1 Chapter 1
Humans are the most complex creatures on the earth. Complex in a logic way that humans compost of diverse formation through its forms of reactions and dealings in the society. The primary way of understanding people of their role on our society where they reside in is through evaluating and studying their culture which refers to the norms, values, beliefs and behaviors. It also studied the patterns of behavior, means of subsistence, self- actualization, social structure, and interactions as well as the traditions of every deviate society in our humanity. In relation to that, this study deals with the Indian short stories, which denotes that it interpret the broad range of the Indian society has pass through in numerous decades. The Indian short stories have assisted to make such sense in a revolutionizing world, which provides a map of metaphoric mindscape of our society. This also approached the formal phase of Indian short stories into an awareness of limitations pact with the quotidian and quixotic Indian life with the same felicity. In India’s crest social issues is poverty, which represent as a crucial state in India in this present time. This social issue entails high cost of living, unemployment and hunger in the urban places in India, this may probably cause in an increasing population in India as well as the lack of urban planning. All of these can be thoroughly examined
2 through the association of literature; specifically short stories to be analyzed, which introduce various issues with different plight. Literature, according to Taine (1982) is largely the product of the author’s environment, and that an analysis of the environment could bring understanding of the works of art in literature. An author could write their works of art by establishing it on their own experience or even the sort of environment where they live in. Literature also, according to Taine (1982) is the consequence of the moment, race and milieu. These concepts means that, a moment refers to when a particular event happened and race is the people who is the several figures in our society, while milieu is the status quo of the people in a particular society. The idea of Taine’s concept is that literature is base on what is happening in a particular time and especially the kind of people involved in it. According to Burke (1971) states that the work of art, including literature, are an artistic way of the author’s in expressing or in leasing the readers know what is happening in society and allocate them to have a greater with clarity understanding over societal happening through the work of art. In addition, to assess the cause and effect by how and why people reacts towards the societal happenings or social issues. Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly involve some or all members of a society, which are considered to be problems or controversies related to moral values (Massey, 2007). Several elements that affects the normal relationship between people and society, since society is the aspect in which the members of a community or simply the people live for their common benefit. In studying society, with the use of sociological criticism would be easier to give out the main intention of their study.
3 According to Jovanich (1971) in his book entitled,“ Critical Theory”, sociological criticism is a critique directed to understanding and committing literature in its larger social context. He added that this approach is used to explore both how the social functions in literature works in every society. It is also the thought – out way of examining the relationship between literature and society, in which it provides mere knowledge, which has a relevant on how and why people behave in a certain manner with the type of society where they interrelate. In analyzing a certain literature piece using the sociological criticism it guides the researcher to comprehend the relationship between literature and society. In which it persuade the researcher to investigate and analyze different short stories which reveal a number of social issues, for in the future this may help her to understand and learn the entire world of social issues and why a definite problems in society does exist. The main object of this study is to examine and analyze the diverse social issues present in the short stories and how the author described the factual condition of society using sociological criticism. This also intends to search out how social effects the live of the characters in the stories; either in a positive or negative way.
Statement of the Problem
This study seeks to analyze and answer the following questions stated below by using the Sociological Approach in analyzing the selected short stories. Specifically this study aims to answer the following questions:
4 1.) What social issues are present in the selected short stories? 2.) What are the causes of these social issues?
3.) How the social issues reflected in the story?
4.) How does the society react to the social issues?
Conceptual Framework The following are the concepts that guide as the framework of this study. The researcher used these approaches to properly answer the four problems stated in the study. The researcher used the Sociological Approach and concepts of social issues to support in identifying the social issue, which is being established to gain more concepts about social issues.
According to Scott (1977), sociological criticism starts with a viewpoint that arts relation to society is virtually important. The investigation of these relationships may organize and deepen one’s aesthetic response to a work not simply of a person but an author fixed in time and space in answering to a community because of its articulate part.
Moreover, sociological approach and literature are being connected. According to Liven and Padsing (2006) the relationship between literature and society is reciprocal, where literature is not only the effect of social issues but it is also cause by social effect. The reciprocal relation of society and literature is the occurrence of issues in the society,
5 which is reflected in literature writers attempt to express their own idea, opinion and observation towards the event in the society.
According to Burke (2006) that Sociological Criticism is influenced by new criticism it also adds a sociological element as found with critical theory and considers art as a manifestation of society, one that contains metaphors and references directly applicable to the existing society.
Harrington (1960) added that Sociological Criticism has a several methods of sociological perspective and considering the sociological element is essential because art is inevitable full of references and commentaries on the present day of society. It also stresses that the primary goal of the social disciplines should be the identification and further development of a systematic theory of the nature of man and society.
Social issues are matter that directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values or both. Social issues include poverty, violence, pollution, injustices, and suppression of human rights, discrimination, and crime. Social issues related to the fabric of the community, including conflicts among the interest of community members, and lie beyond the control of any individual (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_issues).
6 Social issues are manifested at multiple levels of social life. The factor that cause, facilitate and help to perpetuate social problems are found at the individual, the group, the societal and in some cases the global level (Lauer, 1998). The concept of (Lauer, 1998) states that social issues approach which in the principal aim of the comprehensive exploration is to present data on a wild array of problem phenomena: unemployment, discrimination, divorce, prostitution, abortion,
poverty, and crime each of these problem is examined in the term of its causes, the consequences to persons and society as a whole.
Merill (1988) labeling theory is concerned with how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms and reaction used to describe or classify them, and is associated with the concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping.
Elliot (1970)states that one dimension of this is that to understand the concept of deviance by understanding the significance of the way in which people react to potentially deviant behavior. Deviant presents as the some form of strong social reaction to a behavior. Lemert (1980) the societal reaction approach. Briefly, this approach
distinguishes between primary deviance where individuals do not see themselves a deviant and secondary deviance involves acceptance of a deviant status. Coleman (1950) affirm that unusual behavior is a quality of how we react to people's behavior. This concept is normally spoken as the social reaction to behavior.
7 Intensified deviance becomes a means of defense, attack, or adaptation to the problems caused by societal reaction to primary deviation. Methodology
The study used Sociological Approach in order to point out the social issues containing the selected short stories and to prove the existence of social issues to the society. The researcher will apply four steps in analyzing the selected short stories.
First, the stories will be read thoroughly with deeper comprehension to identify the social issues presented in the selection. The researcher will identify and explain the concept of sociological approach to be able to support the idea of social issue.
Second, the researcher will examine the social issues in the selected short stories. To perform these, the researcher will use some concepts of social issues to give out the exact meaning of different issues, which presented in the stories.
Third, the researcher will discuss how the social issues are reflected in the story, to expound this step, the researcher will cite and give supporting idea to fully give out its inner meaning of the respond and utilize its concept to prop up the answer.
Fourth, to answer the problem number four the researcher will provide details from the story, which supports the answer. To answer this problem the researcher will base on the society’s reaction towards the social issue.
Significance of the Study The central point of this study is on the concepts of sociological approach and social issues of the preferred short stories. The researcher is affirmative that this study will be handy to the following benefactors also it may reflect them and accordingly apply the insights which is expanded from this study.
To the students, for it could be their source of information especially those students who belong in the field of sociology, since this study focuses on the problems of society. In addition, the English majors can benefit from this study especially those who also choose the same approach will serve this as a main guide in their analysis.
To the teachers they could be able to gather up updated ideas in which will enable them to teach their students about the relationship between man and society. It would also give them an idea on how to teach literature through its values and moral, which are represented in the diverse concepts of social issues to shape up fine citizens in the society. To anyone who may need to use this thesis as a lead in conducting their own research, and to those who themselves has a vast passion in literature , this piece of work would be available anytime you will need this. In general, different races of people could be inspired in making their own study that is parallel to this study.
9 Generally, for everyone who may need to use this as a guide in conducting their own research and for those who have a great passion in literature this piece would be available anytime. For those students who could be able to learn from this study, eventually be inspired, and have the confidence in doing their own research using the same approach.
Scope of the Study The researcher used the Sociological Approach in analyzing the problems of the selected short stories and answered all the problems regarding the various social issues presented in the selected short stories. The researcher selects the following short stories merely because the writers of these short stories are Indian authors, also the main focal of this study is on the social issues of India.
This study deals with stories written by Indian authors. The ten (10) selected short stories were: “How Grandpa came into the money” by Else Zantev, “Abortion” by Ebot Agborndip, “The Eunthanasia Machine” by M. Stanley Bubien, “Divorce” by Patti Mcquillen, “The Dilapidated Man” by Bai Maleiha, “The Game of Billiards” by Alphonse Daudet, “The Nightingale” by Maxim Gorky, “Daughter for Sale” by Samrum Singh, “A Pair of Silk Stockings” by Kate Chopin and “Senior Payroll” by William E. Barret.
Definition of terms
10 The following terms are defined briefly to come up with a comprehensible study.
Social Issues. This term refers to the problems reflected in the short stories that negate the norms of society; these problems maybe stated or implied. Whenever the people of a certain society are deprive from their basic social rights, then social issue arises (http://wiki.answers.com).
Sociological Approach. Sociological Approach is criticism directed to understanding (or placing) literature in its larger social context; it codifies the literary strategies that are employed to present social constructs through a sociological methodology and considers art as a manifestation of society, one that contains metaphors and refers directly applicable to the existing society (http://en.wiki.org/wiki/Sociological_criticism).
Society. Society is the body of individuals outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence, possibly comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language or hierarchical organization. It is characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals a sharing distinctive culture and institutions. Like other communities or groups, a society allows its members to achieve needs or wishes they could not fulfill alone ( Jenkins, 2002).
Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature
This chapter presents the biography of the authors, related literature and related studies which the researcher considers to have relevance in the present study. It represents various authors that contributed to represent this study for the purpose of enriching the said study. The researcher will determine to examine the deviating ideas of the subsequent proponents and how their views are relevant in this present study.
Biography of Authors:
M. Stanley Bubien works as both a writer and software engineer. He edits and writes very short fiction for the online publication Story Bytes, and has also completed a young adult entitled Desert Wind. He discovered early on how few books actually discuss Native Indian life in Pre- Columbus times especially in terms of fiction, his favorite genre. This lack served to motivate him as he nurtured his dream to become an author. In writing “Desert Wind”, he blended his interest in Native Indian culture with his direct experiences with the Kwaaymii people (now known as the Laguna Band of Mission Indians) and his travels though the desert and mountains which they call home.
12 Else Zantev (1916-2002) was a writer, poet, essayist, critic, journalist and
teacher. He was born on September 16, 1916. Zantev already had ambitions of becoming a writer during his years in the elementary. His actual writing, however, started when he became a member of The Torres Torch Organization during his high school years. Zantev continued writing in various school papers at the University of the Philippines Diliman. He later on received a Rockfeller Grant and became a fellow in creative writing the University of Iowa and Breadloaf's writers conference from 1956- 1957.
Patti McQuillen is looking forward to being a freelance writer and enjoys her time with Gaslight Writers, a non-profit writing group dedicated to encouraging writers and sharing dreams. She is the webmaster for their site which can be found by clicking www.gaslightwriters.4t.com. In the fall of 2007 she hopes adult writers of all levels will tend the workshop she is planning. Information about it, including early bird savings, can be found on the group’s website. Ms. McQuillen is also the author of 100 things to try, which offers writing skill activities for kids in grade 2-5. More information can be found on a website she created for kids, Make Writing Fun
Bai Maleiha is a focused writer who espouses justice, peace and interfaith unity in the midst of the decaying moral and cultural fibers of many people. Writing is her bloodline. It allows her to share her innermost thoughts and principles relative to the issues that she could personally relate it. Effective writing for her is transmitting her ideas with clarity without bias or prejudice against any group or race. Clarity of her position
13 with moral lesson is two indispensable characteristics of her articles and which she heavily imposes upon herself whenever she writes. Bai Maleiha views writing as an art that demands innovation and distinct style based on the character of the writer and the issue that she or he writes. She sees this as inevitable for according to her, writers inked their thoughts on how they perceive the events happening inside or outside themselves. Bai Maleiha adds that “A writer’s craft is his personal statement”.
Alphonse Daudet (May 13, 1840 - December 17, 1897) was a Indian novelist. He was the father of Leon Daudet. In 1866 appeared Lettres de mon moulin, which won the attention of many readers. The first of his longer books, Le petit chose (1868), did not, however, produce any very popular sensation. It is, in its main feature, the story of his own earlier years told with much grace and pathos. The year 1872 produced the famous Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon, and the three-act piece L'Arlésienne. But Fromont jeune ET. Risler aîné (1874) at once took the world by storm. It struck a note, not new certainly in English literature, but comparatively new in French. Here was a writer who possessed the gift of laughter and tears, a writer not only sensible to pathos and sorrow, but also to moral beauty. He could create too. His characters were real and also typical; the rates, the men who in life's battle had flashed in the pan, were touched with a master hand. The book was alive. It gave the illusion of a real world.
Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), Indian author considered the father of Soviet revolutionary literature and founder of the doctrine of socialist realism wrote The Mother (1906). Gorky's collection of short stories Sketches and Stories (1898), published by a
14 radical press, and established him as a favored revolutionary voice for the people. He married Ekaterina Pavlovna while working for the Samarskaya Gazeta. Foma Gordeyev (1899) was his first published novel. Gorky also wrote numerous plays, often preferring characterization over plot. After his famous play The Lower Depths (1902) was released he spent a number of years in exile including travelling to the United States in 1906 to raise funds for the bolsheveik movement. In 1914 he returned to Russia and the first of his autobiographical novels My Childhood appeared the same year, followed by In the World in 1916. My Universities (1922) is based on his self-education, universities being closed to peasants such as him. Though he had many debilitating bouts of tuberculosis, he worked as head of the Writer's Union and continued work on his ambitious four-volume accounting of social conditions The Life of Klim Samgin (1927–36). Gorky writes of his friendship with Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov in Reminiscences (tr. 1946).
Kate Chopin was born in St. Louis, Missouri in 1850 to Eliza and Thomas O’Flaherty. She was a successful and wrote short stories about people she has known in Louisiana. Her first novel, At fault, was published in 1890 and A Night in Acadia in 1897. The Awakening was published in 1899, and by then she was well known as both a local colorist and a woman writer. As a writer Kate Chopin wrote very rapidly and without much revision. She usually worked in her home surrounded by her children. Kate Chopin died in an abrupt and frustrated manner when she died of a cerebral hemorrhage on August 22, 1904.
15 Samruam Singh (1940-1996) was a teacher, writer and activist. He published most of the stories in this collection in the progressive weekly Jaturat, during the interlude between the ousting of the nation’s military government in 1973 and the return of military rule in 1976. William Barret is a philosopher and critic, born in New York City in 1913 and an Indian ,died in 1992 and the author of the short stories entitled Senyor Payroll. His widely praised Irrational Man (1958) explained European existentialism to the general reader, and is largely responsible for introducing existentialism to America. Barret provides summaries of the works of all of the major figures in existentialism (with the exception of Merleau-Ponty) and integrates their work within western literary, religious, artistic and philosophical traditions. Barret provides great insight on the origins of existentialism in the history of western civilization and in doing so also constructs an interesting and informative narrative about that history itself. Although broadly recognized for Irrational Man, his greatest works was The Illusion of Technique: the Search for Meaning in a Technological Civilization (1970). This works examined broad issues on the effects that teachnology was having on humanity, taking up where Martin Heidegger left off in his The Question Concerning Technology.
Related Literature: The following frameworks are related literatures of this study, which correlates to the content of the present study and use as a tool to support this analysis.
Spring (1946) in his book entitled “Literature as an institution” states that due to economic depression writers begun to add a powerful tool of judgment to their society due to economic, political and social conflict, writers tend to criticize the events in the society through literature, considering literature as an outcome of events in society.
The book of Spring entitled “Literature as an Institution” is related to the study since it talks about the role of literature in society. Accordingly, literature explains the different phenomena and problems in an institution or sometimes in the society in the general. Both studies talk about the effects of certain condition of a society including the exploration of social problems.
Fielder (1960) as cited a naturalist concept “Humans are the only victim of his environment”. The naturalist means that whatever circumstances and conditions the humans may experience or dealing In his environment, mankind cannot escape them but
17 to face it whether it brings better or worst in their lives. Humans must struggle against the gloomy gift of society in order to survive. This study related to the present study because it explains the vulnerability of humans against several confrontations in his environment; also confirm that humans cannot break out to face such event in his life.
Dela Cruz (2007) conducted a study entitled “Sociological Analysis Third World Short Stories”. The study was conducted to examine the social problems that affect the third world countries. The researcher of this study found that the third world short stories portray the social problems and the issues of the regions. The issues affect the lives of the people in the third world countries.
The study of Dela Cruz is related to the present study since its aim is to examine the social issue that affects the third world countries, specifically India. To add up, it explains how the lives of the third world people affect their lives towards the social issue. Montemayor (1969) in the book “India Socio-Economic Problems” briefly discusses the social problems present in the Philippines and other circumstances of condition in the India which effect the lives of the people. This is a related literature for Montemayor strained the prevalence of social issue in the India setting which is also the concern of the present study using the ten short stories.
The study of Montemayor is related to the present study, in view of the fact that it discusses the social issue which does exist in the third world countries which include
18 India and Philippines as well as it stresses out the existence of social issue in the third world countries. Kelman’s article on www.societypress.com stresses social issues for terms of survival and the failure to sustain there needs will be the birth of fear and results to conflict. Based on the article, survival can be associated with social conflict. An individual will then learn this if such person undergoes a situation like this.
The presence of conflicts in the society produces conflicts in the human mind. The above featured articles are related in the present study in such way that these articles present the fact that it is not only in fiction that social conflicts, which collide but such connection, can also be observed in the dimension.
Related Studies: Blumer (2006) in his study entitled “Social problems as Collective Behavior” found out that social problems are fundamentally the products of a process of collective definition instead of existing independently as a set of objective social arrangements. Social issues in his study challenged the promise underlying typical sociological study of problems in society. Blumer’s study is related to the present study because both studies discuss the impacts of social problems to society.
The study of Canteros (2006) entitled “Sociological Analysis of Selected Dramas of the Carlos Palanca Memorial Award Winners” tackles about social issues
19 portrayed in the cause social problem. This study is related to the present study. First it uses the sociological approach in analyzing the literary piece and also in identifying the causes of the social problems. They are differing in the literary genre analyzed. Canteros used the one act drama while this study used short stories. However, they both analyzed the different genres for social problems.
The study of Dela Cruz (2009) entitled “A Sociological Analysis of the Third world Countries” discusses how short stories provide liberation and humanism to the people at the some time reflects the Third World experience where people suffer from oppressions, poverty and discrimination. In this study, Dela Cruz gives a deep emphasis on how the Third World literature short stories presents injustices, exploitation, and violence in countries belonging to the inferior economic status.
This study of Dela Cruz is related with the present study because both studies use the Sociological approach in determining the social issues as being portrayed in the selected short stories. The only that differs with these two studies is that the study of Dela Cruz used literary pieces of the Third World literature.
In the study entitled “Sociological Analysis of the Selected Rap Song of Black American Artist by Mission (2009). This study of Mission focused on the socioeconomic, motivation, characteristics and attitudes of man towards the social conditions of the society. This study manifested how the Black American artist expresses songs
20 issues and grievances that affect the Black American. In addition, the study presented that rap songs have a strong influence as a literature’s genre. This study is related with this present study because they both utilized the sociological approach in analyzing social problems. They only differ in the literary genres used in the rap song white the presents study used short stories.
Fransten, Dennis Lee “Culture Change and the Response to Acculturative Pressures” (1981). Researchers found that the method developed using the dominant dyad theory as its central component proved useful. It resulted in an analysis showing significant changes in the family relationships, customs, and norms, associated with culture change. This study of Fransten, Dennis Lee is related to the present study because this study explained the effects of significant alteration of society to the relationship of every family, customs, and norms that, associates with culture transformation.
21 A Sociological Analysis of Selected Indian Short Stories
In Partial fulfillment of the Requirement in English 134 Thesis Writing
Sherley- Mae J. Egao
22 Chapter Three
Presentation and Analysis
This chapter presents the synopses of the selected short stories and the analyses of the study founded on the following problems: 1.) What social issues are present in the selected short stories?, 2.) What are the causes of these social issues?, 3.) How are the social issues reflected in the story?, and 4.) How does the society react the social issues?
How Grandpa Came into Money The narrator of the short story How Grandpa Came into Money still remember how they suffer from poverty its only her grandmother who raises their family. They live in a little house in a scrawling lot. Nobody even has to coax them children to eat. After having her lunch at her mother’s house she goes to her grandmother and eat again, and she would go again to her Aunt Bertha to eat some more. She only eats ripe apples when she was fifteen, and after good and full because her Aunt Bertha forgets to look the door in the kitchen she immediately goes there to eat, but she caught by the member of the family and called her “watch the doughnuts” during their parties and gatherings.
23 Abortion This is a story about a young virgin girl who had never known a man before. When this young girl started, she was so naïve that even a lesson on sex given in class would irritate her, for she knew that sex was a very bad and painful thing. In that little city, a teacher taught in the school where she attended. Whenever he saw her, he would ask her to go to her house to help her with her subjects. Fortunately, for the man, this little girl had problems with mathematics which made her accept his offer to go to their house. She was then asked by the teacher to have a sex with him or else he will fail her, so the girl was not able to refuse. In a month’s time, the girl got pregnant and when she told the teacher, in order to save her dignity, he opted that they go for an abortion. A doctor carried out the abortion but not successfully. A few days after the abortion, the girl died.
The Euthanasia Machine This is a story of a cancer patient who suffered for three years already in the hospital. Aside from those three long years in the hospital, he also had chemotherapy, nausea, lost weight, drugs and even familial pity. But nothing helped him and the pain kept coming. Those things indeed made him very tired. To his gratitude, his sufferings were noticed by his doctor where he was asked if he still would like to fight for his life. On the other hand, he was also informed that through euthanasia, he would be freed form all the pains. He asked for some more time and he signaled as an agreement that he was already willing to accept death, for he knew that pursue his life would be even harder. He then held his finger over the euthanasia machine’s button.
Divorce This is a story of a girl named Haley whose parents have just finalized their divorce. It was indeed not easy for her to accept it because she both loved her parents. Haley was not able to sleep at night. Later on with the help of the counselor from a school where she studies, she was able to express what she feels. Participating in several extracurricular activities in the school also helped her forget what happened and to finally accepted it. Her mom one day dated a new man where she was at first got mad about it but soon learned to accept the people in her life for who they are and that life would continue whether she was happy about what happened, mad or sad.
The Dilapidated Man Mariano was just a low-paid clerk in one private company that exports and processes agriculture products. He earned barely enough to support a growing family and he had to double his efforts to prepare for the arrival of his sixth children. His take home pay had to be deducted for his jeep fare and rental fee for a small one room apartment where his five children and wife including him have to squeeze space to accommodate them all. Most of the time, his salary would go only to those things it could afford. One night when Mariano had to overtime, he has heard a long crash from his boss’ room. And because he was the only worker left at that night, he was accused of murdering the owner of the company where he worked. He was imprisoned for ten years but due to his good performance while in jail, he was given a pardon. The people who were responsible for killing admitted it by their guilt’s command. He was freed and was
25 paid by those people as what the court had ordered. He then started a new and decent life with his family.
The Game of Billiards The soldiers are very tired and exhausted. They are exposed in the rain and mud without enough food and fire to comfort their tired body. These soldiers are just waiting for their Marshall to command the in their enemy. They are all ready for the war, but there is no order form the headquarters which is only a short distance for them. There is no even sign of war. The houses, which the people departed, are not ruined, and the flowers in the lawn were still charming to see. The Marshall of France is a might soldier how has a single weakness. It is his fondness of billiards. He did not give any order to the soldiers attack. He is just playing the game with eagerness to win while the poor fellow armies are just waiting for his orders. He is playing with the captain. The soldiers are attacked by the enemies. They are slaughtered. While others are useless and bearing arm, inactive waiting for others of their Marshall who is still playing the game. The men died without his orders. Hundreds of them died.
The Nightingale This story is about a four kind passengers in a ship, each of them has a definite and different description of describing their physical image and personalities as well. In the middle of the trip, one of them saw a nightingale he was amazed by it, because this kind of mania was rare to their place. This kind of thing embodied an essentiality to every person’s sight, and merely got astonished. On the other hand, there comes a boy, only
26 fourteen years old who was discovered by one of the passenger that he is good at whistling just life of a nightingale tone. At first, majority of the passenger did not affirm that the will perform in front of them but later on, the old man persuade them and they let the boy execute in front of them. Before the boy did his potential, he experiences such insults by the passengers that he is just a boy a modest one who cannot imitate the exact whistling tone of the nightingale.
Daughter for Sale This story is about Lung Maa, a father who had to indulge his daughter into prostitution. He had been in debt for nearly years and it compounded interest slowly. His partner through life was lying sick in the hospital suffering from an intestinal problem. She was waiting for the money that would be used to pay for the blood and surgery needed to sustain for her life. These reasons made him decide to give his daughter to a woman who brings young woman to Bangkok for prostitution with the advance payment of 2,500 pesos. It broke his heart so much to see his daughter departing for Bangkok and had no idea on how to explain daughter and to his wife as well.
A Pair of Silk Stockings The story merely revolves on Mrs. Sommers. One day, she found herself a carrier of fifteen dollars. The money seemed a very large amount to her and she started thinking of the things she could buy for her family with the money. She thought of buying bargained shoes for her daughters and a few cloths to patch their dresses. She was a poor woman. She knew better than anyone the value of bargains. She could stand for
27 hours making her way inch by inch toward the desired object thaw was selling below cost. When she came by to a store, she noticed a pair of silk stockings. She was attracted to its beauty and tempted to buy it. She paid the stockings; when she tries it on she thought that it didn’t match her shoes. She went to the upper floor of the ladies section and brought a new pair of shoes. She didn’t care about how it cost as long as she gets the right pair she wanted; it looked beautiful with her stockings. After that, she bought a pair of gloves. Now with her stockings fitted to her shoes and her new pair of gloves, it gave her feeling of belongingness to the well-dressed people. Mrs. Sommers then entered a fine restaurant where waiters are serving people with fashion. She ordered a very fine meal with a glass of Rhine wine and a small cup of black coffee. When she was finished, she left a coin in the waiter’s tray just like a real wealthy people.
Senior Payroll This story is about Indian workers who work in a coal company. The company pays the Indian workers only twice a month, and the memorandum for the release of their salary was changed almost all the time. The company notice that there as so many cash advances did by the workers, so they have a memorandum that are no salary advances anymore except in case of legitimate emergency. Because of the memorandum, the workers tell the junior engineers various reasons that qualify as emergency such as their baby is needing medicines and many more. In this case, the company has given writes a memorandum that employees will be paid only in the fifth and the twentieth of the month and no exemptions will be made except leaving the company. In order for them to be paid, they leave their job and in few weeks they go back to the same company to be hired
28 again. These lasted for many weeks of rehiring and leaving of the same workers. In this manner the company has again a memorandum that no employee who resigns may rehired within a period of 30 days due to this the Indian workers quit their job and apply with the same work but with different name. After so many memorandums, the company has no rules anymore.
Problem 1: What social issues are present in the selected short stories?
In short, story entitled How Grandpa Came into money the social issue present is poverty. In this story the persona and his family suffered poverty because she is not contented with the things they have especially basic needs. In this statement, poverty is being shown as the main reason why the persona called as the “doughnuts” by her relatives. This presents that a person has the similar attitude of a dog on how they eat without any permission at all, just like what the persona does. “We all live in one little house and we were a scrawny lot. Nobody ever had to coax any of us children to eat. In fact, after having had lunch at my mother’s house, I would go to upstairs to Grandmother and have another one. And then I would visit Aunt Bertha, who lived a few doors away, and eat some more.” In short, story entitled Abortion presents an issue of Abortion. It involves the girl who died after she was gone through an abortion procedure. Also shows that the girl resort herself to abortion and committed to end up the life in her womb by the process of abortion.
“In a month’s time, she realizes that she was pregnant and when she told the teacher, in order to save her dignity, he opted that they go for an abortion. Little did this know that what she was going to do would take away her life. When they went for the abortion the doctor told the girl that nothing will happen to her. With this confidence, she accepted and went for it. The doctor carried out the abortion but not successfully. A few days after the abortion, the girl died, oh! Abortion! What a pity for this for this young girl.! ” The girl was too young to realize that abortion could possibly lay her into threat that was why she agreed when the teacher, who soaked her, and commanded her to have an abortion procedure to a doctor. The girl was very raw enough in trusting the doctor that nothing would happen to her after having an abortion.
In the short story, entitled The Euthanasia Machine presents the issue of euthanasia; where in the main character took the part of finishing his life through pressing the button of the euthanasia machine instead of abiding to fight for his existence. The pain caused by his disease led him to offer his life to the Lord, though he was not sure about it, but he did not want to feel the pain caused by it. “Quick. Painless. I’d be dead. I’d be free. Still, that question. I just figured someone would ask. If not the doctor, then the nurse. If not the nurse, then the computer. If not the computer, then …someone. I held my finger over the button. Death seemed so cold. Freedom so warm…” Are you sure?” that’s all I wanted to hear. I wouldn’t lie. I’d reply honestly. No I wasn’t sure. But the pain! I couldn’t stand it any longer! Ni held my finger over the button. Death seemed so cold. Freedom so warm..” The event that was presented why a certain person choose to die in the means of euthanasia or mercy killing. According to what the main character did in the story, he voluntarily pushed the button of the machine to fully end up his life in which the only
30 way to freely escape from the pain he felt for a couple of years. That was the example of how an issue of euthanasia revealed in the story.
Routledge (1998) sighted euthanasia as a practice of ending a life in a painless manner. Many different forms of euthanasia can be distinguished, including animal euthanasia and human euthanasia, and within the latter, voluntarily and involuntarily euthanasia. Voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide have been the focus of great controversy in recent years.
In the short story entitled Divorce presents social issue of divorce which also does exist in other countries. The story comprises a result of the issue where couples have decided to end up their marriage and have a divorce, because they both realize the feeling of incompatibility and the endearment for each other had lost. The outcomes of this statement were being shown in the story. “Haley's tears fell as the words she feared the most rang in her ears. Her parents would finalize their divorce in less than a month. She longed to run to the safety of her room. Still, she sat on the edge of the couch, with her dad one her left and her mom on her right. The scent of cookies, warm from the oven, circled around her nose. A holiday decoration flashed on and off in the picturesque window at the front of their warm, comfortable house.”
Haley was the only daughter of the couple, who holds the fate of finalizing their divorce. Mainly, she was the one who most is completely affected by the decision made by her parents. She was still young to experience this kind of incident in her life, especially about her parent’s marriage extinction. She suffered that much and need
31 sometime to accept the fact that their family had already broken, on the other hand she showed discordance and objection with regards to her parents divorce.
In the short story entitled The Dilapidated Man presents a social issue of poverty. This is about a father who had strived hard to support his family’s need and wants, in spite of of the hardships caused by poverty. In which he had faced numerous consequences that was brought by poverty. “Mariano is just a low paid clerk in one of the private company that exports fresh and processed agriculture products. It earns barely enough to support a growing family. His wife used to be a factory worker but since the birth of their youngest child, the couple decided that Juana should stop working and just stay home to take care of their five growing kids. Pregnant with their sixth child, Mariano has to double his efforts to prepare for the arrival of their own child. Most of the time, he would sale his salary before payday to buy foods. Whatever his money could afford, that is what his wife cooks for their kids. She knows those foods do not have the needed nutritional value for his growing children but she just shrugs her shoulder and say, “ Wala akong magagawa, mabuti na kesa wala” .They have two instant noodles for breakfast and Juana has to add more water and salt to taste. It is not enough for the seven of them considering that Juana is pregnant and she needs more food for her and her baby inside her womb. Despite her pregnancy, she has to wash the clothes of her rich neighbor to earn more money for the family.” In the story entitled The Game of Billiards the social issue presents in this story is taking advantage of higher position in the rank. This issue shows when a certain person was taking advantage of his/her position in a group. He/she does not engage in doing his/her responsibilities but instead neglecting such duties and functions in doing unnecessary things. This was revealed when the marshal is just playing billiards without having any plans to execute his job by giving instructions to his co-armies.
32 “For it the mighty soldier has a single weakness, it is his fondness for billiards. There he stands, as grave as through a battle has begun, if full uniform, his breast covered with decorations; his repast, the grog he has drunk, and the excitement of the game animate him.” In the short story entitled The Nightingale the social issue presented in the story is discrimination of capability. This was shown in where the passengers of the ship prejudiced the boy that he cannot portray the whistling tone of the nightingale. In addition, the other passenger keeps on tolerating him to stop performing in front of them because they was being disgusted by his presence and they got envious by his skills that he can execute it well. “Yes, me. The barman had asked me… Is that all you can do..whistle?? Well , then let’s hear you whistle, please! I don’t want to hear it, the young lady said in a low voice.”
In the short story entitled Daughter for Sale, the social issues introduced in this story were poverty and white slavery. In this story, there was a young woman was pampered by her father to prostitution, because her father bounded with debt. Aside from being sunk into debt, her father’s business was bankrupt and that is the mere reason why this young woman resorts to prostitution.
“lung Maa heaved a deep sigh as he thought of his daughter who was soon to become one more in the ranks of unlucky girls. He wanted to talk with his daughter so she would understand and he as untroubled as possible. But he could think nothing to say. Paa Saeng, his partner in life, was lying sick in the hospital in the city, suffering from an intestinal problem. She was waiting for the money that would be used to pay for the blood and surgery needed to sustain her life.
33 In the short story entitled A Pair of Silk Stockings the social issue present is poverty. According to www.businessdictionary.com, comparatively poverty occurs when a certain person do not enjoy a minimum stage of living average set by the government and have the benefit of the vastness of population. This kind of poverty purely sustains the basic needs of family such as food, shelter and clothing. Mrs. Sommers the main character of the story is rationally a poor woman. It can easily be observe in the opening part of the paragraph that Mrs. Sommers rarely holds a fair amount of prevalence.
“Little Mrs. Sommers one day found herself the unexpected possessor of fifteen dollars. It seemed to her a very large amount of money, and the way which it stuffed and bulged her worn old porte-monnaie gave her a feeling of importance such as she had not enjoyed for years.”
In the short story, entitled Senior Payroll the social issue is the dispossession of rights of the laborers. The right of workers is to know how much they will pay basing on the number of hours in their work span. In relation, with the story, the Indian laborers are deprived by their rights to be acquainted with how much they will exactly earn of their salary also such civil liberties has been underprivileged to them.
“The company paid its men only twice a month, on the fifth and on the twentieth.” “There was certain elasticity in the Company rules, and Larry and I sent the necessary forms of the Main Office and received and “advance” against a man’s pay check
34 Problem 2: What are the causes of these social issues?
In the short story, entitled How Grandpa Came into Money, the cause of social issue, poverty , is unemployment. Unemployment is a state of person who does not have a job and he/she does not earn a money. Wherein the main character of the story does not have the accurate job to support his family, which suffers poverty, requires the basic needs that suit them for their survival.
In the short story, entitled Abortion, the cause of social issue, abortion is that the girl was afraid of losing her dignity that is why she engaged herself to abortion and took the life of her baby inside her womb through the procedure of abortion. In addition, the teacher who was supposed to be the father of the baby is the one who choose to let the baby abandoned and deprived the life of the baby.
In the short story, entitled The Euthanasia, the cause of social issue is for the reason that the main character could hardly bear to continue his life due to the endless pain he felt because of his cancer. After a couple of years, he decided that he has to end up his life all by his will by pressing the button of the machine.
In the short story, entitled Divorce the cause of social issue, divorce is the incompatibility of the couple in terms of decisions, personality, and character. This may implies as one of the core reason why the parents of Haley the main character of the
35 story, decided to finalize their divorce because they cannot urge to live together in one roof. In the short story, entitled The Dilapidated Man the cause of the social issue, poverty, is due to the deficient in food and shelter, in where Mariano strives hard to sustain the needs and wants of his family in order to survive. This also implies where in his family suffered due to poverty.
In the short story entitled The Game of Billiards the causes of social issue of taking advantage of higher position in the rank, is that a person exploit his/her position as a power to do his will that is primarily negative. As what the story told, the marshal is reliant of his position that his commands are more important for their attack to the enemies than playing billiards, which is unnecessary to their condition.
In the short story entitled The Nightingale the cause of social issue, discrimination of capability is that the passengers thought that the boy could not perform the whistling motion of the nightingale, cause’ he is just a modest boy, fourteen year’s old one. In addition, the other passengers keep on jeopardizing the boy’s presence and appearance because they were disgusted to him.
In the short story entitled Daughter for Sale the cause of social issue, poverty and white slavery, is owing to the debts of her father that is why the young woman resort to prostitution to be able to pay the debts of her father which is the only solution. In addition, to be able escape from the condition of being poor as well as to carry on the hospital bills of her mother who was confined in the hospital.
In the short story entitled A Pair of Silk Stockings the cause of social issue, poverty is that the main character in the story was deeming as a poor woman through all her life, until she found herself as a possessor of fifteen dollars. She thought that the money that she had in her hand will mull over her as a wealthy woman and she will be one of the affluent person in their town.
In the short story, Senior Payroll the cause of social issue, dispossession of rights of the laborers, is that the company did not give an accurate information and orientation of their laborers concerning their rights and privileges as an employee to their company.
Problem 3: How the social issues reflected in the story?
In the short story entitled How Grandpa Came into Money the social issue reflected in the short story as poverty occurs when such people suffers by it and being pamper to the world of unemployment, and eventually affects their way of living through the lack of basic needs.
In the short story entitled Abortion it reflects the social issue of abortion, as someone is against to his will and consent to accept of what had arise to his life. To portray that oppose, the main character fit into place herself to Abortion procedure and mainly set her life at risk..
In the short story entitled The Euthanasia Machine the social issue euthanasia reflects as the person decided to die with his own will for the sake of evading the pain he felt for a couple of years through all his existence and be eternally from any pain and grief feeling of his existence.
In the short story entitled Divorce the social issues reflected, as the two individual does not feel the blissfulness of being attach as one in one roof and eternal vows. This implied as the both of them decided that they should incise the links they have, and certainly be free to have any affair to someone else.
In the short story entitled The Dilapidated Man the social issue poverty reflects as when someone undergo the chain of being sunk to poor stage of living and obliged to work toughly for the sake of survival, to earn enough money and to be able to prolong the needs and wants of the family.
In the short story entitled The Game of Billiards the social issue, taking advantage of higher position in the rank reflected as when someone has the authority and permission to do what he wants to accomplish. Even in the middle of work, he does not mind about the endeavor of his position, its essentiality, and its functions as well.
In the short story entitled The Nightingale the social issue, discrimination of capability reflects as by judging the person’s capability in a negative manner. Through by
38 to confirm as the person does have the exact altitude of performance by imitating such uniqueness of routine to please people and have a form of entertainment, instead jeopardizing someone’s capability with the presence of many people.
In the short story entitled Daughter for Sale the social issue, poverty and white slavery reflects as when a certain person does not have an option but to propel in illegal way of living in order to survive. This was shown when Lung Maa, resort her own daughter to prostitution to support their living wage also to pay his huge debts.
In the short story entitled A Pair of Silk Stockings the social issue poverty reflects as the main character Mrs. Sommers living is objectionable for her and she did not enjoy her way of living as a poor woman, who desires to become an affluent person as well as to immediately have the things that she sought.
In the short story entitled Senior Payroll the social issue, dispossession of rights of the laborers reflects as that the company of the Indian workers did give the accurate way of orienting their laborers. Informing them about the process of earning their individual salary and the privileges that affix to them as an employee of the company.
39 Problem 4: How does the society react to the social issues?
In the short story How Grandpa Came into Money, the society reacts to the social issues by just ignoring the less fortunate people. It verifies in the line of the short story “Nobody ever had to coax any of us children”. It is in relation of what Lendis (1964) says that a person, who is on the state of suffering the poor living like poverty was usually ignored by the society, deserted in the society. It has a similar societal reaction of the story, which are being neglected by the people that surrounds them.
In the short story entitled Abortion, the reaction of the society to the social issue is that the society committed to took a life of an innocent infant. This entails offense and illegal acts to kill a human and certainly consider as a crime of killing a blameless child. To escape from any form of shameful sentiment and judgment against people’s reactions, the societies just engage in becoming a conviction of life.
In the short story, entitled The Euthanasia Machine the society reacts to the social issue of having the sense of sympathy, to the person who was virtually affected by the issue. To conclude the suffering of the person, they react by suggesting in ending up his life and asking such certain permission if he is ready to face death by pressing the machine.
In the short story, entitled Divorce the reaction of the society is that they just continue to do the things they want occur, without thinking that there is many distinction
40 will cross their lives after pursuing that thing. Eventually, put someone’s lives into miserable state and lay the card that fallout into negative outcome.
In the short story, entitled The Dilapidated Man the society’s reaction to the social issue is that they just disregard the person that suffers poverty through out the system. In addition, they ultimately brought that person in an illegal acts and he paid it though that person is innocent enough to obligate the misdeed.
In the short story, entitled The Game of Billiards the society composed of several soldiers reacts to the social issue by just tolerating the circumstances without any form of against respond and complain to their higher officials like the short of food and the lack of commands from the Marshall to make a move to fight against the enemy.
In the short story, entitled The Nightingale the social issue revolves of the modest boy who was discriminated by the passengers. The reaction of the society to the social issue is that they consistently situating the boy self-value by uttering some negative thoughts from their grimy minds and they acted of being nutty in front of the boy’s presence. In the short story, entitled Daughter for Sale the reaction of the society to the social issue is that the society had the sense of regrets yet does have the choice, by to do it in which they think is righteous. In order to grasp such liberty from poverty, they commend to do risk moves left with no preference which upshot into a threat to their lives.
41 In the short story, A Pair of Silk Stockings the reaction of society towards the social issue is that speculation binds upon the people that surrounds the main character. It implies that they were confused why Mrs. Sommers had altered her communication towards them after having the possessor of fifteen dollars. While the other people just go with stream of by conferring, what Mr. Sommers wants to have and spend of her money, the other just being persuaded that she is really an affluent being.
In the short story, entitled Senior Payroll the society here can be called as the group of individuals and that is the Indian workers. The react to the social issue by reasonably rebellion because they employ into lies, to be able to have an advance salary, and the worst thing is that, after they quitting the job, they apply again to the same company but with different identity. This implies that the workers did not like the policy of the company in a moderate way but more caustic method in doing this. Their actions against the company is contrary to what Kurt Finsterbusch (1998) states that mot workers who are against the policies of the corporation create labor fusion and have protest or rallying so that their complaints will her heard.
42 Chapter 4
Summary, Finding and Conclusion
This chapter presents the summary of the study, findings, and conclusion.
This study is focused in analyzing the social issues presents in the selected Indian short stories. The researcher applies the sociological approach in her analysis of the following ten Indian short stories specifically: “How Grandpa came into the money” by Else Zantev, “Abortion” by Ebot Agborndip, “The Eunthanasia Machine” by M. Stanley Bubien, “Divorce” by Patti Mcquillen, “The Dilapidated Man” by Bai Maleiha, “The Game of Billiards” by Alphonse Daudet, “The Nightingale” by Maxim Gorky, “Daughter for Sale” by Samrum Singh, “A Pair of Silk Stockings” by Kate Chopin and “Senior Payroll” by William E. Barret.
Specifically, this study intends to answer the following questions: 5.) What social issues are present in the selected short stories? 6.) What are the causes of these social issues?
7.) How the social issues reflected in the story?
8.) How does the society react to the social issues?
Findings Using the sociological approach in analyzing the six short stories seize by the Indian authors, the following are the findings.
1.) What social issues are present in the selected short stories? In the ten Indian short stories the social issues are the subsequent; poverty, abortion, euthanasia, divorce, poverty, taking advantage of higher position in the rank, discrimination of capability, poverty and white slavery, poverty, and dispossession of rights of the laborers.
2.) What are the causes of these social issues? The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled How Grandpa Came into Money, is unemployment. The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled Abortion, is the dread of losing such dignity. The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled The Euthanasia Machine, is the main character could hardly bear to continue his life due to the endless pain he felt because of his cancer. The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled Divorce, is incompatibility of the couple in terms of decisions, personality, and character.
44 The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled The Dilapidated Man, is due to the deficient in food and shelter. The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled The Game of Billiards, is exploit his/her position as a power to do his will that is primarily negative. The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled The Nightingale, is the passengers thought that the boy could not perform the whistling motion of the nightingale. The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled Daughter for Sale, is owing to the debts of her father. The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled A Pair of Silk Stockings, is deeming as a poor woman through all her life. The cause of the social issue in the short story entitled Senior Payroll, is company did not give an accurate information and orientation of their laborers.
3.) How the social issues reflected in the story?
In the story How Grandpa Came into Money, the social issue reflected as poverty occurs when such people suffer by it and being pamper to the world of unemployment. In the story Abortion, the social issue reflected as someone’s consent to accept of what had arisen to her life.
45 In the story The Euthanasia Machine, the social issue reflected as the person decided to die with his own will for the sake of evading the pain he felt. In the story Divorce, the social issue reflected, as the two individual does not feel the blissfulness of being attach as one. In the story The Dilapidated Man, the social issue reflects as when someone undergoes the chain of being sunk to poor stage of living. In the story The Game of Billiards, the social issue reflects as when someone has the authority and permission to do what he wants to accomplish. In the story The Nightingale, the social issue reflects as by judging the person’s capability in a negative manner. In the story Daughter for Sale, the social issue reflects as, once a certain person does not have an option but to propel in illegal way of living. In the story A Pair of Silk Stockings, the social issue reflects as living wage is objectionable for her and she did not enjoy her way of living as a poor individual. In the story Senior Payroll, the social issue reflects as the company of the Indian workers did give the accurate way of orienting their laborers.
4.) How does the society react to the social issues?
46 In the short story How Grandpa Came into Money, the society reacts to the issues by just ignoring the less fortunate people. In the short story Abortion, the society reacts as committed to take a life of an innocent infant. In the short story The Euthanasia Machine, the society reacts as having the sense of sympathy, to the person who was virtually affected by the issue. In the short story Divorce, the society reacts as they just continue to do the things they want to occur. In the short story The Dilapidated Man, the society reacts as by just disregard the person that suffers poverty through out the system. In the short story The Game of Billiards, the society reacts, by just tolerating the circumstances without any form of against respond and complains to their higher officials. In the short story The Nightingale, the society reacts to the social issue by consistently situating the boy self-value by uttering some negative thoughts. In the short story Daughter for Sale, the society reacts by had, the sense of regrets yet does have the choice, by to do it in which they think is righteous. In the short story A Pair of Silk Stockings, the society reacts by speculation binds upon the people that imply negative views.
47 In the short story Senior Payroll, the society reacts by reasonably rebellion because they employ into lies.
Founded on the findings the following conclusion is drawn: In the problem number one, social issues in the short stories are poverty, abortion, euthanasia, divorce, poverty, taking advantage of higher position in the rank, discrimination of capability, poverty and white slavery, poverty, and dispossession of rights of the laborers are very unbridled and annoyance to society.
In the problem number two, the causes of the social issues are the following: unemployment, the dread of losing such dignity, could hardly bear to continue one’s life due to the endless pain, incompatibility of the couple in terms of decisions, personality, and character, due to the deficient in food and shelter, exploit his/her position as a power to do his will that is primarily negative, incapable of performing such whistling, owing to the debts of such person, deeming as a poor woman through all her life, did not give an accurate information and orientation of their laborers. The succeeding conclusion is drawn that social issue cannot subsist in the society without their causes like the states above.
48 In the problem number three, the social issue reflected as to pamper to the world of unemployment, consent to accept of what had happen to her life decided to die with his own will, two individual does not feel the blissfulness of being attach as one, undergoes the chain of being sunk to poor stage of living has the authority and permission to do what he wants to accomplish negatively, judging the person’s capability in a negative manner, does not have an option but to propel in illegal way of living, did not enjoy the way of living as a poor individual, workers did give the accurate way of orienting by the company. In the problem number four, the society’s reaction towards the social issues. Society reacts to the social issues by just by just ignoring the less fortunate people, committed to take a life of an innocent infant, to give such sympathy, to the person affected by the issue, do the things they want to occur , disregard the person that suffers poverty, any form of against respond and complains to their higher officials, situating the boy self-value by uttering some negative thoughts, left with no choice, by to do it in which to think is righteous, speculation binds with negative views, by reasonably rebellion because they employ into lies. About the society’s response it may implies negative or affirmative way but its human nature to act in response to any form of reaction.
In general, social issues are present in every civilization. These issues were established in the literary genre, short stories. These stories disclose the society’s reactions towards its social issue as well as relatively respond to their issue that occurs in the society.
49 Social issues also have various causes that founded by the social issues, which allocates in the society also the people living in the world are vulnerable enough by the toxic elements that arise in the society, particularly social issues. Finally, social issues are unbridled and annoyance in a society since the creation of humanity and continually in the present era.