, and reference services are available to private researchers. Official priorities permitting, its historians, curators, and archivists advise researchers on military history and stand ready to share their expertise concerning the location of sources. The Collections Branch of the Museum Division arranges temporary loans of paintings and drawings from the Army Art Collection to private organizations that agree to display the art publicly in accordance with Army regulations. The Army’s museums and historical holdings throughout the country and abroad are open to the public, and their curators are available to answer reference questions. Inquiries about these programs and services should be addressed to CMH’s Executive Officer.
HISTORICAL RESOURCES BRANCH
U.S. ARMY CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY
The US Army Center of Military History's Historical Resources Branch manages the reference facilities needed to support the Center's professional staff in carrying out their official responsibilities. It is internally organized into a small technical library, an archival collection, and the facilities to support the Center's home page. Materials held by the branch are also available to outside researchers, including the general public, during normal business hours (8:00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M. Monday through Thursday and 8:00 to noon on Fridays). Limited reproduction facilities are available to visiting researchers at a charge of $.15 (fifteen cents) per page, payable by check made out to the United States Treasury. Because of the fragile nature of the documents in the collection and limited staffing, Historical Resources Branch does not provide copying of requested documents exceeding twenty pages for requests received via mail, e-mail, or telephone. The branch's secondary mission is to serve as the Center's institutional memory. It performs this function by acting as a central access point to the broader array of archival collections and libraries around the world and maintaining coordination with those other repositories. This mission derives from the pre-World War II support function performed by the Historical Division of the Army War College. The branch's goal is to be able to direct a researcher to the actual location of the records or other information, and to be able to provide the researcher with specific guidance on how to phrase his or her request so that the librarian or archivist in possession of the material can correctly furnish the information or retrieve the records with minimal difficulty.
The Center's library is not a full-service library and does not circulate its materials. Within the Army historical system, that function is performed by the US Army Military History Institute at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. Instead, the Center maintains a focused holding of over 57,000 items designed to support the Center's long-term writing projects and a set of basic references. The collection operates on an open-stack system and has ample work station facilities for the convenience of its patrons. The library's strongest holdings are built around the subjects of the Center's major series of published works: World War II; the Korean War; the Vietnam War; and it is in the process of assembling the resources needed to support work on the forthcoming series of volumes on the Cold War. Current acquisitions strategy calls for strengthening holdings of the basic references and narrative histories for other periods of the US Army's history such as the Civil War (to support the Army's staff ride program) and acquiring volumes on Islam and the Middle East to support the writing of information papers and monographs to support the Army Staff. The library has a number of particular strengths. It houses a virtually complete set of the published Annual Reports of the Secretary of War/Secretary of the Army. It has a complete set of War Department/Department of the Army General Orders. These General Order, Bulletins and Circulars have been digitized with the eventual goal of making it available to outside
researchers electronically via the CMH website. The library has a complete set of published station lists. It maintains an extensive collection of post-1940 published Army Regulations, field manuals, Department of the Army pamphlets, and technical manuals. It also has a very complete collection of published Army Registers and other standard biographical directories. Many unit histories are included in the library's holdings, although the largest collection of such materials is found at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, in the US Army Military History Institute. The periodical literature holdings of the library are focused particularly on Army professional journals. Bound volumes of these journals are gradually being replaced with complete runs on microfilm.
The branch is authorized to hold only a limited array of original materials under the Army's records management system. By Public Law most of the records created by the United States Army pass through a retirement process and are turned over to the National Archives and Records Administration for permanent retention. Personal papers of individual soldiers (privates to generals), as opposed to the official records of Army units or other organizations, by current regulation are normally deposited at the US Army Military History Institute at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, or at other repositories (which can be identified through the National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections). The subject areas of original materials authorized for retention by the branch are: annual command histories submitted to the Center under the provisions of Army Regulation (AR) 870-5; monographic treatments and studies compiled by the Center's historians or other historical offices; and source materials compiled by field historians and Military History Detachments in combat and contingency operations. These items all are maintained at the Center to support ongoing writing and research projects and are transferred to the custody of the National Archives and Records Administration when no longer needed by the Center. The Center's archival holdings are organized into a series of discrete collections. Most of them are arranged in accordance with the War Department Decimal File system (the Army's correspondence filing procedure in effect during World War II and the Korean War). Copies of the guide to the organization of that filing system are available for visiting researchers. An extensive card index provides cross-referencing capabilities; a number of additional finding aids have been compiled for various components of the collections. The branch has embarked on a program to create an electronic search capability using dedicated work stations for researchers located in both the archives and library, with the added feature of posting those finding aids on the Center's home page. The heart of the branch's holding is the Historical Research Collection (HRC) which consists of many of the original files created by the Historical Branch of the Army War College and supplemental materials added after the establishment of the Center. By arrangement with the National Archives, this collection (HRC1) closed in 1984 and the branch created a second collection, Historical Research Collection II (HRC2), to cover more recent materials. These two blocks of files contain many important background materials, especially strong on World War II. Other strengths include the official biographies and lists of assignments of Regular Army general officers since 1940; general reference files on permanent Army posts, camps and stations; and copies of each of the Standard Form 135 (SF 135) used by the Center to retire materials to the National Archives. The second major holding is the Historical Manuscripts Collection (HMC). This consists of the manuscript narrative histories compiled by the Center or by various field historical offices and subsequently transferred to the Center for use in writing the volumes of the Official History of the US Army. Most of these studies are unpublished and they tend to focus, naturally, on subjects related to World War II or more recent periods. A few remain classified, and some have been retired to the National Archives. Strengths of this collection include a wide variety of topics from World War II; the various organizations and reorganizations of the War Department or Department of the Army staff; and topics from the Cold War era. A significant piece of this collection is the entire body of material generated during the Korean War by the deployed combat historians including verbatim oral history transcripts and other supporting original documents, maps and photographs. Like the Historical Research Collection (HRC), the basic collection (HMC1) was closed in 1984 by arrangement with the National Archives, and Historical Manuscripts Collection II (HMC2) started to continue the organization of materials. HMC1 is currently being digitized with the eventual goal of making it available to outside researchers electronically via the CMH website. The Office of the Chief of Military History Collection (OCMH) consists of unpublished manuscripts prepared by historians within the Center of Military History (previously known as the Office of the Chief of Military History). The third major holding is the Annual Historical Report (AHR) collection. Beginning in the 1960s the Army's history regulation required all units and major headquarters or comparable organizations to compile a basic history and to prepare annual supplements which were to be forwarded to the Center. In the 1970s the regulation was modified to require only the more significant headquarters--Major Commands (MACOMs) and equivalent division-sized organizations--to submit such histories to the Center. The major commands were encouraged to have their subordinate organizations continue to prepare such histories, but were no longer required to forward them to the Center. The branch maintains the largest single collection of annual command histories, arranged by organization, but it does not have a complete set. Individual researchers should also consult the US Army Military History Institute (MHI) at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, or the various historical offices throughout the Army to determine the physical location of any specific history. The Center's holding of lesser organizations' annual histories prepared during the 1960s and early 1970s was transferred to MHI in 1975. The Oral History collection consists of several discrete sub-collections of oral history interviews collected by military historians since 1965. The Vietnam Interview (VNI) and Vietnam Interview Tape (VNIT) collections consist of original primary source materials assembled during the Vietnam War by combat historians. The former consists of several hundred narrative reports based primarily on data collected through the oral history process; the latter consists of over 1,000 audio tapes. Both collections are most extensive for the period 1967-1970. Researchers may make arrangements with the Center's Oral History Activity to listen to the tapes. The archive also has the following collections of taped interviews conducted by historians for combat and contingency operations: Operation JUST CAUSE (Panama, 1990), Operation DESERT STORM (Kuwait, 1990), Operation RESTORE HOPE (Somalia, 1993), and interviews with Korean War veterans of the 24 th Infantry Regiment that were done in support of the CMH book Black Soldier/White Army. The branch also has several specialized permanent collections, some of which are quite extensive. The Gulf War Collection (GWC) is focused on Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM (1990-1991). It consists of a limited array of
original materials, some monographic studies, and copies of other reports and documents forwarded to the Center. The Contingency Operations Collection (COC) is composed of similar materials generated during various recent contingency operations including JUST CAUSE (Panama, 1989-1990) and RESTORE HOPE (Somalia, 1992-1993), the Hurricane Andrew relief effort (1992), and Operation NOBLE EAGLE (attack on the Pentagon and World Trade Towers). Other, smaller, collections cover the Holocaust, and various collections of papers deposited at the Center for the convenience of official historians, mostly dealing with the Vietnam War or activities of the Army Staff. Each of these collections is, by its very nature, a work in progress and new materials are constantly arriving. The Army Nurse Corps Collection (ANC)New ANC link is:http://history.amedd.army.mil/ANCWebsite/anchhome.html. focused on that particular branch's history and was formerly held at the Center of Military History. It was transferred to the custody of The Surgeon General’s History Office when that office was re-established in 2001. The Historical Resources Branch also provides a limited amount of support to selected elements of the Army Staff or deployed units. This advisory function does enable the branch to maintain reasonably current knowledge on the disposition of recent records, although the Archivist of the Army remains the primary records manager and controls the retirement process for all official Army primary source materials through the US Army Records Management and Declassification Agency. Current as of: 6 December 2005 www.history.army.mil
• • • • •
Books and Research Materials
(Organized by time periods)
CMH Series and Collections Out of Print Section Army Regulation
(With CMH Proponency)
CMH Publication Catalog
Defense Acquisition History Project
GENERAL HAROLD KEITH JOHNSON PROFESSORS OF MILITARY HISTORY, U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, U.S. Army Military History Institute, U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA Background Established in 1978, this designated chair is named in honor of General Harold Keith Johnson, who served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1964 to 1968. During his term, he approved a recommendation to establish at Carlisle Barracks a library and a repository of documents that would encourage and facilitate the study of military history. Initially designated the U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, the nucleus of the collection consisted of 50,000 bound volumes, transferred from the Army War College and National War College and housed in Upton Hall. Among its first manuscript acquisitions were the extensive official and personal papers of General Johnson himself, who donated them to the Military History Research Collection upon his retirement from the Army -- and for many years served on the Military History Research Collection's advisory board.. Thanks in part to General Johnson's early commitment to the Military History Research Collection, its holdings expanded rapidly during the 1970s. It began to draw serious researchers from across the country, and in 1972 an annual visiting professor position was created, with Dr. Theodore Ropp of Duke University as the first to hold the position. In 1977 Military History Research Collection was renamed the U.S. Army Military History Institute (USAMHI). The following year the annual visiting professor position was designated the Harold Keith Johnson Chair in Military History.* Although configured as a scholar-in-residence program, in practice most holders of the Chair assumed informal roles within the Army War College itself, affliliating with student seminar groups and teaching elective courses. In 2006 the Chair was transferred from the USAMHI to the war college itself. It is today controlled by the Dean of Academics and housed administratively in one of the college's three academic departments, currently the Department of National Security and Strategy (DNSS). Eligibility The Johnson Chair is filled by invitation from the Commandant of the U.S. Army War College. Chairholders are expected to be senior scholars with distinguished records of publication, teaching, and service in the field of military history. Duties Holders of the Johnson Chair are expected to teach one of the war college's core curriculum courses and a spring elective course. The scholar-in-residence tradition continues, and Chair holders continue to have wide latitude in which to pursue individual research and writing projects. But they are also invited to make their expertise available to the many programs and institutions co-located with the war college at Carlisle Barracks. For academic year 2009, the Chair is held by Dr. Mark Grimsley, associate professor of history at The Ohio State University. Dr. Grimsley received his PhD from Ohio State in 1992. He also holds a master's degree in War Studies from Kings London. He is the recipient of several teaching awards, including the Alumni Distinguished Teaching Award, Ohio State's highest award for excellence in the classroom. He is the author, co-author, or editor of eight books, including The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy Toward Southern Civilians, 18611865, which received the Lincoln Prize in 1996; And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May-June 1864; Civilians in the Path of War (co-edited with Clifford J. Rogers); and Gettysburg: A Battlefield Guide (co-authored with Brooks D. Simpson). Dr. Grimsley's research interests include strategic policy-making, the nature of 21st century insurgency, the problem of moral judgment in war, and the interplay between racism and war in the American military experience. He also maintains a blog focusing on military history and national security affairs. Dr. Grimsley's curriculum vitae may be found here. In spring 2009, Dr. Grimsley will be offering an elective course, NS2244: American Insurgencies: The Struggle for Black Liberation in the South, 1865-1965. (Click the hyperlink to access the course synopsis and supporting materials.)
Compiled by Dr. Richard J. Sommers, U.S. Army Military History Institute
1. Dr. Theodore Ropp, Duke University, 1972-1973.* 2. Dr. Russell F. Weigley, Temple University, 1973-1974.* 3. Dr. John W. Shy, University of Michigan, 1974-1975. 4. Prof. Martin Blumenson, Washington, D.C., 1975-1976.* 5. Dr. Hugh M. Cole, Blue Ridge Summit, PA., 1976-1977.* 6. Dr. John F. Mahon, University of Florida, 1977-1978.* 7. Dr. Harold C. Deutsch, U.S. Army War College, 1978-1979.* 8. Dr. D. Clayton James, Mississippi State University, 1979-1980.* 9. Dr. Richard H. Kohn, Rutgers University, 1980-1981. 10. Dr. Charles P. Roland, University of Kentucky, 1981-1982. 11. Dr. M. Jay Luvaas, Allegheny College, 1982-1983. 12. Dr. Daniel R. Beaver, University of Cincinnati, 1983-1984. 13. Dr. Graham A. Cosmas, U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1984-1985. 14. Dr. Claude C. Sturgill, University of Florida, 1985-1986. 15. Dr. Edward M. Coffman, University of Wisconsin, 1986-1987. 16. Dr. Richard P. Hallion, National Museum of the U.S. Air force, 1987-1988. 17. Dr. Alex F. Roland, Duke University, 1988-1989. 18. Dr. Stephen E. Ambrose, University of New Orleans, 1989[-1990].* 19. Dr. Jerry M. Cooper, University of Missouri at St. Louis, 1990-1991. 20. Dr. Joseph T. Glatthaar, University of Houston, 1991-1992. [Vacant, 1992-1993] 21. Dr. Carol A. Reardon, Pennsylvania State University, 1993-1994. 22. Brig. Genl. Harold W. Nelson, U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1994-1995. 23. Col. Robert A. Doughty, U.S. Military Academy, 1995-1996. [Vacant, 1996-1997 and 1997-1998] 24. Dr. Williamson Murray, Professor Emeritus, Ohio State University, 1998-1999. 25. Dr. Brian M. Linn, Texas A & M University, 1999-2000. 26. Dr. Eugenia C. Kiesling, U.S. Military Academy, 2000-2001. 27. Dr. Tami D. Biddle, Duke University, 2001-2002. [Vacant, 2002-2003] 28. Dr. Alexander S. Cochran, U.S. Naval War College, 2003-2004. 29. Dr. Mark A. Stoler, University of Vermont, 2004-2005. 30. Dr. Ronald H. Spector, George Washington University, 2005-2006. [Vacant, 2006-2007] 31. Dr. Richard J. Sommers, U.S. Army Military History Institute, 2007-2008. 32. Dr. C. Mark Grimsley, Ohio State University, 2008-2009 (DNSS/USAWC) * This former HKJ Professor is deceased as of August, 2008.
The Army Historical Foundation
On Point Online is the proud sister publication to The Army Historical Foundation’s award-winning magazine On Point: The Journal of Army History. It’s brought to the public by the same historians, artists and curators as the print publication in an effort to be the definitive online magazine for lovers of Army history. The Army Historical Foundation was established in 1983 as a member-based, publicly supported 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization dedicated to preserving the history and heritage of the American Soldier. The motto of the Foundation — Preserve the Heritage…Educate the Future — summarizes its mission. The Foundation seeks to educate future Americans to fully appreciate the sacrifices that generations of American soldiers have made to safeguard the freedoms of this nation. The Foundation is not a governmental agency. It depends on funds from memberships, donations, and grants for support. Today, the Foundation is actively engaged in supporting the National Museum of the United States Army by carrying out a major $200 million Capital Campaign. In 2000, the Secretary of the Army designated the Foundation as its primary partner in the building of the National Museum. Besides supporting the Capital Campaign, AHF funding helps to refurbish historical Army buildings, acquire and conserve Army historical art and artifacts, support Army history educational programs, research, and publication of historical materials on the American soldier, and provide support and counsel to private and governmental organizations committed to the same goals as the Foundation. The Foundation has published U.S. Army: A Complete History and The Army, two of the most engaging and authoritative books ever produced on Army History
Mission Statement The Mission of the Pritzker Military Library is to acquire and maintain an accessible collection of materials and develop appropriate programs focusing on the Citizen Soldier in the preservation of democracy. Why a Military Library? Colonel (IL) J.N. Pritzker, IL ARNG (Retired), founder of the Pritzker Military Library, assembled a major collection of books and related materials on military history, with a particular focus on the concept of the Citizen Soldier in America. Today, building upon that foundation through the generosity of private donors, the Pritzker Military Library has become a nonpartisan research library that attempts to increase the public understanding of military history and the sacrifices made by the men and women who have served. In a democratic society, it is important for people of all viewpoints to have an open, public forum to discuss the past, present, and future of the military. Through its collection and its programs, the Library is dedicated to serving as a forum for those discussions and preserving them for future generations. Since opening in 2003, the Library has hosted over 300 events featuring the country's most acclaimed authors, historians, journalists, and scholars.
Pritzker Military Library Literature Award for Lifetime Achievement in Military Writing
Chicago, IL (July 16, 2007) - James M. McPherson, whose outstanding historical work on the American Civil War has placed him among the top writers of our time, has been selected to receive the first-ever Pritzker Military Library Literature Award for Lifetime Achievement in Military Writing. The $100,000 honorarium, citation and medallion, sponsored by the Chicago-based Tawani Foundation, will be presented at the Library’s black-tie Liberty Gala on October 6th at Chicago’s Drake Hotel (140 E. Walton Place). The announcement was made today via world-wide webcast by the Library’s founder and CEO, James N. Pritzker at www.pritzkermilitarylibrary.org. The Pritzker Military Library Award recognizes a single living author for a body of work dedicated to enriching the understanding of American military history including military affairs. The recipient’s contributions may be academic, non-fiction, fiction or a combination of any of the three and their work should embody the values of the Pritzker Military Library. “Our purpose in establishing the Pritzker Military Library Literature Award for Lifetime Achievement is to acknowledge the highest levels of scholarship and writing in a field that often does not gain appropriate recognition,” Pritzker said. “By providing an annual award to the most thoughtful and articulate scholar writing about war and military activities, we may in turn be lead to better solutions and perhaps a better life for all of us.”James McPherson is the George Henry Davis '86 Professor of History Emeritus at Princeton University. He has published numerous volumes on the Civil War, including Lincoln and the Second American Revolution, Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War and For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War, which won the prestigious Lincoln Prize in 1998. He was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for his single-volume treatment of the Civil War, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. “I am profoundly honored to receive this award,” said McPherson in response to the announcement. “I started my career as a historian of the radical social and political consequences of the Civil War and soon discovered that these changes depended on the military course of the conflict.” McPherson would pursue his goal as a military historian in order to “explore and write about the complex and crucial interconnections between the battlefield and home front, not only in the Civil War, but in all wars. I am proud that my contributions to understanding these relationships is being recognized.” James McPherson’s nomination was submitted by his publisher, Oxford University Press. "Oxford University Press warmly congratulates Jim McPherson on his receipt of the first Pritzker Military Library Literature Award for Lifetime Achievement in Military Writing,” said Niko Pfund, Vice President and Publisher. “Few scholars more consistently combine first-rate scholarship with accessible historical writing, and few authors are more of a pleasure to publish. We are delighted that so richly deserving a writer and thinker has been chosen to inaugurate this prestigious award.” A national panel of historians, writers and individuals related to the study of American history and heritage reviewed nominations and definitive works submitted by publishers, agents, book sellers and other professional literary organizations. The finalist recommendation was
unanimously endorsed by the executive council of the Foundation established to oversee the award process. The Pritzker Award will be presented on Saturday, October 6, 2007 during the Library’s annual Liberty Gala at Chicago’s historic Drake Hotel. The Library will also recognize veteran journalist John Callaway for his 50 year broadcast career. The evening will include a tribute to members of the armed forces and features a dramatic presentation by the Steppenwolf Theater Company. For more information and to purchase tickets, visit the library website at: www.pritzkermilitarylibrary.org.
James M. McPherson
James M. McPherson was born in North Dakota and grew up in Minnesota, where he attended Gustavus Adolphus College and graduated magna cum laude in 1958. He did his graduate study in history at the Johns Hopkins University, where he received his Ph. D. with distinction in 1963. From 1962 to 2004 he taught at Princeton University, where he is now the George Henry Davis '86 Professor of American History Emeritus. He is the author of fifteen books and the editor of another dozen, most of them on the era of the American Civil War. His books have won several prizes, most notably the Pultizer Prize in History (1989) for BATTLE CRY OF FREEDOM: THE CIVIL WAR ERA and the Lincoln Prize (1998) for FOR CAUSE AND COMRADES: WHY MEN FOUGHT IN THE CIVIL WAR. He was the Jefferson Lecturer of the National Endowment for the Humanities in 2000. He has been active in Civil War battlefield preservation and served on the Congressional Civil War Sites Advisory Commission from 1991 to 1993 as well as on the boards of the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites and the Civil War Preservation Trust. He is a member of the advisory boards of the National Civil War Center at Historic Tredegar and the Gettysburg Foundation. In 1999 - 2000 he was president of the Society of American Historians and in 2003 04 the president of the American Historical Association. In 2007 he received the Samuel Eliot Morison Award from the Society for Military History.
2007 Screening Committee
• • • • • • • • • Edward M. Coffman Carlo D'Este Joseph L. Galloway Gary T. Johnson Donald L. Miller Williamson Murray Carol Reardon Mark Stoler MG John Borling, USAF (Ret.)
U. S. AIR FORCE ACADEMY
MILITARY HISTORY COURSES
Category:American military historians
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Subcategories This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total. N • [×] American naval historians (58 P) U • [×] United States Army historians (6 P) Pages in category "American military historians" The following 92 pages are in this category, out of 92 total. This list may not reflect recent changes. F cont. P A Stephen E. Ambrose • Arther Ferrill • • B Sherman L. Fleek • • • Louise Barnett • • Thomas Fleming • Scott Baron (historian) • Ed Bearss Shelby Foote • • • • • Allan Bérubé Douglas S. Freeman • • James C. Bradford • Paul Fussell R G William Breuer • • • John Lewis Gaddis • • Robert H. Briggs • Gian Gentile Christopher Browning • • William Conrad Gibbons • • • Anthony J. Bryant • David Glantz S Briton C. Busch • H • C • David Hackworth • Andrew Carroll • • Michael Halleran William Harding Carter • • • Eric M. Hammel Jr. • Robert M. Citino • Victor Davis Hanson • • Eliot A. Cohen • Howard C. Hillegas • • James J. Cooke K • • James Corum • Donald Kagan • • Robert Cowley • Frederick Kagan T D • Kimberly Kagan • • Robert J. Dalessandro L • • Franklin M. Davis, Jr • Arthur H. Landis W John Watts de Peyster • Robert Leckie (author) • • • Carlo D'Este • Edward Luttwak • Kelly DeVries • • John A. Lynn • • Damon DiMarco M • Theodore Ayrault Dodge • • William P. MacKinnon • • Richard M. Dolan • H. R. McMaster • • Robert F. Dorr • Larry McMurtry • • User talk:Dthomsen8/Deeper/Paul Russell • S.L.A. Marshall • Cutright • Edwin North McClellan • • Trevor N. Dupuy • Phillip Meilinger • F Richard R. Muller • Y • Byron Farwell N • • T. R. Fehrenbach • Albert Nofi O • Mackubin Thomas Owens
Blaine Pardoe Peter Paret Paul Russell Cutright Forrest Pogue Brian Pohanka Ronald E. Powaski Marcius D. Raymond Lemuel Roberts John Codman Ropes Theodore Ropp John Darrell Sherwood Edwin H. Simmons Cornelius Cole Smith, Ray L. Smith Lewis Sorley Barry S. Strauss Bill Sweetman Joe Gray Taylor Richard Tregaskis Geoffrey Wawro Russell Weigley Gerhard Weinberg William Weir (author) Jeffry D. Wert T. Harry Williams Alan F. Wilt Jonathan Reed Winkler Jay Winter Quincy Wright William T. Y'Blood
Pages in category "American naval historians"
The following 58 pages are in this category, out of 58 total. This list may not reflect recent changes. F cont. * P • • Ernest J. King Professor of Maritime History Norman Friedman • Charles O. Paullin G John Lyman Book Awards E. B. Potter • • • Thomas C. Gillmer • • Naval History & Heritage Command George Preble Albert Gleaves R Secretary of the Navy's Advisory Subcommittee • • H on Naval History Research Chair in Naval • John Hattendorf History • • Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt Prize in • • Naval History John Daniel Hayes Clark G. Reynolds A James D. Hornfischer William Ledyard • • • Raymond Aker Rodgers • Edwin Palmer Hoyt • Robert G. Albion • Theodore Roosevelt • Peter Huchthausen • Alfred Thayer Mahan Award for Literary • Theodore Ropp J Achievement Robert Erwin Johnson S • • Dean C. Allard • Robert Sables K B • Dean King • John Darrell Sherwood • K. Jack Bauer Dudley Wright Knox James R. Soley • • Daniel A. Baugh • L • William N. Still, Jr. • • Edward L. Beach, Jr. Harold D. Langley Craig Symonds • Ulane Bonnel Charles A. Lockwood • • • David Syrett M • James C. Bradford T • Christopher McKee C • Kemp Tolley (historian) William Bell Clark • W • Alfred Thayer Mahan • James Fenimore Cooper A.B.C. Whipple • • Arthur Marder D Michael J. Whitley • • William S. Dudley • Tyrone G. Martin • Jonathan Reed Winkler E • John Grider Miller • George Fielding Eliot • William J. Morgan • Ernest M. Eller (historian) F • Samuel Eliot Morison • William M. Fowler
Category:United States Army historians
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This category is for United States Army personnel who served as historians for the United States Army Center of Military History or any of its predecessors. Pages in category "United States Army historians" The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). B • Martin Blumenson John S. Brown C • Hugh M. Cole H • Ken Hechler M • Charles B. MacDonald W • Robert K. Wright, Jr.
John Watts de Peyster
General de Peyster in 1863.
March 9, 1821 – May 4, 1907 (aged 86)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Place of birth Place of death Service/branch Years of service Rank Battles/wars Other work New York City, New York New York City, New York United States Army Union Army 1845–1866 Brevet Major General (New York Militia) American Civil War Mexican-American War Lawyer, Historian
John Watts de Peyster, Sr. (March 9, 1821 – May 4, 1907) was an author on the art of war, philanthropist, and early Adjutant General of the New York National Guard. He served in the New York State Militia during the MexicanAmerican War and American Civil War. He was one of the first military critics and noted for his histories of the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, and also published works of drama, poetry, military history, military biography and military criticism. Early life and background De Peyster was born in New York City, the son of a wealthy old Dutchess County family, and a first cousin of Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny. His great great grandfather was Abraham de Peyster, an early Mayor of New York City, whose father was Johannes de Peyster, also Mayor. He studied law at Columbia University, although he did not graduate on account of his poor health. He had become an invalid at a young age due to a heart affliction he developed during service as a volunteer fireman. De Peyster was heavily involved as a volunteer firefighter with the No. 5 Hose Carriage during his collegiate years, including a major fire in 1836, leading to his health problems. Despite these physical difficulties, he was described by some as feisty, and even dictatorial. He later received the degree of M.A. from Columbia College, LL.D. from Nebraska College, and Ph.D. by Franklin and Marshall College. He was one of the organizers of the New York City Police Department and Fire Department. Reforms he advocated through publications which were eventually implemented nationwide included a paid Fire Department, and Steam Fire Engines, and New York City was the first in the nation to adopt such measures. He spent his entire career in the New York State Militia, being promoted to brigadier general in 1851. He served as state Judge Advocate General and eventually Adjutant General, before resigning over a conflict with Governor Myron Clark in 1855. He traveled through Europe extensively as a military observer, and implemented many reforms that modernized the militia for the upcoming conflict. American Civil War Already a brigadier general of the state militia at the onset of the Civil War, he met with what he perceived (and declared) to be prejudiced resistance from Abraham Lincoln when he attempted to raise regiments for the Union Army. In 1861, de Peyster traveled to Washington, D.C., to solicit a commission as a brigadier general of the Regular Army and offered to raise two regiments of artillery, which he felt best suited his expertise and physical condition. The was met with little interest after New York had already filled its national recruitment quota of 75,000 men. Each of his three sons served in the conflict in the Union Army. The eldest, John Watts de Peyster, Jr., performed duty as an aide-de-camp and artillery commander with the Army of the Potomac and mustered out as a brevet brigadier
general; Frederic de Peyster III, was a Colonel and surgeon; while the youngest, Johnston L. de Peyster , was a second lieutenant in charge of a battery of artillery credited with hoisting the first Union flag over the Confederate capitol of Richmond, Virginia, after its fall. The career militia officer had always suffered from poor health, and turned down a commission as a colonel of cavalry offered to him by New York Senator Ira Harris in June 1863 on behalf of Generals Joseph Hooker and Alfred Pleasonton, who may have had an eye towards de Peyster's social connections. Other notable figures with limited field experience who were promoted to brigadier general by Pleasonton at that time were Elon J. Farnsworth, son of a Congressman, Wesley Merritt, and George Armstrong Custer. His treatise New American Tactics was a series of articles published in The Army and Navy Journal that advocated making the skirmish line the new line of battle, which was considered revolutionary at the time. These contributions were translated and copied into foreign military journals, including Correard's renowned Biographie des célébrités militaires des armées de terre et de mer. Such tactics were put into practice by generals including John Buford and were later adopted world wide. He was appointed a brevet major general in 1866 by a special act of the state legislature. His elevation to major general was the first such honor bestowed by the State of New York, or any other State in the Union. He was a close friend of Maj. Gen. Daniel Sickles, commander of the Union III Corps. General de Peyster wrote biographies of III Corps Generals Andrew A. Humphreys and Gershom Mott during the war, and wrote highly of Buford's celebrated usage of light cavalry. "The hero at Oak Ridge was John Buford ... he not only showed the rarest tenacity, but his personal capacity made his cavalry accomplish marvels, and rival infantry in their steadfastness ... Glorious John Buford!" — Gen. de Payster on Buford's Dragoon Tactics Postwar career General de Peyster was known as the largest developer in the village of Tivoli, New York, where he resided at his family home. In 1892 he replaced a wooden Methodist church with a brick structure that stands today. He also refurbished an old school into an industrial school for girls. An authority on fire fighting, in 1895 de Peyster erected a huge state-ofthe-art brick building for the local department. A portrait of him resides there in present day, and it was used as a firehouse until 1986. The high Victorian structure also contained a courtroom, a jail and a large meeting room for the local government. The General eventually had a conflict with the village Mayor (his own son, Johnston de Peyster), and de Peyster barred him from entering the building. The village government was forced to move to another building and remained there until the Firehouse was restored in 1994, returning the local government to de Peyster's building. His writing strongly advocated Dan Sickles and his role at the Battle of Gettysburg. Some of his works including detailing Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's influences on the Army of the Potomac leading up to the battle, both positive and negative. He also issued a damning portrayal of the performance of the Union XI Corps at the Battle of Chancellorsville. His writing also spoke of the brilliant accomplishments of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas and led to his modern consideration as one of the finest commanders of the war. In the New York Times and scholarly journals, he correctly predicted the FrancoAustrian War in 1866 and the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. He made significant contributions to historical journal publications under the pseudonym "Anchor" which extolled the services of Sickles and Buford, and in separate publications praised the men of the New York City Fire Department. De Peyster wrote extensive military histories about the Battle of Saratoga and in 1887 donated a memorial called the Boot Monument, which commemorates Benedict Arnold's heroic wounding at the battle (although Arnold is not mentioned by name and the memorial only depicts his boot). In 1905, De Peyster purchased first baronial mansion of Sir William Johnson, known since 1755 as Fort Johnson, and donated it to the Montgomery County Historical Society, of Amsterdam, New York. In 1901, he donated several thousand books and maps to the Smithsonian Institution, along with a Moorish Yataghan he collected on his travels in 1851. De Peyster's biographer devotes six chapters to his benefactions, but does not mention his ethnological collections. Another philanthropic contribution included building the first library at Franklin and Marshall College, and donating one of the largest and most distinct rare book collections about European military history, the 1,890 volume Watts de Peyster: Napoleon Buonaparte. He collected many of the monographs while traveling in Europe conducting research for his own biography of Napoleon, entitled Napoleone di Buonaparte (1896). The monument to Abraham de Peyster, a founder of New Amsterdam, sculpted by George Edwin Bissell, was commissioned by General de Peyster in Bowling Green, the old town square of New York City. John Watts de Peyster was also a Vice President of the American Numismatic Society, and the namesake of Post #71 of the New York G.A.R. in Tivoli, New York. De Peyster died in 1907 of natural causes at a family residence in Manhattan. He willed his Tivoli manor Rose Hill to a local Children's Home. He was the author of Life of Field Marshal Torstenson (1855), The Dutch at the North Pole (1857), Caurausius, the Dutch Augustus (1858), Life of Baron Cohorn (1860), The Decisive Conflicts of the Late Civil War, or Slaveholder's Rebellion (1867), Personal and Military History of General Philip Kearny (1869), The Life and Misfortunes and the Military Career of Brig.-Gen. Sir John Johnson (1882), and Gypsies: Some Curious Investigations, Collected, Translated, Or Reprinted from Various Sources (1887), and contributor to numerous other books, biographies, publications, and articles. United States Army portal American Civil War portal List of American Civil War generals See also Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ^ Allaben, Vol. 1, p. 28. ^ a b Allaben, p. 205 ^ Leopold, Robert. A Guide to Early African Collections in the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution, August 1994. ^ Allaben, p. 18 ^ Allaben, p. 180 ^ a b Randolph, p. 85
^ Allaben, p. 178 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Philip, Cynthia Owen. The Saga of Tivoli, Part II: Clambakes, Cock Fights, & Boxing Matches. About Town Magazine, Winter 2005 ed. 9. ^ a b c Randolph, p. 87 10. ^ Allaben, p. 185 11. ^ a b Allaben, p. 290 12. ^ Allaben, p. 267 13. ^ Ray, Fred. Forgotten Heroes of the Skirmish Line: Jerry Z. Brown, November 25, 2006. Retrieved on July 28, 2007. 14. ^ Randolph, p. 86 15. ^ a b Allaben, p. 319 16. ^ Allaben, p. 320 17. ^ Shepley, George. Incidents in the Capture of Richmond. Atlantic Monthly, July 1880. 18. ^ Lamb, 1904 19. ^ Alfred Pleasonton to Brig.Gen. John Farnsworth, June 23, 1863, Alfred Pleasonton Papers, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20. ^ Henry C. Parsons, "Farnsworth’s Charge and Death", included in Robert U. Johnson and C.C. Buel, eds., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, 4 vols. (New York, 1884-1888), 3:395. Hard, pp. 76-77. 21. ^ Randolph, p. 86-87 22. ^ Allaben, p. 323 23. ^ Phipps, Michael; Peterson, John S. The Devil's to Pay. Farnsworth Military Impressions: Gettysburg, 1995. ISBN 0964363216 24. ^ Randolph, p. 88 25. ^ Johnson, Claudia Durst. Understanding the Red Badge of Courage: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Greenwood Press: Westport, CT, 1998. p 79. ISBN 0313301220 26. ^ Van Horne, p. 343-344 27. ^ United States Government Printing Office. United States Congressional Serial Set, pp 216-227. U.S. G.P.O.: Washington, D.C., 1890. 28. ^ Reid, W. Max. The Story of Old Fort Johnson. The Knickerbocker Press: New York and London, 1906. ISBN 1404751327 29. ^ Allaben, p. 211-258 30. ^ Dubbs, Joseph Henry. History of Franklin and Marshall College. Lancaster: Franklin and Marshall College Alumni Association, 1903. 31. ^ ANS Vice Presidents, retrieved on July 28, 2007. 32. ^ Allaben, p. 165 References • Allaben, Frank. John Watts de Peyster. Frank Allaben Genealogical Company: New York, 1908. ISBN 1402144547 • Brown, John. Lamb's biographical dictionary of the United States. Boston Biographical Society, 1904. ISBN 0849004810 • de Peyster, John. Gettysburgh and After. Old Soldier Books: New York, 1987. ISBN 1432805525 • New York Historical Society. Collections of the New York Historical Society. The John Watts De Peyster Publication Fund Series. 85 vols. New York, NY: The Society, 1868-. ISBN 1425585957 • Randall, Willard Sterne. Benedict Arnold: Patriot and Traitor. Dorset Press, New York, 1990. ISBN 0760712727 • Randolph, Lewis Hamersly. Biographical Sketches of Distinguished Officers of the Army and Navy, pp 82–88. Henry E. Huntington Library: New York, 1905. ISBN 1432502328 • Van Horne, Thomas. The Life of Major General George H. Thomas. Charles Scribner's Sons: New York, 1882. ISBN 1432637665 External links • Franklin and Marshall Library history • New York G.A.R. Posts • National Park Service page on Boot Monument Adjutant General Preceded by Succeeded by New York National Guard Isaac Vanderpoel Robert H. Pruyn 1855
October 27, 1864—Armed with Spencer repeating rifles, men of Company K, 148th Pennsylvania Volunteers, advance in skirmish line and capture a fort garrisoned by the 46th Virginia Infantry during the Siege of Petersburg, Virginia.
The de Peyster family home Rose Hill, located in Tivoli, New York. It later became the Watts De Peyster Industrial Home and School for girls, and was torn down in 1938. The Tivoli firehouse, today the village hall
George Armstrong Custer
December 5, 1839 – June 25, 1876 (aged 36)
USMA Cadet George Armstrong "Autie" Custer, ca. 1859 George A. Custer in civilian clothes, ca. 1876
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Place of birth Place of death Place of burial Allegiance Service/branch Years of service Rank Commands held Battles/wars New Rumley, Ohio Little Bighorn, Montana initially on the battlefield later reinterred in West Point Cemetery United States of America Union United States Army Union Army 1861–76 Brevet Major General of Volunteers Lieutenant Colonel (Regular Army)
Michigan Brigade 3rd Cavalry Division 2nd Cavalry Division 7th U.S. Cavalry American Civil War First Battle of Bull Run Peninsula Campaign Battle of Antietam Battle of Chancellorsville Gettysburg Campaign Battle of Gettysburg Overland Campaign (Battle of the Wilderness - Battle of Yellow Tavern - Battle of Trevilian
Station) Valley Campaigns of 1864 Siege of Petersburg Indian Wars Battle of the Washita Battle of the Little Bighorn George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 – June 25, 1876) was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. Today he is most remembered for a disastrous military engagement known as the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Raised in Michigan and Ohio, Custer was admitted to West Point in 1858, where he graduated last in his class. However, with the outbreak of the Civil War, all potential officers were needed, and Custer was called to serve with the Union Army. Custer developed a strong reputation during the Civil War. He fought in the first major engagement, the First Battle of Bull Run. His association with several important officers helped his career, as did his success as a highly effective Cavalry commander. Before war's end, Custer was promoted to the temporary rank (brevet) of major general. (At war's end, this was reduced to his permanent rank of captain.) At the conclusion of the Appomattox Campaign, in which he and his troops played a decisive role, Custer was on hand at General Robert E. Lee's surrender. After the Civil War, Custer was dispatched to the West to fight in the Indian Wars. The overwhelming defeat in his final battle overshadowed his achievements in the Civil War. Custer was defeated and killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876, fighting against a coalition of Native American tribes in a battle that has come to be popularly known in American history as "Custer's Last Stand". Family and ancestry According to late 20th century research, Custer's ancestors, Paulus and Gertrude Küster, who followed the first thirteen immigrant German families from Krefeld and surroundings, had emigrated to North America around 1693 from the Rhineland in Germany, probably among thousands of Palatine refugees whose passage was arranged by the English government of Queen Anne to gain settlers. Their surname originally was spelled "Küster". George Armstrong Custer was a 3xgreat-grandson of Paulus Küster from Kaldenkirchen, Duchy of Jülich (today North Rhine-Westphalia state), who settled in Germantown, Pennsylvania. A 1909 history of Germans in the US stated that Custer's immigrant ancestor was a Hessian soldier fighting for the British, who was paroled in 1778 after Burgoyne's surrender. The soldier was said to have changed his name to Custer because it was easier for his English neighbors to pronounce and perhaps also to remove the stigma attaching to a Hessian, so offensive then to American sensibilities. Custer's mother was Marie Ward, who – at the age of 16 – had married Israel Kirkpatrick. When he died in 1835, she married Emanuel Henry Custer in 1836. Marie's grandparents – George Ward (1724–1811) and Mary Ward (née Grier) (1733–1811) – were from County Durham, England. Their son James Grier Ward (1765–1824) was born in Dauphin, Pennsylvania, and married Catherine Rogers (1776–1829). Their daughter Marie Ward became Custer's mother. Catherine Rogers was a daughter of Thomas Rogers and Sarah Armstrong. According to family letters, Custer was named after George Armstrong, a minister, in his devout father's hopes that his son might become part of the clergy. Birth, nicknames and siblings Custer was born in New Rumley, Ohio, to Emanuel Henry Custer (1806–1892), a farmer and blacksmith, and Marie Ward Kirkpatrick (1807–1882). Throughout his life Custer was known by a variety of nicknames. He was called "Autie" (his early attempt to pronounce his middle name) and Armstrong. He had two younger brothers, Thomas Custer and Boston Custer. His other full siblings were the family's youngest child, Margaret Custer, and the weak and unhealthy Nevin Custer. Custer also had several older half-siblings. Early life Custer spent much of his boyhood living with his half-sister and brother-in-law in Monroe, Michigan, where he attended school. Before entering the United States Military Academy, Custer attended the McNeely Normal School, later known as Hopedale Normal College, in Hopedale, Ohio. While attending Hopedale, Custer, together with classmate William Enos Emery, was known to have carried coal to help pay for their room and board. After graduating from McNeely Normal School in 1856, Custer taught school in Cadiz, Ohio. Custer graduated as the last of 34 cadets in the Class of June 1861 from the United States Military Academy, just after the start of the Civil War. Custer's West Point class (originally the Class of 1862) was graduated a year early to meet the Army's pressing need for trained officers. Ordinarily, Custer's low class rank would be a ticket to an obscure posting, but Custer had the fortune to graduate just as the Civil War broke out. Custer's tenure at the Academy had been rocky, as he came close to expulsion in each of his four years due to excessive demerits, many from pulling pranks on fellow cadets. Civil War McClellan and Pleasonton Custer was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Cavalry and immediately joined his regiment at the First Battle of Bull Run, where Army commander Winfield Scott detailed him to carry messages to Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell. After the battle he was assigned to the 5th U.S. Cavalry, with which he served through the early days of the Peninsula Campaign in 1862. As a staff officer for Major General George B. McClellan, Custer was promoted to the rank of captain. On May 24, 1862, during the pursuit of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston up the Peninsula, when Gen. Barnard and his staff were reconnoitering a potential crossing point on the Chickahominy River, they stopped and Custer overheard his commander mutter to himself, "I wish I knew how deep it is." Custer dashed forward on his horse out to the middle of the river and turned to the astonished officers of the staff and shouted triumphantly, "That's how deep it is, Mr General!" Custer then was allowed to lead an attack with four companies of the 4th Michigan Infantry across the Chickahominy River above New Bridge. The attack was successful, resulting in the capture of 50 Confederates seizing the first Confederate battle flag of the war. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, termed it a "very gallant affair", congratulated Custer personally, and brought him onto his staff as an aide-de-camp with the temporary rank of captain. In this role, Custer began his life-long pursuit of publicity. When McClellan was relieved of command in November 1862, Custer reverted to the rank of first lieutenant. Custer fell into the orbit of Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton, who was commanding a cavalry division. The general was Custer's introduction to the world of extravagant uniforms and political maneuvering, and the young lieutenant became his protégé, serving on Pleasonton's staff while continuing his assignment with his regiment. Custer was quoted as saying that "no father could love his son more than General Pleasonton loves me." After the Battle of Chancellorsville, Pleasonton became the commander of the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac and his first assignment was to locate the army of Robert E. Lee, moving north
through the Shenandoah Valley in the beginning of the Gettysburg Campaign. In his first command, Custer affected a showy, personalized uniform style that alienated his men, but he won them over with his readiness to lead attacks (a contrast to the many officers who would hang back, hoping to avoid being hit); his men began to adopt elements of his uniform, especially the red neckerchief. Custer distinguished himself by fearless, aggressive actions in some of the numerous cavalry engagements that started off the campaign, including Brandy Station and Aldie. Brigade command and Gettysburg On June 28, 1863, three days prior to the Battle of Gettysburg, General Pleasonton promoted Custer from captain to brigadier general of volunteers. Despite having no direct command experience, he became one of the youngest generals in the Union Army at age 23. Two other captains—Wesley Merritt and Elon J. Farnsworth—were promoted along with Custer, although they did have command experience. Custer lost no time in implanting his aggressive character on his brigade, part of the division of Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick. He fought against the Confederate cavalry of Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart at Hanover and Hunterstown, on the way to the main event at Gettysburg. Custer's style of battle was often claimed to be reckless or foolhardy, but military planning was always the basis of every Custer "dash". As Marguerite Merrington explains in The Custer Story in Letters, "George Custer meticulously scouted every battlefield, gauged the enemies[sic] weak points and strengths, ascertained the best line of attack and only after he was satisfied was the 'Custer Dash' with a Michigan yell focused with complete surprise on the enemy in routing them every time." One of his greatest attributes during the Civil War was what Custer wrote of as "luck" and he needed it to survive some of these charges. Custer established a reputation as an aggressive cavalry brigade commander willing to take personal risks by leading his Michigan Brigade into battle, such as the mounted charges at Hunterstown and East Cavalry Field at the Battle of Gettysburg. At Hunterstown, in an ill-considered charge ordered by Kilpatrick against the brigade of Wade Hampton, Custer fell from his wounded horse directly before the enemy and became the target of numerous enemy rifles. He was rescued by Norville Churchill of the 1st Michigan Cavalry, who galloped up, shot Custer's nearest assailant, and allowed Custer to mount behind him for a dash to safety. One of Custer's finest hours in the Civil War occurred just east of Gettysburg on July 3, 1863. In conjunction with Pickett's Charge to the west, Robert E. Lee dispatched Stuart's cavalry on a mission into the rear of the Union Army. Custer encountered the Union cavalry division of Brig. Gen. David McMurtrie Gregg directly in the path of Stuart's horsemen. He convinced Gregg to allow him to stay and fight, while his own division was stationed to the south out of the action. At East Cavalry Field, hours of charges and hand-to-hand combat ensued. Custer led a mounted charge of the 1st Michigan Cavalry, breaking the back of the Confederate assault. Custer's brigade lost 257 men at Gettysburg, the highest loss of any Union cavalry brigade. "I challenge the annals of warfare to produce a more brilliant or successful charge of cavalry", Custer wrote in his report. Marriage Custer married Elizabeth Clift Bacon (1842–1933) (whom he first saw when he was ten years old) on February 9, 1864. He had been socially introduced to her in November 1862, when home in Monroe on leave. She was not initially impressed with him, and her father, Judge Daniel Bacon, disapproved of Custer as a match because he was the son of a blacksmith. It was not until well after Custer had been promoted to the rank of brevet brigadier general that he gained the approval of Judge Bacon. He married Elizabeth Bacon fourteen months after they formally met. Following the Battle of Washita River in November 1868, Custer was alleged (by Captain Frederick Benteen, chief of scouts Ben Clark, and Cheyenne oral tradition) to have unofficially "married" Mo-nah-se-tah, daughter of the Cheyenne chief Little Rock in the winter or early spring of 1868– 1869. (Little Rock was killed in the Washita battle.) Monaseetah gave birth to a child in January 1869, two months after the Washita battle. Cheyenne oral history tells that she also bore a second child, fathered by Custer in late 1869. Some historians, however, believe that Custer had become sterile after contracting gonorrhea while at West Point and that the father was in actuality his brother Thomas. The Valley and Appomattox In 1864, with the Cavalry Corps under the command of Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan, Custer led his "Wolverines" through the Overland Campaign, including the Battle of Trevilian Station. Custer, now commanding the 3rd Division, followed Sheridan to the Shenandoah Valley where they defeated the Confederate army of Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early in the Valley Campaigns of 1864. When the cavalry corps of the Army of the Potomac was reorganized under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan in 1864, Custer took part in the various actions of the cavalry in the Overland Campaign, including the Battle of the Wilderness (after which he ascended to division command), the Battle of Yellow Tavern, where Jeb Stuart was mortally wounded, and the Battle of Trevilian Station, where Custer was humiliated by having his division trains overrun and his personal baggage captured by the enemy. When Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early moved down the Shenandoah Valley and threatened Washington, D.C., Custer's division was dispatched along with Sheridan to the Valley Campaigns of 1864. They pursued the Confederates at the Third Battle of Winchester and effectively destroyed Early's army during Sheridan's counterattack at Cedar Creek. Sheridan and Custer, having defeated Early, returned to the main Union Army lines at the Siege of Petersburg, where they spent the winter. In April 1865 the Confederate lines were finally broken and Robert E. Lee began his retreat to Appomattox Court House, pursued by the Union cavalry. Custer distinguished himself by his actions at Waynesboro, Dinwiddie Court House, and Five Forks. His division blocked Lee's retreat on its final day and received the first flag of truce from the Confederate force. Custer was present at the surrender at Appomattox Court House and the table upon which the surrender was signed was presented to him as a gift for his wife by General Sheridan, who included a note to her praising Custer's gallantry. She treasured the gift, which is now in the Smithsonian Institution. Before the close of the war Custer received brevet promotions to brigadier general and major general in the regular army (March 13, 1865) and major general of volunteers (April 15, 1865). As with most wartime promotions, even when issued under the regular army, these senior ranks were only temporary. Reconstruction duties in Texas In June 1865, at Sheridan's behest, Custer accepted command of the 2nd Division of Cavalry, Military Division of the Southwest, to march from Alexandria, Louisiana, to Hempstead, Texas, as part of the Union occupation forces. Custer arrived at Alexandria on June 27 and began assembling his units, which took more than a month to gather and remount. Accompanied
by his wife, he led the division (five regiments of veteran Western Theater cavalrymen) to Texas on an arduous 18-day march in August. In October he moved the division to Austin, when he became Chief of Cavalry for the Department of Texas, succeeding Maj-Gen. Wesley Merritt. During his entire period of command of the division, Custer encountered considerable friction and near mutiny from the volunteer cavalry regiments who had campaigned along the Gulf coast. They desired to be mustered out of Federal service rather than continue campaigning, resented imposition of discipline (particularly from an Eastern Theater general), and considered Custer nothing more than a vain dandy. Custer's division was mustered out beginning in November 1865, replaced by the regulars of the U.S. 6th Cavalry Regiment. Although their occupation of Austin had apparently been pleasant, many veterans harbored deep resentments against Custer, particularly in the 2nd Wisconsin Cavalry, because of his attempts to maintain discipline. Upon its mustering out, several members planned to ambush Custer, but he was warned the night before and the attempt thwarted. Indian Wars On February 1, 1866, Custer was mustered out of the volunteer service and returned to his permanent rank of captain in the 5th Cavalry. Custer took an extended leave, exploring options in New York City, where he considered careers in railroads and mining. Offered a position (and $10,000 in gold) as adjutant general of the army of Benito Juárez of Mexico, who was then in a struggle with the self-proclaimed Maximilian I (a foil of French Emperor Napoleon III), Custer applied for a one-year leave of absence from the U.S. Army, which was endorsed by Grant and Secretary of War Stanton. Sheridan and Mrs. Custer disapproved, however, and when his request for leave was opposed by U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward, who was against having an American officer commanding foreign troops, Custer refused the alternative of resignation from the Army to take the lucrative post. Following the death of his father-in-law in May 1866, Custer returned to Monroe, Michigan, where he considered running for Congress. He took part in public discussion over the treatment of the American South in the aftermath of the Civil War, advocating a policy of moderation. He was named head of the Soldiers and Sailors Union, regarded as a response to the hyper-partisan Grand Army of the Republic (GAR). Also formed in 1866, it was led by Republican activist John Alexander Logan. In September 1866 Custer accompanied President Andrew Johnson on a journey by train known as the "Swing Around the Circle" to build up public support for Johnson's policies towards the South. Custer denied a charge by the newspapers that Johnson had promised him a colonel's commission in return for his support, but Custer had written to Johnson some weeks before seeking such a commission. Custer and his wife stayed with the president during most of the trip. At one point Custer confronted a small group of Ohio men who repeatedly jeered Johnson, saying, "I was born two miles and a half from here, but I am ashamed of you." Custer was appointed lieutenant colonel of the newly created U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment, headquartered at Fort Riley, Kansas. As a result of a plea by his patron General Philip Sheridan, Custer was also appointed brevet major general. He took part in Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock's expedition against the Cheyenne in 1867. On June 26, 1867 Lt. Lyman Kidder's party, made up of ten troopers and one scout, were massacred while in route to Fort Wallace. Lt. Kidder was to deliver dispatches to Custer from Gen. William Sherman, but his party was attacked by Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne (see Kidder massacre). Days later, Custer and a search party found the bodies of Kidder's patrol. Following the Hancock campaign, Custer was court-martialed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas for being AWOL, after having abandoned his post to see his wife. He was suspended from duty for one year. At the request of Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan, who wanted Custer for his planned winter campaign against the Cheyenne, Custer was allowed to return to duty in 1868, before his term of suspension had expired. Under Sheridan's orders, Custer took part in establishing Camp Supply in Indian Territory in early November 1868 as a supply base for the winter campaign. Custer led the 7th U.S. Cavalry in an attack on the Cheyenne encampment of Black Kettle—the Battle of Washita River on November 27, 1868. Custer reported killing 103 warriors; estimates by the Cheyenne of their casualties were substantially lower (11 warriors plus 19 women and children); some women and children were also killed, and US troops took 53 women and children prisoner. Custer had his men shoot most of the 875 Indian ponies they had captured. The Battle of Washita River was regarded as the first substantial U.S. victory in the Southern Plains War, and it helped force a significant portion of the Southern Cheyennes onto a U.S.-assigned reservation. In 1873, Custer was sent to the Dakota Territory to protect a railroad survey party against the Lakota. On August 4, 1873, near the Tongue River, Custer and the 7th U.S. Cavalry clashed for the first time with the Lakota. Only one man on each side was killed. In 1874, Custer led an expedition into the Black Hills and announced the discovery of gold on French Creek near present-day Custer, South Dakota. Custer's announcement triggered the Black Hills Gold Rush. Among the towns that immediately grew up was Deadwood, South Dakota, notorious for lawlessness. Grant, Belknap and Politics The expedition against the Sioux was originally scheduled to leave Fort Abraham Lincoln on April 6, 1876, but on March 15, Custer was summoned to Washington to testify at Congressional hearings regarding the scandal involving U.S. Secretary of War William W. Belknap and President Grant's brother Orville. After testifying on March 29 and April 4, Custer testified before the Banning Committee. After Belknap was indicted, Custer secured release and left Washington on April 20. Instead of immediately returning to Fort Lincoln, he visited the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and traveled to New York to meet with his publishers. While there, he was summoned to the U.S. Senate, possibly a move instigated by President Grant. Returning to Washington on April 21, Custer found he was the center of a campaign of vilification in the media. He was accused of perjury and disparagement of brother officers. General Sherman asked the new Secretary of War, Alphonso Taft, to write a letter requesting Custer's release so Custer could take command of the Fort Lincoln expedition against the Lakota. President Grant prohibited sending the letter and ordered Taft to appoint another officer to take command. When Brig. Gen. Alfred Terry determined there were no available officers of rank to take command, Sherman ordered him to make an appointment. Stunned that he would not be in command, Custer approached the impeachment managers and secured his release. General Sherman advised Custer not to leave Washington before meeting personally with President Grant. Custer arranged for Colonel Rufus Ingalls to request a meeting, which Grant refused. On the evening of May 3, Custer took a train to Chicago. The following morning General Sherman sent a telegram to General Sheridan ordering him to intercept Custer and hold him until further orders. Sheridan was also ordered to arrange for the expedition against the Lakota to depart with Major Reno's replacing Custer. Sherman, Sheridan, and Terry all wanted Custer in command but had to support Grant. Sherman
wrote Terry: "Custer's political activity has compromised his best friends here, and almost deprived us of the ability to serve him". Brig. Gen. Terry met Custer in Fort Snelling, Minnesota on May 6. He later recalled, "(Custer) with tears in his eyes, begged for my aid. How could I resist it?". Terry wrote to Grant attesting to the advantages of Custer's leading the expedition. Sheridan endorsed his effort, accepting Custer's "guilt" and suggesting his restraint in future. Grant was already under pressure for his treatment of Custer and his administration worried about failure of the "Sioux campaign" without him. Grant would be blamed if perceived as ignoring the recommendations of senior Army officers. On May 8 Custer was informed at Fort Snelling that he was to lead the 7th Cavalry, but under Terry's direct supervision. Before leaving Fort Snelling, Custer spoke to General Terry's chief engineer, Captain Ludlow, saying he would "cut loose" from Terry the first chance he got. Critics have used this statement to conclude that Custer was to blame for the resulting disaster by seeking to claim independent victory. Battle of the Little Bighorn Main article: Battle of the Little Bighorn By the time of Custer's expedition to the Black Hills in 1874, the level of conflict and tension between the U.S. and many of the Plains Indians tribes (including the Lakota Sioux and the Cheyenne) had become exceedingly high. Americans continually broke treaty agreements and advanced further westward, resulting in violence and acts of depredation by both sides. To take possession of the Black Hills (and thus the gold deposits), and to stop Indian attacks, the U.S. decided to corral all remaining free Plains Indians. The Grant government set a deadline of January 31, 1876 for all Lakota and Arapaho wintering in the "unceded territory" to report to their designated agencies (reservations) or be considered "hostile".The 7th Cavalry departed from Fort Lincoln on May 17, 1876, part of a larger army force planning to round up remaining free Indians. Meanwhile, in the spring and summer of 1876, the Hunkpapa Lakota holy man Sitting Bull had called together the largest ever gathering of Plains Indians at Ash Creek, Montana (later moved to the Little Bighorn River) to discuss what to do about the whites. It was this united encampment of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians that the 7th met at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. On June 25, some of Custer's Crow Indian scouts identified what they claimed was a large Indian encampment along the Little Bighorn River. Custer divided his forces into three battalions: one led by Major Marcus Reno, one by Captain Frederick Benteen, and one by himself. Captain Thomas M. McDougall and Company B were with the pack train. Benteen was sent south and west, to cut off any attempted escape by the Indians, Reno was sent north to charge the southern end of the encampment, and Custer rode north, hidden to the east of the encampment by bluffs, and planning to circle around and attack from the north. Reno began a charge on the southern end of the village, but halted some 500–600 yards short of the camp, and had his men dismount and form a skirmish line. They were soon overcome by mounted Lakota and Cheyenne warriors who counterattacked en masse against Reno's exposed left flank, forcing Reno and his men to take cover in the trees along the river. Eventually, however, this position became untenable and the troopers were forced into a bloody retreat up onto the bluffs above the river, where they made their own stand. This, the opening action of the battle, cost Reno a quarter of his command. Custer may have seen Reno stop and form a skirmish line as Custer led his command to the northern end of the main encampment, where he apparently planned to sandwich the Indians between his attacking troopers and Reno's command in a "hammer and anvil" maneuver. According to Grinnell's account, based on the testimony of the Cheyenne warriors who survived the fight, at least part of Custer's command attempted to ford the river at the north end of the camp but were driven off by stiff resistance from Indian sharpshooters firing from the brush along the west bank of the river. From that point the soldiers were pursued by hundreds of warriors onto a ridge north of the encampment. Custer and his command were prevented from digging in by Crazy Horse, however, whose warriors had outflanked him and were now to his north, at the crest of the ridge. Traditional white accounts attribute to Gall the attack that drove Custer up onto the ridge, but Indian witnesses have disputed that account. "Hurrah boys, we've got them! We'll finish them up and then go home to our station." —Famous words reportedly said by General Custer shortly before being killed. For a time, Custer's men were deployed by company, in standard cavalry fighting formation—the skirmish line, with every fourth man holding the horses. Yet this arrangement robbed Custer of a quarter of his firepower. Worse, as the fight intensified, many soldiers took to holding their own horses or hobbling them, further reducing the 7th's effective fire. When Crazy Horse and White Bull mounted the charge that broke through the center of Custer's lines, pandemonium broke out among the men of Calhoun's command, though Myles Keogh's men seem to have fought and died where they stood. Many of the panicking soldiers threw down their weapons and either rode or ran towards the knoll where Custer, the other officers, and about 40 men were making a stand. Along the way, the Indians rode them down, counting coup by whacking the fleeing troopers with their quirts or lances. Initially, Custer had 208 officers and men under his command, with an additional 142 under Reno, just over a hundred under Benteen, 50 soldiers with Captain McDougall's rearguard, and 84 soldiers under 1st Lieutenant Edward Gustave Mathey with the pack train. The Indians may have fielded over 1800 warriors. Historian Gregory Michno settles on a low number around 1000 based on contemporary Lakota testimony, but other sources place the number at 1800 or 2000, especially in the works by Utley and Fox. The 1800–2000 figure is substantially lower than the higher numbers of 3000 or more postulated by Ambrose, Gray, Scott, and others. Some of the other participants in the battle gave these estimates: • Spotted Horn Bull – 5,000 braves and chiefs • Maj. Reno – 2,500 to 5,000 warriors • Capt. Moylan – 3,500 to 4,000 • Lt. Hare – not under 4,000 • Lt. Godfrey – minimum between 2,500 and 3,000 • Lt. Edgerly – 4,000 • Lt. Varnum – not less than 4,000 • Sgt. Kanipe – fully 4,000 • George Herendeen – fully 3,000
• Fred Gerard – 2,500 to 3,000 An average of the above is 3,500 warriors and chiefs. As the troopers were cut down, the Indians stripped the dead of their firearms and ammunition, with the result that the return fire from the cavalry steadily decreased, while the fire from the Indians constantly increased. With Custer and the survivors shooting the remaining horses to use them as breastworks and making a final stand on the knoll at the north end of the ridge, the Indians closed in for the final attack and killed every man in Custer's command. As a result, the Battle of the Little Bighorn has come to be popularly known as "Custer's Last Stand". Death Some eyewitness reports state that Custer was not identified by the Indians who killed him until after his death. Several individuals claimed personal responsibility for the killing, including White Bull of the Miniconjous, Rain-in-theFace, Flat Lip and Brave Bear. In June 2005 at a public meeting, the Northern Cheyenne broke more than 100 years of silence about the battle. Storytellers told that according to their oral tradition, Buffalo Calf Road Woman, a Northern Cheyenne heroine of the Battle of the Rosebud, struck the final blow against Custer, which knocked him off his horse before he died. A contrasting version of Custer's death is suggested by the testimony of an Oglala named Joseph White Cow Bull, according to novelist and Custer biographer Evan Connell, who relates that Joseph White Bull stated he had shot a rider at the riverside wearing a buckskin jacket and big hat when the soldiers first approached the village from the east. The initial force facing the soldiers, according to this version, was quite small (possibly as few as four warriors) yet challenged Custer's command. The rider who was hit, mounted next to a rider who bore a flag, had shouted orders that prompted the soldiers to attack, but when the buckskin-clad rider fell off his horse after being shot, many of the attackers reined up. The allegation that the buckskin-clad officer was Custer, if accurate, might explain the supposed rapid disintegration of Custer's forces. However, several other officers of the Seventh, including William Cooke and Tom Custer, were also dressed in buckskin on the day of the battle, and the fact that each of the non-mutilation wounds to Custer's body (a bullet wound below the heart and a shot to the left temple) would have been instantly fatal casts doubt on his being wounded or killed at the ford, more than a mile from where his body was found. In 1920s, two elderly Cheyenne women spoke briefly with oral historians about their having recognized Custer's body on the battlefield, and had stopped a Sioux warrior from desecrating the body. The women were relatives of Mo-nah-se-tah, who was alleged to have been Custer's one-time lover. In the Cheyenne culture of the time, such a relationship was considered a marriage. The women allegedly told the warrior to "Stop, he is a relative of ours," and then shooed him away. The two women then shoved their sewing awls into his ears, to permit Custer's corpse to 'hear better in the afterlife' for having broken his promise to Chief Stone Forehead, having fought against Native Americans again. When the main column under General Terry arrived two days later, the army found most of the soldiers' corpses stripped, scalped, and mutilated. Custer's body had two bullet holes, one in the left temple and one just above the heart. Capt. Benteen, who inspected the body, stated that in his opinion the fatal injuries had not been the result of .45 caliber ammunition, which implies the bullet holes had been caused by ranged rifle fire. Following the recovery of Custer's body, his remains, along with those of his brother, Tom, were buried on the battlefield side by side in a shallow grave, after being covered by pieces of tent canvas and blankets. One year later, Custer's remains and those of many of his officers were recovered and sent back east for reinterment in more formal burials. Custer was reinterred with full military honors at West Point Cemetery on October 10, 1877. The battle site was designated a National Cemetery in 1876. Controversial legacy After his death, Custer achieved the lasting fame that he had sought on the battlefield. The public saw him as a tragic military hero and exemplary gentleman who sacrificed his life for his country. Custer's wife, Elizabeth, who had accompanied him in many of his frontier expeditions, did much to advance this view with the publication of several books about her late husband: Boots and Saddles, Life with General Custer in Dakota (1885), Tenting on the Plains (1887), and Following the Guidon (1891). Lt. Col. Custer wrote about the Indian wars in My Life on the Plains (1874). The deaths of Custer and his troops became the best-known episode in the history of western Indian wars, due in part to a painting commissioned by the brewery Anheuser-Busch as part of an advertising campaign. The enterprising company ordered reprints of a dramatic work that depicted “Custer's Last Stand” and had them framed and hung in many United States saloons. This created lasting impressions of the battle and the brewery’s products in the minds of many bar patrons.  Custer has been called a "media personality", and he did value good public relations in addition to leveraging the print media of his era effectively. He frequently invited correspondents to accompany his campaigns (one died at the Little Bighorn), and their favorable reporting contributed to his high reputation, which lasted well into the 20th century. He paid attention to his image; after being promoted to brigadier general in the Civil War, Custer sported a uniform that included shiny cavalry boots, tight olive-colored corduroy trousers, a wide-brimmed slouch hat, tight hussar jacket of black velveteen with silver piping on the sleeves, a sailor shirt with silver stars on his collar, and a red cravat. He wore his hair in long ringlets liberally sprinkled with cinnamon-scented hair oil. Later, in his campaigns against the Indians, Custer wore a buckskins outfit, along with his familiar red tie. The assessment of Custer's actions during the Indian Wars has undergone substantial reconsideration in modern times. Documenting the arc of popular perception in his 1984 biography Son of the Morning Star, author Evan Connell notes the reverential tone of Custer's first biographer Frederick Whittaker (whose book was rushed out the year of Custer's death.) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote an adoring (and often erroneous) poem. President Theodore Roosevelt's lavish praise pleased Custer's widow. Connell concludes: "These days it is stylish to denigrate the general, whose stock sells for nothing. Nineteenth-century Americans thought differently. At that time he was a cavalier without fear and beyond reproach." Some historians criticize Custer as the personification of the U.S. Government's ill-treatment of the Native American tribes; others[who?] view him as a scapegoat for the Grant Indian policy, which he personally opposed. The Grant administration was so displeased by his testimony on behalf of the abuses sustained by the reservation Indians that it nearly prohibited his command. President Grant, a highly successful general, bluntly criticized Custer's actions in the battle of the Little Bighorn. Quoted in the New York Herald on September 2, 1876, Grant said, "I regard Custer's
Massacre as a sacrifice of troops, brought on by Custer himself, that was wholly unnecessary – wholly unnecessary." General Phillip Sheridan likewise took a harsh view of Custer's final military actions. General Nelson Miles (who inherited Custer's mantle of famed Indian fighter) and others praised him as a fallen hero betrayed by the incompetence of subordinate officers. Miles noted the difficulty of winning a fight "with seven-twelfths of the command remaining out of the engagement when within sound of his rifle shots." The controversy over blame for the disaster at Little Bighorn continues to this day. Major Marcus Reno's failure to press his attack on the south end of the Lakota/Cheyenne village and his flight to the timber along the river after a single casualty have been cited as a causal factor in the destruction of Custer's battalion, as has Captain Frederick Benteen's allegedly tardy arrival on the field and the failure of the two officers' combined forces to move toward the relief of Custer. "When writing about Custer, neutral ground is elusive. What should Custer have done at any of the critical junctures that rapidly presented themselves, each now the subject of endless speculation and rumination? There will always be a variety of opinions based upon what Custer knew, what he did not know, and what he could not have known..." —from Touched by Fire: The Life, Death, and Mythic Afterlife of George Armstrong Custer by Louise Barnett. In contrast, some of Custer's critics, including Gen. Sheridan, have asserted at least three clear tactical errors. First, while camped at Powder River, Custer refused the support offered by General Terry on June 21, of an additional four companies of the Second Cavalry. Custer stated that he "could whip any Indian village on the Plains" with his own regiment, and that extra troops would simply be a burden. At the same time, he left behind at the steamer Far West on the Yellowstone a battery of Gatling guns, knowing he was facing superior numbers. Before leaving the camp all the troops, including the officers, also boxed their sabers and sent them back with the wagons. On the day of the battle, Custer divided his 600-man command, despite being faced with vastly superior numbers of Sioux and Cheyenne. The refusal of an extra battalion reduced the size of his force by at least a sixth, and rejecting the firepower offered by the Gatling guns played into the events of June 25 to the disadvantage of his regiment. Custer's defenders, however, including historian Charles K. Hofling, have asserted that Gatling guns would have been slow and cumbersome as the troops crossed the rough country between the Yellowstone and the Little Bighorn. Custer rated speed in gaining the battlefield as essential and more important. The additional firepower had the potential of turning the tide of the fight, given the Indians' propensity for withdrawing in the face of new military technology. Other Custer supporters[who?] have claimed that splitting the forces was a standard tactic, so as to demoralize the enemy with the appearance of the cavalry in different places all at once, especially when a contingent threatened the line of retreat. Monuments and memorials • Counties are named in Custer's honor in six states: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and South Dakota. Custer County, Idaho, is named for the General Custer Mine, which was named for Custer. Townships in Michigan and Minnesota were named for Custer. There are also the villages of Custer, Michigan and Custer, Ohio, the city of Custer, South Dakota, and the unincorporated town of Custer, Wisconsin. A portion of Monroe County, Michigan, is informally referred to as "Custerville". • Custer National Cemetery is within Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, the site of Custer's death. • An equestrian statue of Custer by Edward Clark Potter was erected in Monroe, Michigan, his boyhood home, in 1910. • Fort Custer National Military Reservation, near Augusta, Michigan, was built in 1917 on 130 parcels of land, as part of the military mobilization for World War I. During the war, some 90,000 troops passed through Camp Custer. • The establishment of Fort Custer National Cemetery (originally Fort Custer Post Cemetery) took place on September 18, 1943, with the first interment. On Memorial Day 1982, more than 33 years after the first resolution had been introduced in Congress, impressive ceremonies marked the official opening of the cemetery. • Custer Hill is the main troop billeting area at Fort Riley, Kansas. • The US 85th Infantry Division was nicknamed The Custer Division. • The Black Hills of South Dakota is full of evidence of Custer, with a county, town, and the Custer State Park all located in the area. • The Custer house at Fort Lincoln, near present-day Mandan, North Dakota has been reconstructed as it was in Custer's day, along with the soldiers' barracks, block houses, etc. Annual re-enactments are held of Custer's 7th Cavalry's leaving for the Little Bighorn. • On July 2, 2008, a marble monument to Brigadier General Custer was dedicated at the site of the 1863 Civil War Battle of Hunterstown in Adams County, Pennsylvania. • Custer Monument at the United States Military Academy was first unveiled in 1879. It now stands next to his grave in the West Point Cemetery. See also Biography portal United States Army portal American Civil War portal • Cultural depictions of George Armstrong Custer • Fort Abraham Lincoln • List of American Civil War generals • List of German Americans • German-Americans in the Civil War References 1. ^ Wert, Jeffry D. (1996). Custer: The Controversial Life of George Armstrong Custer. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81043-3., p. 15.
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^ Connell, Evan S. (1984). Son Of The Morning Star. San Francisco, California: North Point Press. ISBN 086547-160-6., p. 352. ^ Albert Bernhardt Faust, The German Element in the United States, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1909, vol. 1, p. 517. ^ Merington, Margurite (1987). The Custer Story: The Life and Intimate Letters of George A. Custer and His Wife Elizabeth. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-803-28138-2. ^ Custer in the 1850 US Census in North Township, Ohio. ^ Wert (1996), pp. 17–18. ^ a b c Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804736413.p. 196. ^ Custer in the 1860 US Census at West Point. ^ Tagg, Larry. (1988). The Generals Of Gettysburg: Appraisal Of The Leaders Of America's Greatest Battle. Savas Publishing Company, ISBN 1-882810-30-9, p. 184. ^ Marguerite Merrington, The Custer Story In Letters|University of Nebraska Press, 1987. ^ Tagg, p. 185. ^ Robbins, James S., Last in their Class: Custer, Pickett and the Goats of West Point (2006), p. 268. ^ Connell (1984), p. 113. ^ Barnett, Louise (1996). Touched by Fire: The Life, Death, and Afterlife of George Armstrong Custer. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc.. ISBN 0-8050-3720-9., p. 22. ^ Connell (1984), pp. 113–114. ^ Utley, Robert M. (2001). Cavalier in Buckskin: George Armstrong Custer and the Western Military Frontier, revised edition. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3387-2, p. 107. ^ Wert (1996), pp. 287–288. ^ Wert, p. 225. ^ Wert (1996), pp. 232–238. ^ Richter, William L. "It is Best to Go Strong-Armed: Army Occupation of Texas, 1865–66", Arizona and The West (Summer 1985), Vol. 27, No. 2, p. 121-122. ^ Richter, "It is Best to Go Strong-Armed: Army Occupation of Texas, 1865–66", p. 135. ^ Utley 2001, p. 38. ^ a b c Utley 2001, p. 39. ^ Wert (1996), p. 241. ^ Utley 2001, pp. 39–40. ^ a b Utley 2001, p. 40. ^ Utley 2001, p. 41. ^ "The Story of the Battle of the Washita". National Park Service (USA). November 1999. http://www.nps.gov/archive/waba/story.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-02. ^ 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty. The Cheyenne were not part of this treaty and had no designated agency. The reservation was for the Lakota and Arapaho. ^ Marshall 2007, p. 15. ^ Welch 2007, p. 149. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996). Crazy Horse and Custer: The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0385479662, p. 437. ^ Marshall 2007, p. 2. ^ Goodrich, Thomas (1997). Scalp Dance: Indian Warfare on the High Plains, 1865–1879. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, p. 242, testimony of scout Billy Jackson. ^ Marshall 2007, p. 4. ^ Ambrose 1996, p. 439. ^ Vern Smalley, More Little Bighorn Mysteries, Chapter 14. ^ Grinnell, 1915, pp. 300–301. ^ Marshall 2007, pp. 7–8. ^ Michno, Gregory F. (1997). Lakota Noon: The Indian Narrative of Custer's Defeat. Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8784-2349-4, p. 168. ^ I fought with Custer by Charles Windolph, Frazier Hunt, Robert Hunt. ^ Michno (1997), pp. 205–206. ^ Welch 2007, p. 183; cf. Grinnell, p. 301, whose sources say that by this time, about half the soldiers were without carbines and fought only with six-shooters. ^ Michno (1997), p. 215. ^ Michno (1997), pp. 10–20. ^ Vern Smalley, Little Bighorn Mysteries, p. 6. ^ Dee Brown, Bury my Heart at Wounded Knee, Vintage, 1991, ISBN 978-0-099-52640-7, p.296-297. ^ Martin J. Kidston, "Northern Cheyenne break vow of silence", Helena Independent Record, 28 June 2005. Retrieved 23 October 2009. ^ Connell (1984), pp. 413–414. ^ Wert, 1996, p. 355. ^ Smithsonian Magazine, November, 2010, "How Little Bighorn was won" by Thomas Powers ^ Marshall 2007, p. 11; Welch 2007, pp. 175–181. ^ Welch 2007, p. 175.
^ Connell (1984), P. 410. ^ a b Connell (1984), p. 411. ^ Griske, Michael (2005). The Diaries of John Hunton. Heritage Books. pp. 78–79. ISBN 0-7884-3804-2. ^ Ravage, John W. (1997). Black pioneers: images of the Black experience on the North American frontier. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-87480-546-8. 58. ^ Adams, Michael C.C. (2006). "George Armstrong Custer". In Hall, Dennis G.; Hall, Susan. American icons: an encyclopedia of the people, places, and things that have shaped our culture. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-275-98429-8. 59. ^ Frost, Lawrence A. (1990). The Custer album: a pictorial biography of General George A. Custer. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 179. ISBN 9780806122823. 60. ^ Connell (1984), p. 287. 61. ^ Connell (1984), pp. 380–391. 62. ^ Connell (1984), p. 325. 63. ^ a b Barnett (1996), p. 540. 64. ^ Barnett (1996), p. 311. 65. ^ "William Slaper's Story of the Battle", Personal account by a trooper in M company 7th Cavalry. 66. ^ Goodrich, Scalp Dance, 1997, pp. 233–234. 67. ^ Custer and the Little Big Horn: A ... – Google Books. Books.google.com. 1985-06. ISBN 9780814318140. http://books.google.com/?id=354YOkSKZXcC&pg=PA27&lpg=PA27&dq=nelson+miles+on+little+bighorn#PP A27,M1. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 68. ^ Toledo Blade article. 69. ^ "Fort Custer National Cemetery". United States Department of Veterans Affairs. http://www.cem.va.gov/CEMs/nchp/ftcuster.asp. Retrieved 2008-12-22. 70. ^ "The Free Library". The Free Library. 2006-11-01. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Custer%27s+last+policy:+General+George+Custer%27s+life+insurance+policy+. ..-a0154692038. Retrieved 2010-11-04. Bibliography • Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996 ). Crazy Horse and Custer: The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0385479662. • Barnett, Louise Touched by Fire: The Life, Death, and Mythic Afterlife of George Armstrong Custer (1996) New York, Henry Holt and Company, Inc. • Boulard, Garry "The Swing Around the Circle – Andrew Johnson and the Train Ride that Destroyed a Presidency" (2006) isbn=978-1-4401-0239-4 • Connell, Evan S. (1984). Son Of The Morning Star. San Francisco, California: North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-1606. • Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. • Goodrich, Thomas. Scalp Dance: Indian Warfare on the High Plains, 1865–1879. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1997. • Gray, John S. (1993). Custer's Last Campaign: Mitch Boyer and the Little Bighorn Remembered. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7040-2. • Grinnell, George Bird (1915). The Fighting Cheyennes. The University of Oklahoma Press reprint 1956. pp. 296–307. ISBN 0-7394-0373-7. • Longacre, Edward G. (2000). Lincoln's Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of the Potomac. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1049-1. • Mails, Thomas E. Mystic Warriors of the Plains. New York: Marlowe & Co., 1996. • Marshall, Joseph M. III. (2007). The Day the World Ended at Little Bighorn: A Lakota History. New York: Viking Press. • Merington, Marguerite, Ed. The Custer Story: The Life and Intimate Letters of General Custer and his Wife Elizabeth. (1950) • Michno, Gregory F. (1997). Lakota Noon: The Indian Narrative of Custer's Defeat. Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8784-2349-4. • Perrett, Bryan. Last Stand: Famous Battles Against the Odds. London: Arms & Armour, 1993. • Scott, Douglas D., Richard A. Fox, Melissa A. Connor, and Dick Harmon. (1989). Archaeological Perspectives on the Battle of the Little Bighorn. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3292-2. • Punke, Michael, "Last Stand: George Bird Grinnell, the Battle to Save the Buffalo, and the Birth of the New West", Smithsonian Books, 2007, ISBN 9780060897826 • Tagg, Larry. (1988). The Generals of Gettysburg. Savas Publishing. ISBN 1-882810-30-9. • Urwin, Gregory J. W., Custer Victorious, University of Nebraska Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0803295568. • Utley, Robert M. (2001). Cavalier in Buckskin: George Armstrong Custer and the Western Military Frontier, revised edition. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3387-2. • Vestal, Stanley. Warpath: The True Story of the Fighting Sioux Told in a Biography of Chief White Bull. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1934. • Warner, Ezra J. (1964). Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 08071-0822-7.
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Welch, James, with Paul Stekler. (2007 ). Killing Custer: The Battle of Little Bighorn and the Fate of the Plains Indians. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. • Wert, Jeffry D. Custer: The Controversial Life of George Armstrong Custer. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996. ISBN 0-684-83275-5. • Wittenberg, Eric J. (2001). Glory Enough for All : Sheridan's Second Raid and the Battle of Trevilian Station. Brassey's Inc. ISBN 1-57488-353-4. External links • Wikimedia Commons has media related to: George Armstrong Custer Friends of the Little Bighorn Battlefield Custer Battlefield Museum "George Armstrong Custer". Find a Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=249. Retrieved 2008-02-12. • Little Bighorn History Alliance • Custerwest.org:Site For Traditional Scholarship • Kenneth M Hammer Collection on Custer and the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Harold G. Andersen Library, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater • Gallery of Custer images • Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture -Custer, George Armstrong • Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Custer, George Armstrong". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Elizabeth Bacon Custer (1900). "Custer, George Armstrong". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. • Further reading • Elizabeth Bacon Custer (1999-05-19). Boots and Saddles: Or, Life in Dakota with General Custer. Harper & Brothers, NY., 1885. ISBN 9781582181264. http://books.google.com/?id=EfRkVrJcVLoC&pg=PA314&dq=novel+war#PPP1,M1. Retrieved 2010-11-04. • Elizabeth Bacon Custer (1999-06-19). Tenting on the Plains: General Custer in Kansas and Texas. Charles I.Webster & Co, 1887. ISBN 9781582180519. http://books.google.com/?id=12kdG7nn6KMC&printsec=frontcover. Retrieved 2010-11-04. • Finerty JF (1890). War-path and bivouac: or, The conquest of the Sioux: a narrative of stirring personal experiences and adventures in the Big Horn and Yellowstone expedition of 1876, and in the campaign on the British border, in 1879. Donohue Brothers. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/History.Finerty. Retrieved 2008-03-09. • Kraft, Louis (2008). "Custer: The Truth Behind the Silver Screen Myth". American History (Feb): 26–33. • Newsom TM (2007). History: Thrilling scenes among the Indians. With a graphic description of Custer's last fight with Sitting Bull. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-0548629888. http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgibin/History/History-idx?id=History.Newson. Retrieved 2008-03-09. • Victor FF (1877). History: Thrilling scenes among the Indians. With a graphic description of Custer's last fight with Sitting Bull. Columbian book company. http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/Historyidx?id=History.Victor. Retrieved 2008-03-09. • Whittaker F (1876). A complete life of Gen. George A. Custer : Major-General of Volunteers; Brevet Major-General, U.S. Army; and Lieutenant-Colonel, Seventh U.S. Cavalry. Sheldon and Company. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/History.Whittaker. Retrieved 2008-03-09. • Donovan, J (2009). A Terrible Glory: Custer and the Little Bighorn – The Last Great Battle of the American West. Little, Brown & Company. ISBN 9780316067478. http://books.google.com/?id=ZS2VPwAACAAJ&dq=A+Terrible+Glory:+Custer+and+the+Little+Bighorn. • • •
Second Lieutenant George A. Custer has photo taken with ex-classmate, friend and captured Confederate prisoner, Lt. J.B. Washington, aide to Gen. Johnston at Fair Oaks, 1862. Custer (extreme right) with President Lincoln, George B. McClellan and other officers at the Battle of Antietam, 1862 Captain Custer (left) with General Alfred Pleasonton (right) on horseback in Falmouth, Virginia.
Union Cavalry Generals George A. Custer and Alfred Pleasonton in Autumn 1863 George and Libbie Custer, 1864
Brevet Major General George Armstrong Custer, US Army, 1865 Custer posing with Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia, 1872 Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer, 7th U.S. Cavalry, ca. 1875
Custer and his wife at Fort Abraham Lincoln, Dakota Territory, 1874
Custer Memorial at his birthplace in New Rumley, Ohio Monroe, Michigan, Custer's childhood home, unveiled the George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument in 1910.
Theodore Ayrault Dodge
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Theodore Ayrault Dodge (May 28, 1842 – 1909) was an American officer and military historian. He fought as a Union officer in the American Civil War; as a writer, he was devoted to both the Civil War and the great generals of ancient and European history. Biography Born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, he received a military education in Berlin and attended University College London and the University of Heidelberg. Returning to the United States in 1861, he promptly enlisted as a private in the New York volunteer infantry. Over the course of the Civil War, he rose to the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel, losing his right leg at the Battle of Gettysburg. He served at the War Department from 1864 and was commissioned in the regular army in 1866. In 1870 he retired with the rank of major. Following retirement he lived in Boston until moving to Paris, where he died. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. His works on the Civil War include The Campaign of Chancellorsville (1881) and Bird's Eye View of the Civil War (1883). From 1890 to 1907 he also published twelve volumes of his History of the Art of War: Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, Gustavus Adolphus, Frederick the Great, Napoleon, although the volumes on Frederick the Great were not completed before his death. The work has been broken up into individual biographies for modern publication. In addition, his military journal, covering his time with the Army of the Potomac from the Seven Days Battles to Gettysburg, has recently been compiled and published by noted historian Stephen W. Sears under the title On Campaign with the Army of the Potomac: The Civil War Journal of Theodore Ayrault Dodge. External links A list of Theodore Ayrault Dodge's works on bookfinder.com • • Theodore Ayrault Dodge's entry on the Arlington National Cemetery website, featuring a photograph of his grave
William Harding Carter
November 19, 1851 – May 24, 1925 (aged 73)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Place of birth Place of death Place of burial Allegiance Service/branch Years of service Rank Battles/wars Awards Other work Nashville, Tennessee Washington, D.C. Arlington National Cemetery United States of America Union United States Army Union Army 1864–1918 Major General American Civil War Indian Wars Spanish-American War World War I Medal of Honor Distinguished Service Medal Writer
William Giles Harding Carter (November 19, 1851 – May 24, 1925) was a US Cavalry officer who served during the American Civil War, Spanish-American War and World War I. He was also took part in the Indian Wars seeing extensive service against the Apache and Commanche in Arizona being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor against the Apache during the Comanche Campaign on August 30, 1881. Largely responsible for the modernization and organization of the United States Army during the early 20th century, he and Secretary of War Elihu Root are credited with the creation of the U.S. Army War College and helped pass the General Staff Act of 1903 through the United States Congress, replacing the office of commanding general with a chief of staff and a more efficient reorganization of military staff structure. He was also an active supporter of the Militia Act of 1903 which proposed to replace the obsolete state militia system with the National Guard Bureau. A later historian and military biographer, Carter wrote several books including From Yorktown to Santiago with the 6th Cavalry (1900), Old Army Sketches (1906) and The Life of Lieutenant General Chaffee (1917) as well as a number articles and academic papers for professional and learned journals. Born in Nashville, Tennessee, he received both public and private schooling as a child and later attended the Kentucky Military Institute in Frankfort, Kentucky later acting as a mounted messenger during the American Civil War. Accepted into West Point, Carter graduated with a commission as a Second Lieutenant on June 13, 1873. He was assigned to the 8th U.S. Infantry at Fort D.A. Russell, Wyoming and was later on escort duty at Fort Fetterman and Fort Laramie. In February 1874, he participated in expeditions against the Cheyenne, Brulé and Oglala Sioux. During the summer, he followed his company passing through California to the Arizona Territory and stationed at Fort McDowell. While there, he transferred to the 6th U.S. Cavalry on November 28 and later reassigned to the 5th U.S. Cavalry at Fort Verde where he remained until May 1875. Carter served in various posts throughout the territory as an army scout and was occasionally involved in a number of minor skirmishes with local tribes. From April to July 1876, he was involved in the removal of the Chiricahua Apache from their reservation in southeastern Arizona to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. He also oversaw the construction of the first telegraph line from Fort Grant to Fort Apache later that year. After a year of scouting in the Arizona and New Mexico territories as well as the Mexican state of Sonora during early 1878, Carter won promotion to first lieutenant on April 14, 1879 and took part in the final stages of the campaign against Victorio from June to October 1880. The following summer, he took part in the Comanche Campaign as an adjutant general to Colonel Eugene Asa Carr and was awarded the Medal of Honor "for
distinguished bravery in action against the Apache Indians" when he and two others rescued wounded soldiers under heavy fire during the Battle of Cibeque on August 30, 1881. During the next several years, he would rise to high position being promoted to captain on November 20, 1889; major on January 29, 1897; lieutenant colonel on May 8, 1898; colonel on April 15, 1902; brigadier general on July 15, 1902 and finally to major general in 1909. In the years prior to the First World War, Carter was extensively involved in the technical details of organization of the US Army. In 1913, he later commanded the 2nd U.S. Division and was head of the Hawaiian Department before his retirement on November 19, 1915. Following the United States entry into the war, he was recalled to duty and appointed commander of the Central Department of Chicago from August 1917 to February 1918 and was later awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. Suffering from serious respiratory problems in his later years, likely related to heart disease, he died at his home in Washington, D.C. on May 24, 1925 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Medal of Honor citation Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Cibicu, Ariz., 30 August 1881. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Nashville, Tenn. Date of issue: 17 September 1891. Citation: Rescued, with the voluntary assistance of 2 soldiers, the wounded from under a heavy fire. Bibliography • From Yorktown to Santiago With the 6th Cavalry (1900) • Old Army Sketches (1906) • Giles Carter of Virginia (1909) • The American Army (1915) • Life and Services of General Chaffee (1917) • Horses, Saddles, and Bridles (1918) See also Biography portal
United States Army portal American Civil War portal • List of Medal of Honor recipients • List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Indian Wars References This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History. 1. ^ a b "Medal of Honor recipients Indian Wars Period". Army Center of Military History. http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/indianwars.html. Retrieved 2009-04-12. 2. ^ a b c d e f "William Giles Harding Carter". Arlington National Cemetery. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/whcarter.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-12. • Thrapp, Dan L. Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography: In Three Volumes, Volume I (A–F). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8032-9418-2 Further reading • Machoian, Ronald G. William Harding Carter and the American Army, A Soldier’s Story. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006. • Thrapp, Dan L. General Crook and the Sierra Madre Adventures. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972.
Henry Ossian Flipper
March 21, 1856 – May 3, 1940 (aged 84)
Cadet Henry O. Flipper USMA Class of 1877. circa 1900 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Place of birth Service/branch Years of service Rank Other work Thomasville, Georgia United States Army 1877 - 1882 Second Lieutenant Civil Engineer
Henry Ossian Flipper (21 March 1856 – 3 May 1940) was an American soldier and though born into slavery in the American South, was the first African American to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1877 at the age of 21 and earn a commission as a 2nd Lieutenant in the US Army. Following Flipper's commission, he was transferred to one of the all-black regiments serving in the US Army which were historically led by white officers. Assigned to A Troop under the command of Captain Nicholas M. Nolan, he became the first non-white officer to lead Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry. Flipper served with competency and distinction during the Apache Wars and the Victorio Campaign but was haunted by rumors alleging improprieties. At one point he was court martialed and dismissed from the US Army. After losing his commission in the Army, Flipper worked throughout Mexico and Latin America and as an assistant to the Secretary of the Interior. He retired to Atlanta in 1931 and died of natural causes in 1940. In 1976 his descendants applied to the US military for a review of Flipper's court martial and dismissal. A review found that the conviction and punishment were "unduly harsh and unjust" and recommended that Flipper’s dismissal be changed to a good conduct discharge. Shortly afterwards, an application for pardon was filed with the Secretary of the Army which was forwarded to the Department of Justice. President Bill Clinton pardoned Lieutenant Henry O. Flipper on 19 February 1999. Flipper was born into slavery in Thomasville, Georgia the eldest of five brothers. His mother was Isabelle Flipper and his father, Festus Flipper, a shoemaker and carriage-trimmer, was slave of Ephraim G. Ponder, a wealthy slave dealer. Flipper attended Atlanta University during Reconstruction. There, as a freshman, Representative James C. Freeman appointed him to attend West Point, where there were already four other black cadets. The small group had a difficult time at the academy, where they were rejected by the white students. Nevertheless, Flipper persevered and in 1877 became the first of the group to graduate, becoming a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Army cavalry. He was assigned to the 10th Cavalry Regiment, one of the four all-black Buffalo Soldier regiments in the army, and became the first black officer to command regular troops in the U.S. Army. (Previously all-black regiments were led by white officers). 10th Cavalry Regiment
In July 1877 Second Lieutenant Flipper reported to Fort Sill in the Indian Territory, for assignment with the 10th Cavalry. But the 10th was not at Fort Sill, they were at Fort Concho. He was not assigned to a cavalry troop but given work assignments including engineering a ditch to drain a swamp that was malaria-infested. He supervised the construction of roads and telegraph lines. Finally Flipper received orders to report to Fort Concho in west Texas in October 1877. He was assigned to A Troop. He was the first non-white officer to lead Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry. Captain Nicholas M. Nolan, the commander of A troop, 10th Cavalry, was the officer assigned to teach him what was needed to know about being a cavalry officer. Nolan was censured by several white officers for allowing Flipper into his quarters for dinner, where his daughter Kate was present. Nolan defended his action by stating that Flipper was an "officer and a gentleman" just like any other officer present. In August 1878 Nolan married his second wife, Anne Eleanor Dwyer in San Antonio, Texas. They had one child, a girl. Miss Mollie Dwyer, Anne's sister, arrived shortly after Troop A moved to Fort Elliott in Texas in early 1879. Mollie Dwyer and Flipper became friends and often went riding together. Nolan was the de facto commander of Fort Elliott and he made Flipper his adjutant. Flipper had high marks from his commander. However, there were murmurs and letters hinting at improprieties against Lt. Flipper, an African-American and Mollie Dwyer, a caucasian. It would be the beginning of a smear campaign. During the next many months he sent and received letters from his friend Mollie. In the Fall of 1879 a Federal Marshal named Norton armed with blank warrants began a quarrel with a County Judge. Other county officials stepped in to defend the judge and Norton arrested all of them with his armed men. Norton took the county men to Fort Elliott to be placed in the guard house. Nolan was required by law to accept the prisoners and it appears that Nolan talked with the Wheeler County Judge. The telegraph lines then were suddenly cut and Nolan decided to act. Flipper gathered the prisoners in the middle of the night and with two soldiers set off for another Fort in Indian Territory. Marshal Norton captured the entire party and arrested Flipper and one of his soldiers. The other soldier ran back to the Fort to report what had happened. Norton then set off for Dallas, Texas. Nolan mounted a detail of men and took off in pursuit. He caught up to the party and made it clearly known that no prisoners would be shot while trying to escape, because the Federal Marshal and his prisoners were now under military escort. A Federal Judge dismissed the warrants and Norton filed federal charges of "interfering with the process of the law" against the two officers. The two officers were quickly tried and found guilty. Both were fined a thousand dollars which was an enormous fine for its time. Norton was satisfied then left. The Federal Judge then suspended payment and dismissed the two military officers. Army relations in the county of Wheeler improved tremendously. Nolan had Flipper under his wing for the first part of the Apache Wars in early 1879 until he was reassigned to G Troop. Until November 1879, during his Captain's four month leave, Flipper commanded this unit by himself and received a well done. In May 1880, Flipper and Nolan reunited during the Victorio Campaign. It would be the last time the two would meet. Throughout this period, his military career was encumbered by racism in the military, though he did have the support of some officers like Nolan and many of the white civilians he encountered who were impressed by his competency. In the later part of 1880 Flipper was transferred to Fort Davis and assigned as the post quartermaster and commissary officer. End of military career Colonel William Rufus Shafter[n 1] assumed command at Fort Davis in March 1881. He had been the commander of the First Infantry Regiment at Fort Davis. Shafter had a reputation as harassing officers he disliked. While he tolerated black Buffalo Soldiers, he hated seeing a black officer. Flipper was dismissed without cause as quartermaster within days. Then Shafter "asked" Flipper to keep the quartermaster's safe in his quarters. Being "asked" by a superior officer was a de facto order and Flipper complied. In July 1881 Flipper found a shortage of over $2,000.00. Realizing that this could be used against him by officers intent on forcing him out of the army, he attempted to hide the discrepancy, which was later discovered, then he lied about it when confronted. In August he was arrested by Shafter for embezzling government funds. Word quickly spread about the missing money. Many felt it was a setup and soldiers and the community came up with the money to replace what was missing within four days. Shafter accepted the money then convened a court-martial on September 17, 1881. In December 1881 the court-martial found Flipper innocent of the main charge. But another charge had been added during the trial which they found him guilty "of conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman," and sentenced him to be "dismissed from the service of the United States." It was more than a harsh sentence. In two prior situations involving white officers who were found guilty of embezzlement, neither officer was dismissed nor dishonored. The letters exchanged between Miss Mollie Dwyer and Flipper were used against him. Relationships between whites and blacks were strictly forbidden in the viewpoint of the white officers on the board. Despite appeals, and denial of a lighter sentence from President Chester A. Arthur, Flipper was drummed out of the army with a dismissal, the officer equivalent of a dishonorable discharge, on June 30, 1882. For the rest of his life, Flipper contested the charges and fought to regain his commission. Post military After his dismissal, Flipper remained in Texas, working as a civil engineer. In 1898, he volunteered to serve in the Spanish-American War, but requests to restore his commission were ignored by Congress. He spent time in Mexico, and on returning to the United States, he served as an advisor to Senator Albert Fall on the revolutionary politics in that country. When Fall became Secretary of the Interior in 1921, he brought Flipper with him to
Washington, D.C. to serve as his assistant. In 1923 Flipper went to work in Venezuela as an engineer in the petroleum industry. He retired to Atlanta in 1931, and died in 1940. Legacy In 1976 descendants and supporters applied to the Army Board for the Correction of Military Records on behalf of Flipper. The Board, after stating that it did not have the authority to overturn his court-martial conviction, concluded the conviction and punishment were "unduly harsh and unjust" and recommended that Flipper’s dismissal be changed to a good conduct discharge. The Assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower and Reserve Affairs) and the Adjutant General approved the Board's findings, conclusions, and recommendations and directed that the Department of the Army issue Flipper a Certificate of Honorable Discharge, dated 30 June 1882, in lieu of his dismissal on the same date. On 21 October 1997, a private law firm filed an application of pardon with the Secretary of the Army on Flipper's behalf. Seven months later, the application was forwarded by the Acting Assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower and Reserve Affairs) to the Office of the Pardon Attorney at the Department of Justice with a recommendation that the pardon be approved. Many pardon applications had been rejected in the past - as a matter of policy - because the intended recipients were deceased. However, President Bill Clinton pardoned Flipper on 19 February 1999. After his discharge was changed, a bust of Flipper was unveiled at West Point. Since then, an annual Henry O. Flipper Award has been granted to graduating cadets at the Academy who exhibit "leadership, self-discipline, and perseverance in the face of unusual difficulties." Throughout his life, Flipper was a prolific author, writing about scientific topics, the history of the Southwest, and his own experiences. In The Colored Cadet at West Point (1878) he describes his experiences at the military academy. In the posthumous Negro Frontiersman: The Western Memoirs of Henry O. Flipper (1963), he describes his life in Texas and Arizona after his discharge from the army. See also United States Army portal List of African American firsts Notes 1. ^ Shafter, Texas (1884) is named after Colonel Shafter. It is located some eighteen miles north of Presido on U.S. Highway 67, at the east end of the Chinati Mountains. John W. Spencer found silver ore there and took it to Fort Davis to be assayed. It was determined to be worth $45 per ton. In October 1880 Shafter and two officers who later sat on on Flipper's court-martial began buying land around the Spencer claim. They were unable to buy several sections of lands because they lacked capital. In late June of 1882 they organized "Presidio Mining Company" and the remaining sections were bought. Allegations of where Shafter got the money from over the next year were squashed. No investigation was ever conducted. Colonel Shafter continued his career until he retired in 1900 as a Major General of Volunteers. References This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History. 1. ^ a b c d e f g h The Multiracial Activist - www.multiracial.com - The Colored Cadet at West Point. Autobiography of Lieut. Henry Ossian Flipper at multiracial.com 2. ^ Lieutenant Henry Ossian Flipper, U.S. Army 1856-1940. US Army. Retrieved 11-22-2007 3. ^ a b c d e f g h Mobeetie Jail Museum (2009). "Lieutenant Henry O. Flipper". Old Mobeetie Texas Association. http://www.mobeetie.com/pages/flipper.htm. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 4. ^ a b c d Bigelow, John Jr, Lieutenant, U.S.A., R.Q.M. Tenth Cavalry (no date given but about 1890). ""The Tenth Regiment of Cavalry" from "The Army of the United States Historical Sketches of Staff and Line with Portraits of Generals-in-Chief"". United States Army. http://www.history.army.mil/books/R&H/R&H-10CV.htm. Retrieved August 12, 2009. 5. ^ "Shafter, William Rufus". The Handbook of Texas Online. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/SS/fsh2.html. Retrieved September 5, 2009. Further reading • Lieutenant Henry Ossian Flipper, U.S. Army 1856-1940 at the United States Army Center of Military History • Works by Henry Ossian Flipper at Project Gutenberg • Additional information on famous presidential pardons. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Henry Ossian Flipper
• • • • •
The Colored Cadet at West Point. Autobiography of Lieut. Henry Ossian Flipper, U. S. A., First Graduate of Color from the U. S. Military Academy. New York: H. Lee & co., 1878. Lt. Flipper: The First Black Graduate of West Point Henry O. Flipper Dinner Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Flipper, Henry O. Henry Flipper: Groundbreaking Graduate US Army
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jane Eppinga, Henry Ossian Flipper: West Point's First Black Graduate(Plano, Tex.: Republic of Texas Press, 1996). Henry Ossian Flipper, The Colored Cadet at West Point: Autobiography of Lieut. Henry Ossian Flipper, U.S.A., First Graduate of Color From the U.S. Military Academy (Salem, N.H.: Ayer, 1991). Theodore D. Harris, ed. and comp., Black Frontiersman: The Memoirs of Henry O. Flipper, First Black Graduate of West Point (Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1997). Wilbur S. Nye, Carbine and Lance: The Story of Old Fort Sill (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983). Charles M. Robinson, III, The Court-Martial of Lieutenant Henry Flipper (El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1994). Theodore D. Harris © Oklahoma Historical Society
Flipper's grave in Thomasville, Georgia
Harold Charles Deutsch
June 7, 1904 – May 15, 1995
Harold C. Deutsch was born in Milwaukee in 1904. He received his B.A. from the University of Wisconsin in 1924 and the M.A. a year later. Transferring to Harvard University he completed a second M.A. in 1927 and was granted the Ph.D. in 1929. His original academic specialty was French history and his first monograph, The Genesis of Napoleonic Imperialism (1938), remains a standard work. In 1929 Harold joined the faculty at the University of Minnesota, where he spent the first stage of his distinguished career, rising to full professor and serving as chair of the History Department from 1960 to 1966. His students remember classes and seminars meticulously prepared, dynamically presented, and consistently updated. He was among the first professors to utilize electronics. Beginning in the early 1960s, his consistently popular course on World War II was offered on television. Harold’s academic interest in the Third Reich was enhanced by a year spent in Europe as a social science research fellow in 1935-36. During that time he began cultivating the acquaintance of German officers and politicians who had participated in World War I. This experience shaped his role in World War II as well. After serving in 1942-43 on the Board of Economic Warfare, Harold was assessed to the Office of Strategic Services. He served as chief of its research and analysis branch in Paris and Germany during 1944 and 1945. In 1945 he was a member of the State Department’s Special Interrogation Mission, collecting information on the Third Reich from high-level participants and establishing the comprehensive network of contacts and friendships that made him a world authority on the human dynamics of Nazi Germany. His definitive studies of the military opposition, The Conspiracy against Hitler in the Twilight War (1968) and Hitler and His Generals: The Hidden Crisis, January-June 1938 (1974), were among the major academic products of this stage of his career. At a period when even the most distinguished scholars are usually content to rest somewhat on their laurels, Dr. Deutsch began a new phase. Intellectually, he played a major role in integrating in to the general history of World War II information made available with the revelation of the Ultra secret. Retiring from the University of Minnesota in 1972, he joined in 1974 the faculty of the U.S. Army War College. Society for Military History honored him with its Samuel Eliott Morison Award in 1994 He was one of the original members of the American Military Institute. from Dennis E. Showalter, Colorado College http://www.mn-ww2roundtable.org/obituary.html
Hugh M. Cole
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Hugh Marshall Cole (July 14, 1910 – June 5, 2005) was an American historian and army officer, best known as the author of The Lorraine Campaign and The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge, two volumes of the U.S. Army official history of World War II. Born in Pittsford, Michigan, Cole studied as a young man and achieved his doctorate in history in 1937 from the University of Minnesota. He taught at both Macalester College and the University of Chicago until 1942. Cole became a U.S. Army officer in 1942. After serving as the chief of foreign area and language studies for the Army Specialized Training Program, he was assigned as a historical officer on the staff of General Patton's Third Army, with whom he participated in four campaigns in northern Europe. Subsequently, Cole served as the European Theater deputy historian, and then as theater historian in December 1945. After leaving military service, he joined the Office of the Chief of Military History in Washington and supervised the preparation of the official histories of the U.S. Army in northwestern Europe during World War II. His own contributions to these works were The Lorraine Campaign (1950) and The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge (1965). Following his work with OCMH, Cole worked as an operations research specialist with the Johns Hopkins University's Operations Research Office and later with the Research Analysis Corporation. During 1976-77, Cole held the Harold K. Johnson Chair of Military History at the Army War College. Cole died on June 5, 2005 of peripheral vascular disease in Alexandria, Virginia. Education • B.A., Wheaton College, 1931. • M.A. and Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1933, 1937. References 1. ^ Cole obituary on wildbillguarnere.com External linksWikisource has original works written by or about: Hugh Marshall Cole • The Ardennes:Battle of the Bulge online • The Lorraine Campaign online
Trevor N. Dupuy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Trevor Nevitt Dupuy (May 3, 1916 – June 5, 1995) was a Colonel, United States Army, retired, soldier and noted military historian. Born in New York, the son of noted military historian, R. Ernest Dupuy, Trevor very much followed in his father's footsteps. Trevor Dupuy attended West Point, graduating in the class of 1938. During World War II he commanded a U.S. Army artillery battalion, a Chinese artillery group, and an artillery detachment from the British 36th Infantry Division. He was always proud of the fact that he had more combat time in Burma than any other American, and received decorations for service or valor from the U.S., British, and Chinese governments. After the war Dupuy served in the United States Department of Defense Operations Division from 1945 to 1947, and as military assistant to the Under Secretary of the Army from 1947 to 1948. He was a member of the original Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) staff in Paris under Generals Dwight D. Eisenhower and Matthew Ridgway from 1950 to 1952. It is as a military historian and a theorist that Trevor Dupuy would make a lasting mark on the world. He is perhaps best known for his massive book The Encyclopedia Of Military History (co-written, like many of his books, with his father R. Ernest Dupuy). Starting from the beginning of history and going up the present day the book tries to cover all the major (and minor) military conflicts in world history. Usually each entry (arranged chronologically and by region) gives little more than the names of the commanders and (often) very rough estimates for the size of the forces involved in the campaigns. Dupuy was not afraid of expressing an opinion and he classified some of his subjects as Great Captains (such as Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Julius Caesar, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Frederick II of Prussia and Napoleon). Like most Western reference works it spends far more time dealing with wars in Europe and the United States than the rest of the world, but it does at least try to cover the entire world. The Encyclopedia Of Military History has been revised (and updated) several times, most recently in 1993. It can be found in the reference section of most American libraries. After Dupuy left active service in the Army in 1952, Harvard University appointed him as a Professor of Military Science and Tactics, where he helped found the Harvard Defense Studies Program (directed from 1958 to 1971 by Henry Kissinger). He left Harvard in 1956 to become director of the program in military studies at The Ohio State University. After retiring from active military duty in 1958, he served as a visiting professor in the International Relations Program at Rangoon University (now Yangon University) in Burma. From 1960 to 1962 Dupuy worked for the Institute for Defense Analyses, a government-funded think tank. In 1962 he formed the first of his research companies dedicated to the study and analysis of armed conflict, the Historical Evaluation and Research Organization (HERO), and served as President and Executive Director until 1983. From 1967 to 1983 he was also President of T. N. Dupuy Associates Inc. (TNDA), which became the parent organization for HERO. In 1983, TNDA sold its assets (including HERO) to a new corporation he formed called Data Memory Systems, Inc. (DMSI). Trevor was the president and largest stockholder in DMSI. In 1990, Dupuy resigned from DMSI, sold his stock and reactivated TNDA. In 1992 TNDA was closed out, and he established the non-profit The Dupuy Institute (TDI). Dupuy committed suicide by gunshot at his home in Vienna, Virginia on June 5, 1995. He had learned three weeks earlier that he had terminal pancreatic cancer. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. During his lifetime he wrote or co-wrote more than 50 books. When he died, he had been married 5 times, with his last wife being Zhang Yun. He spawned 9 children - 6 boys and 3 girls. Quotes • "My personal feeling is that if I have done anything worthwhile, it is in military theory and the relationship of the elements of historical experience to theory." • “I was brought up by my father to be both a soldier and a military historian. To him the two were inseparable, and that is the way it has always been for me.” Books and Publications • To the Colors: The Way of Life of an Army Officer (with R.E. Dupuy), Chicago, 1942 • Faithful and True: History of the 5th Field Artillery, Schwabisch-Hall, Germany, 1949 • Campaigns of the French Revolution and of Napoleon, Cambridge, Ma, 1956 • Brave Men and Great Captains (With R. E. Dupuy), New York, 1960, 1984, 1993 • Compact History of the Civil War (with R.E. Dupuy), New York, 1960, 1991 • Civil War Land Battles, New York, 1960
• Civil War Naval Actions, New York, 1961 • Military History Of World War II, New York, 1962-65 (in 18 fairly short books): Vol. 1 - European Land Battles: 1939–1943 Vol. 2 - European Land Battles: 1944–1945 Vol. 3 - Land Battles: North Africa, Sicily, And Italy Vol. 4 - The Naval War In The West: The Raiders Vol. 5 - The Naval War In The West: The Wolf Packs Vol. 6 - The Air War In The West: September 1939-May 1941 Vol. 7 - The Air War In The West: June 1941-April 1945 Vol. 8 - Asiatic Land Battles: Expansion Of Japan In Asia Vol. 9 - Asiatic Land Battles: Japanese Ambitions In The Vol. 10 - Asiatic Land Battles: Allied Victories In China And Pacific Burma Vol. 11 - The Naval War In The Pacific: Rising Sun Of Vol. 12 - The Naval War In The Pacific: On To Tokyo Nippon Vol. 13 - The Air War In The Pacific: Air Power Leads The Vol. 14 - The Air War In The Pacific: Victory In The Air Way Vol. 15 - European Resistance Movements Vol. 16 - Asian And Axis Resistance Movements Vol. 17 - Leaders Of World War II Vol. 18 - Chronological Survey Of World War II • Compact History of the Revolutionary War (With R. E. Dupuy), New York, 1963 • Holidays, Editor, Contributor., New York, 1965 • Military Heritage Of America (With R. E. Dupuy, Paul Braim), 2 Vols., New York, 1966, 1986, 1992 • Military History Of World War I, New York, 1967 (in 12 fairly short books): Vol. 1 - 1914: The Battles In The West Vol. 2 - 1914: The Battles In The East Vol. 3 - Stalemate In The Trenches, November 1914-March 1918 Vol. 4 - Triumphs And Tragedies In The East: 1915-17 Vol. 5 - The Campaigns On The Turkish Fronts Vol. 6 - Campaigns In Southern Europe Vol. 7 - 1918: The German Offensives Vol. 8 - 1918: Decision In The West Vol. 9 - Naval And Overseas War: 1914-15 Vol. 10 - Naval And Overseas War: 1916- 18 Vol. 11 - The War In The Air Vol. 12 - Summary Of World War I • The Battle Of Austerlitz, New York, 1968 • Modern Libraries For Modern Colleges: Research Strategies For Design And Development, Washington, D.C., 1968 • Ferment In College Libraries: The Impact Of Information Technology, Washington, D.C., 1968 • Mediapower: A College Plans For An Integrated Media Service System, Washington, D.C., 1968 • Military History Of The Chinese Civil War, New York, 1969 • The Military Lives Series (published in 1969 and 1970) : The Military Life Of Alexander The Great The Military Life Of Hannibal The Military Life Of Julius Caesar The Military Life Of Genghis Khan The Military Life Of Gustavus Adolphus The Military Life Of Frederick The Great The Military Life Of George Washington The Military Life Of Napoleon The Military Life Of Abraham Lincoln The Military Life Of Hindenburg And Ludendorff The Military Life Of Adolph Hitler The Military Life Of Winston Churchill • Revolutionary War Naval Battles (With Grace P. Hayes), New York, 1970 • Revolutionary War Land Battles (With Gay M. Hammerman), New York, 1970 • Mongolia, Foreign Area Studies Handbook, Washington, D.C., 1970 • Almanac Of World Military Power 1970 (With John A. Andrews, Grace P. Hayes), New York, 1970 • Almanac Of World Military Power 1972 (With John A. Andrews, Grace P. Hayes), New York, 1972 • Documentary History Of Arms Control And Disarmament (With Gay M. Hammerman), New York, 1974 • World Military Leaders (With Grace P. Hayes, Paul Martell), 1974 • Almanac Of World Military Power 1974 (With John A. Andrews, Grace P. Hayes), New York, 1974 • People And Events Of The American Revolution (With Gay M. Hammerman), New York, 1974 • An Outline History Of The American Revolution (With R.E. Dupuy), New York, 1975 • Encyclopedia Of Military History (With R.E. Dupuy), New York, 1975, 1986, 1993 • A Genius For War: The German Army And General Staff, 1807–1945, New Jersey, 1977, 1984, 1989, 1993 • Numbers, Predictions and War, New York, 1978, 1985 • Elusive Victory: The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1947–1974, New York, 1978, 1984, 1989, 1992 • Almanac Of World Military Power 1980 (With John A. Andrews, Grace P. Hayes), New York, 1980 • The Evolution Of Weapons And Warfare, New York, 1980, 1984, 1986 • Great Battles Of The Eastern Front (With Paul Martell), New York, 1982 • Options Of Command, New York, 1984 • Flawed Victory: The Arab-Israeli Conflict And The 1982 War In Lebanon (With Paul Martell), Virginia, 1986 • Understanding War: Military History And The Theory Of Combat, New York, 1986 • Dictionary Of Military Terms (With Curt Johnson, Grace P. Hayes), New York, 1987 • Understanding Defeat, New York, 1990 • Attrition: Forecasting Battle Casualties And Equipment Losses In Modern War, Virginia, 1990
^ Cline, Ray S. (1990) . "Chapter XVIII: After OPD". Washington Command Post: The Operations Division. US Army in WWII. CMH Pub 1-2. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/WCP/ChapterXVIII.htm. 2. ^ Henry Kissinger - Biography 3. ^ http://www.dupuyinstitute.org 4. ^ New York Times Obituary, June 9, 1995 External linksBiography portal • • Trevor N. Dupuy Institute Trevor N. Dupuy at Find a Grave
• • • • • • • • • Notes 1.
If War Comes, How To Defeat Saddam Hussein, Virginia, 1991 Future Wars: The World'S Most Dangerous Flashpoints, New York, 1992 Encyclopedia Of Military Biography (With Curt Johnson, David L. Bongard), New York, 1992 International Military And Defense Encyclopedia, (Brassey'S) 6 Vols., Editor In Chief, New York, 1992 Hitler's Last Gamble (With David L. Bongard, Richard C. Anderson), New York, 1994 Unpublished Manuscripts By Trevor N. Dupuy Great Captains And Modern War Military Myths (Unfinished) Documentary History Of The U.S. Armed Forces (Unfinished)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Martin Blumenson (1918–2005) was an American military historian who served as a historical officer with the U.S. Third and Seventh Armies in World War II and later became a prolific author whose works included an authoritative biography of General George S. Patton. Born in New York City, Blumenson studied at Bucknell University and Harvard University, earning master's degrees from both by 1942. During World War II, he became a U.S. Army officer and served as a historical officer with U.S. forces in northwestern Europe during 1944-45. Postwar, Blumenson remained in France for years, married a French woman and later divided his time between France and the United States. During the Korean War, Blumenson again served with the U.S. Army and the unit he commanded (3rd Historical Detachment) was attached to the U.S. IX Corps. After the Korean War, he worked in the Office of the Chief of Military History, contributing two works to the official U.S. Army history of World War II, Breakout and Pursuit and Salerno to Cassino. Working for the OCMH until 1967, Blumenson then worked for the Johnson administration as an adviser on civil disorders. Blumenson also taught or lectured at numerous institutions, prominent among which were the U.S. Military and Naval Academies. During his career as an author, Blumenson authored 17 works on the military history of World War II in North Africa and Europe. His works on Patton, The Patton Papers and Patton: The Man behind the Legend, 1885–1945 were particularly acclaimed. Blumenson's final work was published in 2001. Blumenson died on April 15, 2005, in Washington, D.C. Selected works • Anzio: The gamble that failed • Bloody River: the real tragedy of the Rapido • Breakout and Pursuit • The Duel for France, 1944 • Kasserine Pass • Masters of the art of command • Patton: The Man Behind the Legend, 1885–1945 • The Patton Papers: 1940-1945 • Salerno to Cassino • Sicily, whose victory? • The Vilde Affair: Beginnings of the French Resistance Education • B.A. and M.A., Bucknell University, 1939, 1940. • M.A., Harvard University, 1942. References and external links 1. ^ Blumenson obituary in Army Magazine • Carlo D'Este remembers Blumenson • Martin Blumenson at Find-A-Grave
Milo S. Afong
Milo S. Afong served since 1999 with the Second Battalion, Fourth Marines Scout/Sniper platoon and he graduated first in his class from the 1st Marine Division's Scout/Sniper School. After his discharge in 2003, he volunteered for a tour of duty in Iraq as a Scout/Sniper Team Leader with the First Battalion, Twenty-third Marines. Awards; Purple Heart, Combat Action Ribbon, Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal with the Combat Distinguishing Device Publications: • HOGs in the Shadows. Combat Stories from Marines Snipers in Iraq (2008) • Hunters: U. S. Snipers in the War on Terror (2010) http://www.thenile.co.nz/books/Milo-S-Afong/
Stephen E. Ambrose
2001 premiere of Band of Brothers
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Died January 10, 1936 Lovington, Illinois October 13, 2002 (aged 66) Bay St. Louis, Mississippi
Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon. He was a long time professor of history at the University of New Orleans and the author of many best selling volumes of American popular history. Beginning late in his life and continuing after his death, however, many reports and evidence have continued to surface documenting long time patterns of plagiarism, falsification, and inaccuracies in many of his published writings and other work. In response to one of the early reports, Ambrose said he was not "out there stealing other people's writings." Early life Ambrose was born in Lovington, Illinois to Rosepha Trippe Ambrose and Stephen Hedges Ambrose. His father was a physician who served in the U.S. Navy during World War II. Ambrose was raised in Whitewater, Wisconsin, where he graduated from Whitewater High School. His family also owned a farm in Lovington, Illinois and vacation property in Marinette County, Wisconsin. He attended college at the University of Wisconsin-Madison where he was a member of Chi Psi Fraternity and played on the University of Wisconsin football team for three years. Ambrose originally wanted to major in pre-medicine, but changed his major to history after hearing the first lecture in a U.S. history class entitled "Representative Americans" in his sophomore year. The course was taught by William B. Hesseltine, whom Ambrose credits with fundamentally shaping his writing and igniting his interest in history. While at Wisconsin, Ambrose was a member of the Navy and Army ROTC. He graduated with a B.A. in 1957. He also married his first wife, Judith Dorlester, in 1957, and they had two children, Stephenie and Barry. According to Ambrose, Judith died at age 27, when he was 29. A year or two later he married his second wife, Moira Buckley, and adopted her three children, Hugh, Grace, and Andrew. Ambrose received a master's degree in history from Louisiana State University in 1958, studying under T. Harry Williams. Ambrose then went on to obtain a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1963, under William B. Hesseltine. CareerAcademic positions Ambrose was a history professor from 1960 until his retirement in 1995, having spent the bulk of his time at the University of New Orleans, where he was Boyd Professor of History. During the academic year 1969-70, he was Ernest J. King Professor of Maritime History at the Naval War College. In 1970, while teaching at Kansas State University, Ambrose participated in heckling of Richard Nixon during a speech the president gave on the KSU campus. Given pressure from the KSU administration and having job offers elsewhere, upon finishing out the year Ambrose offered to leave and the offer was accepted. Ambrose also taught at Louisiana State University, Johns Hopkins University, Rutgers University, U.C. Berkeley, and a number of European schools. He was the founder of the Eisenhower Center at the University of New Orleans and President of the National World War II Museum in New Orleans, Louisiana. The National Geographic Society provided Ambrose with an Explorer-in-Residence position. Writings Ambrose's earliest works concerned the Civil War. He wrote biographies of the generals, Emory Upton and Henry Halleck, the first of which was based on his dissertation. Early in his career, Ambrose was mentored by World War II historian Forrest Pogue. In 1964, Ambrose took a position at Johns Hopkins as the Associate Editor of the Eisenhower Papers, a project aimed at organizing, cataloging and publishing Eisenhower's principal papers. From this work and discussions with Eisenhower emerged an article critical of Cornelius Ryan’s The Last Battle, which had depicted Eisenhower as politically naîve, when at the end of World War II he allowed Soviet forces to take Berlin, thus shaping the Cold War that followed. Ambrose expanded this into a book, Eisenhower and Berlin, 1945: The Decision to Halt at the Elbe. In 1964,
after Eisenhower had read Ambrose's biographies of Halleck and Upton and his history of West Point, Ambrose was commissioned to write the official biography of former president and five-star general. This resulted in a two-volume work, published in 1970 and 1984, that is considered "the standard" on the subject. Ambrose also wrote a three-volume biography of Richard Nixon. Although Ambrose was a strong critic of Nixon, the biography is considered fair and just regarding Nixon's presidency. His books, Band of Brothers (1992) and D-Day (1994), presented from the view points of individual soldiers in World War II, brought his works into mainstream American culture. His Citizen Soldiers, and The Victors became bestsellers. He also wrote the popular book, The Wild Blue, that looked at World War II aviation. His other major works include Undaunted Courage about the Lewis and Clark Expedition and Nothing Like It in the World about the construction of the Pacific Railroad. His final book, This Vast Land, an historical novel about the Lewis & Clark expedition written for young readers, was published posthumously in 2003. Television, film, and other activities The HBO mini-series, Band of Brothers (2001), for which he was an executive producer, helped sustain the fresh interest in World War II that had been stimulated by the 50th anniversary of D-Day in 1994 and the 60th anniversary in 2004. Ambrose also appeared as a historian in the ITV television series, The World at War, which detailed the history of World War II. He was the military adviser for the movie Saving Private Ryan. In addition, Ambrose served as a commentator for Lewis & Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery, a documentary by Ken Burns. In addition to his academic work and publishing, Ambrose operated a historical tour business, acting as a tour guide to European locales of World War II. Awards In 1998, he received the National Humanities Medal. In 2000, Ambrose received the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service, the highest honorary award the Department of Defense offers to civilians. In 2001, he was awarded the Theodore Roosevelt Medal for Distinguished Service from the Theodore Roosevelt Association. Ambrose won an Emmy as one of the producers for the mini-series Band of Brothers. Ambrose also received the George Marshall Award, the Abraham Lincoln Literary Award, the Bob Hope Award from the Congressional Medal of Honor Society, and the Will Rogers Memorial Award. Final years After retiring, he maintained homes in Montana and Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. A longtime smoker, he was diagnosed with lung cancer in April 2002. His condition deteriorated rapidly and seven months after the diagnosis he died, at the age of 66. He was survived by his wife Moira and children Andy, Barry, Hugh, Grace, and Stephenie. Criticism Plagiarism controversy In 2002, Ambrose was accused of plagiarizing several passages in his book, The Wild Blue, by Sally Richardson and others. Fred Barnes reported in The Weekly Standard that Ambrose had taken passages from Wings of Morning: The Story of the Last American Bomber Shot Down over Germany in World War II, by Thomas Childers, a history professor at the University of Pennsylvania. Ambrose had footnoted sources, but had not enclosed in quotation marks, numerous passages from Childers' book. Ambrose and his publisher, Simon and Schuster, released an apology as a result.Ambrose asserted that only a few sentences in all his numerous books were the work of other authors. He offered this defense: I tell stories. I don't discuss my documents. I discuss the story. It almost gets to the point where, how much is the reader going to take? I am not writing a Ph.D. dissertation. I wish I had put the quotation marks in, but I didn't. I am not out there stealing other people's writings. If I am writing up a passage and it is a story I went to tell and this story fits and a part of it is from other people's writing, I just type it up that way and put it in a footnote. I just want to know where the hell it came from. A Forbes investigation of his work found cases of plagiarism involving passages in at least six books, with a similar pattern going all the way back to his doctoral thesis. The History News Network lists seven of Ambrose's works--The Wild Blue, Undaunted Courage, Nothing Like It In the World, Nixon: Ruin and Recovery, Citizen Soldiers, The Supreme Commander, and Crazy Horse and Custer--that copied twelve authors. Factual errors and disputed characterizations WWII In the 1973 ITV television series, The World at War, episode 35, From War to Peace, Ambrose made basic factual errors. He said: "Manpower losses were almost insignificant; compared to the other combatants, insignificant. Only slightly more than a quarter of a million Americans died during the war. America was the least mobilized of all the nations, of all the major combatants in World War II. Altogether, we had an army and navy and air force of 12 million men out of a total population of 170 million. And of that 12 million, probably less than six million ever got overseas." The population of the United States during the war was 131 million, of which nearly 16.6 million served in the armed forces during World War II, including 241,093 in the Coast Guard, and 243,000 in the Merchant Marine. Military deaths were 416,800, the most of any Allied country except the Soviet Union. According to U.S. census data, 73 percent of military personnel served abroad during World War II. The United States did not create the United States Air Force as a separate branch until passage of the National Security Act of 1947 (Pub. L. No. 235, 80 Cong., 61 Stat. 496, 50 U.S.C. ch.15), two years after the end of World War II. Veterans of troop carrier units, who transported paratroopers in the American airborne landings in Normandy, have severely criticized Ambrose for portraying them as unqualified and cowardly in several of his works, including Band of Brothers and D-Day. Among the numerous errors he asserts in an open letter posted on the War Chronicle website, Randy Hils notes that Ambrose did not interview a single troop carrier pilot. This becomes highly relevant in light of Ambrose's assertion that the pilots sped up while the paratroopers were trying to jump. Hils hypothesizes that if Ambrose's only sources were inexpert witnesses whose only indication of airspeed were the sound of the engines, the maneuver of using the propellers as an airbrake would have sounded like power being applied. In the HBO series, Band of Brothers, as well as Ambrose's book, a certain Private Albert Blithe is said to have been shot in the neck while scouting a farmhouse. Ambrose states that Blithe never recovered from his wound and died in 1948, when in actuality, Blithe recovered from a wound to his right shoulder and rejoined Easy Company for Operation Market Garden. Blithe appears to have left Europe shortly after that due to his wound but later continued a career in the Army until his death in 1967. Two Ambrose accounts in D-Day, of alleged cowardice by British coxswains, have also been challenged as inaccurate. One, in which Sgt. Willard Northfleet is portrayed as drawing his gun on a coxswain when he tried to offload the men 400 yards from shore, is corroborated by Sgt. John Slaughter (who was on the boat) in a C-SPAN video recording veterans' D-Day experiences. It was disputed by Kevan
Elsby, however, on the basis of a contemporary debriefing which stated: "Four hundred yards from shore the British coxswain insisted that he could take the craft no farther so the men must swim for it. He started to lower the ramp but Platoon Sgt. Willard R. Norfleet blocked the mechanism and insisted that the boat was going farther." The other, in which Capt. Ettore Zappacosta was portrayed as drawing his gun on a coxswain to make him go in when he protested he could not see the landmarks, was challenged by Pvt. Bob Sales as untrue. Both Ambrose and Sales assert that Sales was the only survivor from that landing craft. Ambrose asserts, in several works, that the German Panther tank used an 88mm gun. It did not. It used a 75mm gun. The German Tiger I and King Tiger tanks used the 88mm gun as did the Jagdpanther ("Hunting Panther"), a turretless tank destroyer version of the Panther. Pacific Railroad A front page article published in The Sacramento (CA) Bee on January 1, 2001, entitled Area Historians Rail Against Inaccuracies in Book, listed more than sixty instances identified as "significant errors, misstatements, and made-up quotes" in Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869, Ambrose's nonacademic popular history published in August, 2000, about the construction of the Pacific Railroad between Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska via Sacramento, California and the San Francisco Bay at Alameda/Oakland which were documented in a detailed December, 2000, fact checking paper compiled by three long time Western US railroad historians, researchers, consultants, and collectors who specialize in the Pacific Railroad and related topics. On January 11, 2001, Washington Post columnist Lloyd Grove reported in his column, The Reliable Source, that a co-worker had found a "serious historical error" in the same book that "a chastened Ambrose" promised to correct in future editions. A number of journal reviews also sharply criticized the research and fact checking in the book. Reviewer Walter Nugent observed that it contained "annoying slips" such as mislabeled maps, inaccurate dates, geographical errors, and misidentified word origins, while Don L. Hofsommer agreed that the book "confuses facts" and that "The research might best be characterized as 'once over lightly'." The Eisenhower controversy Two of Ambrose's statements regarding his interaction with President Eisenhower have been proven false: that Eisenhower initiated the biography project and that he spent "hundreds of hours" with the former president in preparation of the manuscript. Ambrose often claimed that he was solicited by Eisenhower after the former president had read and admired Ambrose's life of General Henry Halleck. But Tim Rives, Deputy Director of the Eisenhower Presidential Center, says it was Ambrose who contacted Eisenhower and suggested the project, as shown by a letter from Ambrose found in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. After Eisenhower's death in 1969, Ambrose made repeated claims to have had a unique and extraordinarily close relationship with him over the final five years of the former President's life. In an extensive 1998 interview, for instance, Ambrose stated that he spent "a lot of time with Ike, really a lot, hundreds and hundreds of hours" interviewing Eisenhower on a wide range of subjects, and that he had been with him "on a daily basis for a couple years" before his death "doing interviews and talking about his life." Rives has stated, however, that a number of the interview dates Ambrose cites in his 1970 book, The Supreme Commander, cannot be reconciled with Eisenhower's personal schedule. The former president's diary and telephone show that the pair met only three times, for a total of less than five hours. Later, Ambrose was less specific when citing dates of interviews with Eisenhower. Works Sole author • Halleck: Lincoln's Chief of Staff, Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press (1962) • Upton and the Army, Louisiana State University Press (1964) • Duty, Honor, Country: A History of West Point, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press (1966) • Eisenhower and Berlin, 1945: The Decision to Halt at the Elbe, New York: W.W. Norton (1967) • The Supreme Commander: the War Years of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, New York: Doubleday (1970) • Crazy Horse and Custer: The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors, New York: Doubleday (1975) ISBN 0-38509666-6 • Ike's Spies: Eisenhower and the Espionage Establishment, New York: Doubleday (1981) ISBN 0-385-14493-8 • Pegasus Bridge: June 6, 1944, New York: Simon & Schuster (1985) ISBN 0-671-52374-0 • Nixon: The Education of a Politician, 1913-1962, New York: Simon & Schuster (1987) ISBN 0-671-52836-X • Eisenhower: Soldier and President, New York: Simon & Schuster (1990) ISBN 0-671-70107-X • Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962-1972, New York: Simon & Schuster (1990) ISBN 0-671-52837-8 • Nixon: Ruin and recovery, 1973-1990, New York: Simon & Schuster (1991) ISBN 0-671-69188-0 • Band of Brothers, E Company, 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne: From Normandy to Hitler's Eagle's Nest, New York: Simon & Schuster (1992) ISBN 0-671-76922-7 • D-Day, June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II, New York, Simon & Schuster (1994) ISBN 0-67188403-4 • Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West, New York: Simon & Schuster (1996) ISBN 0-684-81107-3 • Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to the Bulge to the Surrender of Germany, June 7, 1944 - May 7, 1945, New York: Simon & Schuster (1997) ISBN 0-684-81525-7 • Americans at War, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi (1997) ISBN 1-57806-026-5 • The Victors: Eisenhower and his Boys - The Men of World War II, New York: Simon & Schuster (1998) ISBN 0-68485628-X • Comrades: Brothers, Fathers, Heroes, Sons, Pals, New York: Simon & Schuster (1999) ISBN 0-684-86718-4 • Nothing Like it in the World: The Men who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869, New York: Simon & Schuster (2000) ISBN 0-684-84609-8 • The Wild Blue: The Men and Boys who Flew the B-24s over Germany, New York: Simon & Schuster (2001) ISBN 07432-0339-9 • To America: Personal Reflections of an Historian, New York: Simon & Schuster (2002) ISBN 0-7432-0275-9 • This Vast Land, New York: Simon & Schuster, (2003) ISBN 0-689-86448-5
With others • with Douglas Brinkley. Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy since 1938, New York: Penguin Books (1997) ISBN 0-14-026831-6 • with Sam Abell, Lewis and Clark: Voyage of Discovery, Washington DC: National Geographic Society, (1998, 2002) ISBN 0-7922-7084-3 References 1. ^ a b c Richard Goldstein, "Stephen Ambrose, Historian Who Fueled New Interest in World War II, Dies at 66," New York Times, October 14, 2002, accessed May 27, 2010. 2. ^ Neil H. Shively (September 19, 1996). "A Class Act: Stephen Ambrose's History Lectures Enthrall Kids and War Veterans Alike.". The Capital Times, Madison, WI. 3. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. Comrades: Brothers, Fathers, Heroes, Sons, Pals. Simon & Schuster, 2000, p. 132. 4. ^ Historian Stephen Ambrose dies CNN, October 14, 2002. 5. ^ a b c d Stephen E. Ambrose bio by Stephen Ambrose. 6. ^ a b c Interview with Stephen Ambrose May 22, 1998, Academy of Achievement, Washington, D.C. 7. ^ Stephen Edward Ambrose – biography 8. ^ a b Christian A. Hale, "Stephen Ambrose Dies," Perspectives, December, 2002. 9. ^ Alan Brinkley, "The Best Man", New York Times Review of Books, July 16, 1987. 10. ^ a b c d e Historian Steven Ambrose Dead at 66, National Geographic News, October 15, 2002. 11. ^ a b c M. R. D. Foote, "Stephen Ambrose: Historian and author of Band of Brothers," The Independent, October 14, 2002, accessed May 27, 2010. 12. ^ Art Jester. Ambrose Installs New Faith in Some Old Heroes. Lexington Herald-Leader. November 9, 1997. 13. ^ Gwendolyn Thompkins. Ambrose to Leave Historic Legacy: UNO Prof in Colin Powell’s Camp. TimesPicayune. April 30, 1995. 14. ^ Stephen E. Ambrose, "Refighting the Last Battle: The Pitfalls of Popular History," by Stephen E. Ambrose, Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 49, no. 4 (Summer 1966), pp. 294-301. 15. ^ a b c Timothy D. Rives, "Ambrose and Eisenhower: A View from the Stacks in Abilene," History News Network, May 17, 2010. ^ Jim Newton, "Books & Ideas: Stephen Ambrose's troubling Eisenhower record," Los Angeles Times, May 16. 9, 2010, accessed May 26, 2010. "His work on Eisenhower is penetrating and readable, lively, balanced and insightful. Indeed, these efforts have long stood alongside Fred Greenstein's The Hidden-Hand Presidency as the standards against which other Eisenhower scholarship is judged." 17. ^ Neuhaus, Richard J. "Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962, by Stephen E. Ambrose" (book review), Commentary Magazine, August 1987. "Nixon is competently, sometimes brightly, written, and one gets the impression that Ambrose is striving, above all, to be assiduously fair." 18. ^ Theodore Roosevelt Association, The Theodore Roosevelt Distinguished Service Medal Recipients. 19. ^ Williams, Robert Chadwell. The Historian's Toolbox: A Student's Guide to the Theory and Craft of History. Armonk NY: M E Sharpe Inc (2003) ISBN 0-7656-1093-0 pp 88-89 20. ^ a b c David D. Kirkpatrick, "As Historian's Fame Grows, So Does Attention to Sources," New York Times, January 11, 2002, accessed May 27, 2010. ^ Writing History PBS News Hour discussion of plagiarism by historians, January 28, 2002. 21. 22. ^ a b c "How the Ambrose Story Developed," History News Network, June 2002. 23. ^ Mark Lewis, "Ambrose Problems Date Back To Ph.D. Thesis," Forbes, May 10, 2002. 24. ^ The World at War, episode 35, time: 15 minutes, personal transcription. 25. ^ Congressional Research Report – American War and Military Operations Casualties. Updated February 26, 2010 26. ^ "Section 10. National Defense and Veterans Affairs". No. 523. Armed Forces Personnel -- Summary of Major Conflicts. U.S. Federal Government. http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/03statab/defense.pdf. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 27. ^ Randy Hils, An Open Letter to the Airborne Community on the History of OPERATION NEPTUNE, June 6, 1944 January 17, 2003. 28. ^ Blithe G., Albert (2007-10-24). "MSG Albert Blithe". Currahee. http://www.506infantry.org/his2ndbnwwiiphoto24.html. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 29. ^ Ambrose, Stephen (1994). D-Day June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II. Simon & Schuster. p. 343. ISBN 0671673343. http://books.google.com/books?id=DgG0YYyHBwC&pg=PA343&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. 30. ^ D-Day Remembered: The American Experience: American Eyewitness D-Day Accounts. Recorded 199405-17 at the Eisenhower Center, University of New Orleans. C-SPAN. 1994-06-03. 1:25:42 minutes in. 31. ^ http://www.warchronicle.com/correcting_the_record/ambrose_coxswains.htm 32. ^ "29th Infantry Division, 116th Infantry Battalion, 1st Battalion, D Company". Group Critique Notes. Dday on Omaha Beach. American D-Day Virtual Museum. http://www.americandday.org/Documents/29th_ID116th_IR-1st_Bn-D_Company-Group_Critique_Notes.html. Retrieved 24 October 2010. 33. ^ Brennan, Shannon (2 February 2002). "D-Day veteran says information in book is wrong". The News & Advance (Lynchburg, VA). Archived from the original on 8 March 2002. http://web.archive.org/web/20020308025129/http://www.newsadvance.com/MGBDFD3JFXC.html. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
^ Ambrose, Stephen (1994). D-Day June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II. Simon & Schuster. p. 337. ISBN 0671673343. http://books.google.com/books?id=DgG0YYyHBwC&pg=PA343&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. 35. ^ Barrows, Matthew "Area Historians Rail Against Inaccuracies in Book". The Sacramento Bee, January 1, 2001 36. ^ Graves, G.J., Strobridge, E.T., & Sweet, C.N.The Sins of Stephen E. Ambrose The Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum (CPRR.org), December 19, 2000 37. ^ Stobridge E. (2002). Stephen Ambrose: Off the Rails. History News Network. 38. ^ Grove, Lloyd "The Reliable Source" The Washington Post, January 11, 2001 39. ^ Walter Nugent, Review: Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869 by Stephen E. Ambrose, The Journal of American History, vol. 88, no. 2 (Sep. 2001), p. 657. 40. ^ Don L. Hofsommer, untitled review, Technology and Culture, vol. 43, no. 1 (Jan. 2002), pp. 169-170. 41. ^ a b c Rayner, Richard (April 26, 2010). "Channelling Ike". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/talk/2010/04/26/100426ta_talk_rayner. Retrieved 2010-05-11. 42. ^ a b Goldman, Russell (April 27, 2010). "Did Historian Stephen Ambrose Lie About Interviews with President Dwight D. Eisenhower?". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/US/historian-stephen-ambrose-lie-interviewspresident-dwight-eisenhower/story?id=10489472. Retrieved 2010-05-11. External links • PBS biography of Ambrose • Stephen Ambrose at the Internet Movie Database • WorldCat search of works by Stephen Ambrose Stephen E. Ambrose at FantasticFiction.co.uk • • Interview with Stephen Ambrose (1998) Obituary in The Independent • • Obituary at website of the American Historical Association • Eisenhower and My Father, Stephen Ambrose by Hugh Ambrose • Commentary dated December 19, 2000 contributed by G. J. "Chris" Graves, Edson T. Strobridge, and Charles N. Sweet regarding Stephen E. Ambrose's book "Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built The Transcontinental Railroad 1863 - 1869."
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rick Atkinson (born 1952, in Munich) is an American journalist and author whose contributions led to four Pulitzer Prizes. Atkinson was born in Munich. His father was an United States Army officer and he grew up at military posts. He earned his bachelor degree from East Carolina University in 1974 and a master of art degree from the University of Chicago in 1976. His first reporting job was at The Morning Sun in Pittsburg, Kansas He started working at the Kansas City Times in 1977. He won the 1982 Pulitzer Prize for national reporting for articles including a series on the West Point Class of 1966. He also contributed to the Times overall effort which won it another Pulitzer Prize the same year for the coverage of the Hyatt Regency walkway collapse.In 1983 he worked for The Washington Post where he covered The Pentagon and the 1984 Presidential election and was national editor for two years. He went on book leave in 1988 to finish The Long Gray Line, which he had begun reporting on in Kansas City. He returned to the Post in 1989 and was the paper's lead reporter in the 1991 Gulf War. He went on leave again to finish a book about the war Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War. In 1993 he returned to the Post as its Berlin bureau covering conflicts in Bosnia and Somalia. The Post won the 1999 Pulitzer Prize for public service for a series conceived by Atkinson on shootings by the District of Columbia police department. He won the 2003 Pulitzer Prize for history for his book An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942–1943, which was followed by the second volume in what Atkinson calls his "Liberation trilogy", The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943–1944. While at work on the third volume, he received the $100,000 Pritzker Military Library Literature Award for Lifetime Achievement in Military Writing. Atkinson served as the Omar N. Bradley Chair of Strategic Leadership  at the US Army War College and Dickinson College in 2004 and 2005. He was a Fall 2009 Axel Springer Berlin Prize Fellow, at the American Academy in Berlin. He is currently an advisory fellow of the Barsanti Military History Center at the University of North Texas. Atkinson's book In the Company of Soldiers: A Chronicle of Combat is about the Iraq War. He was embedded with the 101st Airborne Division for two months and had extensive contact with Gen. David Petraeus. Bibliography • The Long Gray Line. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1989. ISBN 0-395-48008-6. • Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1993. ISBN 0-395-60290-4. • An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942–1943. New York: Henry Holt. 2002. ISBN 0-8050-6288-2. • In the Company of Soldiers: A Chronicle of Combat. New York: Henry Holt. 2004. ISBN 0-8050-7561-5. • The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943–1944. New York: Henry Holt. 2007. ISBN 0-8050-6289-0. Notes and references ^ Most articles do not include the Hyatt Pulitzer in Atkinson's list although it was awarded to the entire newsroom. ^ "Rick Atkinson has won the 2010 Pritzker Military Library Literature Award". The Washington Post. 2010-0622. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/06/21/AR2010062104542.html. External links Rick Atkinson interview on Counterpoint Radio with Marcus W. Orr Center for the Humanities at the University of Memphis. • Publisher's website for An Army at Dawn • Pulitzer Biography in 2003 • Reviews of An Army At Dawn and The Day of Battle (Advanced Readers Copy) • Interview on In the Company of Soldiers at the Pritzker Military Library • Interview on The Day of Battle
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Occupation Period Genres writer, journalist, historian, teacher American Indian Wars, Vietnam War, American history historical, biography
Louise Barnett is the author of several books, including one on General Custer titled Touched by Fire: The Life, Death, and Afterlife of George Armstrong Custer (1996). Education and employment Barnett has a Ph.D. in English and American literature from Bryn Mawr College (1972) and has taught as a Professor of American Studies at Rutgers University since 1976. Published works Barnett's best-known book, Touched by Fire: The Life, Death, and Mythic Afterlife of George Armstrong Custer (Henry Holt, 1996), won the 1996 John M. Carroll award of the Little Big Horn Associates for best book on Custer related studies. The New York Times Book Review commented "There is much unusual and useful information about life on the plains, Indian warfare, the danger and fear of captivity by Indians, and especially, the relationship between Custer and his wife."  The book led to a number of television appearances by Barnett on the topic, including an A&E network Custer biography and the C-Span show 'Booknotes'. Touched by Fire was reissued in 2006 in softcover by the University of Nebraska Press. Barnett's other nonfiction works include: • The Ignoble Savage: American Literary Racism (Greenwood Press, 1976) • New World Journeys: Italian Intellectuals and the Experience of America (Greenwood Press, 1978) • Authority and Speech: Language, Society and Self in the American Novel (University of Georgia Press, 1993). • Ungentlemanly Acts: The Army's Notorious Incest Trial (Hill & Wang Pub., 2000) • Jonathan Swift in the Company of Women (Oxford University Press, USA, 2006) Most recently, Barnett has published Atrocity and American Military Justice in Southeast Asia (Routledge, UK, 2010) - a book which examines the prosecution of war crime trials in the Philippines and Vietnam. References ^ http://amerstudies.rutgers.edu/barnettbio.html 1. 2. ^ http://www.thelbha.org/books.shtml 3. ^ http://www.custermuseum.org/store/index.php?i=69&c=10 4. ^ http://amerstudies.rutgers.edu/barnettbio.html 5. ^ http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=t913069049 External links • http://www.booknotes.org/Transcript/?ProgramID=1331 - A transcript of Barnett's 'Booknotes' C-Span interview by host Brian Lamb, first aired October 13, 1996.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ed Bearss leading a tour in 2005 Edwin Cole Bearss ( /ˈbɑrs/; born June 26, 1923), a United States Marine Corps veteran of World War II, is a military historian and author known for his work on the American Civil War and World War II eras and is a popular tour guide of historic battlefields. He served as Chief Historian of the National Park Service from 1981 to 1994. Early life Bearss was born in Billings, Montana, the elder son of Omar Effinger Bearss and Virginia Louise Morse Bearss. He grew up on the rugged family cattle ranch, the "E bar S", near Sarpy, Montana, through the depths of the Great Depression. His father, a Marine in World War I, read accounts of military campaigns to young Ed and his brother, but Ed's lifelong interest in military history was jump-started by a biography of the dashing Confederate cavalry general J.E.B. Stuart by John Thomason. Ed named many of the ranch animals after famous general and battles; his favorite milk cow was Antietam. World War II Bearss graduated from Hardin High School in May 1941 and hitchhiked around the United States, visiting his first Civil War battlefields. He enlisted in the Marine Corps on April 28, 1942, and by July was on a troop transport to the Pacific War. He was with the 3d Marine Raider Battalion in the invasion of Guadalcanal and the Russell Islands and 7th Regiment, 1st Marine Division, in New Britain. On January 2, 1944, Bearss was severely wounded at "Suicide Creek" (Cape Gloucester, New Britain) by Japanese machine gun fire. He was evacuated to California, and spent 26 months recovering in various hospitals. He was honorably discharged from the Marines as a corporal on March 15, 1946,. Postwar education Bearss used the G.I. Bill to finance his education at Georgetown University, from which he obtained a B.S. degree in Foreign Service studies in 1949. He worked for three years in the United States Navy Hydrographic Office in Maryland and used his spare time to visit numerous Civil War battlefields in the East. He received his M.A. in history from Indiana University in 1955, writing his thesis on Confederate General Patrick Cleburne. As part of his research, he visited the Western Theater battlefields on which Cleburne fought, telling friends, "You can't describe a battlefield unless you walk it." In February 2005, Lincoln College awarded Bearss an honorary doctorate, and in May 2010, Gettysburg College awarded him an honorary doctorate of humane letters. On the battlefield of Shiloh in 1954, he made a career decision inspired by the park historian he met, Charles E. (Pete) Shedd: interpretation of battles in the field was far more interesting than the academic study of history in an office. Although attracted to a National Park Service career, he first joined the Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army, but soon took work as an historian at Vicksburg National Military Park, Vicksburg, Mississippi. It was at Vicksburg that he met his wife, Margie Riddle Bearss (1925–2006), also a Civil War historian; they were married on July 30, 1958. They first lived in the Leila Luckett House in Vicksburg formerly occupied by then-Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's soldiers in 1863, and eventually had three children: Sara Beth, Edwin Cole, Jr., and Mary Virginia (Jenny). National Park ServiceAt Vicksburg, Bearss did the research leading him and two friends to the long-lost Union gunboat U.S.S. Cairo. He also located two forgotten forts at Grand Gulf, Mississippi. He was promoted in 1958 to Southeast regional historian, working out of Vicksburg, but he spent the majority of his time on the road, visiting virtually every battlefield in the country. As popular interest in the Civil War increased with the centennial celebrations starting in 1961, Bearss was recognized as more knowledgeable on the battlefields than virtually anyone else and he was enlisted to develop a variety of new parks, including Pea Ridge and Wilson's Creek. During his long NPS career, he also led efforts in Fort Smith; Stones River, Fort Donelson; battlefields around Richmond, Bighorn Canyon; the Eisenhower Farm at Gettysburg; the gold miners' route over Chilkoot Pass; President Lyndon B. Johnson's Ranch; Fort Moultrie; Fort Point; William Howard Taft House; Fort Hancock at the Boston Navy Yard; and the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site. In 1966 Bearss was transferred to Washington, D.C. On November 1, 1981, he was named Chief Historian of the National Park Service (until 1994). From 1994 to 1995 he served as special assistant to the director. After his retirement in 1995, he received the title Chief Historian Emeritus . Sea Research Society In 1972 Bearss became a founding member of the Board of Advisors of Sea Research Society and participated in the creation of its College of Marine Arts. He was active in the Society's efforts to raise the wreck of the Civil War submarine Hunley, which had been found off Charleston, South Carolina, in 1970. Touring Bearss is a consummate tour guide, bringing history alive to visitors of all knowledge levels, revealing encyclopedic stores of memory and enormous personal energy, but always with rich and colorful anecdotes. A Washington Post reporter described his style as "Homeric monologues." The Wall Street Journal wrote that he evokes "almost hallucinatory sensations." Historian Dennis Frye said a "battlefield [tour] with Ed Bearss [is a] transcendental experience." Admirers have suggested that, if the United States ever recognizes Living National Treasures, as Japan and Australia do, Bearss should be an immediate honoree. Bearss started interpretative touring as part of his official duties in Vicksburg, leading eight one-hour tours a day.
Although he was no longer required to do so after 1958, he kept it up as an avocation on weekends. He attracted ROTC classes, active-duty military officers and VIPs, and other historians. Beginning in 1961, he began annual tours for the prestigious Chicago Civil War Roundtable. One of his greatest challenges was his annual tours of Vicksburg for the Louisiana School for the Blind and Deaf. He is a lifetime honorary member of the Cleveland Civil War Roundtable, to which he has spoken many times, beginning in 1962 and as recently as 2004. Currently, Bearss, in his eighties, continues to lead numerous tours—traveling as many as 200 days per year—around the United States, the Pacific, and Europe. He routinely outpaces his much younger guests in charging over rough terrain, recreating the color of famous infantry and cavalry attacks. Bearss lives in Arlington County, Virginia. Honors Bearss has received a number of awards and honors in the field of history and preservation:Bruce Catton Award Alvin Calman Award Bell I. Wiley Award T. Harry Williams Award Man of the Year at Vicksburg in 1963 Harry S. Truman Award for Meritorious Service in the field of Civil War History Fellow of the Company of Military Historians Distinguished Service Award from the Department of Interior in 1983 Commendation from the Secretary of the Army in 1985 The Civil War Preservation Trust created the Ed Bearss Award for achievements in historic preservation and made him the first recipient in 2001 Texas Star Award from the Texas Civil War Preservation Seminar in 2002 T. Harry Gatton Award, Raleigh Civil War Roundtable in 2008 A portrait bust of Bearss by Arthur Downey, a Washington, D.C., artist, was unveiled near the USS Cairo in the Vicksburg National Military Park on October 3, 2009. Television commentary The Civil War, PBS series by Ken Burns - Civil War Journal, A&E Network - Civil War Combat, History Channel - Smithsonian's Great Battles of the Civil War, TLC Selected works • Decision in Mississippi, 1962 • Rebel Victory at Vicksburg, 1963 • Hardluck Ironclad: the Sinking and Salvage of the Cairo, 1966 • Steele's Retreat from Camden and the Battle of Jenkins' Ferry, 1967 • Fort Smith: Little Gibraltar on the Arkansas, with Dr. A. M. Gibson, 1969 • Protecting Sherman's Lifeline: The Battles of Brice's Cross Roads and Tupelo 1864, 1971 • The Battle of Wilson's Creek, 1975 • Forrest at Brice's Cross Roads, 1975 • The Battle of Jackson; The Siege of Jackson; and Three Other Post-Vicksburg Actions, 1981 • The Battle of Five Forks, with Chris Calkins, 1985 • Vicksburg is the Key, (Volume I of Vicksburg Campaign trilogy), 1985 • Grant Strikes a Fatal Blow, (Volume II), 1986 • Unvexed to the Sea, (Volume III), 1986 • River of Lost Opportunities — The Civil War on the James River, 1995 • Smithsonian's Great Battles and Battlefields of the Civil War, with Jay Wertz, 1997 • Fields of Honor: Pivotal Battles of the Civil War, 2006 • Receding Tide: Vicksburg and Gettysburg, with J. Parker Hills, 2010 As editor: • A Southern Record: History of the Third Louisiana Regiment, with Willie Tunnard, 1970 • A Louisiana Confederate: Diary of Felix Pierre Poché, 1972 • Memoirs of a Confederate, Historic and Personal Campaigns of the First Manassas Confederate Brigade, 1972 • Your Affectionate Husband, J. F. Culver: Letters Written during the Civil War, with Leslie W. Dunlap, 1978 • The Gettysburg Magazine, assistant editor since 1989 Contributor: The Civil War Battlefield Guide, edited by Frances H. Kennedy, 1998. Notes 1. ^ Lincoln College press release 2. ^ Civil War Institute, Gettysburg College 3. ^ "Chief Historians of the National Park Service". http://www.nps.gov/history/history/hisnps/NPSHistory/chiefhistorians.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-20. ^ "Park honors historian, author Bearss," Vicksburg Post, October 4, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2009. 4. References Waugh, John C., Edwin Cole Bearss, History's Pied Piper (large PDF file), Edwin C. Bearss Tribute Fund, 2003, ISBN 0-9729827-0-1. Official biography at Chief Historians of the National Park Service site External links Americans at War video of Bearss Interview at the Pritzker Military Library
Daniel R. Beaver
Born in 1928. University of Cincinnati, in 1983-1984held the Harold Keith Johnson Chair of Military History at the US Army War College. Political, economic, and social philosophy of Andrew Jackson, University of Cincinnati, 1954 A Buckeye crusader: a sketch of the political career of Herbert Seely Bigelow, 1957 A Progressive ar War: Newton D. Baker and the American War effort, 1917-1919, Northwestern University 1962. University of Nebraska Press, 1966 Newton D. Baker and the genesis of the War Industries Board, 1917-1918, 1965 (pp. 16) The U.S. War Department in the Gaslight Era: Stephen Vincent Benet at the Ordnance Department, 1870-91 The Journal of Military History - Volume 68, Number 1, January 2004, pp. 105-132 Modernizing the American War Department: change and continuity in a turbulent era, 1885-1920 The Kent State University Press, 2006 Politics and policy: the War Department motorization and standardization program for wheeled transport vehicles, 1920-1940, pp. 46
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Died Occupation Nationality Genres Notable work(s) December 3, 1946 Springfield, MA December 11, 2007 Liberty, NY Historian, Activist, Author American Nonfiction Coming Out Under Fire
Notable award(s) Lambda Book Award MacArthur Fellowship Allan Ronald Bérubé (3 December 1946 – 11 December 2007) was an American historian, activist, independent scholar, selfdescribed "community-based" researcher and college drop-out, and award-winning author, best known for his research and writing about homosexual members of the American Armed Forces during World War II. He also wrote essays about the intersection of class and race in gay culture, and about growing up in a poor, working class family, his French-Canadian roots, and about his experience of anti-AIDS activism.Among Bérubé's published works was the 1990 book Coming Out Under Fire, which examined the stories of gay men and women in the U.S. military between 1941 and 1945. The book used interviews with gay veterans, government documents, and other sources to discuss the social and political issues that faced over 9,000 servicemen and women during World War II. The book earned Bérubé the Lambda Literary Award for outstanding Gay Men's Nonfiction book of 1990 and was later adapted as a film in 1994, narrated by Salome Jens and Max Cole, with a screenplay by Bérubé and the film's director, Arthur Dong. The film received a Peabody Award for excellence in documentary media in 1995. Bérubé received a MacArthur Fellowship (often called the "genius grant") from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation in 1996. He received a Rockefeller grant from the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies in 1994 to research a book on the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, and he was working on this book at the time of his death. Bérubé was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, and lived with his family in Monson, Massachusetts, and later in a trailer park near the waterfront in Bayonne, New Jersey. He lived for a time in Boston and for many years in San Francisco. He moved to New York City, and finally settled in Liberty, New York, where he died in 2007. Starting in 1979, Bérubé was interviewed about his work in publications including Time (magazine), The New York Times, the Washington Post, The Advocate, Christopher Street (magazine), Gay Community News (Boston), and the San Francisco Examiner. His many radio and television appearances included interviews by Studs Terkel, Sonia Freedman on CNN, and two by Terry Gross on National Public Radio's Fresh Air. Bérubé was twice elected Trustee, Village of Liberty, Liberty, NY, 2003 and 2005. Personal and professional papers The records of Bérubé's life and work are preserved by the GLBT Historical Society in San Francisco, of which he was a founding member. Bérubé donated the research and administrative files of his World War II Project to the society in 1995, with an accretion in 2000 (collection no. 1995-16). That collection is processed and open to researchers; a finding aid is available on the Web at the Online Archive of California. Bérubé also donated the records of the Forget-Me-Nots (collection no. 1989-10), an affinity group of which he was a member; the group performed civil disobedience at the United States Supreme Court during the 1987 Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, with each participant protesting in honor of an individual who had died of AIDS. Following Bérubé's death, the executors of his estate donated his complete personal and professional papers to the Historical Society in 2010. Preliminary processing of those papers is underway as of fall 2010; the records will not be open to researchers until processing is complete and a finding aid is prepared. A number of other collections of personal papers and organizational records at the GLBT Historical Society also include correspondence from Bérubé and other material documenting his work; details are available by searching the society's online catalog of manuscript collections.
Selected works Books • Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two, a social history based on oral history interviews, declassified government documents, letters and diaries. NY: Free Press, April 1990; paperback reprint: Plume/New American Library, April 1991. Essays • "Behind the Spectre of San Francisco," The Body Politic, April 1981. • "Caught in the Storm: AIDS and the Meaning of Natural Disaster." Outlook, 1, no. 3 (Fall 1988), pp. 8–19. • "Coming Out Under Fire," Mother Jones, February/March 1983. • "Don't Save Us From Our Sexuality." Coming Up!. April 1984. • "The First Stonewall," San Francisco Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Program, June 1983. • "The History of Gay Bathhouses." First published in Coming Up! (San Francisco). Revised and reprinted in Policing Public Sex: Queer Politics And the Future of AIDS Activism. Edited by Dangerous Bedfellows (Ephen Glenn Colter, Wayne Hoffman, Eva Pendleton, Allison Redick, David Serlin). Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1996. Revised and reprinted based on first version in: Gay Bathhouses and Public Health Policy, ed. by William J. Woods and Diane Binson. NY: Harrington Park Press, An Imprint of The Haworth Press, 2003. Co-published as the Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 44 No. 3/4, 2003. • "How Gay Stays White and What Kind of White It Stays."In The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness, ed. by Birgit Rasmussen, Eric Klineberg, Irene Nexica, and Matt Wray. Duke University Press, 2001. Reprinted in Privilege: A Reader, ed. by Michael S. Kimmel and Abby L. Ferber. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, A Member of the Perseus Book group,2003. • "Intellectual Desire," GLQ 3, no. 1 (1996): 139-157. [Includes a revised version of the autobiographical keynote address on his Franco-American, working-class origins that Bérubé presented at the First Quebec Lesbian and Gay Studies Conference, Montreal, November, 1992.] Reprinted in: Susan Raffo, ed., Queerly Classed: Gay Men and Lesbians Write About Class (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1997. • Introduction to German silent film, "Anders Als Die Anderen," premier San Francisco showing, Seventh San Francisco International Lesbian and Gay Film Festival, June 20, 1983. • "Lesbian Masquerade," Gay Community News, November 17, 1979. • "Lesbians at War with the Military: Tragedies, facts, and secret documents." Edited by Berube and Rebecca Isaacs. Out/Look (San Francisco), Issue 13, Summer 19991, pp. 14–27. • "Marching to a Different Drummer," The Advocate, Issue 320, October 1981. • "Marching to a Different Drummer: Lesbian and Gay GIs in World War II," in Duberman, and others, eds. Hidden from History, 383-394. • "Medical Scapegoating: An Historical Perspective." Gay Community News, April 21, 1984. • "Murder in the Women's Army Corps: An Interview with Actress Pat Bond." Out/Look (San Francisco), Issue 13, Summer 1991. p. 17-20. • "Rediscovering Our Forgotten Past" [interview with Woodie Wilson and Norman Sansom about the publication "Myrtle Beach Bitch"]. The Front Page, Vol. V, No. 11, June 26, 1984. • "Sunset Trailer Park" (with Florence Bérubé; dated November 1995) In: White Trash: Race and Class in America edited by Matt Wray and Annalee Newitz. NY<?>: Routledge, 1997, pp. 15–39. • "The War Years Were Critical," Washington Blade Pride Guide, June 1983. • "To Acknowledge Every Person As A Person." One-page anti-war essay in: Living at War: A Collection of Contemporary Responses to the Draft. Edited by Berube and David Worstell. Chicago: no publisher, no date (before November 1968). Film, TV • Consultant. "The Times of Harvey Milk"; documentary film directed by Robert Epstein, 1984; photography by Frances Reid; edited by Deborah Hoffman and Epstein; music by Mark Isham; produced by Richard Schmiechen; released by Teleculture Films Inc. Running time: 87 minutes. Not rated. • Interviewee. "Over Our Dead Bodies," documentary film directed by Stuart Marshall, with Bérubé, Gregg Bordowitz, Michael Callen, Douglas Crimp. • Screenplay, with Arthur Dong, for documentary film "Coming Out Under Fire," made for television, produced and directed by Arthur Dong, and funded with grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (1994), based on the book by Bérubé. Director of photography, Stephen Lighthill; edited by Veronica Selver; music by Mark Adler; released by Zeitgeist Films. Running time: 71 minutes. Not rated. Broadcast nationally, PBS, June 1995; released on home video, 1996; released on DVD. 2003. • Story consultant. "The Castro"; documentary film produced by KQED TV, San Francisco, 1997. • Story consultant. "Licensed to Kill"; documentary film by Arthur Dong, 1996. • Story consultant and advisor. "Out At Work"; documentary film by Tami Gold, 1996. • Story consultant and historical consultant. "The Question of Equality"; documentary television series funded by Independent Television Service, 1994. Media • Co-curator, with Jonathan Ned Katz, of the U.S. section of "Goodbye to Berlin? Hundert Jahre Schwulenbewegung," an exhibition on the international history of the gay rights movement held at the Berlin Academy of the Arts, produced by the Schwules Museum of Berlin and the Academy, May 14-August 3, 1997.
Conference Presentations & Unpublished Essays • First Canadian Lesbian and Gay Trade Union Conference, Ottawa,1997 • The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness, Berkeley, 1997 • Southwest Labor Studies Conference, San Francisco, 1996 • The Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, CIO (1930s, 1940s), slide show and presentation, Pride at Work, 2nd Biennial National Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Labor Conference, Oakland, CA, June, 1996; also co-led workshop on recording union history. • American Historical Association, Annual Meetings, Atlanta, 1996; San Francisco, 1994 • First Leadership Conference of the Lavender Caucus of the Service Employees International Union Western Conference, Oakland, California, 1993 • Reworking American Labor History: Race, Gender and Class, Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, 1992 • American Psychological Association, Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 1991 • Society of American Archivists, Annual Meeting, Seattle, 1990 • "The Politics of Grief." (24 double-spaced pages; handwritten at top: "3-5-89," "(c) 1989 Allan Berube" and "For Michael [Lynch] with love, from Allan." Copy in the collection of Bert Handsen.) • "Pioneers of the Lesbian and Gay Press in America," keynote speech, Gay Press Association, West Coast Regional Conference, San Francisco, June 20, 1983. • Second National Conference on Lesbian and Gay Aging, San Francisco, 1983 • American Sociologist Association, Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 1982 • American Library Association, Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 1981 • American Historical Association, Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, 1981 • First White House National Conference on Lesbian and Gay Aging, Los Angeles, 1981 Awards As author, historian, lecturer, teacher • "Allan Berube Day," proclaimed by San Francisco Board of Supervisors, June 17, 1996. • Certificate of Appreciation, National Park Service, Western Region, 1992. • Certificate of Honor, San Francisco Board of Supervisors, "in appreciative public recognition of distinction and merit," 1984. o Certificate reads: "We congratulate you for your extensive historical research and study of the gay community, held in high esteem and greatly valued throughout the country. This outstanding contribution to our society, focusing attention on the gay community during and after World War II, is a significant piece of history and we are grateful for your dedication to this effort." • Community Service Award, Bay Area Physicians for Human Rights, 1990. • Distinguished Achievement Award, Monette-Horwitz Trust, 2001. • Lambda Book Award for Best Gay Male Nonfiction Book of 1990, 1991. • Outstanding Book Award, Gustavus Myers Center for the Study of Human Rights in the United States: for the best scholarship on the subject of intolerance in the United States, 1991. • MacArthur Fellowship, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, "in recognition of your accomplishments in history which demonstrate your originality, creativity, capacity for self-direction, and ability to make a contribution to our lives," 1996-2001. • Rockefeller Residency Fellowship in the Humanities, Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies (CLAGS), Graduate Center, City University of New York, for research on "The Marine Cooks and Stewards Union 1930s to 1950s," 19941995. For film Coming Out Under Fire (Berube was co-screenwriter of documentary based on his book of the same title) • Berlin International Film Festival, Best Gay Documentary, 1994. • George Foster Peabody Award for Excellence in Television Broadcasting, 1995. • GLAAD Media Award Best Documentary. • Sundance Film Festival Special Jury Award for Excellence, 1994. Liberty and Sullivan County, New York • Beautification Award, Greater Liberty Chamber of Commerce, 2004. • Pride of Sullivan Award, Sullivan County Chamber of Commerce and Industry, for Carrier House Bed & Breakfast, May 1, 2005. Public service Liberty and Sullivan County, New York • Created, designed, and maintained website: LibertyPride.org, "A Community Website to Promote Clean-Up & Beautification Projects." • Created, designed, and maintained website: VillageOfLiberty.org. • Helped to save the Town and Country Building, Liberty, NY; prepared sales booklet for building; initiated facade restoration by volunteers from Cornell University's Historic Preservation Planning Program, April 15–18, 2004. • Initiated the listing of 127 buildings located in the Downtown Civic and Commercial Historic District of Liberty, NY, on both the New York State Register of Historic Places and the National Register of Historic Places, 2006. • Initiated the saving, redevelopment, and moving of the Munson Diner from New York City to Liberty, NY. • Member, ALIVE (Assembly for Liberty's Investment in Visual Enhancement). • Member, Cornell-Liberty Economic Action Project Steering Committee.
Member, Habitat for Humanity Advisory Board. Member, J.C. Young Hose Company No. 1, Liberty Volunteer Fire Department; served as Fire Police Officer. Member, Revitalization Committee. Member, Sullivan County United Against Prejudice. Member (with Dara Smith), Sign Review Committee. Represented the Village of Liberty at meetings of the Community Development Corporation. Researched and produced an illustrated history: "A Century of Theaters on Liberty's Main Street," and other local history research. • Rewrote and reorganized "A User's Guide To Recycling & Trash Removal in the Village of Liberty." San Francisco • Appointed by the Chair of the San Francisco Human Rights Commission to the Lesbian and Gay Advisory Committee (now the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Transgender Advisory Committee), serving three years, 1983-1986. • Founding Member, The Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society (GLBT Historical Society), San Francisco, 1985. • Founding Member, San Francisco Lesbian and Gay History Project, 1978. National • Member, National Writers Union. • Wrote detailed history of the U.S. ban on homosexuals in the military for Senator Edward Kennedy, who included it in the record of the 1993 hearings on homosexuals in the military. "Additional Views of Mr. Kennedy. Excerpted from the Senate Debate regarding the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994. 139 Congressional Record, S11194; daily ed. September 9, 1993." available online Employment and entrepreneurial activities • Bought "Carrier Grove," wooded property on Carrier Street, Liberty, NY, with aim of furthering green development. • Coordinator of Community & Economic Development and founding member of Liberty Economic Action Project (LEAP), 2004-05. • Manager & Program Director, Liberty Theatre, 2002-2003. • Bought, renovated, operated Carrier House Bed and Breakfast, 64 Carrier Street, Liberty, NY, 2002-2007. • With life partner John Nelson, operated Intelligent Design Antiques (1930s-40s-50s collectibles), Liberty, NY. • With Maurice Gerry, bought the Shelburne Playhouse/Theatre, Ferndale, NY; coordinated its restoration; initiated its being placed on the register of New York State and National Historic Places; initiated facade restoration by group of Cornell University historic preservation volunteers, 2003-2007. Archives/research • Oral History: Conducted 70 oral history interviews since 1980 with lesbians and gay men about their experiences in the military and on the home front during World War II and about their experiences as members of the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union. • Government Documents: Through the use of the Freedom of Information Act and the National Archives, uncovered thousands of pages of Army, Navy and FBI documents relating to the management of homosexual military personnel during World War II. Teaching • New School for Social Research, Fall 1996 • Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, Summer Session 1994 • University of California at Santa Cruz, Winter 1991 and Spring 1992 • Stanford University, Fall 1991 Consulting • Consultant on many museum exhibits, radio and television shows, books, magazine and newspaper articles and plays. • Conducted many workshops at universities and community groups on conducting community-based historical research, including oral history interviews and archival research. • Freelance historical consultant (1985–2007). • Freelance developmental editor (1991–2007). • Community-based gay history researcher and writer: Full-time (1982–2001); Part-time (1978–1982). • Free-lance direct mail copywriter for nonprofit organizations. Education • Courses in "Multi-Image Production," City College of San Francisco, 1991–92 • Harvard Summer School, 1968 • Undergraduate education, University of Chicago (English Literature major), 1964–68 • High School diploma, Mount Hermon School for Boys (now the Northfield Schools), Mount Hermon, Massachusetts, 1964 Obituaries • Fox, Margalit. "Allan Bérubé Is Dead at 61; Historian of Gays in Military." New York Times, December 16, 2007. • Goodman, Amy. "Gay Historian Allan Berube Dies at 61." Democracy Now, December 13, 2007. • Gross, Terry. "Remembrances. Allan Berube, 'Coming Out Under Fire' Author, Dies." Fresh Air from WHYY, December 17, 2007. • Highleyman, Liz. "Historian Allan Berube dies" Bay Area Reporter, Vol. 37 / No. 51 / 20 December 2007 • Hoffman, Wayne. "Obituary: Gay Historian Allan Berube" Press Release, December 12, 2007. • Lumsden, Michal. "Ex-Liberty Trustee Allan Berube dies at 61" Times Herald-Record, December 12, 2007. • • • • • • •
Mayer, Fritz. "Allan Berube remembered. A tribute for a groundbreaking writer and organizer."" The River Reporter, January 10, 2008. • Robert. "Pride at Work mourns the passing of Allan Berube." December 14, 2007. • Sager, Jeanne. "Liberty's Berube Dead at 61" Sullivan County Democrat • Schindler, Paul. "Allan Bérubé is Dead at 61" Gay City News (NY), December 13, 2007. • Smith, Richard. "Allan Berube: Historian, activist and award-winning chronicler of gay life." The Guardian (London), February 22, 2008, p. 39. • White, Allen. "Allan Berube and Chuck Morrow, Two San Francisco Pioneers And Community Giants Die." San Francisco Bay Times, December 20, 2007. • Woo, Elaine. "Allan Berube, 1946-2007: Author chronicled history of gays in the military" Los Angeles Times, December 16, 2007. Bibliography S., K. "Outing History: Allan Berube, X'68, wrote Coming Out Under Fire to tell the history of gay men and lesbian women in World War II." University of Chicago Magazine, February 1997. available online United States Senate. Quotations from Allan Bérubé "I do my work now in the borderlands between social classes, between the university and the community, between heterosexual and homosexual, between educated speech and down-to-earth talk, between Franco-American and Québécois, between my family and the gay community." From the essay "Intellectual Desire." "None of us can do our best work until we believe that the life of the mind really does belong to us." From the essay "Intellectual Desire." References This biography and list of accomplishments is being compiled from documents and notes in Bérubé's files and from research in other cited sources. 1. ^ Woo, Elaine (2007-12-17). "Allan Bérubé; gay historian chronicled roles in WWII". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/obituaries/articles/2007/12/17/allan_berube_gay_historian_chronicled_roles_in_ wwii/. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 2. ^ Lambda Literary Foundation, Award recipients 1988-1991 •
Coming Out Under Fire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Coming Out Under Fire is a documentary film directed and produced by Arthur Dong and narrated by actress Salome Jens. Based on Allan Bérubé's book of the same title, the film examines the attitudes toward homosexuality in the United States Armed Forces during World War II. Awards • Special Jury Recognition For Technical Achievement at the Sundance Film Festival, 1994. • Teddy Award at the Berlin International Film Festival, 1994. • George Foster Peabody Award, 1995. External Links • Official Website from Deep Focus Productions Coming Out Under Fire at the Internet Movie Database • • New York Times review of the film Directed and produced byArthur Dong Written byArthur Dong Allan Bérubé Narrated bySalome Jens Music by Mark Adler Cinematography Stephen Lighthill Editing by Veronica Selver Distributed byDeep Focus Films Release date(s) 1994 Running time71 minutes Country United States
Jeremy Black (historian)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jeremy Black (born 30 October, 1955) MBE is a British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter. He is a senior fellow at the Center for the Study of America and the West at the Foreign Policy Research Institute. He is the author of over 100 books, especially on eighteenth century British politics and international relations. He graduated from Queens' College, Cambridge, with a starred first and then did postgraduate work at St John's and Merton at Oxford University. He then taught at Durham University from 1980 as a lecturer, then professor before moving to Exeter University in 1996. He has lectured extensively in Australasia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the U.S.. He was awarded an MBE for services to stamp design. Black is also an advisory fellow of the Barsanti Military History Center at the University of North Texas and was the keynote speaker at the centre's 2008 autumn conference. Public Roles • Editor of Archives, the journal of the British Records Association from 1989-2005. • Member of the Council of the British Records Association 1989-2005 • Member of the Council of the Royal Historical Society 1993-1996 and 1997-2000 • Member of the Council of the List and Index Society 1997-present • Editorial board of History Today, International History Review, Journal of Military History, Media History and the Journal of the Royal United Services Institute (now the RUSI Journal) Works Black has authored over 100 books throughout his career. A comprehensive list of Black's publications is available on his website. Hardback edition • The War of 1812 in the Age of Napoleon, Continuum International Publishing Group, London, New York 2010 ISBN 978-0-826-43612-2 • London: a history, Carnegie Publishing, 2009. • What If?: Counterfactualism and the Problem of History, Social Affairs Unit, 2008 • The Curse of History, Social Affairs Unit, 2008 • Eighteenth Century Britain, 1688-1783, Palgrave, 2008. • George III: America's Last King, Yale, 2007. • Parliament and Foreign Policy in the Eighteenth Century, CUP, 2004 (in press). • The English Seaborne Empire, Yale, 2004 (in press). • Kings, Nobles and Commoners: States and Societies in Early Modern Europe, I.B. Tauris, 2004 • Rethinking Military History, Routledge, 2004 • World War Two: A Military History, Routledge, 2003. • Italy and the Grand Tour, Yale University Press, 2003. • France and the Grand Tour, Palgrave, 2003. • Visions of the World: A History of Maps, Mitchell Beazley, 2003. • The British Abroad. The Grand Tour in the Eighteenth Century, Sutton, 2003. Paperback edition • George III - America's Last King, Yale University Press, New Haven and London 2008 ISBN 978-0-300-13621-0 • editor of, War in the Modern World 1815-2000, Routledge, 2003. • War. An Illustrated World History, Sutton, 2003. • Warfare in the Eighteenth Century, Cassell, 2002. • The World in the Twentieth Century, Longman, 2002. • America as a Military Power 1775-1882, Greenwood, 2002. • editor of, European Warfare 1494-1660, Palgrave, 2002. • European International Relations 1648-1815, Palgrave, 2002. • Europe and the World 1650-1830, Routledge, 2002.
• with Donald MacRaild, Nineteenth-Century Britain, Palgrave, 2002. • A History of the British Isles (2 nd edition), Palgrave, 2002. • editor of, European Warfare 1815-2000, Palgrave, 2002. • Warfare in the Western World 1882-1975, Indiana University Press/Acumen, 2001. • War in the New Century, Continuum, 2001. • Western Warfare 1775-1882, Indiana University Press, 2001. • Walpole in Power : Britain 's First Prime Minister, Sutton, 2001. • The Politics of James Bond: from Fleming's Novels to the Big Screen, Greenwood, 2001. • British Diplomats and Diplomacy 1688-1800, University of Exeter Press, 2001. • The English Press 1621-1861, Sutton, 2001. • Eighteenth-Century Britain 1688-1783, Palgrave, 2001. • A Military Revolution? Military Change and European Society 1550-1800, 1991 External links • www.jeremyblack.co.uk Official website • www.standpointmag.co.uk "Jeremy Black: Underrated", column by Andrew Roberts, December 2008 • Works by or about Jeremy Black (historian) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Jeremy Black, "Islam and the West: A Historical Perspective," Foreign Policy Research Institute, Volume 4, Number 2, May 2003 • War Disease and the World 1450-2000, May 4 2005 • Jeremy Black, H-France Forum Volume 2, Issue 3 (Summer 2007), No. 3 • Great Military Leaders - Interview with author Jeremy Black, August 14 2008 • Jeremy Black, "What Students Need to Know About War, and Why", February 25, 2009 References 1. ^ from http://www.standpointmag.co.uk/node/712/full/ www.standpointmag.co.uk, accessed on 14 November 2009 ^ from http://www.jeremyblack.co.uk/all-publications.html, accessed on 02 November 2009 2.
Boyd served 23 years in the USAF, as A-10 instructor and D-117 Stealth pilot during the Gulf War, and 10 years in Defense Industry. He is now cultiving archaeology, T'ai Chi Schuan and bonsai. Aircraft qualifications: Cessna 150, Cessna 172, Cessna T-37, Northrup T-38 and AT-38 Talon, Fairchild A-10A Thunderbolt II, Vought A-7D and A-7K Corsair II, Lockheed F-117A Night Hawk Other aircraft flown: Bell 47G helicopter, Bell 206 Jet Ranger, Bolkow BO-105 helicopter, Taylorcraft L-2, Piper J-3 Cub (clipped wing variant), Lockheed EC-130, McDonnell Douglas F-15B Pilot qualifications held: Aircraft commander, Instructor pilot, Flight Examiner Command positions held: Flight commander, Squadron assistant Operations officer, Squadron Operations officer, Squadron commander, Group Deputy Operations group commander Decorations: Kuwait Liberation Medal, National Defense Service Medal, Southwest Asia Service medal, Combat Readiness Medal, Air Force Commendation Medal (2 oak leaf clusters), Aerial Achievement Medal, Air Medal (3 oak leaf clusters), Meritorious Service Medal (1 oak leaf cluster), Distinguished Flying Cross Publications: • Gremlin on My Shoulder: A Compilation of Flying Stories • North American Aviation: The Rise and Fall of an Aerospace Giant, Written with John Casey • The Samurai Sword: Looking at Form, Fit & Function of a Masterpiece • Connecting Into Observation and Awareness
James C. Bradford
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia James Chapin Bradford (born in Michigan, 1945) is a professor of history at Texas A&M University and a respected specialist in American maritime, naval, and military history in the early national period of American History. Early life and education Raised in Bear Lake, Michigan and Traverse City, Michigan, he attended Traverse City Central High School. He earned his B.A. in 1967 and M.A. in 1968 at Michigan State University, then went on to the University of Virginia, where he earned his Ph.D. in history in 1976 with a thesis on Society and government in Loudoun County, Virginia, 17901800. Academic career Before completing his doctorate, Bradford began his academic career by working as a Research Assistant at the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation in 1972-74, where he assisted in editing Thomas Jefferson's account books. In 1973, he was appointed assistant professor in history at the United States Naval Academy. He remained at the Naval Academy until 1981, when Texas A&M University appointed him to its history faculty. Bradford has also taught at the University of Maryland in 1974-1981; MARA Institute of Technology/Texas International Education Consortium in Malaysia in 1987-1988, the Air War College in 1997-1998, and the University of Alabama in 1996-1997. In addition, Bradford has led numerous study abroad programs in the British Isles, Italy, France, and Germany. Active in a number of professional organizations, he served as Executive Director of the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic, 1996–2004, and was elected president of the North American Society for Oceanic History to serve from 2008. He has served in a wide variety of editorial and advisory roles, including being Book Review editor of the Journal of the Early Republic, 1979-1997. Since 1999, he has been series edior for the U.S. Naval Institute Press's "Library of Naval Biography" and since 2000, series coeditor of "New Perspectives on Maritime History and Nautical Archeology" with the University Press of Florida. Honors and awards • Texas A&M Bush Excellence Award for Faculty in International Teaching, 2007. • Texas A&M College of Liberal Arts, Teaching Excellence Award, 1985, 2004. • Society for Historians of the Early American Republic, Meritorious Service Award, 1996. • North American Society for Oceanic History, K. Jack Bauer Award for contributions to the field of maritime history, 1990 and 2007. Published works • International encyclopedia of military history, James C. Bradford, editor; preface by Jeremy Black. New York : Routledge, 2006. • Atlas of American military history, edited by James C. Bradford. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. • The military and conflict between cultures: soldiers at the interface, edited by James C. Bradford. College Station, Tex.: Texas A&M University Press, 1997. • Quarterdeck and bridge: two centuries of American naval leaders, edited by James C. Bradford. Annapolis, Md. : Naval Institute Press, 1997. • Eagle, shield and anchor: readings in American naval history, edited by James C. Bradford. New York, N.Y. : American Heritage Custom Pub. Group, 1994. • Raising a Crab: America's navy, edited by James C. Bradford. Annapolis, Md.: Nabal Institute Press, 1993 • Crucible of empire: the Spanish-American War and its aftermath, edited by James C. Bradford. Annapolis, Md. : Naval Institute Press, 1993. • Captains of the old steam navy: makers of the American naval tradition, 1840-1880, edited by James C. Bradford. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1986. • Guide to the microfilm edition of the papers of John Paul Jones, 1747-1792. Alexandria, Va.: Chadwyck-Healey, 1986. • The papers of John Paul Jones, microform, edited by James C. Bradford. Cambridge, UK ; Alexandria, VA: Chadwyck-Healey, 1986. 10 microfilm reels ; 35 mm. • Command under sail: makers of the American Naval tradition, 1775-1850, edited by James C. Bradford. Annapolis, Md. : United States Naval Institute, 1985. • Anne Arundel County, Maryland: A Bicentennial History, 1649-1977, edited by James C. Bradford. Annapolis: Anne Arundel Bicentennial Committee, 1977. Sources Texas A&M Faculty biography
(1930-2010) James Brady served as a platoon leader and later rifle company executive officer of Dog Company in the 7th Marines in the Taebaek Mountains of North Korea in the fall and winter of 1951-'52. He was promoted to first lieutenant and battalion intelligence officer. After it he worked for the Fairchild Publications as bureau chief and European director in Paris, for Women's Wear Daily, for Hearst Magazines as VP/editor & publisher of Harper's Bazaar and since 1974 for Rupert Murdoch published popular biographies of some of American celebrities. Publications: • "The Scariest Place in the World", St. Martin’s Press, 2005 (account of his return to North Korea for a PARADE magazine article) • "Why Marines Fight"(2007) • "The Marine"(2003), a novel of the Korean War. • "The Coldest War" (1990) was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and was hailed by The New York Times as "a superb personal memoir of the way it was." • "Hero of the Pacific: The Life of Legendary Marine John Basilone" (Wiley 2010). Basilone was a World War II hero, one of three who'll be featured players in the forthcoming Steven Spielberg-Tom Hanks HBO miniseries, The Pacific (October, 2009), a sequel to their highly acclaimed Band of Brothers. Awards In November 2001, he was awarded the Bronze Star with Combat V for a firefight against the Chinese army on Hill Yoke near Panmunjom on May 31, 1952. http://www.parade.com/news/2009/01/james-brady.html
November 4, 1916 – February 19, 1945 (aged 28)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Nickname Place of birth Place of death Place of burial Service/branch Years of service Rank "Manila John" Buffalo, New York Iwo Jima, KIA Arlington National Cemetery United States Marine Corps United States Army
1934–1937 (U.S. Army) 1940–1945 (USMC)
Gunnery Sergeant Dog Company, 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 27th Marine Regiment, 5th Marine Division World War II *Battle of Guadalcanal *Battle of Iwo Jima Medal of Honor Navy Cross Purple Heart
Unit Battles/wars Awards
John Basilone (November 4, 1916 – February 19, 1945) was a United States Marine Gunnery Sergeant who received the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Guadalcanal during World War II. He was the only enlisted Marine in World War II to receive the Purple Heart, Medal of Honor and the Navy Cross. He served three years in the United States Army with duty in the Philippines before joining the Marine Corps in 1940. After attending training, Basilone deployed to Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, the Solomon Islands and eventually to Guadalcanal where he held off 3,000 Japanese troops after his 15-member unit was reduced to two other men. He was killed in action on the first day of the Battle of Iwo Jima, after which he was posthumously honored with the Navy Cross. He has received many honors including being the namesake for streets, military
locations and a United States Navy destroyer. Basilone was born in his home on November 4, 1916 in Buffalo, New York, the sixth of 10 children. His father, Salvatore Basilone, emigrated from Naples in 1903 and settled in Raritan, New Jersey. His mother, Dora Bencivenga, was born in 1889 and grew up in Manville, but her parents, Carlo and Catrina also came from Naples. His parents met at a church gathering and married three years later. Basilone grew up in the nearby Raritan Town (now Boro of Raritan) where he attended St. Bernard Parochial School. After completing middle school at the age of 15, he dropped out prior to attending high school. Military service Basilone worked as a golf caddy for the local country club before joining the military. He enlisted in the United States Army and completed his three-year enlistment with service in the Philippines, where he was a champion boxer. Upon returning home, he worked as a truck driver in Reisterstown, Maryland. After driving trucks for a few months, he wanted to go back to Manila and believed he could get there faster as a Marine than in the Army. He enlisted in the Marines in July 1940 from Baltimore, Maryland, and went to recruit training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island followed by training at Marine Corps Base Quantico and New River. The Corps sent him to Guantánamo Bay, Cuba for his next assignment and then to Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands as a member of Dog Company 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment 1st Marine Division. Guadalcanal While on Guadalcanal, his fellow Marines gave him the nickname "Manila John" due to his prior service in the Philippines and how much he talked about it. During the Battle for Henderson Field, his unit came under attack by a regiment of approximately 3,000 soldiers from the Japanese Sendai Division. On October 24, 1942, Japanese forces began a frontal attack using machine guns, grenades, and mortars against the American heavy machine guns. Basilone commanded two sections of machine guns that fought for the next two days until only Basilone and two other Marines continued fighting. Basilone moved an extra gun into position and maintained continual fire against the incoming Japanese forces. He then repaired and manned another machine gun, holding the defensive line until replacements arrived. As battle raged, ammunition became critically low. With supply lines cut off, Basilone fought through hostile ground to resupply his gunners with urgently needed ammunition. Toward the dawn of the battle, Basilone fought Japanese soldiers using only a .45 handgun and a machete. By the end of the battle, the Japanese regiment was virtually annihilated. For his actions during this battle, he received the United States military's highest award for bravery, the Medal of Honor. Afterwards, Private First Class Nash W. Phillips, of Fayetteville, North Carolina, recalled from the battle for Guadalcanal: "Basilone had a machine gun on the go for three days and nights without sleep, rest, or food. He was in a good emplacement, and causing the Japanese lots of trouble, not only firing his machine gun, but also using his pistol." War bond tour and marriage After receiving the Medal of Honor, he returned to the United States and participated in a war bond tour. His arrival was highly publicized and his hometown held a parade in his honor when he returned. The homecoming parade occurred on Sunday, September 19, 1943, and drew a huge crowd with thousands of people, including politicians, celebrities and the national press. The parade made national news in Life magazine and Fox Movietone News. After the parade, he toured the country raising money for the war effort and achieved celebrity status. Although he appreciated the admiration, he felt out of place and requested to return to the operating forces fighting the war. The Marine Corps denied his request and told him he was needed more on the home front. He was offered a commission, which he turned down, and was later offered an assignment as an instructor, but refused this as well. He requested again to return to the war and this time the request was approved. He left for Camp Pendleton, California, for training on December 27, 1943. While stationed at Camp Pendleton, he met his future wife, Lena Mae Riggi, who was a Sergeant in the Marine Corps Women's Reserve. They were married at St. Mary's Star of the Sea Church in Oceanside, on July 10, 1944, with a reception at the Carlsbad Hotel (Twin Inns). They honeymooned at her parents' onion farm in Portland. He requested a return to the fighting in the Pacific theatre. Iwo Jima After his request to return to the fleet was approved, he was assigned to Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 27th Marine Regiment, 5th Marine Division during the invasion of Iwo Jima. On February 19, 1945, he was serving as a machine gun section leader in action against Japanese forces on Red Beach II. During the battle, the Japanese concentrated their fire at the incoming Americans from heavily fortified blockhouses staged throughout the island. With his unit pinned down, Basilone made his way around the side of the Japanese positions until he was directly on top of the blockhouse. He then attacked with grenades and demolitions, single-handedly destroying the entire strongpoint and its defending garrison. He then fought his way toward Airfield Number 1 and aided an American tank that was trapped in an enemy mine field under intense mortar and artillery barrages. He guided the heavy vehicle over the hazardous terrain to safety, despite heavy weapons fire from the Japanese. As he moved along the edge of the airfield, he was killed by Japanese mortar shrapnel. His actions helped Marines penetrate the Japanese defense and get off the landing beach during the critical early stages of the invasion. For his valor during the battle of Iwo Jima, he was posthumously approved for the Marine Corps' second-highest decoration for bravery, the Navy Cross. He was interred in Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia and his grave can be found in Section 12, Grave 384, grid Y/Z 23.5. Lena M. Basilone died June 11, 1999, at the age of 86 and was buried at Riverside National Cemetery. Lena's obituary notes that she never remarried. Military honors
Medal of Honor Navy Cross Purple Heart Medal Presidential Unit Citation American Defense Service Medal American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal
Medal of Honor citation His Medal of Honor citation, signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, reads: The President of the United States in the name of The Congress takes pride in presenting the MEDAL OF HONOR to SERGEANT JOHN BASILONE UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS for service as set forth in the following CITATION: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry in action against enemy Japanese forces, above and beyond the call of duty, while serving with the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division in the Lunga Area. Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, on 24 and 25 October 1942. While the enemy was hammering at the Marines' defensive positions, Sgt. Basilone, in charge of 2 sections of heavy machine guns, fought valiantly to check the savage and determined assault. In a fierce frontal attack with the Japanese blasting his guns with grenades and mortar fire, one of Sgt. Basilone's sections, with its guncrews, was put out of action, leaving only 2 men able to carry on. Moving an extra gun into position, he placed it in action, then, under continual fire, repaired another and personally manned it, gallantly holding his line until replacements arrived. A little later, with ammunition critically low and the supply lines cut off, Sgt. Basilone, at great risk of his life and in the face of continued enemy attack, battled his way through hostile lines with urgently needed shells for his gunners, thereby contributing in large measure to the virtual annihilation of a Japanese regiment. His great personal valor and courageous initiative were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. Navy Cross citation The President of the United States takes pride in presenting the NAVY CROSS posthumously to GUNNERY SERGEANT JOHN BASILONE UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS for service as set forth in the following CITATION: For extraordinary heroism while serving as a Leader of a Machine-Gun Section, Company C, 1st Battalion, 27th Marines, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, 19 February 1945. Shrewdly gauging the tactical situation shortly after landing when his company's advance was held up by the concentrated fire of a heavily fortified Japanese blockhouse, Gunnery Sergeant Basilone boldly defied the smashing bombardment of heavy caliber fire to work his way around the flank and up to a position directly on top of the blockhouse and then, attacking with grenades and demolitions, single handedly destroyed the entire hostile strong point and its defending garrison. Consistently daring and aggressive as he fought his way over the battle-torn beach and up the sloping, gun-studded terraces toward Airfield Number 1, he repeatedly exposed himself to the blasting fury of exploding shells and later in the day coolly proceeded to the aid of a friendly tank which had been trapped in an enemy mine field under intense mortar and artillery barrages, skillfully guiding the heavy vehicle over the hazardous terrain to safety, despite the overwhelming volume of hostile fire. In the forefront of the assault at all times, he pushed forward with dauntless courage and iron determination until, moving upon the edge of the airfield, he fell, instantly killed by a bursting mortar shell. Stouthearted and indomitable, Gunnery Sergeant Basilone, by his intrepid initiative, outstanding skill, and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of the fanatic opposition, contributed materially to the advance of his company during the early critical period of the assault, and his unwavering devotion to duty throughout the bitter conflict was an inspiration to his comrades and reflects the highest credit upon Gunnery Sergeant Basilone and the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country. For the President, JAMES FORRESTAL Secretary of the Navy Other honors Basilone has received numerous honors, including the namesake of a United States Navy destroyer, a postage stamp and several plaques, monuments, geographical landmarks, a bust in San Diego's Little Italy in a piazza named for him, Piazza Basilone, and a residential building at Montclair State University. USS Basilone The United States Navy commissioned USS Basilone, a Gearing-class destroyer, in 1949. The ship's keel was laid down on July 7, 1945, in Orange, Texas, and launched on December 21, 1945. His widow, Sergeant Lena Mae Basilone, sponsored the ship. Marine Corps buildings and landmarks The Marine Corps has named infrastructure for him on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, including an entry point onto the base from Interstate 5 called "Basilone Road"; a section of U.S. Interstate 5 running through the base called "Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone Memorial Highway"; and a parachute landing zone called "Basilone Drop Zone". Namesakes from outside the Marine Corps In addition to the honors bestowed to him from the Marine Corps a wide variety of non military institutions have also chosen their name based on Basilone. Some of these include: the football field at Bridgewater-Raritan High School is called "Basilone Field", and on the wall of the fieldhouse next to the field is a mural honoring Basilone; the Knights of Columbus Council #13264 in his hometown is named in his honor; an overpass at the Somerville Circle in Somerville, New Jersey on U.S. Highway 202 and 206 that goes under it; the New Jersey Turnpike bridge across the Raritan River is named the "Basilone Bridge"; the new Bridge that crosses the Raritan River in Raritan at First Avenue and Canal Street; a memorial statue featuring him holding a water-cooled Browning machine gun is located at the intersections of Old York Road and Canal Street in Raritan, New Jersey (childhood friend Phillip Orlando sculpted the statue); a plaque at the United States Navy Memorial in Washington, D.C.; a bust in Little Italy San Diego at Fir and India Streets (the war memorial is dedicated to residents of Little Italy who served in World War II and Korea, and the area is called Piazza Basilone); Order Sons of Italy In America Lodge #2442 is named in honor of Basilone in Bohemia, New York. and the Raritan Public Library has the Basilone Room where they keep memorabilia about him. In 1944, Army Barracks from Washington State were moved to a site in front of Hansen Dam in Pacoima, California and rebuilt as 1,500 apartments for returning GIs. This development was named the Basilone Homes and was used until about 1955. The site is now a golf course. In media On November 10, 2005, the U.S. Postal Service issued the "Distinguished Marines" stamps honoring four Marine Corps heroes including Basilone. The Pacific (2010 miniseries) Basilone along with two other Marines became the basis of a 10-part HBO miniseries The Pacific, the successor to Band of Brothers. Actor Jon Seda stars as Basilone. See alsoBiography portal World War II portal United States Marine Corps portal • List of Medal of Honor recipients for World War II • List of Historically Important U.S. Marines References
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps. This article includes text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. 1. ^ Brady, 2010, pp. 79-80 2. ^ Brady, 2010, p. 80 3. ^ U.S. Senate. "Congressional Record", November 18, 2005, S13334-5. Accessed on September 02, 2010. 4. ^ a b c d "Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone, USMC". Who's Who in Marine Corps History. History Division, United States Marine Corps. http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/HD/Whos_Who/Basilone_J.htm. Retrieved October 20, 2007. 5. ^ United States Government. Medal of Honor citation. 6. ^ United States Postal Service. "Four Distinguished Marines Saluted on U.S. Postage Stamps", November 10, 2005. Accessed September 02, 2010. 7. ^ a b "Medal of Honor recipients". World War II (A - F). United States Army Center of Military History. 2009-06-08. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080616211617/http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/wwII-a-f.html. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 8. ^ "Life Goes to a Hero's Homecoming, Life Magazine, p. 126, Oct. 11, 1943. 9. ^ a b "The Story of Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone Part 3". John Basilone Parade Website. http://www.basiloneparade.com/. Retrieved October 5, 2005. 10. ^ Tatum, Charles W. Searching for "Manila John" Basilone, November 10, 1994, p. 28. 11. ^ a b "John Basilone". Hall of Valor. Military Times. http://www.militarytimes.com/citations-medalsawards/recipient.php?recipientid=1829. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 12. ^ "John Basilone,Gunnery Sergeant, United States Marine Corps". Arlington National Cemetery Website. March 26, 2006. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/johnbasi.htm. Retrieved November 23, 2005. 13. ^ "Lena M Basilone at Find a Grave". http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=334448. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 14. ^ "Ex-Marine Lena Basilone Obituary". http://www.johnbasilonestampcampaign.com/imgs/Articles/exmarine_Lena_Basilone_dies.jpg. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 15. ^ "Basilone". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command, Department of the Navy. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/b3/basilone-i.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-21. 16. ^ "Camp Pendleton". GlobalSecurity.org. April 26, 2005. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/camp-pendleton.htm. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 17. ^ "California State Senate Legislation". SCR 25 Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone Memorial Freeway. April 6, 1999. http://www.sen.ca.gov/leginfo/bill-6-dec1998/CURRENT/SCR/FROM0000/SCR0025/T990406.TXT. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 18. ^ Lance Corporal Stephen C. Benson (November 14, 2007). "Special Ops Marines conquer skies". United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on March 13, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080313175244/http://www.marsoc.usmc.mil/news/paraloft.htm. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 19. ^ "Knights of Columbus councils". http://www.knightsofcolumbuscouncils.com/13264%20Sgt.%20John%20Basilone%20Council/. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 20. ^ "John Basilone". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=19842. Retrieved October 21, 2007. 21. ^ MacGillis, Alec (May 29, 2006). "Honoring One Marine To Remember Them All: WWII Hero Gets Plaque at Navy Memorial". Washington Post: p. B01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/05/28/AR2006052801090.html. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 22. ^ "Piazza Basilone". The Little Italy Association. http://www.littleitalysd.com/points-of-interest/piazzabasilone/. Retrieved August 19, 2010. 23. ^ "Sgt. John Basilone Lodge 2442 - OSIA". http://www.osia2442.org/. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 24. ^ Brady, 2010, p. 84 25. ^ "Distinguished Marines". Postal Store. United States Postal Service. Archived from the original on December 20, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20051220102101/http://shop.usps.com/cgibin/vsbv/postal_store_non_ssl/browse_content/stampReleaseDisplay.jsp?OID=8610. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 26. ^ "John Basilone Stamp Campaign". http://www.johnbasilonestampcampaign.com/award_list.html. Retrieved February 6, 2009. 27. ^ "The Pacific". Home Box Office (HBO). http://www.hbo.com/the-pacific#/thepacific/about.html/eNrjcmbOYM5nLtQsy0xJzXfMS8ypLMlMds7PK0mtKFHPz0mBCQUkpqf6JeamcjIysk knlpbkF+QkVtqWFJWmsjGyMQIAWCcXOA==. Retrieved February 25, 2010. • Brady, James (2010). Hero of the Pacific: The Life of Marine Legend John Basilone. Wiley. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0-470-37941-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=r2FogWwrjqUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=JOhn+Basilone&cd=4#v=onepag e&q=&f=false. Further reading • Lansford, William Douglas. "The Life and Death of 'Manila John'" (reprinted by the John Basilone Stamp Campaign). Leatherneck Magazine. http://www.johnbasilonestampcampaign.com/lifedeath_of_manilla_john.html. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
Proser, Jim; Jerry Cutter (2004). "I'm Staying with My Boys..." The Heroic Life of Sgt. John Basilone, USMC. Lightbearer Communications Company. ISBN 0-9755461-0-4. External links • Wikimedia Commons has media related to: John Basilone • • • • • • • "John Basilone Parade Website". http://www.basiloneparade.com/. Retrieved October 5, 2005. "Sgt. John Basilone Foundation". http://www.sgtjohnbasilone.com/. Retrieved February 26, 2010. "John Basilone's Medal of Honor Ceremony remembered by Marine Sidney Phillips". http://www.marinesidphillips.com/john-basilone.htm. Retrieved March 21, 2010. United States Marine Corps History Division, Who's Who in Marine Corps History, Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone, USMC (deceased) Video of historical battle footage and recreated scenes depicting John Basilone and 7th Marines at Edson's Ridge Rare photos and historic footage about John Basilone from the US Marine Corps Archives John Basilones page on the Pacific wiki
Jerry Cutter and jim Proser I'm Staying with My Boys: The Heroic Life of Sgt. John Basilone, USMC
Dedication sign for the Basilone Memorial Bridge Sgt Lena Mae Basilone, USMC(WR), widow of John Basilone, prepares to christen the destroyer USS Basilone (December 21, 1945) John Basilone's headstone in Arlington National Cemetery
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia William B. Breuer (September 17, 1922 – August 18, 2010) was an American military historian. His best known work, The Great Raid, was later turned into a movie of the same name. • Military historian William Breuer dies at 87 • William Breuer, author, dies at 87
William B. Breuer, author of 41 books published in the United States, died Wednesday morning in a Chattanooga hospital. He was 87. Breuer brought world attention to himself and Cleveland on Aug. 12, 2005, when his bestseller, “The Great Raid,” was made into an epic movie by Miramax Films. He was consultant for the film “The Great Raid” has been shown in 177 countries and reached sales of more than 1.5 million DVDs. Breuer was born Sept. 17, 1922, in Rolla, Mo., at what he described “as a very early age” to Louis and Mary Louise (Bentley) Breuer. In his autobiographical sketch, Breuer said he plunged into a lifetime of mass communications eight years after his birth when he began publishing a mimeographed neighborhood newspaper with a circulation of 29. The inaugural banner headline proclaimed: “Mrs. Kershner’s Cat is Sick.” Since that early age, Breuer had a career goal of being his own newspaper publisher. The dream was delayed somewhat by World War II, according to the “Papers of William B. Breuer, 1929-1988” located in the Operational Archives Branch of the Naval Historical Center in Washington, D.C. “William B. Breuer was a 20 year-old platoon sergeant, who landed with the first assault waves on D-Day in Normandy, and saw action in five campaigns. Later he founded a daily newspaper on a shoestring and for 10 years served as a publisher, at one time the nation’s youngest. Among his many awards were 17 from the armed forces for his newspaper’s support of a strong national defense,” according to the archived papers. Breuer wrote in his short sketch that when he was 22, the dream came true when a friendly banker loaned him $300 to augment his $100 savings account. “I was walking in tall clover,” Breuer recalled in the autobiography. With three helpers (including his Vivien) he toiled through 60-hour weeks and the Rolla Herald gradually grew and eventually became a daily newspaper. The Herald was sold, so he and Vivien moved to St. Louis where they opened the public relations firm, William B. Breuer and Associates, the new agency grew steadily in the years ahead and gained a nationwide reputation for its zip, contacts, and productivityEarly on in Reagan’s prolonged campaign, his team retained William B. Breuer and Associates to promote an indoor rally in St. Louis. Breuer said the event was a huge success. The relationship continued until Reagan became president. While devoting most of his time and talent to the public relations agency, he also began a third career as a nonfiction author. Forty-one of his nonfiction books were published in the United States over the next 20 years. His writing focused on tales of secret missions, the moon landing, the Kennedy-Fidel Castro vendetta, women heroics, spies, suspense, sports, the CIA, political conspiracies, hoaxes, the FBI, and the global war on terrorism. Twenty-six titles were Book Club selections, 12 were produced in audio and 15 were published in paperback. Three books were bestsellers. One of them was a bestseller in Poland. Eighteen Breuer titles have been translated into Japanese, French, German, Arabic, Belgian, Polish, Chinese, Bulgarian, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian and Burmese. Several Breuer books provided a fourth career for the author as a consultant for movies and television documentaries. The William B. Breuer Archives contains thousands of pieces of Breuer’s materials accrued during his years as an author. (http://www.clevelandbanner.com/view/full_story/9203783/article-William-Breuer--author--dies-at87?instance=homesecondleft
Robert H. Briggs
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Robert H. Briggs is a Fullerton, California, lawyer and independent historian. As of 2010, Briggs's area of historical research related to violence in frontier Utah, in particular the Mountain Meadows Massacre of 1857. A member of the Miller Eccles Study Group's board of directors, Briggs also wrote "The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows Massacre: Toward a Consensus Account and Time Line," as well as reviews of Sally Denton’s American Massacre, Will Bagley’s Blood of the Prophets, and Richard E. Turley, Jr. et al's Massacre at Mountain Meadows. In 2010, he contributed the article, within this larger philosophical theme, provocatively titled "Mormonism and Violence" to Mormonism: A Historical Encyclopedia. Notes ^ Lloyd, R. Scott (May 26, 2009). "Mountain Meadows massacre myths". LDS Church News. 1. http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/57387/Mountain-Meadows-massacre-myths.html. 2. ^ "Past Speakers". Miller Eccles Study Group. http://www.millereccles.org/?page_id=49. Retrieved August 23, 2010. External links • "Tragedy at Mountain Meadows Massacre: Toward a Consensus Account and Time Line" – Monograph, Dixie State College of Utah • "The Mountain Meadows Massacre: An Analytical Narrative Based on Participant Confessions" – Monograph, Utah Historical Quarterly (2006) • Sally Denton's American Massacre: Authentic Mormon Past versus the Danite Interpretation of History – Book review, FARMS Review, (2004) Brigham Young University • A Scholarly Look at the Disastrous Mountain Meadows Massacre, – 2008 FARMS Review, Brigham Young University "Wrestling Brigham" – Review of Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows, • December 2002 Sunstone Magazine
John S. Brown
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Service/branch Years of service Rank Commands held ttles/wars United States Army 1971-2004 Brigadier General 2nd Battalion, 66th Armor 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Chief of Military History, CMH Gulf War
John Sloan Brown is a retired Brigadier General in the United States Army who was the Chief of Military History of the United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) from December 1998 to October 2005. Brown graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1971. He commanded the 2nd Battalion, 66th Armor, in Iraq and Kuwait during the Gulf War and returned to Kuwait as commander of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, in 1995. He served as Chief Historian and Commander of the United States Army Center of Military History from 1998 to 2005; however, he retired from active duty on 1 August 2004. Brown has a doctorate in history from Indiana University. References This article incorporates text in the public domain from the United States Army. • Brown, John S. (January 2006). "Earle G. Wheeler at 100". Army (Association of the United States Army, reprinted by FindArticles.com). Retrieved October 21, 2008. • An Army at War: Change in the Midst of Conflict. The Proceedings of the Combat Studies Institute 2005 Military History Symposium. DIANE Publishing. 2005. p. 663. ISBN 1428916253. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Occupation Notable work(s) May 22, 1944 (age 67) Historian, author Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland
Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian of the Holocaust. Education Browning received his bachelor's degree from Oberlin College in 1968 and his doctorate from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1975. He taught at Pacific Lutheran University from 1974 to 1999, eventually becoming a Distinguished Professor. In 1999, he moved to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to accept an appointment as Frank Porter Graham Professor of History. Browning was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2006. Work He is best known for his 1992 book Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, a study of German Ordnungspolizei (Order Police) Reserve Unit 101, used to massacre and round up Jews for deportation to the Nazi death camps in German occupied Poland in 1942. The conclusion of the book, which was much influenced by the experiments of Stanley Milgram, was that the men of Unit 101 were not demons or Nazi fanatics but ordinary middle-aged men of workingclass background from Hamburg, who had been drafted but found unfit for military duty. In some cases, these men were ordered to round up Jews and if there was not enough room for them on the trains, to shoot them. In other, more chilling cases, they were ordered to merely kill a specified number of Jews in a given town or area. The commander of the unit gave his men the choice of opting out of this duty if they found it too unpleasant; the majority chose not to exercise that option, resulting in fewer than 15 men out of a battalion of 500 opting out of their grisly duties. Browning argued that the men of Unit 101 killed out of a basic obedience to authority and peer pressure, not blood-lust or primal hatred. While the specifics of this book deal with killings performed by otherwise average men, the general implication of the book is that when placed in a coherent group setting, most people will adhere to the commands given, even if they find the actions morally reprehensible. Additionally the book demonstrates that ordinary people will more than likely follow orders, even those they might personally question, when they perceive these orders as originating from an authority, a fascinating hypothesis also studied in the Milgram Experiment. Ordinary Men achieved much acclaim but was denounced by Daniel Goldhagen for missing what Goldhagen considered the importance of German culture for causing the Holocaust. In an extremely hostile book review in the July 1992 edition of The New Republic, Goldhagen called Ordinary Men a book of no scholarly value and accused Browning of manufacturing his evidence. Goldhagen's controversial 1996 book Hitler's Willing Executioners was largely written to rebut Browning's book. When David Irving sued Deborah Lipstadt for libel in 2000, Browning was one of the leading witnesses for the defense. Another historian, Robert Jan Van Pelt, wrote a report on the gassing facilities at Auschwitz, and Browning wrote a report on the evidence for the extermination of the Jews on a wider scale. During his testimony and a cross-examination by Irving, Browning countered Irving’s suggestion that the last chapter of the Holocaust has yet to be written (implying there were grounds for doubting the reality of the Shoah) by replying: "We are still discovering things about the Roman Empire. There is no last chapter in history." Browning countered Irving’s argument that the lack of a written Führer order disproved the Holocaust, maintaining that no such order need ever have been written down, given that Hitler had almost certainly made statements to his leading subordinates indicating his wishes in regards to the Jews of Europe during the war, thus rendering the question of an extant, written order irrelevant. Browning went on to testify that several leading experts on Nazi Germany believe that there was no
written Führer order for the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question”, but no historian doubts the reality of the Holocaust. Browning noted that Hitler’s secret speech to his Gauleiters on December 12, 1941, strongly alluded to genocide as the “Final Solution”. Browning categorically rejected Irving’s claim that there was no reliable statistical information on the size of the pre-war Jewish population in Europe, or on the killing processes; he asserted that the only reason why historians debate whether five or six million Jews were killed in the Holocaust is a lack of access to archives in the former Soviet Union. Likewise, Browning argued that it was possible to become soaked in human blood after shooting people at close-range, and dismissed Irving’s argument that accounts of German personnel being soaked in blood were improbable because it is not possible to have a bloodsplattered uniform after shooting people at close range. The American journalist D.D. Guttenplan, who covered the trial, considered Browning to be the most effective of the witnesses for Lipstadt. Browning's interpretation of the Holocaust Browning is a functionalist in the origins of the Holocaust debate, following the principles of the "moderate functionalist" school of thought, which focuses on the structure and institution of the Third Reich, moving the focus away from Hitler. Functionalism sees the extermination of the Jews as the improvisation and radicalization of a polycratic regime. Functionalists do not vindicate Adolf Hitler yet they recognize that many other factors were involved in the Final Solution. Browning has argued that the Final Solution was the result of the "cumulative radicalization" (to use Hans Mommsen's phrase) of the German state, especially when faced with the self-imposed "problem" of 3 million Jews (mostly Polish), whom the Nazis had forced into ghettos between 1939 and 1941. The intention was to have these and other Jews resident in the Third Reich expelled eastward once a destination was selected. For a time in 1940, the Madagascar Plan, in which after Germany defeated Britain, France was to cede Madagascar to Germany, and then all of the Jews of Europe were to be expelled to that island, was considered as an option. Germany's inability to defeat Britain prevented the execution of the Madagascar Plan. Browning has been able to establish that the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", first used in 1939, meant until 1941 a "territorial solution". Owing to the military developments of World War II and to turf wars within the German bureaucracy, expulsion lost its viability such that, by 1941, members of the bureaucracy were willing to countenance committing mass murder against the Jews. In a speech given in Paris in 1982, Browning summarized the state of the historiography as follows: In recent years the interpretations of National Socialism have polarized more and more into two groups that Tim Mason has aptly called Intentionalists and Functionalists. The former explain the development of Nazi Germany as a result of Hitler's intentions, which came out of a coherent and logical ideology and were realized due to an all-powerful totalitarian dictatorship. The Functionalists point out the anarchistic character of the Nazi state, its internal rivalries and the chaotic process of decisionmaking, which constantly led to improvisation and radicalization...These two modes of exposition of history are useful for the analysis of the strongly divergent meanings that people attribute to the Jewish policy of the Nazis in general and to the Final Solution in particular. On the one hand, Lucy Dawidowicz, a radical Intentionalist, upholds the viewpoint that already in 1919 Hitler had decided to exterminate European Jews. And not only that: He knew at what point in time his murderous plan would be realized. The Second World War was at the same time the means and opportunity to put his war against the Jews into effect. While he waited for the anticipated moment for the realization of his great plan, naturally he tolerated a senseless and meaningless pluralism in the Jewish policies of the subordinate ranks of state and party. Against the radical Intentionalism of Lucy Dawidowicz, which emphasizes the intentions and great plan of Hitler, the Ultrafunctionalism of Martin Broszat constitutes a diametrically opposed view of the role of the Führer, especially with respect to the decision on the Final Solution. It is Broszat's position that Hitler never took a definitive decision nor issued a general order for the Final Solution. The annihilation program developed in stages in conjunction with a series of isolated massacres at the end of 1941 and in 1942. These locally limited mass murders were improvised answers to an impossible situation that had developed as a result of two factors: First the ideological and political pressure for the creation of a Jew-free Europe that stemmed from Hitler and then the military reverses on the eastern front that led to stoppages in railway traffic and caused the buffer zones into which the Jews were to be removed to disappear. Once the annihilation program was in progress, it gradually institutionalized itself until it was noticed that it offered the simplest solution logistically and became a program universally applied and single-mindedly pursued. From this standpoint, Hitler was a catalyst but not a decision-maker. For Lucy Dawidowicz, the Final Solution was thought out twenty years before it was put into practice; For Martin Broszat, the idea developed from the practice of sporadic murders of groups of Jews, which produced the idea of killing all Jews systematically. Browning divides the officials of the Government-General of occupied Poland into two factions. One, the "Productionists", favored using Jews of the ghettos as a source of slave labor to help with the war effort. The other, the "Attritionists", favored letting the Jews of the ghettos starve and die of disease. At the same time, there were struggles between the SS and Hans Frank, the Governor-General of Poland. The SS favored "The Nisko/Lublin Plan" of creating a "Jewish Reservation" in Lublin, Poland, into which all the Jews of Greater Germany, Poland and the former Czechoslovakia were to be expelled. Frank was opposed to the "Lublin Plan" on the ground that the SS were "dumping" Jews into his territory. Frank together with Hermann Göring wished for Government-General of Poland to become the "granary" of the Reich, and opposed the ethnic cleansing schemes of Heinrich Himmler and Arthur Greiser as disruptive of economic conditions. An attempt to settle these difficulties at conference between Himmler, Göring, Frank and Greiser at Göring's Karinhall estate on February 12, 1940 was scuttled in May 1940, when Himmler was able to show Hitler a memo entitled "Some Thoughts on the Treatment of Alien Population in the East" on May 15, 1940, which Hitler called "good and correct". Himmler's memo, which called for expelling all of the Jews of German-ruled Europe into Africa and reducing Poles to a "leaderless laboring class", and Hitler's approval of the memo led, as Browning noted, to a major change in German policy in Poland along the lines suggested by Himmler. Browning called the Göring/Frank-Himmler/Greiser dispute a perfect example of how Hitler encouraged his followers to engage in turf battles with one another without deciding for one policy option or other, but clearly hinting at the direction he preferred policy to go. Publications
The Final Solution and the German Foreign Office : a study of Referat D III of Abteilung Deutschland, 1940–43, New York : Holmes & Meier, 1978. • “Zur Genesis der "Endlösung" Eine Antwort an Martin Broszat” pages 96–104 from Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Volume 29, 1981. • Fateful Months : Essays on the Emergence of the Final Solution, New York : Holmes & Meier, 1985. • Ordinary Men : Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, New York : HarperCollins, 1992. • The Path to Genocide : Essays on launching the Final Solution, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1998, 1992. • Nazi policy, Jewish workers, German killers, Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2000. • Collected memories : Holocaust History and Postwar Testimony, Madison, Wis. ; London : University of Wisconsin Press, 2003. • The Origins of the Final Solution : The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942, Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, 2004. • Everyday Lasts a Year: A Jewish Family's Correspondence from Poland, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007. • Remembering Survival: Inside a Nazi Slave-Labor Camp, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2010. Endnotes 1. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. http://www.amacad.org/publications/BookofMembers/ChapterB.pdf. Retrieved June 21, 2011. 2. ^ Browning, Chris. Ordinary Men : Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, New York : HarperCollins, 1992. - pg. 57 3. ^ Evans, Richard J. (2002). Telling Lies about Hitler. Verso. p. 35. ISBN 1-85984-417-0. 4. ^ Guttenplan, D.D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York: W.W. Norton, 2001 page 210 5. ^ Guttenplan, D.D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York: W.W. Norton, 2001 page 211 6. ^ Guttenplan, D.D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York: W.W. Norton, 2001 page 212 ^ Guttenplan, D.D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York: W.W. Norton, 2001 pages 212-213 7. 8. ^ Guttenplan, D.D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York: W.W. Norton, 2001 page 213 9. ^ Guttenplan, D.D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York: W.W. Norton, 2001 pages 213-214 10. ^ Christopher Browning La décision concernant la solution finale from Colloque de l.Ecole des Hautes Etudes en sciences sociales, L.Allemagne nazie et le génocide juif, Gallimard-Le Seuil, Paris1985, page 19. 11. ^ a b Rees, Lawrence The Nazis pages 148-149. 12. ^ Rees, Lawrence The Nazis page 149. 13. ^ Rees, Lawrence The Nazis page 150 References Bauer, Yehuda Rethinking the Holocaust, New Haven [Conn.] ; London : Yale University Press, 2001 • • Guttenplan, D. D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York : Norton, 2001. • Marrus, Michael The Holocaust in History, Toronto : Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1987 • Rosenbaum, Ron Explaining Hitler : the search for the origins of his evil New York : Random House, 1998. External links • Voices on Antisemitism Interview with Christopher Browning from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum Review of The Origins of the Final Solution • • Review of Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers • A Brief Description of Dr. Browning • The Origins of the Final Solution : The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942 •
Anthony J. Bryant
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Anthony J. Bryant (born 1961) is an American author and editor. Anthony J. Bryant is the author of four books for Osprey Military Publishing on samurai history. He is an historian of Japan specializing in Kamakura, Muromachi, and Momoyama period warrior culture. His areas of interest also include Heian-period court structure and society and Japanese literature. Bryant was born in Franklin, Indiana. After graduating from Florida State University in 1983 with a bachelor's degree in Japanese studies, he did his graduate work in Japanese studies (history, language, and armor) at Takoshoku University in Tokyo, graduating in 1986. Bryant resided in Japan from 1986 to 1992. He also has an M.A. in Japanese from Indiana University. An authority on the making of Japanese armor, he joined the Nihon Katchū Bugu Kenkyū Hozon Kai ("Japan Association for Arms and Armor Preservation"), and was one of four non-Asian members. He has worked as a features editor for the Mainichi Daily News, and as editor for the Tokyo Journal, an English language monthly magazine. After returning from Japan, he served briefly as editor of Dragon Magazine, the flagship publication of TSR, Inc., the creators of the role-playing game Dungeons and Dragons. He currently lives with his mother in a small ranch home on King Street in Franklin, Indiana. Books • Iwaya no sōshi (The Tale of the Cave House). Translation of the Muromachi Era story - author's thesis • The Samurai, (Elite), Osprey Publishing, London (1989) • Early Samurai AD 200-1500, Osprey Publishing, London (1991) • Samurai 1550-1600, Osprey Publishing, London (1994) • Sekigahara 1600, Osprey Publishing, London (2000) • Sengoku, Gold Rush Games; Revised edition (May 1, 2002) • Sekigahara 1600: The Final Struggle for Power, Praeger Publishers; (September, 2005) Other works • Nihon Katchu Seisakuben, a Japanese armor manual • The Estates of Heian Nobility (essay) References 1. ^ http://beacon.schneidercorp.com/Application.aspx?AppID=129&LayerID=1554&PageTypeID=4&PageID=817&Q= 1975021629&KeyValue=41-08-13-031-050.000-018 2. ^ Pen & Paper listing for Anthony J. Bryant External links • Sengoku Daimyo - Anthony J. Bryant's website • Author of Osprey books on Japanese military history Article on Rencentral.com • Author biography from Osprey Military Publishing
Col. John R. Burks
Born in Tulsa, and a 1940 graduate of Wynnewood High School, John R. Burks joined the army Air Corps and served for 33 years. he fought on World War II, Korea, Vietnam. Upon retiring in 1973 to Garvin County, Col. Burks has been active in the Pauls Valley Chamber of Commerce, St. Timothy’s Episcopal Church and served as the Chairman of the Pauls Valley Airport Authority and Pauls Valley Planning and Zoning Commission. Awards: • three Legion of Merit Awards, • the Distinguished Flying Cross, • the Bronze Star Medal, • 11 Air Medal awards, • the Department of • Defense Commendation Medal, • three Army Commendation Medal awards, • the Vietnamese Honor Medal and • 12 battle stars for four campaigns in each war. Publications: “A Fair Share of War” for his children to explain the necessity of his absences in their formative years..
Briton C. "Tony" Busch
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Briton Cooper Busch, (born in Los Angeles, California on 5 September 1936 - died in Hamilton, New York on 10 May 2004), was a specialist in nineteenth century British diplomatic history, military history, and American maritime history at Colgate University. The son of Niven Busch and his wife, Phyllis Cooper Busch, Briton—familiarily known as "Tony" Busch—attended Stanford University, where he earned his bachelor of arts degree in 1958. From Standord, he went on to the University of California, Berkeley, where he completed his master of arts degree in 1960 with a thesis on "Muscat and Oman: Anglo-French conflict, 1894-1914' and his Ph.D. in 1965 with a dissertation on "British policy in the Persian Gulf, 18941914." He married Deborah B. Stone on 16 8 1958 (2 children). Divorced in 1984, he married Jill Harsin in 1985. Academic career Busch spent his entire academic career in the History Department at Colgate University, where he became an instructor in 1963, an assistant professor in 1965, associate professor in 1968, and full professor in 1973. In 1978, he was given an academic chair as the William R. Kenan, Junior, Professor of History. He served as Chairman, History Department, 1980–1985, and then Director, Social Sciences Division, 1985-1991. He was appointed William R. Kenan, Junior, professor emeritus in 2003. He was a Woodrow Wilson Fellow in 1963, a National Endowment for the Humanities fellow in 1967-68, and a Social Science Research Council fellow in 1968-69. For more than a decade, he was a leading figure in the field of maritime history in the United States, particularly with the North American Society for Oceanic History, where he served as a member of the executive council in 1983-1988; chairman of the book awards committee from 1987 to 1992; vice president 1991-92; and president, 1991–1992 and 1995-1998. In addition, he was a member of council of the International Commission for Maritime History, 1996 to 2000, and served as Book Review editor of the country's leading scholary journal for maritime history in the United States, The American Neptune, from 1991 to 2003. He was a member of the Society for Military History and served as a member of the book prize committee from 1996–98, and was its chairman from 1998-2000. Additionally, he was a member of the American Historical Association, the Royal Society for Asian Affairs, Middle East Studies Association, the Western Front Association. Published works • Britain and the Persian Gulf, 1894-1914, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1967. • Britain, India, and the Arabs, 1914-1921, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1971. • Mudros to Lausanne : Britain's frontier in West Asia, 1918-1923, Albany : State University of New York Press, 1976. • Hardinge of Penshurst: a study of the old diplomacy, Hamden, Conn.: Published for the Conference on British Studies and Indiana University at South Bend by Archon Books, 1980. • Master of Desolation: the reminiscences of Capt. Joseph J. Fuller, edited, with introd. and notes by Briton Cooper Busch. Mystic, Conn. : Mystic Seaport Museum, 1980. • Alta California 1840-1842: the journal and observations of William Dane Phelps, master of the ship "Alert", introduced and edited by Briton Cooper Busch. Glendale, Calif. : A.H. Clark Co., 1983. • The war against the seals: a history of the North American seal fishery, Kingston [Ont.] : McGill-Queen's University Press ; Gloucester [Gloucestershire] : A. Sutton, 1985. • Frémont's private Navy: the 1846 journal of captain William Dane Phelps, edited with introduction by Briton Cooper Busch. Glendale, Calif. : A.H. Clark Co., 1987. • Whaling will never do for me: the American whaleman in the nineteenth century, Lexington, Ky. : University Press of Kentucky, 1994. • Fur traders from New England: the Boston men in the North Pacific, 1787-1800: the narratives of William Dane Phelps, William Sturgis, and James Gilchrist Swan edited, with notes and introduction by Briton C. Busch and Barry M. Gough. Spokane, Wash.: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1997. • Canada and the Great War: Western Front Association papers, edited by Briton C. Busch. Montreal ; Ithaca : McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003. • Bunker Hill to Bastogne: elite forces and American society, Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, 2006. Sources Marquis Who's Who Colgate University Library
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Philip Caputo (born June 10, 1941) is an American author and journalist. He is best-known for A Rumor of War, a best-selling memoir of his experiences during the Vietnam War. Caputo was born in Westchester, Illinois and attended Fenwick High School and Loyola University Chicago. He now resides in Norwalk, Connecticut and Patagonia, Arizona. In 1965, as an infantry lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps, he was deployed to South Vietnam. He returned to the United States in 1966. After serving three years in the Corps, Caputo began a career in journalism, joining the staff of the Chicago Tribune. Caputo returned to Vietnam as a foreign correspondent for the Tribune. He covered the fall of Saigon in 1975, and he served in Italy, the Soviet Union, and the Middle East. In 1973, Caputo was part of a writing team that won the Pulitzer Prize for reporting on election fraud in Chicago. Caputo's newest book, Acts of Faith (2005), tells the story of several aid workers at the height of the Sudanese civil war. The writing style and political perspective are very similar to A Rumor of War, and the book was well received by critics. References 1. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Acts-Faith-Philip-Caputo/dp/0375725970 Acts of Faith, and critical reviews, on Amazon.com 2. ^ http://www.charlierose.com/guest/byname/philip_caputo | Caputo interviewed by Charlie Rose, broadcast date June 23, 2005 | sourced April 12, 2010 External links • Review of Crossers by William T. Vollmann • Interview on Acts of Faith at the Pritzker Military Library
Gerald M. Carbone
A journalist for 25 years, Carbone has won the American Society of Newspaper Editors Distinguished Writing Award and a John S. Knight Fellowship at Stanford University. He lives in Warwick, Rhode Island. He has written Nathanael Greene, A Biography of the American Revolution and Washington: Lessons in Leadership (Great Generals Series) with a Foreword by General Wesley Clark
Born Nationality Education Alma mater Period Subjects Notable work(s)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia September 27, 1969 (age 41) Washington, D.C., U.S. American Bachelor's degree Columbia University 1991-present History Military history Volunteerism Letters of a Nation: A Collection of Extraordinary American Letters - War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars
Influences Joseph Brodsky Andrew Carroll (born September 27, 1969) is an American author, editor, activist, and historian. He is best known as the author of the 1999 New York Times best-selling Letters of a Nation: A Collection of Extraordinary American Letters and the 2001 New York Times best-selling book War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars, which was later turned into an episode of the television program American Experience. Early life and poetry initiative Carroll was born in Washington, D.C., to Thomas Edmund and Marea Grace Carroll on September 27, 1969. He attended Columbia University in New York City, receiving his bachelor's degree in history in 1993. In May 1992, while a junior at Columbia, Carroll was inspired by a lecture by the Joseph Brodsky (the Nobel Prizewinning Poet Laureate of the United States) to found the American Poetry and Literacy Project (APLP). Meeting in a Greenwich Village café in late 1992, Carroll and Brodsky decided that the APLP would distribute poetry books for free to members of the public. Carroll, APLP's executive director, persuaded the Book-of-the-Month Club to donate thousands of copies of poetry books to the APLP. The books were distributed in hotels, hospitals, and homeless shelters and aboard airlines. By 1994, more than 12,500 poetry books had been distributed. Another 15,000 books were given away in 1997. Carroll went on a nationwide tour sponsored by the Academy of American Poets in 1998, promoting the APLP and distributing 100,000 free poetry books at truck stops, hospital waiting rooms, train stations, and jury rooms in courthouses. Volkswagen later paid APLP to put 40,000 poetry books in the glove boxes of its cars in April 1999, and Target Corporation paid APLP for 300,000 books to give away to their customers. Another 100,000 copies of poetry books were distributed at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. In early 1998, he edited the poetry anthology 101 Great American Poems. During this period of his life, Carroll also wrote two books about volunteering. He co-wrote a 1991 book (Volunteer USA) about ways to become a volunteer, and followed it up in 1994 with a book on volunteering opportunities for senior citizens. Legacy Project initiative On November 11, 1998, Carroll founded the Legacy Project, a national, all-volunteer project to seek and preserve wartime correspondence. Carroll was inspired to create the Legacy Project after his family home in Washington, D.C., burned down in 1992 and destroyed most of his and his family's personal correspondence. Carroll then wrote to Abigail Van Buren, author of the popular "Dear Abby" advice column, and asked her to write a column requesting that people preserve any letters they had received from loved ones who were away at war and send them to the Legacy Project. Carroll's letter was published in the "Dear Abby" column on Veterans Day in 1998. Within a year, Carroll had received more than 15,000 letters—some of them originals, and some dating as far back as the American Revolution. News about the Legacy Project caught the attention of former CBS News correspondnet Harry Smith. Smith subsequently produced a documentary about war correspondence, Dear Home: Letters From World War II, which aired on the History Channel in 1999. Six of the World War II letters collected by the Legacy Project were put on display that same year at the Smithsonian Institution's National Postal Museum. By the fall of 2002, the Legacy Project had received 70,000 letters, and some of them were reprinted in The New York Times. In 1999, Carroll edited the book Letters of a Nation: A Collection of Extraordinary American Letters, a collection of more than 200 letters from famous and not-so-famous Americans from the past 350 years. It became a New York Times best-seller. Letters of a Nation was read by Senator Robert Torricelli, who later
contacted Carroll and suggested that he compile a book of influential American speeches as well. A year later, Carroll and Torricelli collaborated on In Our Own Words: Extraordinary Speeches of the American Century, an edited volume of 150 important American addresses. In 2001, Carroll edited the book War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars, based on the wartime correspondence collected by the Legacy Project. Scribner's publishers gave Carroll a $500,000 advance for the book (money Carroll donated to veterans' groups). The book became a New York Times best-seller, debuting at #13 on the best-selling nonfiction list. It rose as high as #10 two weeks later. Director Steven Spielberg heard about some of the letters, and several were included in Spielberg's short documentary The Unfinished Journey (which screened in front of the Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., on December 31, 1999, as part of the millennial celebrations). The book was turned into "War Letters," a 2001 episode of television program American Experience directed by Robert Kenner. A play based on the book was produced in Los Angeles in 2002. The Legacy Project spawned a second collection of war letters, Behind the Lines: Powerful and Revealing American and Foreign War Letters—and One Man's Search to Find Them, in 2006. In 2002, Carroll used a $50,000 corporate donation to print 100,000 copies of four new Armed Services Editions books given away for free to active-duty American military personnel serving in combat zones overseas. Members of the U.S. armed forces receiving Armed Service Editions books in 2003. In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) commissioned Carroll to edit a collection of military writings, which became the book Operation Homecoming: Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Home Front, in the Words of U.S. Troops and Their Families. The NEA held 20 writing workshops at military bases around the nation, and Carroll edited the servicemembers' works into the new book. The book was published in May 2008. A second collection of poems, short stories, essays, and letters by military personnel who served in Iraq and Afghanistan, titled Above and Beyond, was announced in 2005 but has not been published as of June 2009. Grace Under Fire: Letters of Faith in Times of War, another book of collected war letters which focused on the role of religion and spiritual belief in wartime, was edited by Carroll and published in March 2007. Here Is Where project In June 2009, Carroll founded the "Here Is Where" campaign in association with National Geographic Traveler. The project is an all-volunteer effort to photograph and document historic locations in the United States. Other roles and awards Since 1994, Andrew Carroll has also served on the board of directors of the Literacy Volunteers of America. He is also an active Advisory Board member of Carolina for Kibera, a charity founded by a U.S. Marine that prevents violence and provides basic health care in the Kibera slum of Nairobi, Kenya. He was named a "Person of the Week" by ABC's World News Tonight and received the Iona Senior Services President's Award, both in 1994. References 1. ^ a b c d e f g h Who's Who of Emerging Leaders in America. 4th ed. New Providence, N.J.: Marquis Who's Who, 1992. ISBN 0837972035 2. ^ As of July 2009. 3. ^ a b c Arnold, Martin. "Joys of Reading Others' Mail." The New York Times. December 16, 1999. 4. ^ a b c "'War Letters' Lets Soldiers Speak." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. November 11, 2001. 5. ^ a b "Best Sellers: June 17, 2001." The New York Times. June 17, 2001. 6. ^ a b Ryan, Suzanne C. "From the Trenches." Boston Globe. November 9, 2001; Rosenberg, Howard. "Dispatches From the Trenches." Los Angeles Times. November 9, 2001; Mink, Eric. "War, In Their Own Words." New York Daily News. November 9, 2001. 7. ^ a b c "Tennyson, Anyone?" People. May 16, 1994. 8. ^ a b c Morris, Bob. "Seeing Stars in Midtown." The New York Times. October 3, 1993. 9. ^ a b Foderaro, Lisa W. "Poetry for the People." The New York Times. February 12, 1997. 10. ^ a b c Scott, Janny. "Along With the Bible, a Poetry Anthology." The New York Times. March 15, 1994. 11. ^ a b Jay, Sarah. "On Amtrak, Poetry In Motion." The New York Times. April 11, 1996. 12. ^ "Planting Poetry." The New York Times. March 15, 1998; Van Gelder, Lawrence. "Poetry, and a Little Madness in Spring." The New York Times. April 1, 1998; McKinley, Jess. "People (Not All Famous) As the Greatest Poem." The New York Times. April 3, 1998. 13. ^ a b Halpern, Sue. "With Poet as Muse, Man Gives Out Books of Verse." The New York Times. April 19, 1998. 14. ^ Meredith, Robyn. "Marketing Departments Are Turning to Poets to Help Inspire Their Companies' Clientele." The New York Times. March 21, 2000. 15. ^ a b c d e f Lacher, Irene. "Legacy of Pen, Sword." Los Angeles Times. February 17, 2002. 16. ^ Carroll, Andrew, ed. 101 Great American Poems. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, January 1998. ISBN 9780486401584 17. ^ Carroll, Andrew and Miller, Christopher. Volunteer USA. New York: Random House, 1991. ISBN 9780449905777 ^ Carroll, Andrew. Golden Opportunities: A Volunteer Guide for Americans Over 50. Lwarenceville, N.J.: 18. Peterson's, 1994. ISBN 9781560793946 19. ^ "The Legacy Project." WarLetters.com. No date. Accessed 2009-07-15. 20. ^ a b Carroll, Andrew. War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars. Reprint ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002. ISBN 0743410068; Rossi, Holly Lebowitz. "Letters Old and New Illuminate Faith in War’s Trenches." Publishers Weekly. February 14, 2007. 21. ^ a b c Salamon, Julie. "The Troops at the Front as Poets for Future Readers." The New York Times. November 9, 2001. 22. ^ a b c d McDonald, William. "In Wartime Letters Home, Eloquence of Common Men." The New York Times. November 11, 1999.
^ "Word for Word/Letters from Afghanistan." The New York Times. September 15, 2002. ^ a b c Barron, James and Kuczynski, Alex. "Public Lives." The New York Times. June 2, 1999. ^ Carroll, Andrew, ed. Letters of a Nation: A Collection of Extraordinary American Letters. New York: Bantam Books, 1999. ISBN 9780767903318 26. ^ Torricelli, Robert G. and Carroll, Andrew. In Our Own Words: Extraordinary Speeches of the American Century. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000. ISBN 9780743410526 27. ^ Carroll, Andrew, ed. War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002. ISBN 9780743410069 28. ^ "Best Sellers: July 1, 2001." The New York Times. July 1, 2001. 29. ^ Stout, David. "A War and a Courtship, All by Letter, Lovingly, on New Year's Eve." The New York Times. December 31, 1999. 30. ^ a b Wyatt, Edward. "Arts, Briefly: Warrior Writers." The New York Times. December 16, 2005. 31. ^ Carroll, Andrew, ed. Behind the Lines: Powerful and Revealing American and Foreign War Letters—and One Man's Search to Find Them. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. ISBN 9780641862427. 32. ^ The books were: William Shakespeare's Henry V, Sun Tzu's The Art of War, Allen Mikaelian's Medal of Honor: Profiles of America's Military Heroes From the Civil War to the Present, and Carroll's own War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence From American Wars. See: Gussow, Mel. "Literature Re-enlists In the Military." The New York Times. November 7, 2002. 33. ^ a b Files, John. "Arts, Briefly: Writing of War." The New York Times. November 12, 2004. 34. ^ Carroll, Andrew, ed. Operation Homecoming: Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Home Front, in the Words of U.S. Troops and Their Families. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. ISBN 9780226094991 35. ^ Italie, Hillel. "Book Collects Soldiers' Works on Recent Wars." Associated Press. January 10, 2006. 36. ^ Carroll, Andrew, ed. Grace Under Fire: Letters of Faith in Times of War. New York: Doubleday, 2007. ISBN 9781400073375 37. ^ a b Roberts, Sam. "A Historian Is on a Quest to Locate Lost Events." The New York Times. June 29, 2009. External links • Here Is Where Web site • War Letters Web site
23. 24. 25.
Born in Leominster, Massachusetts, living in St. Petersburg, Florida, Celli graduated from Northeast High School and attended St. Pete Junior College. Celli served in the U. S. Army as a draftee, and worked in the Wine and Spirits industry. Inspiration for the book “SAND HILL” began when his son Tony found Celli’s long lost diary, kept during his eight weeks of basic training. http://www.xlibrispublishing.co.uk/bookstore/author.aspx?authorid=45591
Robert M. Citino
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Robert M. Citino (born 19 June 1958) is an American history professor, scholar and writer currently teaching at the University of North Texas. He specializes in German military history and has earned acclaim by writing several historical books on the subject. He has appeared as a consultant on the History Channel several times on the subject of World War II and German military tactics. Background Citino was born in Cleveland, Ohio. After graduating with his Bachelor's degree in history from Ohio State University, where he graduated Magna Cum Laude in 1978, Citino then went on to earn his Master's and PhD from Indiana University in 1980 and 1984, respectively. His PhD advisor was Barbara Jelavich. He is married with three daughters, and has taught history at EMU since 1991, occasionally taking a sabbatical to write another book. He is fluent in German and is a prolific reader of early 20th century German military literature, particularly the Militär-Wochenblatt, a professional German military periodical published from 1816 to 1942. Scholarly Works Citino is one of America's leading authorities on German military history. Having appeared repeatedly on the History Channel as a consultant on various related subjects, notably on Hard Target; where he discussed the failure of U.S. intelligence before the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944, and on HistoryCENTER where he discussed the fall of Japan in the last eight months of World War II. He has also authored numerous books, notably The Path to Blitzkrieg, Quest For Decisive Victory, Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm, and The German Way of War. His eighth book, The Death of the Wehrmacht, was released on September 6, 2007. In 2005 his book The German Way of War was chosen as one of two selections of the month for the Military Book Club, competing with Oliver North's War Stories III. He is currently writing a book on German combat operations during 1943. University career Citino is a proponent of changing the current nomenclature of German military tactics. Although he uses the word Blitzkrieg on the cover of his books, he has always espoused the view that it should be called by its proper German military term, Bewegungskrieg, or maneuver warfare. He has taught history classes at Eastern Michigan University for over a decade, mostly on German military history, stressing the doctrines of maneuver warfare to create a Kesselschlacht and the German doctrine of Auftragstaktik. Citino has also taught classes about Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, the Holocaust, as well as American military history. In 1993 he won EMU’s Teaching I Award for his enthusiasm in the classroom and his ability to inspire student interest in history. Dr. Citino was a visiting professor at the United States Military Academy in West Point, NY for the 2008-09 academic year. He is also a fellow of the Barsanti Military History Center at the University of North Texas. He is scheduled to be a visiting professor at the US Air Force Academy in 2011. Bibliography • Citino (1984). Polen Greift An: Germany's Eastern Defenses, 1918-1933. PhD Dissertation, Indiana University Press • Citino (1987). The Evolution of Blitzkrieg Tactics: Germany Defends Itself Against Poland, 1918-1933. Ph.D. dissertation, Greenwood Press. • Citino (unknown). The Rise and Development of Armored Warfare: A Reference Guide. • Citino (unknown). Crane Army Ammunition Activity Annual Historical Review Fiscal Years 1980-1983. • Citino (1991). Germany and the Union of South Africa in the Nazi Period. Greenwood Press. • Citino (1994). Armored Forces: History and Sourcebook. Greenwood Press. • Citino (1999). The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Lynne Rienner; Stackpole Books (paperback, 2008) • Citino (2000). Was the Reputation of the Wehrmacht for Military Superiority Deserved?" In History in Dispute 4, World War II, 1939-1945 Detroit: St. James Press. • Citino (2001). The Weimar Roots of German Military Planning. In Military Planning and the Origins of the Second World War in Europe. edited by B.J.C. McKercher and Roch Legault. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. • Citino (2002). Quest for Decisive Victory: From Stalemate to Blitzkrieg in Europe, 1899-1940. University Press of Kansas. • Citino (2004). Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm: The Evolution of Operational Warfare. University Press of Kansas. • Citino (2005). The German Way of War: From the Thirty Years' War to the Third Reich. University Press of Kansas. • Citino (2007). The Death of the Wehrmacht: The Campaigns of 1942. University Press of Kansas. • Citino (2007). Military Histories Past and Present: A Reintroduction. American Historical Review vol.112 no.4 • Citino (2008). The Path To Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army 1920-39. Stackpole Books. Honors and awards
• Phi Beta Kappa • Phi Kappa Phi • Phi Alpha Theta • Summa Award for Scholarship, 1976 • Magna cum laude 1978 • National Resource Fellowship, Indiana University 1982 • Susan O'Kell Memorial Award for Outstanding Associate Instructor, 1982 • Letter of Commendation, Crane Army Ammunition Activity, 1983 • Eastern Michigan University Teacher I Excellence Award 1993 • History Book Club "Book Of the Month" August 2002 • Winner of the Paul Birdsall Prize, from the American Historical Association • Winner of the Distinguished Book Award, Society for Military History • Voted 2007's #1 Professor in the Nation on RateMyProfessor.com • The Charles Boal Ewing Distinguished Visiting Professor 2008/2009 West Point US Military Academy External links Citino's books available for sale at Amazon • • Citino discusses "The German Way of War" • Listing at EMU • Consulting editor • Questia: Germany and the Union of South Africa in the Nazi Period Questia: Armored Forces: History and Sourcebook • • Questia: The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939 University of Kansas Press Authors By Last Name • • Professor Citino's "Rate My Professor" page • Interview on Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm at the Pritzker Military Library • American Historical Review Article October 2007
Michael D Clodfelter
Alexander S. Cochran
Education B.A.(1961) History, Yale University; M.A. (1972) History, University of Kansas; Ph.D. (1984) History, University of Kansas Subjects National Security,Military Strategy,U.S. Military History Experience • Harold K. Johnson Visiting Professor, U.S. Army War College, 2003-04 • Visiting Professor of Strategy and Policy, U.S. Naval War College, 2002-03 • Distinguished Professor of National Security Strategy, National War College, National Defense University, 2000-02 • Matthew C. Horner Chair of Military Theory, Marine Corps University, 1998-2000 • Professor of Military History, Department of Strategy, Air War College, 1990-98 • held the Chair of Military History at the US Army War College Expertise National security policy and military strategy; U.S. military history; the Vietnam War, World War II Project Summary For the past century, American war colleges have taught the symmetry of the elements of national power—diplomatic, economic and military—involved in planning national policy and executing security strategy to future military and civilian leaders. This study will examine, impartially and comprehensively, how these graduate level institutions have approached the subject since the end of the Cold War and how they anticipate doing so for the next decade. Focusing upon organization, curricula, faculty, and students within a comparative analytical framework, it will identify strengths and weaknesses, thereby suggesting a roadmap for insuring America's worldwide leadership in the 21st century. Major Publications • "ULTRA, FORTITUDE, and D-Day Planning: The Missing Dimension," D-Day 1944 (Lawrence: The University Press of Kansas, 1994) • Planning the Gulf War Air Campaign (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1993) • "American Planning for Ground Combat Operations" Lloyd J. Matthews and Dale E. Brown, eds., Assessing the Vietnam War (Washington: Pergamon-Brassey, 1987) • MacArthur, ULTRA, and the Pacific war, 1942-1944 • Planning for the treatment of postwar Germany, 1943-1946, University of Kansas., 1972 • Spectre of defeat: Anglo-American planning for the invasion of Italy in 1943 University of Kansas, History, 1985 • Piercing the Fog: Intelligence and Army Air Forces Operations in World War II, DIANE Publishing, 1996 (John F. Kreis, Robert C Ehrhart, Jr Alexander S Cochran, Robert F Futrell, Thomas A Fabyanic, John F Kreis, AIR FORCE HISTORICAL STUDIES OFFICE WASHINGTON DC, Williamson Murray)
Edward M. Coffman
held the Chair of Military History at the US Army War College
Eliot A. Cohen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Eliot A. Cohen is the Robert E. Osgood Professor of Strategic Studies at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at the Johns Hopkins University. Cohen is the Director of the Strategic Studies Program at SAIS and has specialized in the Middle East, Persian Gulf, Iraq, arms control, and NATO. He is a member of the Project for the New American Century and "is one of the few teachers in the American academy to treat military history as a serious field" according to International Law scholar Ruth Wedgwood. He served as Counselor to the United States Department of State under Secretary Condoleezza Rice from 2007 to 2009. Biography Cohen is a graduate of the Maimonides School. He received his B.A. in government at Harvard University in 1977. He went on to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1982 in political science, and during his PhD training went through the Army ROTC program at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was an assistant professor of government and assistant dean at Harvard University from 1982 to 1985. Following this, he taught for four years at the Naval War College in the Department of Strategy, before a brief period in 1990 serving on the policy planning staff in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In 1990, Cohen began his position at SAIS. Following the 1991 Persian Gulf War, he directed the U.S. Air Force's official four-volume survey, the Gulf War Air Power Survey, until 1993, for which he received the Air Force’s Exemplary Civilian Service Award. This analysis of the effect of U.S. air power was widely referenced in regards to the Revolution in Military Affairs concept. In 1993, Paul Wolfowitz, who would later become prominent as the Deputy Secretary of Defense in the run-up to the Iraq war, became Dean of SAIS. During his brief stint at the defense policy planning staff, Cohen had worked under Wolfowitz but this was the first time they were in extended contact. In 1997, Cohen became a founding member of the Project for the New American Century, which became known as a center for prominent neoconservatives. He has been a member of the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, a committee of civilians and retired military officers that the U.S. Secretary of Defense may call upon for advice, since the beginning of the administration of President George W. Bush. He was put on the board after acquaintance Richard Perle put forward his name. Cohen has referred to the War on Terrorism as “World War IV”. In the run-up to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, he was a member of Committee for the Liberation of Iraq, a group of prominent persons who pressed for an invasion. On March 2, 2007, Cohen was appointed by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice to serve as Counselor of the State Department, replacing Philip D. Zelikow. Political Views Statements on US foreign policy Cohen was one of the first neoconservatives to publicly advocate war against Iran and Iraq. In a November 2001 op-ed for the Wall Street Journal, Cohen identified what he called World War IV and advocated the overthrow of Iran's government as a possible next step for the Bush Administration. Cohen claimed "regime change" in Iran could be accomplished with a focus on "pro-Western and anticlerical forces" in the Middle East and suggested that such an action would be "wise, moral and unpopular (among some of our allies)". He went on to argue that such a policy was as important as the then identified goal of Osama Bin Laden's capture: "The overthrow of the first theocratic revolutionary Muslim state and its replacement by a moderate or secular government, however, would be no less important a victory in this war than the annihilation of bin Laden." Later in 2001, Cohen, in what was becoming a dominant theme of his writing, advocated war against Iraq once again and proceeded to outline how effortless such a military campaign would be: After Afghanistan, what? Iraq is the big prize... One important element will be the use of the Iraqi National Congress to help foster the collapse of the regime, and to provide a replacement for it. The INC, which has received bad, and in some cases malicious treatment, from the State Department and intelligence community over the years, may not be able to do the job with U.S. air support alone. As a result of his public statements on why a war against Iraq was necessary, Cohen was invited to appear on CNN Wolf Blitzer Reports and amongst other statements given in response to questioning from Blitzer offered the judgement:
We know that he [Saddam Hussein] supports terror. There's very solid evidence that the Iraqis were behind an attempt to assassinate President Bush's father. And we -- by the way, we do know that there is a connection with the 9/11 terrorists. We do know that Mohamed Atta, the ringleader of the 9/11 terrorists, met with Iraqi intelligence in Prague. So... In testifying to a Congressional House committee later in 2002 Cohen was quoted as saying: ..the choice before the United States is a stark one, either to acquiesce in a situation which permits the regime of Saddam Hussein to restore his economy, acquire weapons of mass destruction and pose a lethal threat to his neighbors and to us, or to take action to overthrow him. In my view, the latter course, with all of its risks, is the correct one. Indeed, the dangers of failing to act in the near future are unacceptable. In a piece for the Wall Street Journal, 6 February 2003 Cohen fervently praised the presentation given by then Secretary of State Colin Powell in which he outlined the case for military action against Iraq to the United Nations. He went on to indicate that it was time for those who doubted that the case had been proven to support the Bush administration in their efforts. An article written for the Washington Post on 10 July 2005, raised the attention of commentators in the media and "blogosphere". The piece, an attempt to articulate Cohen's self identified roles as academic, pundit, and father, was written as his son prepared to deploy to Iraq to fight a war the elder Cohen had been calling for since early 2001. The piece ends: There is a lot of talk these days about shaky public support for the war. That is not really the issue. Nor should cheerleading, as opposed to truth-telling, be our leaders' chief concern. If we fail in Iraq -- and I don't think we will -- it won't be because the American people lack heart, but because leaders and institutions have failed. Rather than fretting about support at home, let them show themselves dedicated to waging and winning a strange kind of war and describing it as it is, candidly and in detail. Then the American people will give them all the support they need. The scholar in me is not surprised when our leaders blunder, although the pundit in me is dismayed when they do. What the father in me expects from our leaders is, simply, the truth -- an end to happy talk and denials of error, and a seriousness equal to that of the men and women our country sends into the fight. This piece was extensively discussed in the blogosphere at the time, with some progressive blogs decrying that Cohen continued to maintain that the invasion was justified. Other commentators expressed surprise that a figure with such access and impeccable neoconservative credentials could appear to criticise the Bush Administration in such a way. Cohen later stated that he had received overwhelmingly positive responses from senior military officials in a resulting interview on CSPAN. Cohen also continued his criticism of the conduct of the war stating that, "Those three guys [ Tommy Franks, George Tenet, and L. Paul Bremer] got the Presidential Medal of Freedom. That's just wrong." As a member of the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee Cohen had also been engaged in meetings involving US President George Bush. During these meetings Cohen provided advice on strategy in the Iraq conflict. Appointment to Department of State On 2 March 2007, it was reported by the Washington Post that Cohen was to be appointed as Condoleezza Rice's "counselor" at the United States Department of State. Cohen replaced Philip D. Zelikow and said he would fill time before appointment in April 2007 by acting as a consultant for Rice. The tone of the Washington Post article, Cohen is described as a "critic" of the Iraq war, was soon criticised. An article by Ximena Ortiz in the National Interest Online called Cohen's ability to do the job into question and attempted to juxtapose his previous statements on the Bush administration foreign policy with the resulting war in Iraq. Adding to the criticism was Glenn Greenwald of Salon.com who, describing Cohen as "extremist a neoconservative and warmonger as it gets", suggested an internal significance of the appointment for the Bush administration: The Cohen appointment, is clearly another instance where neoconservatives place a watchdog in potential trouble spots in the government to ensure that diplomats do not stray by trying to facilitate rapproachments between the U.S. and the countries on the neoconservative War hit list. As the controversy was played out in the media a rebuttal of sorts from Ruth Wedgwood, international law scholar at Johns Hopkins University, sought to defend Cohen from criticism. Ortiz was subsequently supported in her criticism by fellow commentator at National Interest Online, Anatol Lieven, who raised the levels of criticism to include Cohens efforts as a historian and analyst as well as tackling other pronouncements on US foreign policy in the middle east made by Cohen. Mearsheimer and Walt Paper Main article: The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy In March 2006, Harvard's Kennedy School of Government Academic Dean Stephen M. Walt along with Professor John J. Mearsheimer of the University of Chicago, both political scientists, published an academic paper titled The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. The paper criticizes the Israel lobby for influencing U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East away from U.S. interests and towards Israel's interests. Eliot Cohen, who is Jewish, wrote in a prominent op-ed piece in The Washington Post that the academic working paper bears all the traditional hallmarks of anti-Semitism: "obsessive and irrationally hostile beliefs about Jews", accusations toward Jews of "disloyalty, subversion or treachery, of having occult powers and of participating in secret combinations that manipulate institutions and governments", as well as selection of "everything unfair, ugly or wrong about Jews as individuals or a group" and equally systematical suppression of "any exculpatory information". Mearsheimer and Walt have denied Cohen's assertions as false, dishonest and ridiculous. Noting that criticism of Israeli state policy and influential American advocates of that policy, such as Cohen, is not the same thing as demonization of Jewish people. Footnotes 1. ^ The National Interest 2. ^ Cohen's Bio on the John Hopkin's University website 3. ^ Cohen’s account on the Advocates for ROTC website 4. ^ C-SPAN Q&A transcript - “I think my name was probably put forward by Richard Perle, who at that time was chairman, but I don't know.” 5. ^ Cohen, Eliot A.. "World War IV". http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=95001493. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
^ Kessler, Glenn (2 March 2007). "Rice Names Critic Of Iraq Policy to Counselor's Post". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030101643.html. Retrieved 200703-06. 7. ^ World War IV: Lets call the conflict what it is. Wall Street Journal 20 November 2001 8. ^ Iraq Can't Resist Us. The Gulf War was a cakewalk. The enemy is even weaker now.. Wall Street Journal 23 December 2001 9. ^ John Walker Returns to United States; Will U.S. Bring War on Terrorism to Iraq?. CNN Wolf Blitzer Reports, 23 January 2002 10. ^ "The Talented Mr. Cohen" National Interest Online, Ximena Ortiz, 2 March 2007. 11. ^ "The Reluctant Warrior" reproduced from Wall Street Journal, Eliot A. Cohen 6 February 2003. 12. ^ "A Hawk Questions Himself as His Son Goes to War" Washington Post, 10 July 2005. 13. ^ "The Talented Mr. Cohen" National Interest Online, Ximena Ortiz 2 March 2007. 14. ^ "The Talented Mr. Cohen" National Interest Online, Ximena Ortiz 2 March 2007. 15. ^ "Greenwald: State Department promotion sends Iran war signal" excerpts of article reproduced by Mike Sheehan in the Raw Story, 5 March 2007. 16. ^ "The Talented Mr. Cohen: A Response" National Interest Online, Ruth Wedgwood 12 March 2007. 17. ^ "Eliot Cohen and Democratic Responsibility" National Interest Online, Anatol Lieven 16 March 2007. 18. ^ Cohen, Eliot (2006-04-05). "Yes, It's Anti-Semitic". The Washington Post. 19. ^ Mearsheimer, John J. and Walt, Stephen. letter to the London Review of Books, May 11, 2006. Published works • Citizens and Soldiers: The Dilemmas of Military Service (1985) • Military Misfortunes : The Anatomy of Failure in War, Free Press, 1990, ISBN 0-02-906060-5. • With Thomas A. Keaney, Gulf War Air Power Survey Summary Report, United States Government Printing Office, 1993, ISBN 0-16-041950-6. (Note that the full report has four parts.) • With Keaney, Revolution in Warfare?: Air Power in the Persian Gulf, Naval Institute Press, 1995, ISBN 1-55750131-9 • Knives, Tanks, and Missiles: Israel's Security Revolution, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1998, ISBN 0944029-72-8. • Editor with John Bayliss, et al. Strategy in the Contemporary World: Introduction to Strategic Studies, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-878273-X. • With Andrew Bacevich, War Over Kosovo, Columbia University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-231-12482-1. • Supreme Command: Soldiers, Statesmen, and Leadership in Wartime, Free Press, 2002, ISBN 0-7432-3049-3. External links Biography portal Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Eliot A. Cohen • • • • • Rebuilding America's Defenses, controversial PNAC manifesto to which Cohen is a signatory World War IV, Wall Street Journal featured editorial by Cohen, 20 November 2001 A Hawk Questions Himself as His Son Goes to War, op-ed by Cohen in the Washington Post, 10 July 2005 Transcript of interview with Cohen, C-SPAN Q&A program, 31 July 2005 Neither Fools Nor Cowards: Barriers between military service and higher education do a disservice to both, op-ed by Cohen in the Wall Street Journal, 13 May 2005 Counselor of the United States Department of Succeeded State Cheryl Mills 30 April 2007 - 20 January 2009
Government offices Preceded Philip D. Zelikow by by
Ryan A. Conklin
The cast of The Real World: Brooklyn. Conklin is at the far right.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Place of birth Service/branch Years of service Rank Marshall, Michigan United States Army 2003–2010 Sergeant 101st Airborne Division, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment North Carolina National Guard, 30th Heavy Brigade Combat Team, 252nd Combined Arms Batallion Iraq War Army Commendation Medal Army Achievement Medal (2) Good Conduct Medal (2)
Unit Battles/wars Awards
Ryan Allen Conklin (born April 1, 1985) is a former Sergeant in the United States Army, known as a cast member on the MTV reality television series, The Real World: Brooklyn, which aired in 2008, and The Real World Presents: Return to Duty, a 2009 documentary that chronicled his second tour of duty serving as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom. After being honorably discharged in 2010, Conklin went on to write a memoir chronicling his experiences in Iraq. Conklin was born on April 1, 1985 in Marshall, Michigan to Dave and Pat Conklin. He has a brother named Aaron, and a sister named Carrie. When he was 11, he and his family moved to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Conklin was raised in a close family of five. Growing in Gettysburg, the family harbored a strong sense of history, and an affinity for the military, with Conklin, his brother Ryan, their father, Dave, and two cousins participating in Civil War reenactments. In addition to his brother, Aaron, who is a military police officer in the Army Reserves, Conklin also has two cousins in the Army as well. Military and reality television career First tour of duty Conklin enlisted in the United States Army at age 17, having been inspired to do so by the September 11 attacks. He spent a year in Iraq, guarded Saddam Hussein at his trial, and suffered a number of near-death experiences. During his time on The Real World, it was also revealed that he suffers from knee problems and posttraumatic stress as a result of his tour of duty. He was honorably discharged in 2006. The Real World:Brooklyn Main article: The Real World: Brooklyn In 2008, after returning from his first tour in Iraq, Conklin was casted on the 21st season of the MTV reality series, The Real World in 2008. On being selected, Conklin said that it almost started as a joke. MTV was casting at a bar he was visiting, and he decided to apply. He says that he was stunned to learn he made the final cut. His cast biography is as follows: “ A small-town Pennsylvania boy with a laid-back personality, Ryan has had his share of action. After enlisting in the army at the age of 17, he served in Iraq and got an eyeful. Now 23, he has returned from his duty with a newfound appreciation for life and a better perspective on the world around him, despite having lived through many near-death experiences, as well as the death of a close friend. A class clown who juggles his time between amateur filmmaking,
guitar playing and pranking those around him, Ryan is currently in his first-ever relationship. During his time on The Real World, Conklin related his experiences in the Iraq War, which he expressed through his guitar playing, and in a 300-page single-space typed journal. His experiences in Iraq made him highly critical of the war's execution, and spurred his hopes for a Barack Obama victory in the 2008 Presidential Election, which he hoped would preclude being recalled to Iraq. He also indicated aspirations of being a filmmaker, and an interest in studying at the University of Pittsburgh. Second tour of duty In November 2008, while filming The Real World, Conklin found out, much to his shock, that he was being called back to active duty. On April 1, 2009, the day he was supposed to report to Fort Bragg, North Carolina before leaving, Conklin surprised his Real World castmates by appearing on the reunion show. He returned to Iraq later that month, serving in the southern Saydiyah section of Baghdad as an infantryman, and was eventually promoted to the rank of Sergeant. Before deploying, MTV and the producers of the Real World pitched him the idea for a documentary following his returning to Iraq as well as his family members' reactions. Though initially reluctant, Conklin agreed. The documentary, fully titled The Real World Presents: Return to Duty, aired on November 11, 2009. Conklin says that he was "very pleased with how it all came together". In January 2010 Conklin was again honorably discharged from the Army. Later work Conklin currently travels the country speaking to colleges and universities with Hope's Voice organization, speaking about his time in Iraq. Conklin's memoir about his experience during his first tour in Iraq, An Angel From Hell, was published In April 2010. References 1. ^ a b Real World: Presents: Return to Duty, MTV, accessed December 14, 2010. 2. ^ a b c d e Ryan Conklin biography, anangelfromhell.com, accessed December 14, 2010 3. ^ a b c d "Saving a Private Ryan". The Real World: Brooklyn. MTV. March 18, 2009. 4. ^ a b Portlock, Sarah. "Unreal world! Our critic gets a peek at MTV’s Brooklyn reality show", The Brooklyn Paper, December 1, 2008 5. ^ "Friends and Enemies". The Real World: Brooklyn. MTV. February 4, 2009. 6. ^ a b c Biography page for Ryan Conklin, MTV.com, accessed December 14, 2010. 7. ^ a b c Collins, Elizabeth M. "MTV documentary follows Soldier's return to Iraq", United States Army, November 10, 2009 8. ^ "Atlantic City, Baby!". The Real World: Brooklyn. MTV. March 25, 2009. 9. ^ The Real World: Brooklyn Reunion, MTV, accessed December 14, 2010 10. ^ Return to Duty, Real Television, November 5, 2009 11. ^ Genzlinger, Neil. "From Peaceful Gettysburg to the Battlefield of Iraq", The New York Times, November 11, 2009 12. ^ Stuever, Hank. "Tours de force: Shows plumb truths of war", The Washington Post, November 10, 2009 13. ^ Olin, Nicol. "“Real World” castmate Ryan Conklin gets real", Monmouth College Courier, October 29, 2010 ^ "RYAN CONKLIN: Faces of War", Hope's Voice, accessed January 10, 2011. 14. 15. ^ An Angel From Hell at Amazon.com, accessed December 14, 2010. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ryan A. Conklin • • • An Angel from Hell website Official Return to Duty Website Conklin's YouTube Channel
James J. Cooke
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Nationality Alma mater August 2, 1939 (age 71) Baltimore, Maryland American Mississippi College University of Georgia
James J. Cooke (born August 2, 1939) is an American historian, author, academic and soldier. Early life Born in St. Mary’s Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, on August 2,1939, and baptized into the Christian Faith at Christ Lutheran Church, York Pennsylvania, a month later. He resided in Baltimore until the family moved to Brooklyn Park. In 1956, his junior year of high school, he joined the US Army Reserves. He wrote in his high school year book in 1957 that he wanted to be a “college history teacher.”His love of history began in the time he spent with his with family in York. Charles Wise, a concert violinist, served in France in World War I as an infantry soldier. His Great-Grandmother Mina Belle Wise went West to Montana to do her Christian duty to teach for a year, and returned with stories of the “ cowboys and the Indians.” His Great-Aunt Mary Utz was a strong Christian, advocating Victorian virtues. Their impact was great and long-lasting. While in York he met one Union Civil War veteran, and also an old lady who saw Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg in 1863. Upon graduation from Brooklyn Park High in 1957 Cooke tried his hand at various jobs, since college funds were non-existent. He then joined the US Regular Army, and after training in the United States he was assigned to the US Army General Depot at Ingrandes-sur-Vienne, France. In September 1960 he met a Miss Josephine Alexander of Vicksburg, Mississippi, who had just arrived on post as a Department of the Army Civilian (DAC) Service Club Hostess. One year later on October 6, 1961, they were married, first in the Office of the Mayor of Ingrandes (as required by French law), and then in a ceremony in the post chapel. In 1962 they returned to the United States. Cooke entered Mississippi College, Clinton, MS, in 1962, earning a BA in 1965 and MA in 1966. He was accepted in the PhD program at the University of Georgia, and graduated in the summer of 1969. While at Georgia he studied under Professor Alf Andrew Heggoy and developed a speciality in Arab, Islamic North Africa, which was coupled with a field in Modern European History. Cooke’s dissertation Eugene Etienne and the New French Imperialism required study and research in Paris, France, made possible by a French study grant. During the last few months of his PhD studies he had several job offers and accepted the post of Assistant Professor of History at the University of Mississippi in Oxford, where his wife had received her BA 1959. Early writing career Being a staunch advocate for the concept that a university professor had the obligation to research and publish as well as teach, he began by having articles accepted in the journals The Muslim World, The African Studies Review, African Quarterly (New Delhi, India), The Indian Political Science Review, Military Affairs, and others. His first book, New French Imperialism: The Third Republic and Colonial Expansion (1973) and his second book, France, 1789 - 1962 (1975) were published in England by David and Charles Ltd. A third book was a collaborative effort, Through Foreign Eyes: Westerners View North Africa (1982). At that time Cooke, Alf Heggoy, Claude Sturgill (University of Florida) and others founded The French Colonial Historical Society. United States Army service Still feeling a strong attachment to the military, Cooke sought a commission in the United States Army and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in Military Intelligence as a Strategic Analyst. He began his officer’s service, however, as an Armored Cavalry Platoon Leader in A Troop, 108th Armored Cavalry of the Mississippi Army National Guard. He commanded B Troop of the 108th for six years. In the 1980s he joined the Intelligence Section of the 155th Armored Brigade of the Mississippi Army National Guard, and commanded that section until he was promoted to Major and became the Executive Officer of the 2nd Battalion, 198th Armored, an M1 tank battalion. He returned to the Headquarters of the 155th Brigade, took command of the Readiness Section and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. In August 1990, with Desert Shield in progress in Saudi Arabia, the Army called up every Arabic speaking officer it could find. Cooke, a lieutenant colonel with intelligence experience, was near the head of the list. He left the National Guard for a return to the Regular Army and was assigned to the G2 (Intelligence), XVIII Airborne Corps. He was posted as the Corps liaison officer for Intelligence to The Saudi Eastern Province Area Command, with authority extending to the Saudi - Kuwaiti border. In January
the XVIII Airborne Corps shifted its area of operations west. Cooke, a fluent French speaker, was assigned as the Corps liaison officer for intelligence with the French 6th Light Armoured Brigade, as part of Operation Daguet. During Desert Storm Cooke and the division saw heavy combat, and at the end of the war they occupied the town of As Salman, Iraq. For his combat service Cooke was awarded the Bronze Star Medal. Post-service published works After his service with the XVIIIth Airborne Corps and the Division Daguet, Cooke returned to Fort Bragg, NC, to be demobilized. Returning to the University of Mississippi, he began to write his memoirs of the Persian Gulf War, which was published by Praeger Publishing under the title of 100 Hundred Miles From Baghdad: With the French in Desert Storm (1993) This book began a long association with Praeger Publishing. Prior to the Gulf War, Cooke’s scholarly work underwent a transition. While doing research in Paris on the French administration of Morocco he worked with the papers of General Henri Gouraud, who served in Morocco and on the Western Front during World War I. The general continually referred to "his" Americans under his command during the war. This happened in spite of General John Pershing's resistance to the merging of American troops with French or British during the war. On his return, Cooke obtained the letters and papers of a soldier who served in the 168th Infantry Regiment of the famed 42nd Infantry Division, commonly known as the Rainbow Division. That division was under General Gouraud's command during the heavy fighting during the summer of 1918. After research in Washington, numerous state archives, and at the Army War College at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Cooke completed The Rainbow Division in the Great War, 1917 - 1919, released by Praeger in 1994. This book was followed by The U.S. Air Service in the Great War, 1917 - 1919 (1996), Pershing and His Generals: Command and Staff in the AEF (1997), and The All-Americans at War: The 82nd Division in the Great War (1999). A year after his return from Desert Storm to the University, Cooke was invited to be a Visiting Professor of History at the U.S. Air Force’s Air War College at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama. While there he began research on the founding fathers of American air power during World War I. This research led to the publication in 2002 of a biography, Billy Mitchell (Lynne Reinner Press). At the same time Cooke came in contact with British historians who had a major scholarly interest in the Great War. This association with the British scholars, Peter Liddle, Hugh Cecil, and Ian Whitehead, resulted in the publication of a number of co-authored books. Cooke contributed chapters to Facing Armageddon (Pen and Sword, 1996), and At the Eleventh Hour (Penn and Sword, 1998). In 2000 Cooke contributed two chapters to the two-volume The Great World War, 1914 - 1945 (HarperCollins). While working with British historians, Cooke continued a relation with the military historian David Zabecki. Cooke wrote eleven entries for Zabecki’s World War II in Europe: An Encyclopedia (Garland, 1999) and contributed a chapter entitled “James Guthrie Harbord: Pershing’s Chief of Staff” in Zabecki’s two-volume Chief of Staff (Naval Institute Press, 2008). Continuing this growing interest in World War II, Cooke became associated withThe Second World War Experience Centre in Horsforth, Leeds, West Yorkshire, and published five articles in the journal Everyone’s War. He maintains a close working relationship with the Centre, focusing on the building of the American archival portion. Cooke edited a reprinting of the classic World War I memoir by Martin Hogan, The Shamrock Battalion in the Great War (1919) (University of Missouri Press, 2007). In 2009 his book, Chewing Gum, Candy Bars, and Beer: The Army PX in World War II (University of Missouri Press) was published. In 1995 Cooke retired from the Mississippi Army National Guard and was placed on the retired list with the rank of Brigadier General. In 1999 he retired from the University of Mississippi. Over the years he received honors: Fellow, The Royal Historical Society; Chevalier, Ordre des Palmes Academiques (France); and Fellow, The Second World War Experience Centre. He remains a member of the Division Daguet veterans association in France and a member of the Oxford post of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. Upon retiring from the National Guard with 34 years of service he was decorated with the Meritorious Service Medal and the Magnolia Cross of the state of Mississippi. Gardening, scholarly research, and veterans’ affairs occupy his time. The Cookes have four grown children: Victoria Ellen Cooke, James Alexander Cooke, Josephine Estelle (Josie) Cooke, and John Harrell Cooke. Bibliography • Cooke James J, New French Imperialism, 1880-1910: The Third Republic and Colonial Expansion , David & Charles 1973 ISBN 0-208-01320-2 • Cooke James J,France: 1789-1962, David & Charles Publishers 1975 ISBN 0-208-01510-8 • Cooke James J,100 Miles from Baghdad: With the French in Desert Storm, Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated 1993 ISBN 0-275-94528-6 • Cooke James J,The Rainbow Division in the Great War, 1917-1919, Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated 1994 ISBN 0-275-94768-8 • Cooke James J,The U.S. Air Service in the Great War, 1917-1919, Praeger Pub Text 1996 ISBN 0-275-94862-5 • Cooke James J,Pershing and His Generals :Command and Staff in the AEF, Harcourt Education 1997 ISBN 0-27595363-7 • Cooke James J,All-Americans at War : The 82nd Division in the Great War, 1917-1918, Pub. Praeger Pub Text 1999 ISBN 0-275-95740-3 • Cooke James J,Billy Mitchell, Pub Lynne Rienner 2002 ISBN 1-58826-082-8 • Cooke James J,Chewing Gum, Candy Bars, and Beer The Army PX in World War II, University of Missouri Press 2009 ISBN 978-0-8262-1867-4 References 1. ^ http://www.uga.edu/history/graduate/dissertations.php 2. ^ http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1478-1913.1975.tb03215.x/abstract 3. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/523575 4. ^ http://frenchcolonial.org/HistoryFCHS052008.htm 5. ^ http://www.greenwood.com/catalog/author/C/James_J._Cooke.aspx 6. ^ http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/nolan_dennis.htm 7. ^ James J. Cooke (2002). Billy Mitchell. Lynne Reiner Publishers. http://books.google.com/books?id=MUKCiovSy_gC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
8. 9. 10.
^ http://www.war-experience.org/about/patrons/default.asp ^ http://press.umsystem.edu/fall2009/cooke.htm ^ "Fellows of the Royal Historical Society http://www.royalhistoricalsociety.org/rhsfellowsa-c.doc.
Jerry M. Cooper
held the Chair of Military History at the US Army War College
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Dr James Sterling Corum (BA, Gonzaga University; MA, Brown University; MLitt, Oxford University; PhD, Queen’s University) is an American air power historian and authority on counter-insurgency. Academic career Corum has been Dean of the Baltic Defence College in Tartu, Estonia since January 2009. He is also Adjunct Professor of Military History at Austin Peay State University. He was formerly Professor of Military History in the Department of Joint and Multinational Operations at the US Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth. Previously he was Professor of Comparative Military Studies at the School of Advanced Airpower Studies, Air University, Alabama. During 2005 he was both a Visiting Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford University and a visiting Fellow of the Levershulme Program on the Changing Nature of War, Department of International Politics, Oxford University. Specialist fields Dr Corum's primary speciality is air power history and he argues more in favour of integrated air power than of so-called strategic missions independent of the joint battlespace. He also writes on counterinsurgency. He is a retired lieutenant colonel in the US Army Reserve. His books include: "The Luftwaffe: Creating the Operational Air War, 19181940", "The Roots of Blitzkrieg: Hans von Seeckt and German Military Reform" and "Wolfram von Richthofen: Master of the German Air War" and "Bad Strategies: How Great Powers Fail in Counterinsurgency (Zenith Press, 2008). Among Corum's many articles is: "To stop them on the beaches: Luftwaffe Operations against the Allied Landings in Italy," Air Power Review, Vol. 7 No. 2 (Summer 2004), pp. 47-68. Dr. Corum is a blogger for the British newspaper, the Daily Telegraph, writing on international affairs and military issues. Personal details His political orientation can best be described[by whom?] as conservative. Dr. Corum was born in Paris France, grew up in San Francisco California. He is a Roman Catholic. He lives in Tartu, Estonia with his adopted son Tommy and wife Lynn Corum. Dr Corum has completed courses at military staff colleges, including: 1998 Air War College 1994 United States Army Command and General Staff College 1994 Air Command and Staff College 1990 US Army Ordnance Officer Advanced Course 1984 First Army Combat Intelligence Operations Course, Ft. Bragg NC 1977 Intelligence Officers Course and Tactical/Strategic Intelligence Officers’ course References 1. ^ http://www.apsu.edu/files/cogs/2008-09-GRADUATE-FACULTY.pdf 2. ^ http://www.bdcol.ee/files/files/CV/James%20Corum.doc 3. ^ http://www.airpower.au.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj00/win00/corum.htm 4. ^ http://hnn.us/roundup/entries/12275.html ^ http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/author/jamescorum/ 5.
Graham A. Cosmas
held the Chair of Military History at the US Army War College
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Robert Cowley is an American military historian, who writes on topics in American and European military history ranging from the Civil War through World War II. He has held several senior positions in book and magazine publishing and is the founding editor of the award-winning MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History; Cowley has also written extensively and edited three collections of essays in counterfactual history known as What If? As part of his research he has traveled the entire length of the Western Front, from the North Sea to the Swiss Border. He currently lives in New York and Connecticut. Cowley is the son of prominent writer and literary critic Malcolm Cowley and Muriel Mauer. He attended Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire, graduating in 1952. Thereafter, he earned an A.B. degree in history in 1956 from Harvard College in Massachusetts. Works • Gamble for Victory. The Greatest Attack of World War I, by Robert Cowley, New York, Macmillan Books, 1964. • Fitzgerald and the Jazz Age, by Malcolm Cowley and Robert Cowley, New York, Scribner, 1966. • The Rulers of Britain, by Robert Cowley, New York, Stonehenge Press, 1982, ISBN 0867060689. • Experience of War, ed. Robert Cowley, New York, Random House, 1993, ISBN 0440505534 • The Reader's Companion to Military History, by Robert Cowley and Geoffrey Parker, New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1996, ISBN 978-0618127429 • No End Save Victory: Perspectives on World War II, by Robert Cowley, New York, Putnam, 2001, ISBN 9780425183380 • With My Face to the Enemy: Perspectives on the Civil War, ed. Robert Cowley, New York, Putnam, 2001, ISBN 9780712679466 • The Great War: Perspectives on the First World War, ed. Robert Cowley, New York, Random House, 2003, ISBN 978-1844134199 • The Cold War, ed. Robert Cowley, New York, Random House, 2006, ISBN 978-0812967166 What If? The World’s Most Foremost Military Historians Imagine What Might Have Been, ed. Robert Cowley, New • York, Putnam, 1999, ISBN 0-425-17642-8 • More What If? Eminent Historians Imagine What Might Have Been, ed. Robert Cowley, New York, Putnam, 2001, ISBN 0-399-14795-0 • What Ifs? of American History, ed. Robert Cowley, New York, Putnam, 1999, ISBN 0-399-15091-9 • What If? 2 External links • Random House Author Spotlight • The Lessons of War Sell in Peacetime, William H. Honan, New York Times, December 19, 1988. • Generals, Battlefields, and What Raleigh Said, Richard Bernstein, New York Times, December 18, 1996. • Review: The Reader's Companion to Military History, Andrew Krepinevich, Foreign Affairs, May/June 1997. • Historians Warming To Games Of 'What If', William H. Honan, New York Times, January 7, 1998. • Word for Word: Historical 'What Ifs?'; Annie Could've Gotten Her Gun And Blown Away the Kaiser, David Clay Large, New York Times, May 10, 1998. • Books in Brief: Nonfiction, David Murray, New York Times, October 17, 1999. • Making Books; The 'What Ifs' That Fascinate, Martin Arnold, New York Times, December 21, 2000. • It All Could Have Been Different, Chuck Leddy, San Francisco Chronicle, September 9, 2003. • Imagine, Laura Miller, New York Times Book Review, September 5, 2004. This biography of an American historian is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
A Vivid Quest Through the Eyes of a Marine Corps Chief Scout Sniper (2010)
Robert J. Dalessandro
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Robert J. Dalessandro (born 1958, in New York, New York) is an American historian and author who has written and presented extensively on the American Expeditionary Forces contributions to the First World War. Dalessandro is retired Colonel in the U.S. Army and the current Director of the United States Army Center of Military History at Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C. He frequently leads battlefield tours to sites in the United States, France and Italy. He has had a lifelong passion for military history and the material culture of the American soldier. Dalessandro graduated from the Virginia Military Institute with a degree in History in 1980. His graduate studies included work at the College of William and Mary, the U.S. Army War College and George Washington University. He has had a wide variety of Army leadership and staff assignments including time as a platoon leader, command at company, depot and battalion level and staff assignments at echelons of command ranging from battalion through Department of the Army level. Dalessandro is widely published on the lifeways and material culture of the American Soldier in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. He is co-author of the Organization and Insignia of the American Expeditionary Forces, 1917-1923, he serves as editor of the Army Officer’s Guide, co-author of Willing Patriots: Men of Color in the First World War, and Contributions of African American Soldiers and the American Lions: the 332nd Infantry Regiment in Italy in World War I. Recently, his book, Organization and Insignia of the American Expeditionary Forces, 1917-1923 received the Army Historical Foundation award for excellence in writing. Published works • Organization and Insignia of the American Expeditionary Force, 1917-1923, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 2008 • The Army Officer's Guide, Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2009 • Willing Patriots: Men of Color in the First World War, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 2009 • American Lions: The 332nd Infantry regiment in Italy in World War I, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 2010 References 1. ^ Information for biography from Stackpole Books and Schiffer Military Publishing and www.usahec.org , Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army Website - - U.S. Army Chief of Military History Biography
Franklin M. Davis, Jr
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Franklin Milton Davis, Jr. (1918–1980) was an author and Major General in the United States Army. General Davis had a B.A. in Economics/English from the University of Massachusetts and a M.A. degree in International Affairs from George Washington University. Davis had military participation in both World War II and the Vietnam War. Davis served as a Brigadier General during the Vietnam War and commanded the 199th Light Infantry Brigade from May 1968 to July 1969. Davis' brigade operated in the Long Binh and Duc Hoa regions of Vietnem. While in Vietnam Davis was wounded in action (WIA). Davis was a Commandant at the U.S. Army War College from 1971 to 1974. General Davis's principal awards and decorations included the Distinguished Service Medal, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Legion of Merit, the Purple Heart, and the Bronze Star with V for Valor. His wartime service included three major campaigns in World War II in Europe, and four in the war in Vietnam. Transcendental Meditation Davis was a practitioner of Transcendental Meditation and advocated its use to reduce the stress of soldiers. He was also a founding member of The Board of Trustees at Maharishi International University (MIU) (now called Maharishi University of Management). At MIU, General Davis was also an International Resource Faculty member for the United States in Military Science. Writing Davis wrote books of fiction and historical nonfiction. Two of his early books were published with his military rank attached to his name: "Col. Franklin M. Davis, Jr.": • Kiss the Tiger, Pyramid Books, 1961 The U.S. Army Engineers—Fighting Elite, Franklin Watts, 1967 • Davis' books published without rank are: • Spearhead, 1957 • A Medal For Frankie, 1959 • Break Through, 1961 • Bamboo Camp#10, 1962 • Secret Hong Kong (A Quinn Leland Espionage Thriller), 1962 • Combat! The Counterattack, (co-author Arnie Kohn), 1964 • Come As a Conqueror, (The United States Army's Occupation of Germany 1945-1949), 1967 • Across the Rhine (Time Life, World War II Collector's Edition), 1980 References 1. ^ kingkong.demon.co.uk/. "New General Catalog of Old Books and Authors A Companion to On-line & Off-line Literature (2008 March)". http://www.authorandbookinfo.com/ngcoba/da4.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 2. ^ Institute for Science, Technology, and Public Policy. "Center for Advanced Military Science (CAMS)". http://www.istpp.org/military_science/index.html. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 3. ^ The Waltham Museum, Inc.. "The Waltham Museum’s Hall-of-Fame March 10, 2005 (64 Members)". http://www.walthammuseum.com/hof.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-09. ^ Shelby L. Stanton (2003). Vietnam Order of Battle. Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811700719. 4. http://books.google.com/books?id=aUg2zQ9JpHQC&pg=PA89&dq=brigadier+general+%22franklin+m+davis%22& lr=&sig=7VVCEYgVAS0lg9sQEBIraPEd7rA#PPA89,M1. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 5. ^ REDCATCHER.org. "199TH LIGHT INFANTRY BRIGADE VIETNAM ORDER OF BATTLE". http://www.authorandbookinfo.com/ngcoba/da4.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 6. ^ Judith Stiehm (2002). The U.S. Army War College: Military Education in a Democracy. Temple University Press. ISBN 9781566399609. http://books.google.com/books?id=sEkp6GlK19cC&pg=PA29&dq=Franklin+M.+Davis,+Jr,+war+college&sig=Anm d2qSDTsie588f3mgnoudih2A. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 7. ^  Reading Eagle, Jan 16 1972 8. ^ Transcendental Mediation, A Revitalization of American Civil Religion, Micheal Phelan  pp.8-9
^ Institute of Science Technology and Public Policy
Cover of 1959 Permabook paperback edition of Spearhead by Franklin M. Davis, Jr. Cover of 1961 Pyramid Books paperback edition of Kiss the Tiger by Col. Franklin M. Davis, Jr. Front cover of the 1967 Macmillan Company hardcover version of Come As A Conqueror by Franklin M. Davis, Jr.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Residence Nationality Education 1936 (age 74–75) Oakland, California New Seabury, Massachusetts United States New Mexico Military Institute junior college, 1956 Norwich University magna cum laude, 1958 University of Richmond masters, 1974
Occupation Military historian Biographer Military officer Title Spouse Children Notes
LtCol, USA (Ret.) Shirley four (and six grandchildren)
Carlo D'Este (born 1938 in Oakland, California) is an American military historian and biographer, author of several books, especially on World War II. He is a retired U.S. Army Lieutenant Colonel. D'Este lists his three favorite military historians and influences as: Barbara Tuchman (The Guns of August), John Eisenhower (The Bitter Woods: The Battle of the Bulge), and Martin Blumenson (general George S. Patton’s official biographer). A&E adapted his biography of George S. Patton to television for its Biography (TV series) (and, presumably, its Biography Channel) in 1995. In 1996, C-span interviewed him about that book on its Booknotes program. Education • New Mexico Military Institute junior college, 1956 • Norwich University magna cum laude, 1958 • University of Richmond masters, 1974 • University of London under the G.I. bill Career and other work • Military historian and biographer, 1978–present • Member of Department of the Army Historical Advisory Committee • Honorary member, Board of Fellows of Norwich University • President of the Friends of Norwich Library • Trustee of Mashpee Public Library, Mashpee, Massachusetts • United States Army, tours of duty in Germany and Vietnam, retired as lieutenant colonel, 1978. • Lecturer at School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College • Founded (with W.E.B. Griffin) the William E. Colby Military Writers' Symposium (1996). That organization presents the Colby Award. • Advised President of the United States Bill Clinton on his visit to Italy, England, and Normandy (1994) Decorations, awards and honors • Hall of Fame, New Mexico Military Institute, 2002
Norwich University, D.H.L., 1992 Board of Fellows Service Medallion, Norwich University, 2008 Legion of Merit Bronze Star with oak leaf cluster Meritorious Service Medal Army Commendation Medal
Awarded the Andrew J. Goodpaster Prize by the American Veterans Center, 2010. Delivered the annual Kemper Lecture on Winston Churchill at Westminster, College, Fulton, Missouri, 2010. Writings • Decision in Normandy: The Unwritten Story of Montgomery and the Allied Campaign, Dutton (New York, NY), 1983. • Bitter Victory: The Battle for Sicily, 1943, Dutton (New York, NY), 1988. • World War II in the Mediterranean, 1942–1945, Algonquin (Chapel Hill, NC), 1990. • Fatal Decision: Anzio and the Battle for Rome, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1991. • Patton: A Genius for War, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1995. • Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life, 1890–1945, Henry Holt (New York, NY), 2002. • D'Este, Carlo (November 2008). Warlord : a life of Winston Churchill at war, 1874-1945 (1st ed. ed.). New York City, New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 9780060575731. http://lccn.loc.gov/2008009272. Retrieved 2008-11-26. • (introduction to) Battle, the Story of the Bulge, John Toland, Random House (New York, NY), 1959 • (contributor to) Few Returned: Twenty-eight Days on the Russian Front, Winter 1942-1943, edited by Eugenio Corti, University of Missouri Press (Columbia, MO), 1997. "'Warsaw Will Be Liquidated'". New York Times. • D'Este, Carlo (July 25, 2004). http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9902E6D7173AF936A15754C0A9629C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewante d=all. Retrieved 2008-11-28.Review of Rising '44. The Battle for Warsaw, by Norman Davies. References 1. ^ Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2008. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2008. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC Updated September 24, 2003. Document Number: H1000121713. 2. ^ "Carlo D'Este". LibraryThing (Tim Spalding). http://www.librarything.com/author/destecarlo. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 3. ^ a b c Surabian, Carol (19 February 2007). "NEW SEABURY NOTABLES: An Interview with Carlo D’Este, Distinguished Military Historian" (PDF). Mashpee, Massachusetts: The Peninsula Council, Inc. (The Homeowners Association of New Seabury). http://www.peninsulacouncil.com/documents/reporter/interview.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-26.[dead link] 4. ^ Chambers II, John Whiteclay (November 26, 2008). "The Soldier Who Emerged as Statesman - review of WARLORD, A Life of Winston Churchill at War, 1874-1945". p. C02. "Carlo D'Este, a retired U.S. Army colonel with a distinguished record as a military historian and a biographer of Patton and Eisenhower, now provides us with a very human look at Churchill's lifelong fascination with soldiering, war and command. This well-researched, balanced and highly readable narrative covers Churchill's military-related life, from his birth in 1874 through the end of World War II." 5. ^ a b Brucken, Lisa (October 24, 2008). "Noted historian and author Carlo D'Este recalls rigors of NU education: News: Norwich University". Norwich University Office of Communications. http://www.norwich.edu/about/news/2008/102408-carloDeste.html. Retrieved 2008-11-26. "...favorite military historians and influences: Barbara Tuchman, author of Guns of August; John S.D. Eisenhower, author of The Bitter Woods: The Battle of the Bulge; and Martin Blumenson, who was Gen. George S. Patton’s official biographer." 6. ^ ""Twice Armed" Wins 2008 Colby Award" (PDF). February 6, 2008. http://colbysymposium.org/pdf/twicedArmedColby.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-26.[dead link] 7. ^ "Norwich University Homecoming 2008". September? 2008. http://www.alumni.norwich.edu/s/758/media.aspx?pgid=913&gid=1. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 8. ^ "Eisenhower With Carlo D'Este Author". Washington Post. May 30, 2002. http://discuss.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/zforum/02/destes053002.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-27. "D'Este is a retired U.S. Army lieutenant colonel who has been awarded the Legion of Merit, Bronze Star with Oak Leaf cluster, Meritorious Service Medal and Commendation Medal." Further reading about D'Este American Historical Review, October 1992, Alan F. Wilt, review of Fatal Decision: Anzio and the Battle for Rome, • pp. 1304–1305. • Book, July–August, 2002, Philip Gerard, "A Gentleman and an Officer: Before Dwight Eisenhower Became a National Hero, He Was a Little-Known Soldier, " p. 26. • Booklist, May 1, 2002, Gilbert Taylor, review of Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life, 1890–1945, p. 1489. • Choice, December 1990, P. L. De Rosa, review of World War II in the Mediterranean, 1942–1945, p. 683.
Kirkus Reviews, May 1, 2002, review of Eisenhower, p. 632. London Review of Books, December 22, 1983, review of Decision in Normandy: The Unwritten Story of Montgomery and the Allied Campaign, pp. 7–8 • London Review of Books, May 26, 1994, review of Decision in Normandy, p. 3. National Review, August 12, 2002, Victor Davis Hanson, "Soldier of Contrasts, " p. 49. • • New York Times, September 8, 1988, review of Bitter Victory: The Battle for Sicily, 1943, p. C21. New York Times Book Review, January 22, 1984, review of Decision in Normandy, p. 10 • • New York Times Book Review, November 27, 1988, Walter Lord, review of Bitter Victory, p. 18 • New York Times Book Review, July 21, 1991, review of Fatal Decision • New York Times Book Review, p. 27; December 10, 1995, Alistair Horne, review of Patton: A Genius for War • New York Times Book Review, pp. 9, 11; July 28, 2002, Timothy Naftali, "The Hardest Job in the Longest Day, " p. 8. • Publishers Weekly, October 14, 1983, review of Decision in Normandy, p. 51 • Publishers Weekly, July 1, 1988, review of Bitter Victory, pp. 61–62 • Publishers Weekly, April 12, 1991, review of Fatal Decision, p. 51 • Publishers Weekly, April 15, 2002, review of Eisenhower, p. 49. Times Literary Supplement, September 16, 1988, Michael Carver, review of Bitter Victory, p. 1022 • • Times Literary Supplement, September 6, 1991, Michael Howard, review of Fatal Decision, pp. 11–12 • Times Literary Supplement, June 10, 1994, review of Decision in Normandy, p. 33. • Wall Street Journal, December 8, 1995, Mark Yost, review of Patton, p. A10 • Wall Street Journal, July 12, 2002, Max Boot, "Less to Like about Ike, " p. W12.* External links Carlo D'Este from HarperCollins Publishers Publisher's biographic sketch • • Patton, Harper Perennial, Carlo D'este, Book - Barnes & Noble Bookseller's biographical sketch Carlo D'Este biography at The Pritzker Military Library • • •
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kelly DeVries is an American historian specializing in the warfare of the Middle Ages. Born December 23, 1956 in Provo, Utah DeVries is Professor of History at Loyola University Maryland. He is married to Barbara Middleton and has three children. He is often featured on the History Channel. Selected works • (1992) Medieval Military Technology Broadview Press. • (1999) Joan of Arc: A Military Leader Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-7509-1805-5 • (1999) The Norwegian Invasion of England in 1066 Boydell Press, ISBN 1-84383-027-2. • (2000) Infantry Warfare in the Early Fourteenth Century Boydell Press. • Guns and Men in Medieval Europe • (2002) A Cumulative Bibliography of Medieval Military History and Technology History of Warfare, Vol. 8, Brill Press. • (2002) The Battle of the Golden Spurs : Courtrai, 11 July 1302 Boydell Press. • (2005) A Cumulative Bibliography of Medieval Military History and Technology: Update 2004 History of Warfare, Vol. 26, Brill Press • (2005) The Artillery of the Dukes of Burgundy 1363-1477 Boydell Press. Collaborations with Matthew Bennett, Jim Bradbury, Ian Dickie and Phyllis Jestice: (2005) Fighting Techniques of the Medieval World: AD 500-AD 1500, Amber Books, ISBN 1862272999 External links • Loyola College in Maryland: Kelly Devries YouTube Interview with Kelly Devries •
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Notable work(s) 16 October 1971 (age 39) Princeton, New Jersey, United States Tower Stories: An Oral History of 9/11; The Actor's Art & Craft; My Two Chinas: The Memoir of a Chinese Counterrevolutionary
Damon DiMarco (born October 16, 1971), is a New York City biographical and narrative author, actor, and historian. His oral history work has been compared to that of Studs Terkel. He was born in Princeton, New Jersey. damondimarco.com Oral histories DiMarco's oral histories include Tower Stories: An Oral History of 9/11, which chronicles the September 11 attacks in 2001, from diversified perspectives on the destruction of the World Trade Center. When asked why he wrote the book, DiMarco told CNN news anchor Betty Nguyen that "as a writer, my specialty is words. And so I couldn't go down to ground zero and dig, I couldn't pull bodies out. My service was to compile the accounts of people who did extraordinary things." The book features a foreword from former Governor of New Jersey and Chairman of the 9/11 Commission Thomas Kean, who praised the book for being as important as the Federal Writer's Project under the Roosevelt Administration and the Works Progress Administration Slave Narrative. Tower Stories was also praised by William F. Buckley. Senator Bill Baroni of the New Jersey Senate called Tower Stories the "perfect supplement to the 9/11 Commission Report", noting that DiMarco's oral history provides human and emotional context to the Commission Report's stark factualization. A starred Publishers Weekly review called Tower Stories a "monumental work" and says that "DiMarco's contribution to the memory of that horrific day is enormous; the tesimonies collected here form an amazing, one-of-a-kind account." DiMarco has appeared as a television and radio guest for 9/11-related events, notably on CNN, Premiere Radio Networks, and the National Geographic Channel. Other oral histories include Heart of War: Soldiers' Voices from the Front Lines of Iraq, a collection of firstperson narratives from U.S. veterans of the War in Iraq. Critics of DiMarco's oral history work praise the respect he pays to his interviewees. They note the diversity of perspectives he brings to bear on a single issue, as well as the fact that his interview subjects are often highly-intelligent people whom mainstream media have failed to notice. DiMarco himself has voiced dissatisfaction with mainstream media. Books on acting DiMarco wrote The Actor's Art & Craft with Bill Esper, one of the "most important contemporary masteracting teachers" in the United States. Esper founded the William Esper Studio and the Professional Actors Training Program at Rutgers University's Mason Gross School of the Arts. DiMarco has been called Esper's protege. The Actor's Art & Craft details how Esper explores and elaborates on the famous acting techniques pioneered by legendary acting teacher Sanford Meisner. The book features a foreword by David Mamet, who studied under Esper at the Neighborhood Playhouse; it has been endorsed by Meisner-trained actors such as Sam Rockwell, Patricia Heaton, Mary Steenburgen, and Calista Flockhart among others. The Quotable Actor collects 1001 quotes from actors on such diverse subjects as imagination, rehearsal, technique, and the actor's lifestyle. Featured quotes come from diverse sources including Constantin Stanislavski, Daniel DayLewis, Ellen Burstyn, Paul Newman, Jack Nicholson, Stella Adler, Forest Whitaker, Laurence Olivier, and many more. Collaborations DiMarco collaborated on Out of Bounds, written with Roy Simmons, a former offensive lineman for Georgia Tech who went on to play for the New York Giants and took the field in Super Bowl XVIII for the Washington Redskins. Simmons became the first former NFL player to publicly announce that he is HIV positive, and one of the first to reveal the extent to which drugs and alcohol backdrop the world of professional football. Following the release of Out of Bounds, Simmons caused controversy among the gay and lesbian community by publicly stating that homosexuality is "against God's will." Reviewer Beth Greenfield, writing for Time Out New York, advised readers "Do Not Buy This Book", perhaps based on Simmons' apparent hypocrisy. DiMarco wrote My Two Chinas: The Memoir of a Chinese Counter-revolutionary with noted Chinese political dissident, Tang Baiqiao. The books covers events surrounding Tang's life, including his experiences at the Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989, and after. My Two Chinas features a preface by photojournalist Jeff Widener who was a
Pulitzer finalist for his iconic Tank Man photo; an introduction by Prof. Robert Thurman of Columbia University; and a foreword by the Dalai Lama. A starred Publishers Weekly review called the book "beautifully-written" and notes that it "fully embraces the poetry and stories of China . . .both a history lesson and a heart-wrenching read." Acting DiMarco has acted in regional theatre and lists television roles on his acting resume. Guiding Light, 2000 • • Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, 2000 • As the World Turns, 1999–2001 Law & Order, 2007 • • One Life to Live, 2005–2007 Education DiMarco attended Steinert High School in Hamilton Township, Mercer County, New Jersey where he served as President of his senior class. He earned a double Bachelors Degree in English Literature and Theatre Arts from Drew University, and delivered the commencement speech for his undergraduate class alongside Olympia Dukakis, who was being honored that year. DiMarco went on to receive his Master of Fine Arts degree from Rutgers University Mason Gross School of the Arts while studying acting under Bill Esper of the William Esper Studio. He has taught in the Theatre Arts department at Drew University, and at the New York Film Academy. Bibliography • Tower Stories: the Autobiography of September 11, 2001 (2004) • Out of Bounds: Coming Out of Sexual Abuse, Addiction, and My Life of Lies in the NFL Closet in collaboration with Roy Simmons (2005) • Heart of War: Soldiers' Voices from the Front Lines of Iraq (2007) • Tower Stories: an Oral History of 9/11 A revised, updated edition. (2007) • The Actor's Art & Craft with William Esper (2008) • The Quotable Actor: 1001 Pearls of Wisdom from Actors Talking about Acting (2009) • My Two Chinas: The Memoir of a Chinese Counterrevolutionary with Tang Baiqiao (2011) • Fat Kid Got Fit: And So Can You with Bill Baroni (2011) References ^ Publisher's Weekly Reviews 1. 2. ^ CNN transcript September 11, 2004 3. ^ [Tower Stories: An Oral History of 9/11 by Damon DiMarco (2007) ISBN 9781595800213] 4. ^ Amazon Book Review 5. ^ Publishers Weekly 6. ^ CNN Interview 7. ^ National Geographic Channel Fall 07 Schedule 8. ^ American Library Association Review 9. ^ Hamilton Post article 10. ^ Johns Hopkins MUSE Theatre Review 11. ^ [The New Generation of Acting Teachers: More than 20 revealing interviews with today's master teachers on the art and craft of acting" by Eve Mekler (1987) ISBN 978-0140088984] 12. ^ BackStage Magazine Article 13. ^ [The Actors' Art & Craft by William Esper and Damon DiMarco (2008) ISBN 9780307279262] 14. ^ 700 Club Article 15. ^ New York Times article 16. ^ Time Out New York article, January 16, 2006 17. ^ Amazon 18. ^ Publishers Weekly March, 2011 19. ^ Internet Movie Database 20. ^ Hamilton High East Class of 1989 website External links Biography portal • Author's official website • Montel Williams Interview with Damon DiMarco • CNN Transcript of Interview with Damon DiMarco • Website for Tower Stories: An Oral History of 9/11 • Website for Heart of War: Soldiers' Voices from the Front Lines of Iraq
Richard M. Dolan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Literary movement Notable work(s) 1962 Brooklyn, New York, US Ufology UFO's and the National Security State
Richard Michael Dolan (born 1962) is an American author and television personality, whose areas of expertise are in History and Ufology. keyholepublishing.com Education Dolan attended Alfred University and Oxford University prior to finishing graduate work in history at the University of Rochester. At the latter, Dolan was a finalist for a Rhodes scholarship. Written works Dolan's first book, UFO's and the National Security State: Chronology of a Cover-up 1941-1973 was first published in 2000 by Keyhole Publishing Company and republished by Hampton Roads Publishing Company in 2002. The book has a cover endorsement by U.S. Apollo 14 astronaut Dr. Edgar Mitchell ("... a thorough and monumental undertaking."). The forward is written by noted scientist and author Jacques Vallee, Ph.D. Vallee's forward begins: "The important book you are about to read is the first comprehensive study of the U.S. government's response to the intrusion of UFO phenomena in American skies over the last fifty years." Other endorsements include best-selling author Whitley Strieber. A follow-up to Dolan's book, titled UFOs and the National Security State: The Cover-Up Exposed, 1973-1991 was published in August, 2009. In November 2010 A.D. After Disclosure: The People’s Guide to Life After Contact. was published by Richard Dolan and Bryce Zabel. Television appearances The 2006 Sci-Fi Channel television show Sci Fi Investigates featured Dolan as part of a team that looked into various paranormal and unusual events, including the alleged crash of a UFO in Roswell, New Mexico. Dolan has also appeared in other paranormal documentaries, including Sci-Fi Channel's UFO Invasion at Rendlesham. References 1. ^ Dolan, Richard M. (2002). UFO's and the National Security State: Chronology of a Cover-up 1941-1973. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc.. pp. 478. ISBN 1-57174-317-0. 2. ^ http://keyholepublishing.com 3. ^  afterdisclosure.com, accessdate=june 27, 2011
Arthur J. Dommen
aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie Arthur J. Dommen (* 1934 in Mexiko-Stadt; † 15. Dezember 2005 in Washington, D.C.) war ein US-amerikanischer Journalist und Agrarökonom mexikanischer Herkunft. Bekannt wurde er vor allem als Autor von Werken über Indochina und den Vietnamkrieg. Dommen wurde 1934 in Mexiko geboren, wanderte 1940 in die Vereinigten Staaten aus und wurde dort 1958 eingebürgert. Nach Abschluss der Cornell University diente er zwei Jahre in der US Army. Anschließend arbeitete Dommen für die Nachrichtenagentur United Press International als Bürochef in Saigon und Hongkong, bevor er 1965 zur Los Angeles Times wechselte, für die er in Tokio und Neu-Delhi tätig war. Von 1968 bis 1971 widmete er sich als Kriegsberichterstatter dem Vietnamkrieg. Kurz darauf beendete Dommen seine journalistische Karriere, um an der University of Maryland die Doktorwürde in Agrarökonomie zu erwerben. Er arbeitete in der Folgezeit für das USLandwirtschaftsministerium, wo er hauptsächlich die Landwirtschaft in Entwicklungsländern behandelte. 1996 ging Arthur Dommen in den Ruhestand, den er zur Erstellung des Werkes "The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans: Nationalism and Communism in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam" nutzte. Ende 2005 starb er mit 71 im Sibley Memorial Hospital in Washington an Krebs. Mit seiner Frau Loan war Dommen 28 Jahre lang verheiratet; er hinterlässt 2 Stiefsöhne. Werke • 1964: Conflict in Laos: The Politics of Neutralization (1971 überarbeitete Neuauflage) • 1977: Iberian antecedents of the classical hacienda of Latin America • 1985: Laos: Keystone of Indochina • 1988: Innovation in African agriculture • 1994: Land tenure and agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa : a market-oriented approach to analyzing their interactions • 2001: The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans: Nationalism and Communism in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam Weblinks • Los Angeles Times: Arthur J. Dommen, 71; Correspondent, Author Covered Vietnam for The Times (Nachruf) • Werkübersicht in der Library of Congress
Robert F. Dorr
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Robert F. Dorr (born September 11, 1939) is an author and retired senior American diplomat who has authored 70 books and numerous articles on international affairs, military issues and the Vietnam War. He writes the weekly "Back Talk" opinion column for the Air Force Times newspaper and the monthly "Washington Watch" feature of Aerospace America. He is also the technical editor of Air Power History  and was Washington correspondent for the discontinued World Air Power Journal. Dorr served in the United States Air Force in Korea (1957-60) and spent 24 years as a Foreign Service Officer (1964-89) with the U.S. State Department. He held senior positions in Washington after tours of duty in Tananarive, Madagascar; Seoul, Korea; Fukuoka, Japan; Monrovia, Liberia; Stockholm, Sweden; and London, England. Dorr published his first magazine article in 1955 (age 16) and is best known for magazine and newspaper work. He regularly contributes articles to Air Forces Monthly, Air & Space/Smithsonian, and Flight Journal. His weekly opinion column in the trade journal Air Force Times is read by about 100,000 current, former and retired military members and their families. He also writes four weekly history columns a week for the Military Times newspapers. Mr. Dorr's opinions generally reflect a liberal political point of view. In a September 10, 2007 column that was widely reprinted around the United States, he called for an end to the prison camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and for treating war prisoners openly under the 1949 Geneva Convention. Dorr has called for the military to allow homosexuals to openly serve. In other columns he has urged veterans service organizations to get up to date to attract younger veterans and has written about what he calls the dismantling of the Air Force in an era of tight budgets. Dorr is an observer of events in North Korea. Service academies, universities and Veteran's groups have used his speeches and writings on foreign affairs and Air Force history. Dorr has been interviewed on several networks, including C-SPAN, the Discovery Channel, CNN and local Washington-area newscasts. New projects Dorr's book "Mission to Berlin," about the Eighth Air Force raid of February 3. 1945 over Europe in World War II, was published May 1, 2011. This is primarily a history of B-17 Flying Fortress crews in one of the largest air battles of the war but it also covers Americans who flew and maintained the B-24 Liberator, P-47 Thunderbolt and P-51 Mustang. Dorr and former astronaut Tom Jones published in 2008 a wartime history of the 365th Fighter Group, "Hell Hawks." This is a history of an aerial band of brothers who went ashore at Normandy just after the June 6, 1944 D-Day invasion, fought on the continent through the Battle of the Bulge, and were still in action when Germany surrendered. These American airmen lived under crude conditions, were subject to harsh weather and frequent enemy attacks as they moved from one airbase to another, accompanying the Allied advance toward Germany. To tell their story, Dorr and Jones interviewed 183 surviving veterans who supported, maintained, and piloted the group's P-47 Thunderbolt fighters. "Hell Hawks" is in its ninth printing with almost 30,000 copies in print. Published books A partial listing of books authored or co-authored include: • Air Combat: An Oral History of Fighter Pilots (2007) ISBN 0425211703 • Air Force One (2002) ISBN 0760310556 • Air War Hanoi (1988) ISBN 0713717831 • Air War: South Vietnam (1991) ISBN 1854090011 • B-24 Liberator Units of the Eighth Air Force (1999) ISBN 1855329018 • B-24 Liberator Units of the Fifteenth Air Force (2000) ISBN 1841760811 • B-24 Liberator Units of the Pacific War (1999) ISBN 1855327813 • B-29 Superfortress Units of the Korean War (2003) ISBN 1841766542 • B-29 Superfortress Units of World War II (2002) ISBN 1841762857 • B-52 Stratofortress : Boeing's Cold War warrior ISBN 1841760978 • Chopper: A History of America Military Helicopter Operations from WWII to the War on Terror (2005) ISBN 0425202739 • Desert Shield : the build-up, the complete story (1991) ISBN 0879385065 • Hell Hawks! The Untold Story of the American Fliers Who Savaged Hitler's Wehrmacht (2008) with Tom Jones. ISBN 0760329184. Zenith Press. • Korean War Aces (1995) ISBN 1855325012 • McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II" (1988) ISBN 0850455871 • Marine Air: The History of the Flying Leathernecks in Words and Photos (2007) ISBN 0425213641 • "Missin to Berlin" (2011) ISBN 9780760338988 • U.S. Marines: The People and Equipment Behind America's First Military Response (2006) ISBN 1592236189
References ^ Masthead, Air Power History, The Journal of the Air Force Historical Foundation, Potomac, Maryland, Fall 2009, Volume 56, Number 3, page 2. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Robert F. Dorr • Air Force Times article "Vietnam era's Dragonfly a ground-support warrior" January 13, 2003 • Osprey Publishing, Robert F Dorr
Robert A Doughty
Born 1943, 11, 04 herld the Chair of Military History at the US Army War College Books: Pyrrhic Victory The Breaking Point: Sedan and the Fall of France, 1940 Warfare in the Western World: Military Operations from 1600 to 1871, 2 vols Warfare in the Western World: Military Operations since 1871 American Military History and the Evolution of Western Warfare The Seeds of Disaster The evolution of US Army tactical doctrine, 1946-76 The American Civil War: The Emergence of Total Warfare World War II: Total Warfare Around the Globe Limited warfare in the nuclear age
Byron E. Farwell
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Byron Edgar Farwell (20 June 1921, Manchester, Iowa - 3 August 1999 in Purcellville, Virginia) was an American military historian and biographer. Farwell graduated from Ohio State University and the University of Chicago (M.A., 1968). He served in World War II as a captain of engineers attached to the Mediterranean Allied Air Force in the British Eighth Army area and later also saw combat in the Korean War. He separated from the military after seven years of active duty. As a civilian, he became director of public relations and director of administration for Chrysler International from 1959 to 1971. He also served three terms as mayor of Hillsboro, Virginia (1977-81). He published articles in the New York Times, Washington Post, American Heritage, Harper's, Horizon, Smithsonian Magazine as well as serving as a contributing editor to Military History, World War II, and Collier's Encyclopedia. Farwell also published biographies of Stonewall Jackson, Henry M. Stanley, and Sir Richard Francis Burton. He was a fellow of the MacDowell Colony and a member of both the Royal Geographical Society and the Royal Society of Literature. Farwell gave his papers to the University of Iowa. Books • Let's Take a Trip in Our Car [children's book] (1954) • Walter P. Chrysler (1957) • The Man Who Presumed: A Biography of Henry M. Stanley (1957) • Burton: A Biography of Sir Richard Francis Burton (1963) • Prisoners of the Mahdi (1967) • Queen Victoria's Little Wars (1972) • Mr. Kipling's Army (1981) • Eminent Victorian Soldiers: Seekers of Glory (1985) • The Great War in Africa (1986) • The Great Anglo-Boer War (1990) • Ball's Bluff: A Small Battle and Its Long Shadow (1990), McLean, Virginia: EPM Publications; ISBN 0-939009-36-6. • Stonewall: A Biography of General Thomas J. Jackson (1992) • Over There: The United States in the Great War, 1917-1918 (1999) External links The Papers of Byron Farwell, at the University of Iowa Libraries
T. R. Fehrenbach
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia T. R. Fehrenbach (born Theodore Reed Fehrenbach; January 12, 1925 in San Benito, Texas) is an American author and former head of the Texas Historical Commission. He graduated from Princeton University in 1947, and has published at least 18 non-fiction books, including best seller Lonestar: A History of Texas and Texans and This Kind of War, about the Korean War. Although he served as a combat officer during the Korean War, his own service is not mentioned in the book. Fehrenbach has also written for Esquire, The Atlantic, The Saturday Evening Post, and The New Republic. He is known as an authority on Texas, Mexico and the Comanche people. Selected bibliography • U. S. Marines In Action, 1962, LCCN 62-002205. Republished in 2000, ISBN 158586062X • This Kind of War: A Study In Unpreparedness 1963, LCCN 63-009972. Republished in 1998 as This Kind Of War: The Classic Korean War History ISBN 1574881612, LCCN 98-027350 • Crossroads in Korea, the Historic Siege of Chipyong-Ni, 1966, LCCN 66-010022 • The Gnomes of Zurich, 1966, LCCN 66-077383 • The Swiss Banks, 1966, LCCN 65-028589 • This Kind Of Peace, 1966, LCCN 66-017238 • FDR's Undeclared War, 1939–1941, 1967, LCCN 67-013415 • Greatness to Spare: The Heroic Sacrifices of the Men Who Signed the Declaration of Independence, 1968, LCCN 68030756. Republished in 2000, ISBN 0735101647 • The Fight for Korea: from the War of 1950 to the Pueblo Incident, 1969, LCCN 68-029982 • The United Nations in war and peace, 1968, LCCN 68-023669 • Lone Star: A History of Texas and the Texans, 1968, LCCN 68-025222. Republished in 2000, ISBN 0306809427, LCCN 00-021771 • Fire And Blood: A History Of Mexico, 1973, LCCN 72-091265. Republished in 1995, ISBN 0306806282, LCCN 94045811 • Comanches: The Destruction of a People, 1974, LCCN 73-020761. Republished in 2003 as Comanches: The History of a People, ISBN 1400030498, LCCN 2003-267713 • Seven Keys To Texas, 1983, ISBN 0874040698, LCCN 82-074272 • Texas: A Salute From Above, 1985, ISBN 0940672286, LCCN 84-052739 Sources for book publication data: United States Library of Congress, Amazon.com. T. R. Fehrenbach Award The Texas Historical Commission gives this award to recognize books about Texas history and prehistory. The award is given annually. References • Sanbenitohistory.com • randomhouse.com • Fehrenbach, T. R., Comanches: The Destruction of a People, Knopf, New York, 1974 1. ^ a b T.R. Fehrenbach Book Award, Texas Historical Commission, retrieved 2009-02-22 ^ "T.R. Fehrenbach." The Complete Marquis Who's Who. Marquis Who's Who, 2008. Gale Biography In 2. Context. Web. Retrieved 6 Jan. 2011. Document URL Gale Document Number: GALE|K2014301392. Fee, via Fairfax County Public Library. ^ Swartz, Mimi (January 23, 2009). "Oil Portraits". New York Times. "..there is, in fact, a Texas canon. 3. Opinions vary, but my list would include T. R. Fehrenbach’s “Lone Star,” ..." 4. ^ "T(heodore) R(eed) Fehrenbach, (Jr.)." Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Biography In Context. Retrieved 6 Jan. 2011. Document URL Gale Document Number: GALE|H1000030971. Fee, via Fairfax County Public Library. ^ Roberts, Sam (May 19, 1994). "A Rank That Rankles: New York Slips to No. 3; Now Texas Is 2d Most 5. Populous State". New York Times. "...T. R. Fehrenbach, second to none as a Texas historian."
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born Nationality Fields Institutions Alma mater Known for Influences
18 April 1964 (age 47) Glasgow, Scotland British Financial and economic history Harvard University Harvard Business School London School of Economics Magdalen College, Oxford Counterfactual history Economic history History of empire and imperialism A J P Taylor, Kenneth Clark, Adam Smith, Karl Marx, John Maynard Keynes
Niall Campbell Douglas Ferguson (born April 18, 1964) is a British historian who specialises in financial and economic history, particularly hyperinflation and the bond markets, as well as the history of colonialism. Ferguson, who was born in Glasgow, is the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University as well as William Ziegler Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, and also currently the Philippe Roman Chair in History and International Affairs at the London School of Economics. He was educated at the private Glasgow Academy in Scotland, and at Magdalen College, Oxford. During the 2008 U.S. presidential election, Ferguson advised Senator John McCain's campaign. In the UK, Ferguson is probably best known as the author of Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. In 2008, Ferguson published The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World, which he also presented as a Channel 4 television series. Both at Harvard College and at LSE, Ferguson teaches a course entitled "Western Ascendancy: The Mainsprings of Global Power from 1600 to the Present." Early life Ferugson is the son of two doctors. At Magdalen College, Oxford he became best friends with Andrew Sullivan based on a shared love of right-wing politics and punk music. Whilst at university "He was very much a Scot on the make...Niall was a witty, belligerent bloke who seemed to have come from an entirely different planet." according to Simon Winder. Ferguson has stated that "I was surrounded by insufferable Etonians with fake Cockney accents who imagined themselves to be workingclass heroes in solidarity with the striking miners. It wasn't long before it became clear that the really funny and interesting people on campus were Thatcherites." Ferguson improved his German by reading Nietzsche whilst drinking Guinness in the pub with Norman Stone. Rachel Johnson has said of Ferguson at the time: He was attractive. He was clever. And I still remember him making me sob with laughter by describing how a man feels if he succeeds in bringing a woman to orgasm (like Jesse Owens at the Olympic stadium in Berlin, he said, raising his arms aloft). Johnson commisioned Ferguson to write an essay for a collection: Ferguson's piece was one of the first to come in. I can't remember much about it, but it wasn't quite the ticket. I remember sending him a photocopied letter that I was sending to all the contributors, with suggestions, pertaining to his essay, at the bottom. I found his reply in my pigeonhole, a few days later. "Dear Rachel Johnson," it read. "F--- off. Yours, Niall Ferguson." I assumed that he wanted nothing to do with the book again, so I re-commissioned the piece.
Regarding slights and criticism, Ferguson has stated: "Nobody should ever imagine that they can do that kind of thing to me with impunity. Life is long, and revenge is a dish that tastes best cold. I'm very unforgiving." Ferguson thus went on to attack Johnson's collection of essays (minus his own contribution) in a newspaper review. Career Academic career • 1983-1986 B.A History Magdalen College, Oxford. • 1987–88 Hanseatic Scholar, Hamburg and Berlin • 1989–90 Research Fellow, Christ’s College, University of Cambridge • 1990–92 Official Fellow and Lecturer, Peterhouse, University of Cambridge • 1992–2000 Fellow and Tutor in Modern History, Jesus College, University of Oxford • 2000–02 Professor of Political and Financial History, University of Oxford • 2002–04 John Herzog Professor in Financial History at Stern School of Business, New York University • 2004, continuing. Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History, Harvard University and William Ziegler Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School. • 2010, continuing. Philippe Roman Chair in History and International Affairs at the London School of Economics, located within LSE IDEAS, beginning in 2010. Ferguson is a Senior Research Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford University and a Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. He is a resident faculty member of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, and an advisory fellow of the Barsanti Military History Center at the University of North Texas. In May 2010 he announced that Education Secretary Michael Gove in the U.K's newly elected Conservative/Lib Dem government had invited him to advise on the development of a new history syllabus—"history as a connected narrative"— for schools in England and Wales. In June 2011 it was announced that he would join the professoriate of New College of the Humanities, a private college in London. Business career In 2007, Ferguson was appointed as an Investment Management Consultant by GLG Partners, focusing on geopolitical risk as well as current structural issues in economic behaviour relating to investment decisions. GLG is a UK-based hedge fund management firm headed by Noam Gottesman. Career as commentator In October 2007, Niall Ferguson left The Sunday Telegraph to join the Financial Times, where he is now a contributing editor. He also writes for Newsweek. Ferguson has often described the European Union as a disaster waiting to happen, and has criticised President Vladimir Putin of Russia for authoritarianism. In Ferguson's view, certain of Putin's policies, if they continue, may stand to lead Russia to catastrophes equivalent to those that befell Germany during the Nazi era. Subject matter World War I In 1998 Ferguson published the critically acclaimed The Pity of War: Explaining World War One, which with the help of research assistants he was able to write in just five months. This is an analytic account of what Ferguson considered to be the ten great myths of the Great War. The book generated much controversy, particularly Ferguson's suggestion that it might have proved more beneficial for Europe if Britain had stayed out of the First World War in 1914, thereby allowing Germany to win. Ferguson has argued that the British decision to intervene was what stopped a German victory in 1914–15. Furthermore, Ferguson expressed disagreement with the Sonderweg interpretation of German history championed by some German historians such as Fritz Fischer, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Hans Mommsen and Wolfgang Mommsen, who argued that the German Empire deliberately started an aggressive war in 1914 and that the Second Reich was little more than a dress rehearsal for the Third Reich. Likewise, Ferguson has often attacked the work of the German historian Michael Stürmer, who argued that it was Germany's geographical situation in Central Europe that determined the course of German history. On the contrary, Ferguson maintained that Germany waged a preventive war in 1914, a war largely forced on the Germans by reckless and irresponsible British diplomacy. In particular, Ferguson accused the British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey of maintaining an ambiguous attitude to the question of whether Britain would enter the war or not, and thus confusing Berlin over just what was the British attitude towards the question of intervention in the war. Ferguson accused London of unnecessarily allowing a regional war in Europe to escalate into a world war. Moreover, Ferguson denied that the origins of National Socialism could be traced back to Imperial Germany; instead Ferguson asserted the origins of Nazism could only be traced back to the First World War and its aftermath. The “myths” of World War I that Ferguson attacked, with his counter-arguments in parentheticals, are: • That Germany was a highly militarist country before 1914 (Ferguson claims Germany was Europe’s most antimilitarist country) • That naval challenges mounted by Germany drove Britain into informal alliances with France and Russia before 1914 (Ferguson claims the British were driven into alliances with France and Russia as a form of appeasement due to the strength of those nations, and an Anglo-German alliance failed to materialize due to German weakness) • That British foreign policy was driven by legitimate fears of Germany (Ferguson claims Germany posed no threat to Britain before 1914, and that all British fears of Germany were due to irrational anti-German prejudices)  • That the pre-1914 arms race was consuming ever larger portions of national budgets at an unsustainable rate (Ferguson claims that the only limitations on more military spending before 1914 were political, not economic) • That World War I was, as Fritz Fischer claimed, a war of aggression on part of Germany that necessitated British involvement to stop Germany from conquering Europe (Ferguson claims that if Germany had been victorious, something like the European Union would have been created in 1914, and that it would have been for the best if Britain had chosen to opt out of war in 1914) • That most people were happy with the outbreak of war in 1914 (Ferguson claims that most Europeans were saddened by the coming of war) 
That propaganda was successful in making men wish to fight (Ferguson argues the opposite) That the Allies made the best use of their economic resources (Ferguson argues that the Allies “squandered” their economic resources)  • That the British and the French had the better armies (Ferguson claims the German Army was superior) • That the Allies were more efficient at killing Germans (Ferguson argues that the Germans were more efficient at killing the Allies) • That most soldiers hated fighting in the war (Ferguson argues most soldiers fought more or less willingly) • That the British treated German prisoners of war well (Ferguson argues the British routinely killed German POWS) • That Germany was faced with reparations after 1921 that could not be paid except at ruinous economic cost (Ferguson argues that Germany could easily have paid reparations had there been the political will) • Another controversial aspect of the Pity of War was Ferguson's use of counterfactual history. Ferguson presented a counter-factual version of Europe under Imperial German domination that was peaceful, prosperous, democratic and without ideologies like Communism and fascism. In Ferguson's view, had Germany won World War I, then the lives of millions would have been saved, something like the European Union would have been founded in 1914, and Britain would have remained an empire and the world's dominant financial power. Rothschilds Ferguson wrote two volumes about the prominent Rothschild family: • The House of Rothschild: Volume 1: Money's Prophets: 1798–1848 • The House of Rothschild: Volume 2: The World's Banker: 1849–1999 The books won the Wadsworth Prize for Business History and were also short-listed for the Jewish Quarterly-Wingate Literary Award and the American National Jewish Book Award. Counterfactual history Ferguson is an academic champion of counterfactual history, and edited a collection of essays exploring the subject titled Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals (1997). Ferguson likes to imagine alternative outcomes as a way of stressing the contingent aspects of history. For Ferguson, great forces don't make history; individuals do and nothing is predetermined. Thus, for Ferguson there are no paths in history that will determine how things will work out. The world is neither progressing nor regressing; only the actions of individuals will determine whether we live in a better or worse world. His championing of the method has been controversial within the field. In a recent review of Ferguson's book Civilisation, Noel Malcolm who is Senior Research Fellow in History at All Souls College, Oxford University stated that: "Students may find this an intriguing introduction to a wide range of human history; but they will get an odd idea of how historical argument is to be conducted, if they learn it from this book." Henry Kissinger In 2003, former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger provided Ferguson with access to his White House diaries, letters, and archives for what Ferguson calls a "warts-and-all biography" of Kissinger. Colonialism Ferguson is critical of what he calls the "self-flagellation" that he says characterizes modern European thought. "The moral simplification urge is an extraordinarily powerful one, especially in this country, where imperial guilt can lead to selfflagellation," he told a reporter. "And it leads to very simplistic judgments. The rulers of western Africa prior to the European empires were not running some kind of scout camp. They were engaged in the slave trade. They showed zero sign of developing the country's economic resources. Did Senegal ultimately benefit from French rule? Yes, it's clear. And the counterfactual idea that somehow the indigenous rulers would have been more successful in economic development doesn't have any credibility at all." Richard Drayton, Professor of Colonial History at the University of London, has stated that it is correct to associate "Ferguson with an attempt to "rehabilitate empire" in the service of contemporary great power interests." Iraq war Ferguson supported the Iraq war and isn't necessarily opposed to future incursions in the world. "It's all very well for us to sit here in the west with our high incomes and cushy lives, and say it's immoral to violate the sovereignty of another state. But if the effect of that is to bring people in that country economic and political freedom, to raise their standard of living, to increase their life expectancy, then don't rule it out."  Economic policy In its August 15, 2005 edition, The New Republic published "The New New Deal", an essay by Ferguson and Laurence J. Kotlikoff, a Professor of Economics at Boston University. The two scholars called for the following changes to the American government's fiscal and income security policies: Replacing the personal income tax, corporate income tax, Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA), estate tax, and gift tax with a 33% Federal Retail Sales Tax (FRST), plus a monthly rebate, amounting to the FRST a household with similar demographics would pay if its income were at the poverty line. See also: FairTax; Replacing the Old Age benefits paid under Social Security with a Personal Security System, consisting of private retirement accounts for all citizens, plus a government benefit payable to those whose savings were insufficient to afford a minimum retirement income; Replacing Medicare and Medicaid with a Medical Security System that would provide health insurance vouchers to all citizens, the value of which would be determined by one's health; Cutting federal discretionary spending by 20%. A recent New Republic piece with Harvard's Samuel J. Abrams explored attitudes towards immigration in Europe and the United States. Criticisms • •
As scholar Fellow academics have questioned Ferguson's commitment to scholarship. Benjamin Wallace-Wells, an editor of The Washington Monthly, comments that"The House of Rothschild remains Ferguson's only major work to have received prizes and wide acclaim from other historians. Research restrains sweeping, absolute claims: Rothschild is the last book Ferguson wrote for which he did original archival work, and his detailed knowledge of his subject meant that his arguments for it couldn't be too grand." John Lewis Gaddis, a renowned Cold War era historian, characterized Ferguson as having unrivaled "range, productivity and visibility" at the same time as criticising his work as being "unpersuasive". Gaddis goes on to state that "several of Ferguson's claims, moreover, are contradictory". Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm has praised Ferguson as an excellent historian. However, he has also criticised Ferguson, saying, on the BBC Radio programme "Start the Week", that he was a "nostalgist for empire". Ferguson responded to the above criticisms in a Washington Post "Live Discussions" online forum in 2006. Exchange with Krugman In May 2009, Ferguson became involved in a high-profile exchange of views with economist Paul Krugman (then the most recent Economics Nobel Prize winner) arising out of a panel discussion hosted by Pen/New York Review on April 30, 2009, regarding the U.S. economy. Ferguson contended that the Obama administration's policies are simultaneously Keynesian and monetarist, in an incoherent mix, and specifically that the government's issuance of a multitude of new bonds will cause an increase in interest rates. Krugman then extended the criticism to China and the European Union, as both pursued policies more in accord with Ferguson's stance than Krugman's. Krugman has argued that Ferguson's view is "resurrecting 75-year old fallacies" and full of "basic errors". He has also stated that Ferguson is a "poseur" who "...hasn't bothered to understand the basics, relying on snide comments and surface cleverness to convey the impression of wisdom. It's all style, no comprehension of substance." J. Bradford DeLong of Berkeley agreed with Krugman, concluding "Niall Ferguson does indeed know a lot less than economists knew in the 1920s". Ferguson criticized Krugman in his December 7, 2009 Newsweek cover story, "An Empire at Risk", claiming that Krugman's partisanship caused him to change his position between 2003 and 2004. Ferguson wrote: Now, who said the following? 'My prediction is that politicians will eventually be tempted to resolve the [fiscal] crisis the way irresponsible governments usually do: by printing money, both to pay current bills and to inflate away debt. And as that temptation becomes obvious, interest rates will soar.' Seems pretty reasonable to me. The surprising thing is that this was none other than Paul Krugman, the high priest of Keynesianism, writing back in March 2003. A year and a half later he was comparing the U.S. deficit with Argentina's (at a time when it was 4.5 percent of GDP). Has the economic situation really changed so drastically that now the same Krugman believes it was 'deficits that saved us,' and wants to see an even larger deficit next year? Perhaps. But it might just be that the party in power has changed. Personal life After attending The Glasgow Academy, Ferguson received a Demyship (half-scholarship) at Magdalen College, Oxford, graduating with a first-class honours degree in History in 1985. He married journalist Susan Douglas, whom he met in 1987 when she was his editor at the Daily Mail. They have three children. Relationship with Ayaan Hirsi Ali In February 2010 the Daily Mail reported that, following a series of affairs, Ferguson had left his wife for former Dutch MP and feminist critic of Islam Ayaan Hirsi Ali. A similar story in The Independent was followed by the publication of a correction, noting that Ferguson's marriage had broken down before he met Ali. As of June 2011, Ali is reportedly five months pregnant with Ferguson's child. Ferguson dedicated his book Civilization to "Ayaan". In an interview with The Guardian, Ferguson spoke about his love for Ali, who, he writes in the preface, "understands better than anyone I know what Western civilisation really means – and what it still has to offer the world". Ali, he continued, "grew up in the Muslim world, was born in Somalia, spent time in Saudi Arabia, was a fundamentalist as a teenager. Her journey from the world of her childhood and family to where she is today is an odyssey that's extremely hard for you or I to imagine. To see and hear how she understands western philosophy, how she understands the great thinkers of the Enlightenment, of the 19th-century liberal era, is a great privilege, because she sees it with a clarity and freshness of perspective that's really hard for us to match. So much of liberalism in its classical sense is taken for granted in the west today and even disrespected. We take freedom for granted, and because of this we don't understand how incredibly vulnerable it is." See also Anglosphere Chimerica Bibliography The Cash Nexus In his 2001 book, The Cash Nexus, which he wrote following a year as Houblon-Norman Fellow at the Bank of England, Ferguson argues that the popular saying, "money makes the world go 'round", is wrong; instead he presented a case for human actions in history motivated by far more than just economic concerns. Colossus and Empire In his books Colossus and Empire, Ferguson presents a nuanced and partially apologetic view of the British Empire and in conclusion proposes that the modern policies of the United Kingdom and the United States, in taking a more active role in resolving conflict arising from the failure of states, are analogous to the 'Anglicization' policies adopted by the British Empire throughout the 19th century. In Colossus, Ferguson explores the United States' hegemony in foreign affairs and its future role in the world. War of the World The War of the World, published in 2006, had been ten years in the making and is a comprehensive analysis of the savagery of the 20th century. Ferguson shows how a combination of economic volatility, decaying empires, psychopathic dictators, and racially/ethnically motivated (and institutionalized) violence resulted in the wars and the genocides of what he calls "History's Age of Hatred". The New York Times Book Review named War of the World one of the 100 Notable Books of the Year in
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2006, while the International Herald Tribune called it "one of the most intriguing attempts by an historian to explain man's inhumanity to man". Ferguson addresses the paradox that, though the 20th century was "so bloody", it was also "a time of unparalleled [economic] progress". As with his earlier work Empire, War of the World was accompanied by a Channel 4 television series presented by Ferguson. The Ascent of Money Published in 2008, The Ascent of Money examines the long history of money, credit, and banking. In it he predicts a financial crisis as a result of the world economy and in particular the United States using too much credit. Specifically he cites the China– America dynamic which he refers to as Chimerica where an Asian "savings glut" helped create the subprime mortgage crisis with an influx of easy money. Civilization Published in 2011, Civilization: The West and the Rest examines what Ferguson calls the most "interesting question" of our day: "Why, beginning around 1500, did a few small polities on the western end of the Eurasian landmass come to dominate the rest of the world?" He attributes this divergence to the West's development of six "killer apps" largely missing elsewhere in the world -- "competition, science, democracy, medicine, consumerism and the work ethic".  A related documentary Civilization: Is the West History? was broadcast as a six part series on Channel 4 in March and April of 2011. Publications This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.  Ferguson, Niall (2011). Civilization: The West and the Rest. Allen Lane. ISBN 1846142733. Ferguson, Niall (2010). High Financier: The Lives And Times Of Siegmund Warburg. New York: Penguin. ISBN 9781594202469. Ferguson, Niall (2008). The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9781846141065. Ferguson, Niall (2006). The War of the World: History's Age of Hatred. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-97087.(also a Channel 4 series) Ferguson, Niall (2003). Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02328-2. Ferguson, Niall (2005). 1914. Pocket Penguins 70s S.. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-102220-5. Ferguson, Niall (2004). Colossus: The Rise And Fall Of The American Empire. Gardners Books. ISBN 0-7139-9770-2. Ferguson, Niall (2003). Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9615-3. Ferguson, Niall (2001). The Cash Nexus: Money and Power in the Modern World, 1700-2000. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9465-7. Ferguson, Niall (1999) . Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0465-02322-3. Ferguson, Niall (1999) . The Pity of War. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-05711-X. Ferguson, Niall (1999). The House of Rothschild: The World's Banker, 1849–1999. New York, N.Y.: Viking. ISBN 0670-88794-3. Ferguson, Niall (1998). The World's Banker: The History of the House of Rothschild. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81539-3. Ferguson, Niall (1998). The House of Rothschild. New York, N.Y.: Viking. ISBN 0-670-85768-8. Ferguson, Niall (1995). Paper and Iron: Hamburg Business and German Politics in the Era of Inflation, 1897–1927. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47016-1. As Contributor “Europa nervosa”, in Nader Mousavizadeh (ed.), The Black Book of Bosnia (New Republic/Basic Books, 1996), pp. 127–32 “The German inter-war economy: Political choice versus economic determinism” in Mary Fulbrook (ed.), German History since 1800(Arnold, 1997), pp. 258–278 “The balance of payments question: Versailles and after” in Manfred F. Boemeke, Gerald D. Feldman and Elisabeth Glaser (eds.), The Treaty of Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 401–440 “‘The Caucasian Royal Family’: The Rothschilds in national contexts” in R. Liedtke (ed.), ‘Two Nations’: The Historical Experience of British and German Jews in Comparison (J.C.B. Mohr, 1999) “Academics and the Press”, in Stephen Glover (ed.), Secrets of the Press: Journalists on Journalism (Penguin, 1999), pp. 206–220 “Metternich and the Rothschilds: A reappraisal” in Andrea Hamel and Edward Timms (eds.), Progress and Emancipation in the Age of Metternich: Jews and Modernisation in Austria and Germany, 1815–1848 (Edwin Mellen Press, 1999), pp. 295–325 “The European economy, 1815–1914” in T.C.W. Blanning (ed.), The Short Oxford History of Europe: The Nineteenth Century (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 78–125 “How (not) to pay for the war: Traditional finance and total war” in Roger Chickering and Stig Förster (eds.), Great War, Total War: Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 409–34 “Introduction” in Frederic Manning , Middle Parts of Fortune (Penguin, 2000), pp. vii-xviii “Clashing civilizations or mad mullahs: The United States between informal and formal empire” in Strobe Talbott (ed.), The Age of Terror (Basic Books, 2001), pp. 113–41 “Public debt as a post-war problem: The German experience after 1918 in comparative perspective” in Mark Roseman (ed.), Three Post-War Eras in Comparison: Western Europe 1918-1945-1989 (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2002), pp. 99–119
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“Das Haus Sachsen-Coburg und die europäische Politik des 19. Jahrhunderts”, in Rainer von Hessen (ed.), Victoria Kaiserin Friedrich (1840–1901): Mission und Schicksal einer englischen Prinzessin in Deutschland (Campus Verlag, 2002), pp. 27–39 “Max Warburg and German politics: The limits of financial power in Wilhelmine Germany”, in Geoff Eley and James Retallack (eds.), Wilhelminism and Its Legacies: German Modernities, Imperialism and the Meaning of Reform, 1890-1930 (Berghahn Books, 2003), pp. 185–201 “Introduction”, The Death of the Past by J. H. Plumb (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp. xxi-xlii “Globalization in historical perspective: The political dimension”, in Michael D. Bordo, Alan M. Taylor and Jeffrey G. Williamson (eds.), Globalization in Historical Perspective (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report) (University of Chicago Press, 2003) “Introduction to Tzvetan Todorov” in Nicholas Owen (ed.), Human Rights, Human Wrongs: Oxford Amnesty Lectures (Amnesty International, 2003) “The City of London and British imperialism: New light on an old question”, in Youssef Cassis and Eric Bussière (eds.), London and Paris as International Financial Centres in the Twentieth Century (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 57–77 “A bolt from the blue? The City of London and the outbreak of the First World War”, in Wm. Roger Louis (ed.), Yet More Adventures with Britainnia: Personalities, Politics and Culture in Britain (I.B. Tauris, 2005), pp. 133–145 “The first ‘Eurobonds’: The Rothschilds and the financing of the Holy Alliance, 1818–1822”, in William N. Goetzmann and K. Geert Rouwenhorst (eds.), The Origins of Value: The Financial Innovations that Created Modern Capital Markets (Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 311–323 “Prisoner taking and prisoner killing in the age of total war”, in George Kassemiris (ed.), The Barbarization of Warfare (New York University Press, 2006), pp. 126–158 “The Second World War as an economic disaster”, in Michael Oliver (ed.), Economic Disasters of the Twentieth Century (Edward Elgar, 2007), pp. 83–132 “The Problem of Conjecture: American Strategy after the Bush Doctrine”, in Melvyn Leffler and Jeff Legro (eds.), To Lead the World: American Strategy After the Bush Doctrine (Oxford University Press, 2008) Television documentaries Empire (2003) American Colossus (2004) The War of the World (2006) The Ascent of Money (2008) Civilization: Is The West History? (2011) References Notes ^ http://www.niallferguson.com/site/FERG/Templates/General2.aspx?pageid=5 ^ a b c d e f g h i William Skidelsky (February 23, 2011). "Niall Ferguson: 'Westerners don't understand how vulnerable freedom is'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/feb/20/niall-ferguson-interviewcivilization. Retrieved 24 February 2011. ^ Niall Ferguson - Biography ^ Ferguson, Niall (2008). The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1846141065. ^ a b c d e http://www.robertboynton.com/articleDisplay.php?article_id=50 ^ a b c Johnson, Rachel (1 August 2003). "We were the Bright Young Prigs". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/donotmigrate/3599658/We-were-the-Bright-Young-Prigs.html. ^ Aitkenhead, Decca (11 April 2011). "Niall Ferguson: 'The left love being provoked by me ... they think I'm a reactionary imperialist scumbag'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/apr/11/niall-fergusonpolitical-debate-england-america. ^ http://www2.lse.ac.uk/newsAndMedia/newsArchive/archives/2009/ferguson.aspx ^ Higgins, Charlotte (31 May 2010). "Empire strikes back: rightwing historian to get curriculum role". The Guardian (London): p. 1. ^ "The professoriate", New College of the Humanities, accessed June 8, 2011. ^ "Meet The Hedge Fund Historian". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/2007/09/30/niall-ferguson-glgface-markets-cx_ll_0927autofacescan02.html. Retrieved 2008-12-20. ^ "GLG Company Description". https://www.glgpartners.com/about_glg/company_description. Retrieved 2008-12-20. ^ Tryhorn, Chris (23 October 2007). "Niall Ferguson joins FT". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2007/oct/23/pressandpublishing.financialtimes. Retrieved 2010-05-20. ^ a b c "Niall Ferguson: Biography". http://www.niallferguson.org/bio.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. ^ "The End of Europe?". Speech to the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. 4 March 2004. http://www.aei.org/speech/20045. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2005-01-01). "Look back at Weimar - and start to worry about Russia". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2005/01/01/do0101.xml. Retrieved 201005-20. ^ a b Niall Ferguson, Senior Fellow from the Hoover Institution website ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 460–461 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 154–156 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 27–30
21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.
37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.
46. 47. 48. 49. 50.
51. 52. 53. 54.
^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 52–55 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 68–76 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 87–101 & 118–125 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 168–173 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 197–205 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 239–247 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 267–277 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 310–317 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 336–338 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 357–366 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 380–388 ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 412–431 ^ a b Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 168–173 & 460–461 ^ Ferguson, Niall (1999). The House of Rothschild: Money's Prophets, 1798–1848. Volume 1. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-024084-5. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2000). The House of Rothschild: The World's Banker 1849–1998. Volume 2. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-028662-4. ^ Kreisler, Harry (2003-11-03). "Conversation with Niall Ferguson: Being a Historian". Conversations with History. Regents of the University of California. http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people3/Ferguson/ferguson-con2.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/8371304/Civilisation-The-West-and-the-Rest-by-Niall-Fergusonreview.html ^ Hagan, Joe (2006-11-27). "The Once and Future Kissinger". New York. http://nymag.com/news/people/24750/. Retrieved 2008-07-14. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2010/jun/16/british-empire-kenya-deaths ^ http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2004/0406.wallace-wells.html ^ "The Last Empire, for Now". The New York Times. 2004-07-25. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE6D7173AF936A15754C0A9629C8B63. Retrieved 2010-05-20. ^ Globalisation, democracy and terrorism, Eric Hobsbawm (Abacus 2008) ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/starttheweek_20060612.shtml ^ Ferguson, Niall (2006-11-07). "Book World Live". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2006/11/03/DI2006110301187.html. Retrieved 2010-05-20. ^ Krugman Slams German Austerity.; http://www.english.rfi.fr/euro-austerity-unpopular-us-paul-krugmanquotes Krugman claims austerity unpopular.]; "A new austerity drive is sweeping across Europe." ~BBC. China adopts a "similar tactic" as E.U.; Krugman unhappy. ^ See Liquidity preference, loanable funds, and Niall Ferguson (wonkish) and Gratuitous ignorance, Paul Krugman, The Conscience of a Liberal. ^ See http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/08/17/black-cats/ ^ Brad DeLong: This Is Getting Damned Annoying: Will I Ever Be Allowed to Disagree with Paul Krugman Again About Anything? (Niall Ferguson Edition), May 20, 2009. ^ http://www.newsweek.com/id/224694/page/4 ^ Lynn, Matthew (August 23, 2009). "Professor Paul Krugman at war with Niall Ferguson over inflation". The Sunday Times (London). http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/economics/article6806419.ece?print=yes&randnum=1251277896493. Retrieved 2009-10-25. ^ "PROFILE: Niall Ferguson". The Times (London). 14 February 2010. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article7026213.ece. ^ Hale, Beth (8 February 2010). "The historian, his wife and a mistress living under a fatwa". dailymail.co.uk (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1249247/The-historian-wife-mistress-living-fatwa.html. ^ "Niall Ferguson and Ayaan Hirsi Ali". independent.co.uk (London). 25 February 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/corrections/niall-ferguson-and-ayaan-hirsi-ali-1909439.html. ^ "TV historian Niall Ferguson is having a child with his Somali-born feminist partner". The Daily Mail. 5 June 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1394418/Niall-Ferguson-having-child-Somali-born-feminist-partner.html. Retrieved 5 June 2011. ^ Porter, Andrew. "Review of Ferguson Empire". Reviews in History. Institute of Historical Research, University of London. http://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Focus/Empire/reviews/porter.html. Retrieved 17 February 2011. ^ Wilson, Jon (8 February 2003). "False and dangerous: Revisionist TV history of Britain's empire is an attempt to justify the new imperial order". Guardian.co.uk (London: Guardian News and Media). http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2003/feb/08/highereducation.britishidentity. Retrieved 17 February 2011. ^ Waslekar, Sundeep (July 2006). "A Review of: Colossus by Prof Niall Ferguson". StrategicForesight.com. Strategic Foresight Group. http://www.strategicforesight.com/bookreview_collosus.htm. Retrieved 17 February 2011. ^ Roberts, Adam (14 May 2004). "Colossus by Niall Ferguson: An empire in deep denial". London: The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/colossus-by-niall-ferguson-563249.html. Retrieved 17 February 2011. ^ "100 Notable Books of the Year". The New York Times. 2006-11-22. http://www.nytimes.com/ref/books/review/20061203notable-books.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
^ Ferguson, Niall. "Empire and globalisation". Channel 4. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/e-h/empire.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 61. ^ a b "The War of the World". Channel 4. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/tz/warworld.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 62. ^ McRae, Hamish (2008-10-31). "The Ascent of Money, By Niall Ferguson—Reviews, Books—The Independent". London. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-ascent-of-money-by-niall-ferguson980013.html. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 63. ^ "Civilization: Is the West History?". http://www.channel4.com/programmes/civilization-is-the-westhistory. Retrieved 4 April 2011. General references • Snowman, Daniel (October 2004). "Niall Ferguson". History Today 54 (10): 37–39. http://www.historytoday.com/MainArticle.aspx?m=30556&amid=30210444. Retrieved 2008-07-14. • Ferguson, Niall (1999). The Pity of War. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0140275230. External links • niallferguson.org, Ferguson's official website RSA Vision webcast - Niall Ferguson on "The Ascent of Money" • • Audio: Niall Ferguson in conversation on the BBC World Service discussion programme The Forum Hans Koning's Review of 'The Pity of War' (from The Nation) • • A Banker to the Rescue, Martin Rubin, The Wall Street Journal, 26 June 2010 • "Yesterday's Banker" Liaquat Ahamed, The New York Times, 30 July 2010 • Historian vs. Futurist on Human Progress discussion with Stewart Brand and Peter Schwartz (futurist) at The Long Now Foundation, May 2008 • On the Edge of Chaos discussion of his work at Centre for Independent Studies, July 2010 'The Sun Sets in the West', review of Civilization in the Oxonian Review • • An Interview with Niall Ferguson, Oxonian Review, 9 April 2011
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Arther Ferrill, now a professor emeritus of history at the University of Washington at Seattle, is also a respected expert on Ancient Rome and military history. He has written four books and is a regular contributor to The Quarterly Journal of Military History (ISSN 1040-5992) and other periodicals as an author and in review of other authors. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1964. In The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation (1998 ISBN 0500274959), Ferrill supports the claims of Vegetius, about increased "barbarisation" and "germanisation" helping to cause the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century AD. He asserts that allowing barbarians to settle within Rome's borders, to act as a buffer zone against other barbarians, created friction and led to a decrease in the size of the Roman Empire's Borders. He also states that the Germans were recruited in such large numbers by the Western empire that they in fact changed it from a Roman to a German culture. For example, field army units would not use their helmets, the pilum was replaced, and the standard of drill declined, leading to a lack of military skill within the Empire. Among his other works are: • "Caligula: Emperor of Rome" Thames & Hudson, 1991, ISBN 0500251126 • "The Origins of War: From the Stone Age to Alexander the Great" Thames & Hudson, 1985, ISBN 0500250936 • “Roman Imperial Grand Strategy” University Press of America, 1991,ISBN 0819184454 References 1. ^ Rehabilitating Livia - By focusing on the biases of ancient historians, a scholar provides an antidote to old views of Roman rulers By SCOTT MCLEMEE From the issue dated September 27, 2002, The Chronicle of Higher Education Notes • Faculty profile University of Washington, Seattle University of Washington List of Works by Arther Ferill • • Britannica Online review of "The Origins of War" by Arther Ferrill • Britannica Online another review of "The Origins of War" by Arther Ferrill • The Chronicle of Higher Education, “Rehabilitating Livia”, by Scott Mclemee September 27, 2002 • The Journal of Military History Vol. 63, Iss. 2 "The Status of Ancient Military History: Traditional Work, Recent Research, and On-going Controversies" by Victor Davis Hanson • University of Utah (online) “Some Observations Regarding the Possible Psychology of the Greek Hoplite, or the Face of Classical Greek Infantry Battle” by John Loveland US Naval Institute (online) "Legion Lessons for Today's Marines", by Major William J. Bowers, U.S. Marine Corps, • November 2001 (see bibliography) • University of Michigan (online) "Cruelty and Immorality in Rome: The Times of Caligula, Messalina, and Nero" by Mohamed Fawaz (see bibliography) "such renowned scholars as Thomas Pressly, Jon Bridgman and Arthur Ferrill." (April 2006, UCLA) •
Sherman L. Fleek
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sherman L. Fleek is an American military historian, born at Hill AFB and raised in Layton, Utah, specializing on Mormon military history. He has also written on topics related to Latter-day Saint history that are not always military in nature. Fleek rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Army, serving as an aviator, Special Forces officer, and historian in several command and staff positions. His last duty in the Army was chief historian for the National Guard Bureau in Washington DC, when he retired in 2002. The Army approached him in 2005 while serving as a historian for a Civil War nonprofit preservation foundation, to enter federal civil service and become the official command historian for the United States Army reconstruction effort in Iraq. Fleek deployed to Iraq for three months in 2006 as a historian. Fleek served as command historian of Walter Reed Army Medical Center from 2007 to 2009. In May 2009 he assumed the position as historian for the United States Military Academy at West Point.  Fleek received a bachelors degree in English from Brigham Young University in 1982, and a masters degree in history from the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs while serving in the Army at Fort Carson. He is a Latter-day Saint and as of April 2009 was serving as a member of the high council of the Winchester Virginia Stake of the Church. He served a LDS mission in the Idaho Pocatello Mission, after having completed four years as an enlisted soldier with the Army, 1973-77, in Germany. Books by Fleek include History May Be Searched in Vain: A Military History of the Mormon Battalion (414 pages, Arthur H. Clark Company) which won the Utah State History Society Amy Price Military History Award for 2007. He also wrote, Place the Headstones Where They Belong : Thomas Neibaur, WWI Soldier (Logan: Utah State University Press). Fleek also contributed many articles to Military History, America's Civil War, Wild West, as well as Army and Mormon Heritage Magazine. Sources 1. ^ LDs Church News, April 25, 2009, p. 7. This article refers to Fleek as a historian of Reed Medical Center 2. ^ This is an article by Fleek about the history of Walter Reed BYU Magazine Spring 2007 • • this article by Kenneth Godfrey contains a reference to an article by Fleek in the footnote
Thomas Fleming (historian)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Notable work(s) July 5, 1927 (age 84) Jersey City, NJ The Officers' Wives Washington's Secret War: The Hidden History of Valley Forge
Thomas James Fleming (born 1927) is an American military historian and historical novelist. Biography Thomas Fleming was born in 1927 in Jersey City, New Jersey. He is a historian and novelist with a special interest in the American Revolution. Fleming is the son of an Irish-American World War I hero who was a leader in Jersey City politics for three decades, starting in the 1920s. At the time, the city was dominated by an Irish political machine. "Irish politics was the be-all and end all."  After graduating from St. Peter's Prep., Jersey City in 1945, Fleming spent a year in the United States Navy. He received a Bachelor's degree, with honors, from Fordham University in 1950. He was admitted as an honorary member of The Society of the Cincinnati in 1975. thomasflemingwriter.com Literary career After brief stints as a newspaperman and magazine editor, he became a full-time writer in 1960. His first history book, Now We Are Enemies, an account of the Battle of Bunker Hill, was published that same year. Since then, Fleming has published a long list of books about various events and figures of the Revolutionary era. He has also written about other periods of American history,and had published over a dozen well-received novels set against various historical backgrounds. "I never wanted to be an Irish-American writer," he says. "My whole idea was to get across that bridge and be an American writer."[cite this quote] Immersing himself in American history, and writing books on colonial families and military men, has helped him build such a bridge. Besides his well-received early novels, with stories set in the waning days of IrishAmerican political power, Fleming has published acclaimed biographies of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin. He has written extensively on the American Revolution and both world wars. Seven of his novels trace the fortunes of one family in particular, the Stapletons,[clarification needed] through different historical periods. “ These novels are my exemplars of how people are hammered by history, tortured by it, absorbed by it. They say a lot about the American experience.[cite this quote]
[cite this quote]
Starting with the Revolution, Fleming says, Americans have been torn by what he calls "the great dichotomy": the clash between American ideals and brutal political and economic realities. It was a conflict he saw firsthand as a sailor aboard the warship USS Topeka in the Pacific at the close of World War II, and later while he was conducting research for a history of the United States Military Academy at West Point. He lived at West Point from 1964 to 1968, and interviewed officers and their families as the controversy over America's involvement in Vietnam intensified. “ That was my first really strong exposure to America's secular idealism. These guys have this ideal of duty, honor, country, but in the real world, in the Army, a lot of other things are going on. There's throat-cutting careerism, hostility from the civilian community, and always the possibility that at the bottom line, there's going to be a body bag.
Professional contributions A frequent guest on C-Span, PBS, A&E and the History Channel, Fleming also contributes articles to such magazines as American Heritage, Military History, History Today, and MHQ, the Quarterly Journal of Military History. He has served as president of the Society of American Historians and the PEN American Center. He also spent ten years as chairman of the New York American Revolution Round Table and is currently the senior scholar at the American Revolution Center at Valley Forge. Fleming has donated his papers to Boston University's Special Collections.
Among the items on file are the interviews he conducted for a book on West Point and notes from his research on everyday life during the American Revolution. Eventually he plans to send over a large amount of material on World War I. Personal Fleming lives in New York with his wife Alice, a distinguished writer of books for young people. The couple have four children and seven grandchildren. Bibliography Histories • Now We Are Enemies • Beat The Last Drum: The Siege of Yorktown 1781 • Washington’s Secret War: The Hidden History of Valley Forge • The Perils of Peace: America’s Struggle to Survive After Yorktown • The Irish-American Chronicle • The New Dealers’ War: FDR and the War Within World War II • The Illusion of Victory: America in World War I • Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr and the Future of America • Liberty! The American Revolution • The Man From Monticello • The Man Who Dared The Lightning • Benjamin Franklin: a Life in his own Words (ed.) • The Forgotten Victory • The First Stroke • Downright Fighting • West Point: The Men and Times of the U.S. Military Academy • 1776: Year of Illusions • The Intimate Lives of the Founding Fathers Novels • Liberty Tavern • Dreams of Glory • The Spoils of War • Rulers of the City • A Passionate Girl • Promises to Keep • Remember The Morning • The Wages of Fame • When This Cruel War Is Over • The Secret Trial of Robert E. Lee • The Officers’ Wives • Time and Tide • Over There • Loyalties: A Novel of World War II • All Good Men Footnotes 1. ^ B.U.Bridge, Volume 5, No. 2, 28 September 2001, 2. ^ B.U.Bridge, Volume 5, No. 2, 28 September 2001 References • Who's Who in America • Contemporary Authors, v. 7-8 • Contemporary Literary Criticism, v. 37 • "B.U.Bridge" Newspaper, Volume 5, No. 4, 28 September 2001 External links • Thomas Fleming's home page • Works by or about Thomas Fleming (historian) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • The American Revolution Center • The American Revolution Round Table (New York) • The Society of American Historians
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Died Occupation November 17, 1916Greenville, Mississippi June 27, 2005 (aged 88) Memphis, Tennessee novelist, historian
Notable work(s) The Civil War: A Narrative Influences William Faulkner, Marcel Proust, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Tacitus, Thucydides, Charles Dickens, Walker Percy Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. (November 17, 1916 – June 27, 2005) was an American historian and novelist who wrote The Civil War: A Narrative, a massive, three-volume history of the war. With geographic and cultural roots in the Mississippi Delta, Foote's life and writing paralleled the radical shift from the agrarian planter system of the Old South to the Civil Rights era of the New South. Foote was relatively unknown to the general public for most of his life until his appearance in Ken Burns's PBS documentary The Civil War in 1990, where he introduced a generation of Americans to a war that he believed was "central to all our lives." Early life Foote was born in Greenville, Mississippi, the son of Shelby Dade Foote and his wife Lillian Rosenstock. Foote's paternal grandfather, a planter, had gambled away most of his fortune and assets. His maternal grandfather was a Jewish immigrant from Vienna. Foote was raised in his father's and maternal grandmother's Episcopal denomination of Christianity. As his father advanced through the executive ranks of Armour and Company, the family lived in Greenville, Jackson, and Vicksburg, Mississippi, as well as Pensacola, Florida and Mobile, Alabama. Foote's father died in Mobile when Foote was five years old; he and his mother moved back to Greenville. Foote was an only child, and his mother never remarried. When Foote was 15 years old, Walker Percy and his brothers LeRoy and Phinize Percy moved to Greenville to live with their cousin — attorney, poet, and novelist William Alexander Percy — after the death of their parents. Foote began a lifelong fraternal and literary relationship with Walker; each had great influence on the other's writing. Foote edited The Pica, the student newspaper of Greenville High School, and frequently used the paper to lampoon the school's principal. In 1935, Foote applied to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, hoping to join with the older Percy boys, but was denied admission because of an unfavorable recommendation from his high school principal. He presented himself for admission anyway, and as result of a battery of admissions tests, he was accepted. In 1936 he was initiated in the Alpha Delta chapter of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. Interested more in the process of learning than in earning an actual degree, Foote was not a model student. He often skipped class to explore the library, and once he even spent the night among the shelves. He also began contributing pieces of fiction to Carolina Magazine, UNC's award-winning literary journal. Foote returned to Greenville in 1937, where he worked in construction and for a local newspaper. Around this time, he began to work on his first novel. In 1982, Rhodes College awarded him an honorary degree. In 1940 Foote joined the Mississippi National Guard and was commissioned as captain of artillery. After being transferred from one stateside base to another, his battalion was deployed to Northern Ireland in 1943. The following year, Foote was charged with falsifying a government document relating to the check-in of a motor pool vehicle he had borrowed to visit a girlfriend in Belfast — later his first wife — who lived two miles beyond the official military limits. He was court-martialed and dismissed from the Army. He came back to the United States and took a job with the Associated Press in New York City. In January 1945, he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, but was discharged as a private in November 1945, never having seen combat. During his training with the Marines, he recalled a fellow Marine asking him "you used to be a[n] Army captain, didn't you?" When Foote said yes, the fellow replied, "You ought to make a pretty good Marine private." Foote returned to Greenville and took a job with a local radio station, but spent most of his time writing. He
sent a section from his first novel to the Saturday Evening Post. "Flood Burial" was published in 1946, and when Foote received a $750 check from the Post as payment, he quit his job to write full time. Novelist Foote's first novel, Tournament, was published in 1949. It was inspired by his planter grandfather, who had died two years before Foote's birth. For his next novel, Follow Me Down, (1950) Foote drew heavily from the proceedings of a Greenville murder trial he attended in 1941 for both the plot and characters. Love in a Dry Season was his attempt to deal with the "socalled upper classes of the Mississippi Delta" around the time of the Great Depression. Foote often expressed great affection for this novel, which was published in 1951. In Shiloh (1952) Foote foreshadows his use of historical narrative as he tells the story of the bloodiest battle in American history to that point from the first-person perspective of seven different characters. Jordan County: A Landscape in Narrative, was published in 1954 and is a collection of novellas, short stories, and sketches from Foote's mythical Mississippi county. September, September (1978) is the story of three white Southerners who plot and kidnap the 8-year-old son of a wealthy African-American, told against the backdrop of Memphis in September, 1957. Although he was not one of America's best-known fiction writers, Foote was admired by his peers—among them the aforementioned Walker Percy, Eudora Welty, and his literary hero William Faulkner, who once told a University of Virginia class that Foote "shows promise, if he'll just stop trying to write Faulkner, and will write some Shelby Foote." Foote's fiction was recommended by both The New Yorker and critics from the New York Times book magazine. Historian Foote moved to Memphis in 1952. Upon completion of Jordan County: A Landscape in Narrative, he resumed work on what he thought would be his magnum opus, Two Gates to the City, an epic work he'd had in mind for years and in outline form since the spring of 1951. He had trouble making progress and felt he was plunging toward crisis with the "dark, horrible novel." Unexpectedly, he received a letter from Bennett Cerf of Random House asking him to write a short history of the Civil War to appear for the conflict's centennial. According to Foote, Cerf contacted him based on the factual accuracy and rich detail he found in Shiloh, but Walker Percy's wife Bunt recalled that Walker had contacted Random House to approach Foote. Regardless, though Foote had no formal training as a historian, Cerf offered him a contract for a work of approximately 200,000 words. Foote worked for several weeks on an outline and decided that his plan couldn't be done to Cerf's specifications. He requested that the project be expanded to three volumes of 500,000 to 600,000 words each, and he estimated that the entire project would be done in nine years. Upon approval for the new plan, Foote commenced to write the comprehensive three volume, 3000page history, together entitled The Civil War: A Narrative. The individual volumes are Fort Sumter to Perryville (1958), Fredericksburg to Meridian (1963), and Red River to Appomattox (1974). Foote supported himself during the twenty years he worked on the narrative with Guggenheim Fellowships (1955–1957), Ford Foundation grants, and loans from Walker Percy. Foote labored to maintain his objectivity in the narrative despite his Southern upbringing. He deliberately avoided Lost Cause mythologizing in his work. He gained immense respect for such disparate figures as Ulysses Grant, William T. Sherman, Patrick Cleburne, Edwin Stanton and Jefferson Davis. By contrast, he grew to despise such figures as Phil Sheridan and Joe Johnston. He considered United States President Abraham Lincoln and Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest to be two authentic geniuses of the war. When he stated this opinion in conversation with one of General Forrest's granddaughters, she replied after a pause, "You know, we never thought much of Mr. Lincoln in my family." The work received generally favorable reviews, though scholars criticized Foote for not including footnotes and for neglecting subjects such as economics and politics of the Civil War era. Later life After finishing September, September, Foote resumed work on Two Gates to the City, the novel he had set aside in 1954 to write the Civil War trilogy. The work still gave him trouble and he set it aside once more, in the summer of 1978, to write "Echoes of Shiloh", an article for National Geographic Magazine. By 1981, he had given up on Two Gates altogether, though he told interviewers for years afterward that he continued to work on it. In the late 1980s, Ken Burns had assembled a group of consultants to interview for his Civil War documentary. Foote was not in this initial group, though Burns had Foote's trilogy on his reading list. A phone call from Robert Penn Warren prompted Burns to contact Foote. Burns and crew traveled to Memphis in 1986 to film an interview with Foote in the anteroom of his study. In November 1986, Foote figured prominently at a meeting of dozens of consultants gathered to critique Burns' script. Burns interviewed Foote on-camera in Memphis and Vicksburg in 1987. In 1987, he became a charter member of the Fellowship of Southern Writers at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. When Burns' documentary aired in September, 1990, Foote appeared in almost ninety segments, about one hour of the eleven-hour series. Foote's drawl, erudition, and quirk of speaking as if the war were still going on made him a favorite. He was described as "the toast of Public TV," "the media's newest darling," and "prime time's newest star," and the result was a burst of book sales. In one week at the end of September, 1990, each volume of the paperback The Civil War: A Narrative sold 1,000 copies per day. By the middle of 1991, Random House had sold 400,000 copies of the trilogy. Foote later told Burns, "Ken, you've made me a millionaire." Foote's commentary in the Burns film made many substantive comments about battles, generals, and issues. He also explained a puzzling question on nomenclature: why does the same battle often have two names? Foote's answer: Northerners are usually from cities, so rivers and streams are noteworthy; whereas Southerners are usually rural, so they find towns noteworthy. Some examples: • First and Second Battle of Bull Run/First and Second Manassas; • Battle of Antietam (Creek)/Sharpsburg. Foote professed to be a reluctant celebrity. When The Civil War was first broadcast, his telephone number was publicly listed and he received many phone calls from people who had seen him on television. Foote never unlisted his number, and the volume of calls increased each time the series re-aired. Many Memphis natives were known to pay Foote a visit at his East Parkway residence in Midtown Memphis. Horton Foote, the playwright and screenwriter (To Kill A Mockingbird, Baby the Rain Must Fall and Tender Mercies) was the voice of Jefferson Davis in the PBS series. The two Footes are third cousins; their great-grandfathers were brothers. "And while we didn't grow up together, we have become friends; I was the voice of Jefferson Davis in that TV series," Horton Foote added proudly. In 1992, Foote received an honorary doctorate from the University of
North Carolina. In the early 1990s, Foote was interviewed by journalist Tony Horwitz for the project on American memory of the Civil War which Horwitz eventually published as Confederates In The Attic (1998). Foote was also a member of The Modern Library's editorial board for the re-launch of the series in the mid 1990s. (This series published two books excerpted from his Civil War narrative. Foote also contributed a long introduction to their edition of Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage giving a narrative biography of the author.) Foote was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1994.  Also in 1994, Foote joined Protect Historic America and was instrumental in opposing a Disney theme park near battlefield sites in Virginia. Along the way, Burns asked him to return for his upcoming documentary Baseball, and he appeared up to 10th Inning, where he gave an account of his meeting the legendary Babe Ruth. In one of his last television projects, Foote narrated the three-part series The 1840 Carolina Village, produced by award-winning PBS and Travel Channel producer C. Vincent Shortt in 1997. "Working with Shelby was a genuinely illuminating and humbling experience", said Shortt. "He was the kind of academician who could weave a Civil War story into a discussion about fried green tomatoes — and do so without an ounce of presumption or arrogance. He was a treasure." On September 2, 2001 Shelby Foote was the focus of the C-SPAN television program In-Depth. In a 3 hour interview, conducted by C-SPAN founder Brian Lamb, Foote shows off the library of his home, working room, writing desk and details the writing of his books as well as taking on-air calls. The program can be viewed online here: http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/165823-1 Foote died at Baptist Hospital in Memphis on June 27, 2005, aged 88. He had had a heart attack after a recent pulmonary embolism. He was interred in Elmwood Cemetery in Memphis. His grave is beside the family plot of General Forrest. Marriages 1. Tess Lavery of Belfast, 1944–1946 2. Marguerite "Peggy" Desommes of Memphis, 1948–1952; one daughter, Margaret, born 1949 3. Gwyn Rainer of Memphis, 1956 until her death; one son, Huger, born 1961 Bibliography Fiction • Tournament (1949) • Follow Me Down (1950) • Love in a Dry Season (1951) Shiloh: A Novel (1952) • • Jordan County: A Landscape in Narrative (1954) • September, September (1978) Non-fiction The Civil War: A Narrative Main article: The Civil War: A Narrative • The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol 1: Fort Sumter to Perryville • The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol 2: Fredericksburg to Meridian • The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol 3: Red River to Appomattox Titles excerpted from The Civil War: A Narrative • Stars in Their Courses: The Gettysburg Campaign, June–July 1863 • The Beleaguered City: The Vicksburg Campaign, December 1862 – July 1863 These two books published by the Modern Library are excerpted from the three-volume narrative. The former was a whole chapter in the second volume, and the latter excerpted from the second volume where some material was interspersed with other events. Both were also presented as unabridged audio books read by the author. The footnote on p. 95 of Beleaguered City is original. It follows the words "Porter fortified a nearby Indian mound" which appear on p. 210 of the Civil War narrative volume II. "My father was born in a house later built on this mound, and was buried alongside his father in a cemetery less than a quarter mile away. I expect to join them there in the not-too-distant future.... This, I promise, is not only the first but also the last footnote in this work. – S.F." (the ellipsis is in the original). Other • Tim Andrews of The Regular Guys on Rock 100.5 in Atlanta does the quintessential impression of the late Shelby Foote. • Foote edited a modern edition of Chickamauga: And Other Civil War Stories, an anthology of Civil War stories by various authors. • Foote contributed a lengthy introduction to the 1993 Modern Library edition of Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage (which was published along with "The Veteran", a short story that features the hero of the larger work at the end of his life). In this introduction, Foote recounts the biography of Crane in the same narrative style as Foote's Civil War work. References 1. ^ a b c d e f g Carter, William C. (1989), Conversations with Shelby Foote, Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, ISBN 0-87805-385-9 ^ Shelby Foote 2. 3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Chapman, Stuart (2003), Shelby Foote: A Writer's Life, Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, ISBN 1-57806-359-0 4. ^ The Civil War, Geoffrey Ward, with Ric Burns and Ken Burns. 1990. "Interview with Shelby Foote." 5. ^ (viewed 24 October 2005): 6. ^ "Shelby Foote Dies; Novelist And Historian Of Civil War," Washington Post, June 29, 2005 7. ^ Susanna Henighan Potter, Moon Tennessee, 44 (Moon Handbooks, Avalon Travel Publishing, 2009) ISBN 1598801147 External links • Shelby Foote Grave
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Shelby Foote Papers Inventory,, in the Southern Historical Collection, UNC-Chapel Hill Carter Coleman, Donald Faulkner, William Kennedy (Summer 1999), "Shelby Foote, The Art of Fiction No. 158", Paris Review, http://www.theparisreview.org/interviews/931/the-art-of-fiction-no-158-shelby-foote. Write TV Public Television Interview with Shelby Foote PBS Civil War American Enterprise interview with Bill Kauffman "Shelby Foote's War Story: How a Memphis novelist’s history of the Civil War made history itself" from Garden & Gun Ole Miss biography and obituary Fellowship of Southern Writers biography Reprint of a letter from Foote to William Faulkner, Meridian, Issue 17, University of Virginia Confederate flag debate from The News Hour with Jim Lehrer, May, 2000 The Windsor Connection of Shelby Foote and cousin Horton Shelby Foote Collection (MUM00187) owned by the University of Mississippi. Booknotes interview with Foote on Stars in Their Courses, September 11, 1994. Shelby Foote on William Faulkner, American Writers II video, C-SPAN, May 2, 2002 In Depth: Shelby Foote on C-Span, September 2, 2001. 3 Hour interview with on-air calls. Appearances on C-SPAN Shelby Foote at the Internet Movie Database Works by or about Shelby Foote in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
Franks with Special Forces troops in Afghanistan in late 2001 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Place of birth Service/branch Years of service Rank Commands held Battles/wars Wynnewood, Oklahoma United States Army 1965-2003 General 2nd Battalion, 78th Field Artillery 82nd Field Artillery Regiment 2nd Infantry Division Third United States Army United States Central Command Cold War Vietnam War Persian Gulf War War on Terrorism Operation Enduring Freedom Operation Iraqi Freedom Defense Distinguished Service Medal Army Distinguished Service Medal Legion of Merit (4) Bronze Star (5) Purple Heart (3) Air Medal (9) Army Commendation Medal Army Staff Identification Badge Aircraft Crewmember's Badge Presidential Medal of Freedom Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire 2003 National Football Foundation & College Hall of Fame Gold Medal
Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945) is a retired general in the United States Army. His last Army post was as the Commander of the United States Central Command, overseeing United States Armed Forces operations in a 25-country region, including the Middle East. Franks succeeded General Anthony Zinni to this position on 6 July 2000 and served until his retirement on 7 July 2003. Franks was the U.S. general leading the attack on the Taliban in Afghanistan in response to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon in 2001. He also led the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. Born Tommy Ray Bentley in Wynnewood, Oklahoma, and adopted by Ray and Lorene "Pete" Parker Franks, Tommy Franks graduated from Robert E. Lee High School in Midland, Texas one year ahead of First Lady Laura Bush. He attended the University of Texas at Austin and where he was a brother of Delta Upsilon International Fraternity. He dropped out of college after two years due to subpar grades and lack of motivation. Franks decided to give himself a "jolt" and joined the United States Army, reportedly nursing a hangover while at the local recruiter's office. Later, through the military, Franks was able to matriculate to the University of Texas at Arlington, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in 1971. Additionally, he holds a Master of Science in Public Administration from the Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania and is a graduate of the Armed Forces Staff College and the Army War College. Military career Franks enlisted in the United States Army in 1965 and attended Basic Training at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri and received his Advanced Individual Training as a cryptologic analyst at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Standing out amongst his peers in outstanding marksmanship and leadership qualities, PFC Franks was selected to attend the Artillery and Missile Officer Candidate School, Fort Sill, Oklahoma and was commissioned a second lieutenant in 1967. After an initial tour as a battery Assistant Executive Officer at Fort Sill, he was assigned to the US 9th Infantry Division, Republic of Vietnam, where he served as Forward observer, Aerial observer, and Assistant S-3 with 2nd Battalion, 4th Field Artillery. He also served as Fire Direction Officer and Fire Support Officer with 5th Battalion (mechanized), 60th Infantry during this tour. In 1968, Franks
returned to Fort Sill, where he commanded a cannon battery in the Artillery Training Center. In 1969, he was selected to participate in the Army's "Boot Strap Degree Completion Program," and subsequently attended the University of Texas at Arlington, where he finished his bachelor's degree in 1971. Following attendance at the Artillery Officer Advanced Course, he was assigned to the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment in West Germany in 1973, where he commanded the 1st Squadron Howitzer Battery and served as Squadron S-3. He also commanded the 84th Armored Engineer Company, and served as Regimental Assistant S-3 during this tour. Franks, after graduating from the Armed Forces Staff College, was posted to The Pentagon in 1976, where he served as an Army Inspector General in the Investigations Division. In 1977 he was assigned to the Office of the Chief of Staff, Army where he served on the Congressional Activities Team, and subsequently as an Executive Assistant. In 1981, Franks returned to West Germany where he commanded 2nd Battalion, 78th Field Artillery for three years. He returned to the United States in 1984 to attend the Army War College at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where he also completed graduate studies at the Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania. He was next assigned to Fort Hood, Texas, as III Corps Deputy Assistant G3, a position he held until 1987 when he assumed command of Division Artillery, 1st Cavalry Division. He also served as Chief of Staff, 1st Cavalry Division during this tour. His initial general officer assignment was Assistant Division Commander (Maneuver), 1st Cavalry Division during Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. During 1991-1992, he was assigned as Assistant Commandant of the Field Artillery School at Fort Sill. In 1992, he was assigned to Fort Monroe, Virginia as the first Director, Louisiana Maneuvers Task Force, Office of Chief of Staff of the Army, a position held until 1994 when he was reassigned to South Korea as the CJG3 of Combined Forces Command and U.S. Forces Korea. From 1995-1997, General Franks commanded the 2nd Infantry Division, Korea. He assumed command of Third (U.S.) Army/Army Forces Central Command in Atlanta, Ga. in May 1997, a post he held until June 2000 when he was selected for promotion to general and assignment as Commander in Chief, United States Central Command. Franks was the U.S. general leading the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and the overthrow of the Taliban in government in response to the September 11 attacks. He also led the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. General Franks' retirement was announced on 22 May 2003 . Secretary Donald Rumsfeld reportedly offered him the position of Army Chief of Staff, but he declined. On 7 July 2003 Franks' retirement took effect. General Franks' awards include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal; Distinguished Service Medal (two awards); Legion of Merit (four awards); Bronze Star with Valor device and two oak leaf clusters; Purple Heart (two oak leaf clusters); Air Medal with Valor Device; Army Commendation Medal with Valor Device; and a number of U.S. and foreign service awards. He wears the Army Staff Identification Badge and the Aircraft Crewmember's Badge. He is a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In 2004, President George W. Bush awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Iraq war In their book, Cobra II, military correspondent Michael R. Gordon and military historian and retired Marine Corps general Bernard Trainor argued that Franks failed to recognize the threat the Saddam Fedayeen irregular fighters posed to the invading ground forces in 2003 and their potential to form the core of a post-war insurgency. For instance, they make a disputed claim that Franks threatened to fire General William Wallace, commander of the Army's V Corps, for saying to the press during that war that the enemy the U.S. was facing was different from the enemy the military had planned against. Franks rejected the critical comments on Hardball with Chris Matthews on 17 April 2006. He replied saying, "Well, I don't know that I would hold myself to a standard to try to help the retired admiral, you know, sell his book". Franks pointed to a study published by U.S. Joint Forces Command which, he says, showed that there was no linkage between the Fedayeen and the insurgency present in Iraq today. He agrees with their assessment, which would discredit COBRA II's notion that his failure to take the Fedayeen seriously during the invasion of Iraq contributed to the post-war insurgency. The authors also suggest that Franks was worn down by repeated pressure from U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld to reduce the number of U.S. troops in war plans and cancel the deployment of the 1st Cavalry Division, a scheduled follow-on unit that was slated for deployment in April 2003. (New York Times: Dash to Baghdad Left Top US Generals Divided 13 March 2006) More generally, they argue Franks' command was somewhat understandably focused on the immediate task in front of it – defeating Saddam Hussein and taking Baghdad – and few were willing to divert resources away from that effort and toward the long-term post-war needs. The writers also question his decision during the war to keep sealift ships carrying the equipment for the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) at sea instead of bringing the equipment ashore in Kuwait sooner so the division could have entered Iraq earlier than it did to add to the force levels in post-war Iraq. Franks argues that by keeping the ships at sea the Iraqis were deceived into believing a U.S. attack was yet to come from the north through Turkey, though Colin Powell and others have questioned his view (Plan of Attack, Bob Woodward, 2004).Franks wanted to retire after the major combat phase of the war, tired from having planned for and prosecuted two major wars and led a war on terrorism since September 2001. As a result, Gordon and Trainor argue he was slow to act during the crucial months following the fall of Baghdad. They suggest there was a leadership void at U.S. Central Command because his two deputies, Michael Delong and John Abizaid, were at odds with each other until Abizaid succeeded Franks in the middle of the summer of 2003. Delong retired with a bitter taste in his mouth and wrote his own book regarding the leadership failures in the headquarters. They also note that there was a command transition in Iraq as V Corps and General Ricardo Sanchez took command of U.S. forces in Iraq without being fully resourced and trained for the mission in advance. (COBRA II Gordon and Trainor 2006) In Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, veteran defense and Pentagon reporter Thomas E. Ricks echoes criticism from officers who had served under Franks who put forth that, while tactically sound, he lacked the strategic mindset and overall intellect necessary for the task. Some close to him argued he was more thoughtful than he seemed, was aware that Secretary Rumsfeld and his staff were unable to discuss the Iraq War in military terms and had an obligation to put forth stronger objections to the civilian control of military planning. While demanding and goal oriented he was also criticized for being unwilling to countenance alternate viewpoints and for detaching himself from day-to-day affairs when the ground war ceased and he prepared for retirement. Weapons of mass destruction According to Time magazine, on 21 November 2003, Franks said that in the event of another terrorist attack, American constitutional liberties might be discarded by popular demand in favor of a military state. Discussing the hypothetical dangers posed to the US in the wake of the 11 September 2001 attacks, Franks said that “the worst thing that could happen” is if
terrorists acquire and then use a biological, chemical or nuclear weapon that inflicts heavy casualties. If that happens, Franks said, “... the Western world, the free world, loses what it cherishes most, and that is freedom and liberty we’ve seen for a couple of hundred years in this grand experiment that we call democracy.” Franks then offered “in a practical sense” what he thinks would happen in the aftermath of such an attack. “It means the potential of a weapon of mass destruction and a terrorist, massive, casualty-producing event somewhere in the Western world – it may be in the United States of America – that causes our population to question our own Constitution and to begin to militarize our country in order to avoid a repeat of another mass, casualty-producing event. Which in fact, then begins to unravel the fabric of our Constitution." "[No] one in this country probably was more surprised than I when weapons of mass destruction were not used against our troops as they moved toward Baghdad," said Franks on 2 December 2005. Post military Since 2003, General Franks has operated Franks & Associates LLC, a private consulting firm, active in the disaster recovery industry. In June 2006, General Franks formed a partnership with Innovative Decon Solutions. Following his retirement, General Franks published his memoirs in American Soldier (HarperCollins), which debuted as Number #1 on the New York Times Best Seller list in August 2004, displacing President Bill Clinton's memoir from the top spot. One reviewer praised General Franks recollections of his Vietnam service but opined that the book, like the plan for and execution of the Iraq war itself, he said, "begins better than it ends." The reviewer expressed the wish that Franks had "relied less on the official record and more on his own experience and memories" in recalling the later war, as he had in recalling the earlier one. Speaking at the Republican Convention in New York on 31 August 2004, General Franks endorsed President George W. Bush for reelection. President Bush awarded Franks the country's highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom on December 14, 2004. In the same month, Franks became a spokesman for Teen Arrive Alive, which is a company that uses GPS in cellular phones to tell parents how fast their teenage children are driving. In December 2005, Franks was appointed to the Bank of America board of directors, a position he held until resigning on June 11, 2009 for unspecified reasons but as part of an "exodus" of ten directors from April to August, 2009. The bank had received $45 billion of U.S. Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) funding and sustained dramatic losses starting in 2008. Franks also sits on OSI Restaurant Partners's board of directors. On March 26, 2008, he was elected to the board of directors of Chuck E. Cheese's. Franks sits on the Board of Directors of the National Park Foundation. He is an advisor to the Central Command Memorial Foundation and the Military Child Education Coalition, and is a spokesman for the Southeastern Guide Dogs Organization. A museum dedicated to him lies in Hobart, Oklahoma. Franks currently resides in Roosevelt, Oklahoma. Controversy In January 2008, ABC News and the Army Times reported on Franks' involvement with the charitable Coalition to Salute America's Heroes, which he charged $100,000 to use his name to raise money for wounded soldiers. Following Congressional investigators and watchdog groups' criticism because only 25% of the money found its way to wounded veterans, compared to the industry standard of 85%, Franks ended his support for the group in late 2005. Roger Chapin, president of the charity, and his wife had apparently been living a lavish lifestyle on the charity's money. Bob Schieffer, host of CBS's Face the Nation, criticized Franks, saying, "What kind of person would insist, or even allow himself, to be paid to raise money for those who were wounded while serving under him? Franks says he severed his connection to the fundraiser when he realized most of the money he helped raise went to the fundraiser, not the troops."  Promotions • • • • • • 2LT - 1967 1LT - 1968 CPT - 1969 MAJ LTC COL -
• BG -1991 • MG • LTG - 1997 • GEN - 2000 References 1. ^ March 2003-franks-profile_x.htm "Texas general takes sharpest of minds into Iraq conflict". The Associated Press. 9 March 2003. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/6 March 2003-franks-profile_x.htm. Retrieved 10 April 2008.[dead link] 2. ^ a b c d "About General Franks." Article at tommyfranks.com. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 3. ^ Transcript 4. ^ Warrick, Joby (August 16, 2004). "Retired general 'surprised' no WMD found". http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200408/s1177570.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-22. ^ "www.idsint.com". http://www.idsint.com/index.html. Retrieved 27 September 2007. 5. 6. ^ Publisher Web page. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 7. ^ "'American Soldier': Man With a Plan, Sort Of" Review by Michael Newman, The New York Times Sunday Book Review, September 26, 2004. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 8. ^ "Text: Remarks by Retired General Tommy Franks to the Republican National Convention", Washington Post, September 2, 2004 10:21 PM ET. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
^ "Bank of America Says Three Directors Quit as Exodus Totals 10" by David Mildenberg, Bloomberg.com, August 1, 2009. Retrieved 8/1/09. 10. ^ Loder, Asjylyn (2 April 2008). "Chuck E. Cheese enlists Gen. Franks". St. Petersburg Times. http://www.tampabay.com/news/business/article440862.ece. Retrieved 20 November 2009. 11. ^ Ross, Brian (17 January 2008). "Gen. Tommy Franks Paid $100,000 To Endorse 'F' Veterans Charity". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/Story?id=4149437&page=1. Retrieved 20 January 2008. 12. ^ Jowers, Karen (18 January 2008). "Charity draws fire for paying generals". Army Times. http://www.armytimes.com/news/2008/01/military_charity_080117w/. Retrieved 20 January 2008. 13. ^ Rucker, Philip (18 January 2008). "Chief of Veterans Charities Grilled on Groups' Spending". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/01/17/AR2008011703620.html. Retrieved 20 January 2008. 14. ^ Barrett, William P. (21 December 2007). "Charitable Taking". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/business/2007/12/21/chapin-fundraising-veterans-biz-cz_bb_1221chapin.html. Retrieved 20 January 2008. 15. ^ Schieffer, Bob (20 January 2008). "The Follies Of Fundraising". CBS News Opinion: Face The Nation. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/01/20/opinion/schieffer/main3732773.shtml. Retrieved 20 January 2008. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tommy Franks • Gen. Tommy Franks paid $100,000 out of money donated for wounded veterans. Army Times, 18 January 2008 Gen. Tom Franks: A silent partner in Operation Enduring Freedom - CNN, 24 October 2001 • • General Tommy Franks - UK Guardian, 9 November 2001 Official publisher web page for American Soldier • • - the truth seeker, 07/03/2003 Franks & Associates LLC — About General Franks • Military offices Preceded Anthony Zinni Preceded Robert R. Ivany Commander-in-Chief of United States Central Succeeded Command John Abizaid 2000 – 2003 Commanding General of the Third United by Succeeded States Army Paul T. Mikolashek 1997 – 2000 by by
Douglas S. Freeman
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Douglas Southall Freeman, (May 16, 1886 – June 13, 1953), was an American journalist and historian. He was the author of definitive biographies of George Washington and Confederate General Robert E. Lee. Freeman was born in Lynchburg, Virginia, the son of a Confederate soldier during the American Civil War. His father was Walker Buford Freeman and his mother was Bettie Allen Hamner. He did his undergraduate work at Richmond College where he joined the Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta. He received his Ph.D. in history from Johns Hopkins University at the age of 22. Career A long-time resident of Richmond, Virginia, Freeman served as editor of The Richmond News Leader from 1915 to 1949. However, it was his work as a historian and biographer that earned greatest recognition. He won Pulitzer Prizes for two of his books, his four-volume biography of Robert E. Lee, and his seven-volume biography of George Washington (a seventh volume First in Peace was written after Freeman's death by J. A. Carroll and M. W. Ashworth, two of his historical associates). He was also the author of the three-volume Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command. on the generals of the Army of Northern Virginia Freeman's treatments of the American Civil War are often cited as examples of the Lost Cause movement, emphasizing the glory and nobility of the Southern generals and the futility of their fight against the power of the North. While Freeman certainly does emphasize the nobility of Lee's character, he does not say that Lee made no mistakes, nor does he say that the North only won because of superior numbers. For instance, this passage shows Lee misjudging his real opponent, and also expresses admiration for Abraham Lincoln's character: Lee's balancing of the ponderables on the military scales was accurate. He could not realize, and few even in Washington could see, that an imponderable was tipping the beam. That imponderable was the influence of President Lincoln. ... References to Lincoln in Lee's correspondence and conversation were rare. He was much more interested in the Federal field-commanders than in the commander-in-chief. After the late winter of 1863-64, had Lee known all the facts, he would have given as much care to the study of the mind of the Federal President as to the analysis of the strategical methods of his immediate adversaries. For that remarkable man, who had never wavered in his purpose to preserve the Union, had now mustered all his resources of patience and of determination. Those who had sought cunningly to lead him, slowly found that he was leading them. His unconquerable spirit, in some mysterious manner, was being infused into the North as spring approached. — Freeman, R. E. Lee, Volume III. Honors • Douglas S. Freeman High School in western Henrico County, was named in his honor, as is Freeman Hall at the University of Richmond. • Freeman is commemorated by Virginia Historical Highway Marker Q6 17, which is located in the independent city of Lynchburg, Virginia, near his place of birth. References ^ Freeman, R.E. Lee, volume III, p. 264 Further reading • Cheek, Mary Tyler Freeman. "Reflections," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 1986 94(1): 25-39. ISSN 0042-6636. Freeman's daughter reflects on his career as a writer, college professor, and radio personality in Virginia. Describes Freeman's research and writing methods and his politics, religion, and ethics. • David E. Johnson. Douglas Southall Freeman (2002). 480 ISBN 1-58980-021-4 full-scale biography • Smith, Stuart W. Douglas Southall Freeman on Leadership. White Mane, 1993. 262 pp. • Freeman, Douglas S., R. E. Lee, A Biography (4 volumes), Scribners, 1934. External linksBiography portal • • • • Douglas Southall Freeman in Encyclopedia Virginia Virginia Historical Highway Marker for Douglas Southall Freeman Douglas Southall Freeman High School webpage Douglas S. Freeman at Find a Grave
Lt. Paul Fussell in Paris, France, May 1945
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born Occupation Notable award(s) March 22, 1924 (age 87) Pasadena, California Educator; Historian; Social critic; Author National Book Award for Arts and Letters; National Book Critics Circle Award; Ralph Waldo Emerson Award. Military awards-- Purple Heart; Bronze Star
Paul Fussell (born March 22, 1924) is an American cultural and literary historian, author and university professor. His writings cover a variety of genres, from scholarly works on eighteenth-century English literature to commentary on America’s class system. He is best known for his writings about World War I and II. Biography Born and raised in Pasadena, California, USA, Fussell was the second of three children. His father, Paul Fussell (1895–1973), son of a widowed schoolteacher, became a corporate lawyer in Los Angeles with the firm of O’Melveny & Myers. His mother, Wilhma Wilson Sill (1893–1971), was the daughter of a carriage maker in Illinois. His brother, Edwin Sill Fussell, was an author, poet, and professor of American Studies at the University of California, San Diego; his sister Florence Fussell Lind lives in Berkeley, California. His daughter, Rosalind, is an artist-teacher in Arizona and the author of a graphic novel, Mammoir: A Pictorial Odyssey of the Adventures of a Fourth Grade Teacher with Breast Cancer. His son, Samuel Wilson Fussell, a writer and hunter in Montana, is the author of the cult classic Muscle: Confessions of an Unlikely Bodybuilder. Fussell attended Pomona College from 1941 until he enlisted in the US Army in 1943. He landed in France in 1944 as a 20 year-old second lieutenant with the 103rd Infantry Division, was wounded while fighting in Alsace, and was awarded the Bronze Star and Purple Heart. He was honorably discharged from the Army in 1946, returned to Pomona to finish his B.A. degree in 1946-7, married in 1949 a fellow Pomona graduate, Betty Harper, and completed his MA (1949) and Ph.D. (1952) at Harvard University. He began his teaching career at Connecticut College (1951–55) before moving to Rutgers University in 1955 and finally the University of Pennsylvania in 1983. He also taught at the University of Heidelberg (1957– 58) and King’s College London (1990–92). As a teacher, he travelled widely with his family throughout Europe during the 1950s, 60s and 70s, taking Fulbright and sabbatical years in Germany, England and France. Betty Fussell, has described their marriage and its breakup in 1981 in her memoir, My Kitchen Wars. After Fussell moved from his home in Princeton, New Jersey, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he divorced his first wife and married Harriette Behringer. He retired from the University of Pennsylvania in 1994 and currently lives with his wife in Oregon. Writing and Teaching Career When he first entered college, Fussell intended a career in journalism. His plans changed when his sergeant was killed beside him in combat, as he writes in his memoir Doing Battle (1996). In his writings, he opposed war promoting instead a vision of rational enlightenment. He pointed to what he saw as the hypocrisy of governmental speech and the corruption of popular culture. His published thesis, Theory of Prosody in Eighteenth-Century England, became Poetic Meter and Form (1954), a popular textbook for understanding poetry. Samuel Johnson and The Life of Writing (1971) underlay his admiration of The Ani-Egotist, Kingsley Amis: Man of Letters. His attention to England's civilized society was prologue to his most important book, The Great War and Modern Memory (1975). John Keegan said its effect was "revolutionary", in that it showed how literature could be a vehicle for expressing the experience of large groups. "What Paul did was go to the literary treatments of the war by 20 or 30 participants and turn them into an encapsulation of a collective European experience." Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars (1980) was a pioneering academic examination of travel literature which examined the travel books of Evelyn Waugh, Graham Greene, D. H. Lawrence and Robert Byron.
He stated he relished the inevitable controversy of Class: A Guide Through the American Status System (1983) and indulged his increasing public status as a loved or hated "curmudgeon" in the rant called BAD: or, The Dumbing of America (1991). In between, Thank God for the Atom Bomb and Other Essays (1988) confirmed his war against government and military doublespeak and prepared the way for Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War (1989). The epiphany of his earlier essay, "My War", found full expression in his memoir Doing Battle: The Making of a Skeptic (1996), "My Adolescent illusions, largely intact to that moment, fell away all at once, and I suddenly knew I was not and never would be in a world that was reasonable or just". His most recent book, The Boys' Crusade: The American Infantry in Northwestern Europe, 1944-45 (2003) he again writes about his own war trauma. Awards and Honors Fussell's 1975 literary study The Great War and Modern Memory (1975) won the National Book Award for Arts and Letters, the National Book Critics Circle Award for Criticism, and the Ralph Waldo Emerson Award of Phi Beta Kappa. It was listed as #75 in the Modern Library's list of the 100 Best Nonfiction Books of the Twentieth Century. He was elected in 1977 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature  Fussell was one of several veterans interviewed in the Ken Burns and Lynn Novick documentary The War in 2007, and in the 1999 ABC-produced documentary The Century: America's Time. Works • Theory of Prosody in Eighteenth-Century England. 1954. • Poetic Meter and Poetic Form. 1965. • The Rhetorical World of Augustan Humanism: Ethics and Imagery from Swift to Burke. 1965. • Theory of Prosody in Eighteenth-Century England. 1966. • Eighteenth-Century English Literature. 1969.editor with Geoffrey Tillotson and Marshall Waingrow • Samuel Johnson and The Life of Writing. 1971. • English Augustan Poetry. 1972. • The Great War and Modern Memory. Oxford University Press. 1975. pp. 384. ISBN 0195133323. • The Ordeal of Alfred M. Hale: The Memoirs of a Soldier Servant. 1975.editor • Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars. 1980. • The Boy Scout Handbook and Other Observations. 1982. • Sassoon's Long Journey. 1983.editor, from The Complete Memoirs of George Sherston • Class: A Guide Through the American Status System. Touchstone. 1992 . ISBN 978-0671792251. • Caste Marks: Style and Status in the USA. 1984.- this is the UK edition of Class • The Norton Book of Travel. 1987.editor • Thank God for the Atom Bomb and Other Essays. 1988. • Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War. Oxford University Press. 1989. pp. 352. ISBN 9780195065770. • BAD -- Or, The Dumbing of America. 1991. • The Bloody Game: An Anthology of Modern War. 1991. • The Norton Book of Modern War. 1991.editor • The Anti-Egotist. Kingsley Amis: Man of Letters. 1994. • Doing Battle - The Making of a Skeptic. 1996.autobiography • Uniforms: Why We Are What We Wear. 2002. • The Boys’ Crusade: The American Infantry in Northwestern Europe, 1944-1945. 2003. References 1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Hello to all that", Susanna Rustin, The Guardian, 31 July 2004 2. ^ http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?rank=1&new=1&MSAV=0&msT=1&gss=angsg&gsfn=paul&gsln=fussell&_81004010=1924&msbpn=68368&msbpn__ftp=Pasadena%2c+California%2c+USA&p cat=ROOT_CATEGORY&h=89998053&recoff=1+2&db=1930usfedcen&indiv=1, Accessed 10-4-2009. 3. ^ Fussell, R. (2005). Mammoir: A pictorial odyssey of the adventures of a fourth grade teacher with breast cancer AuthorHouse. 4. ^ Fussell, S. W. (1991). Muscle : Confessions of an unlikely bodybuilder. New York: New York : Poseidon Press. 5. ^ a b Fussell P: Doing Battle: The Making of a Skeptic, Little Brown & Co., New York, NY, 1996. 6. ^ a b Rustin, S. (2004, Saturday 31 July 2004). Hello to all that. The Guardian, Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/jul/31/featuresreviews.guardianreview10 7. ^ Fussell, B. H. (1999). My kitchen wars. New York: New York : North Point Press. 8. ^ a b Fussell, P., (1996). Doing battle : The making of a skeptic. Boston: Boston : Little, Brown and Co. 9. ^ Fussell, P., 1924-. (1965). Poetic meter and poetic form. New York: New York, Random House. 10. ^ Fussell, P., 1924-. (1971). Samuel Johnson and the life of writing. New York: New York, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. 11. ^ Fussell, P., 1924-. (1994). The anti-egotist : Kingsley amis, man of letters. New York: New York : Oxford University Press. 12. ^ Fussell, P., 1924-. (2000). The great war and modern memory. Oxford ; New York; Oxford %3B New York: Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press. 13. ^ Fussell, P., 1924-. (1983). Class : A guide through the american status system. New York: New York : Summit Books. 14. ^ Fussell, P., 1924-. (1988). Thank god for the atom bomb and other essays. New York: New York : Summit Books.
^ Fussell, P., 1924-. (1989). Wartime : Understanding and behavior in the second world war. New York: New York : Oxford University Press. 16. ^ Fussell, P., 1924-. (1996). Doing battle : The making of a skeptic. Boston: Boston : Little, Brown and Co. 17. ^ Fussell, P., 1924-. (2003). The boys' crusade the american infantry in northwestern europe, 1944-1945. New York: New York : Modern Library. 18. ^ "Royal Society of Literature All Fellows". Royal Society of Literature. http://www.rslit.org/content/fellows. Retrieved 8 August 2010. External linksWikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Paul Fussell • Brief biography • Guardian profile • The Fate of Chivalry and the Assault Upon Mother from Thank God for the Atom Bomb and Other Essays. • 2006 interview by Lawrence Velvel with Paul Fussell, about Boys Crusade and The Making of a Skeptic • From his bunker in princeton, n.j., a wounded literary guerrilla shoots back at the 20th century. People Magazine
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