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You are on page 1of 26

Written by: Ing. Veronika Vaneckova, Ph.D.

Edited by: Ing. Jir Laurin

Verze: 1.0-en

1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

www.nesotware.eu

INTRODUCTION

This Gravity Wall program Verication Manual contains hand-made calculation of

following problems:

calculation of earth pressures

calculation of hydrodynamic pressure

verication of the wall with the help of theory of limit states

dimensioning of wall section according to EN 1992-1-1 [1]

verication of the wall inuenced by earthquake according to Mononobe-Okabe

theory [2], [3]

In general this Verication Manual has been made to show the ability of the GEO5

software to provide a solution consistent with the result of hand-made calculations or

textbook solutions.

Results of hand-made calculations are compared with the results from GEO5 Gravity

Wall program.

For further details please refer to our verication example le (Demo.gtz download

http://www.nesoftware.eu/references/verication-manuals/) using our program GEO5

Gravity Wall (http://www.nesoftware.eu/geotechnical-software/gravity-wall/).

Contents

1 Example 1 1

1.1 Problem description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Verication of the whole wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.3 Bearing capacity of the foundation soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.4 Dimensioning - analysis of wall section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.5 Verication of the wall - inuence of earthquake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.6 Bearing capacity of the foundation soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Reference 23

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

1 Example 1

1.1 Problem description

In Fig. 1 is shown example of gravity wall with inclined footing bottom (inclination

1:10). Earth body is compounded from two soil layers and terrain is inclined (1:10).

Top layer (depth 1.5 m) is formed from sandy silt (MS), lower layer is clayey sand

(SC) at front face and back face of the wall. Groundwater table is in the level of layer

SC, i.e. 1.5 m behind the wall and 3.7 m in front of the wall. Soil properties (eective

parameters) are mentioned in the Tab. 1. Wall is made from plain concrete (bulk weight

= 23 kN/m

3

). Verication analysis of the wall is performed with the help of theory of

limit states.

Figure 1: Wall - geometry

Soil parameters (angle of friction and cohesion) are reduced by coecients

m

= 1.1 a

mc

= 1.4. Design values used in calculation are in Tab. 2.

1.2 Verication of the whole wall

Calculation of weight and centroid of the wall. Wall is divided into 5 parts (Fig. 1).

Parts 4 and 5 are under groundwater table, therefore bulk weight of concrete is reduced,

www.nesotware.eu 1 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

MS SC

bulk weight 18.000 18.500 [kN/m

3

]

bulk weight of satur. soil

sat

20.000 20.500 [kN/m

3

]

angle of internal friction 26.500 27.000 [

]

cohesion c 12.000 8.000 [kPa]

angle of friction struc-soil 15.000 15.000 [

]

Poisson ratio 0.350 0.350 -

Table 1: Soil properties - eective values

MS SC

angle of internal friction

d

24.091 24.545 [

]

cohesion c

d

8.571 5.714 [kPa]

angle of friction struc-soil

d

13.636 13.636 [

]

Table 2: Design parameters of soil

i.e. = 23 - 10 = 13 kN/m

3

. In the Tab. 3 are shown dimensions of the parts of the

wall, their weights and centroids.

height width area b. weight weight force point of action

block h

i

[m] w

i

[m] A

i

[m

2

] [kN/m

3

] W

i

[kN/m] x

i

[m] z

i

[m] W

i

x

i

W

i

z

i

1 0.350 0.700 2.450 23 56.350 1.950 -2.550 109.883 -143.693

2 0.350 0.700 1.225 23 28.175 1.367 -1.967 38.506 -55.411

3 0.200 2.300 0.460 23 10.580 1.150 -0.700 12.167 -7.406

4 0.600 2.300 1.380 13 17.940 1.150 -0.300 20.631 -5.382

5 0.230 2.300 0.265 13 3.439 1.533 0.077 5.272 0.264

TOTAL 116.484 186.459 -211.628

Table 3: Weight of construction and centroids of its parts

Centroid of the construction:

x =

5

i=1

W

i

x

i

W

=

186.459

116.484

= 1.601 m

z =

5

i=1

W

i

z

i

W

=

211.628

116.484

= 1.817 m

Calculation of front face resistance. Depth of soil in front of the wall is 0.6 m.

Pressure at rest is considered.

For cohesive soils the Terzaghi formula is used for computing of coecient of earth

pressure at rest Kr:

www.nesotware.eu 2 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

K

r

=

1

=

0.35

1 0.35

= 0.538

Hydraulic gradient (h

w

- water tables dierence, d

d

- seepage path downwards, d

u

- seepage path upwards):

i =

h

w

d

d

+ d

u

=

3.7 1.5

3.03 + 0.6

= 0.606

Unit weight of soil in the area of ascending ow:

=

sat

w

i

w

= 20.5 10 0.606 10 = 4.439 kN/m

3

Vertical normal eective stress

z

in the footing bottom:

z

= h = 4.439 0.6 = 2.664 kPa

Pressure at rest

r

in the footing bottom:

r

= K

r

z

= 0.538 2.664 = 1.434 kPa

Resultant force of stress at rest S

r

:

S

r

=

1

2

r

h =

1

2

1.434 0.6 = 0.430 kN/m

Resultant force S

r

is horizontally oriented, therefore:

S

rx

= S

r

= 0.430 kN/m S

rz

= 0 kN/m

Point of action of resultant force S

r

:

x = 0 m

z =

h

3

=

0.6

3

= 0.200 m

Calculation of active pressure. Construction is at interface between soils MS and SC

divided into two levels, in each is calculated geostatic pressure

z

, active pressure

a

and resultant force S

a

(Fig. 2).

www.nesotware.eu 3 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

Figure 2: Geostatic pressure

z

and active pressure

a

Coecients of the active pressure in both levels (back face inclination of the struc-

ture = 0

, inclination of terrain = 0

):

K

a

=

cos

2

(

d

)

cos

2

cos( +

d

)

1 +

sin(

d

+

d

)sin(

d

)

cos(+

d

)cos()

2

K

ac

=

cos

d

cos cos(

d

) (1 + tan() tan )

(1 + sin(

d

+

d

)) (cos +

d

)

1

= arctan

1

10

= 5.711

K

a1

=

cos

2

24.091

cos 13.636

1 +

sin(24.091+13.636)sin(24.0915.711)

cos 13.636cos(5.711)

2

= 0.410

K

ac1

=

cos 24.091 cos 5.711 cos 13.636 (1 + tan 0 tan 5.711)

(1 + sin(24.091 + 13.636 5.711)) cos 13.636

= 0.594

www.nesotware.eu 4 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

2

= arctan

1

tan

1

2

= arctan

18 tan 5.711

18.5

= 5.557

K

a2

=

cos

2

24.545

cos 13.636

1 +

sin(24.545+13.636)sin(24.5455.557)

cos 13.636cos(5.557)

2

= 0.402

K

ac2

=

cos 24.545 cos 5.557 cos 13.636 (1 + tan 0 tan 5.557)

(1 + sin(24.545 + 13.636 5.557)) cos 13.636

= 0.588

Unit weight of soil SC in the area of descending ow:

2

=

sat

w

+ i

w

= 20.5 10 + 0.606 10 = 16.561 kN/m

3

Vertical geostatic stress

z

in 2 levels:

z1

=

1

h

1

= 18 1.5 = 27.000 kPa

z2

=

z1

+

2

h

2

= 27 + 16.561 3.03 = 77.179 kPa

Active pressure

a

in 2 levels:

a1

= K

a1

z1

2 c

d1

K

ac1

= 0.410 27.000 2 8.571 0.594 = 0.886 kPa

a2a

= K

a2

z1

2 c

d2

K

ac2

= 0.402 27.000 2 5.714 0.588 = 4.121 kPa

a2b

= K

a2

z2

2 c

d2

K

ac2

= 0.402 77.179 2 5.714 0.588 = 24.274 kPa

Depth h

0

in the rst layer of soil MS, where is neutral active pressure (

a

= 0 kPa):

h

0

=

2 c

d1

K

ac1

1

K

a1

=

2 8.571 0.594

18 0.410

= 1.380 m

Resultant forces of the active pressure S

a

and horizontal, resp. vertical components:

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Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

S

a1

= 0.5

a1

(h

1

h

0

) = 0.5 0.886 (1.5 1.38) = 0.053 kN/m

S

ax1

= S

a1

cos

d1

= 0.053 cos 13.636 = 0.052 kN/m

S

az1

= S

a1

sin

d1

= 0.053 sin 13.636 = 0.013 kN/m

S

a2

= 0.5 (

a2b

a2a

) h

2

+

a2a

h

2

S

a2

= 0.5 (24.274 4.121) 3.03 + 4.121 3.03 = 43.019 kN/m

S

ax2

= S

a2

cos

d2

= 43.019 cos 13.636 = 41.807 kN/m

S

az2

= S

a2

sin

d2

= 43.019 sin 13.636 = 10.142 kN/m

Points of action of resultant forces S

a

:

x

1

= 2.300 m

z

1

= 0.8 2

(1.5 1.38)

3

= 2.840 m

x

2

= 2.300 m

z

2

=

1

6

3.03

2

(24.274 4.121) +

1

2

3.03

2

4.121

1

2

3.03 (24.274 4.121) + 3.03 4.121

+ 0.23 = 0.927 m

Total resultant force of the active pressure S

a

and horizontal, resp. vertical com-

ponent:

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Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

S

ax

=

2

i=1

S

axi

= 0.052 + 41.807 = 41.859 kN/m

S

az

=

2

i=1

S

azi

= 0.013 + 10.142 = 10.155 kN/m

S

a

=

S

2

ax

+ S

2

az

=

41.859

2

+ 10.155

2

= 43.073 kN/m

Point of action of the resultant force S

a

:

x =

2

i=1

S

azi

x

i

S

az

=

0.029 + 23.327

10.155

= 2.300 m

z =

2

i=1

S

axi

z

i

S

ax

=

0.147 38.738

41.859

= 0.929 m

Calculation of water pressure. The heel of a structure is sunk into permeable subsoil,

which allows free water ow below the structure. Therefore acting of hydrodynamic

pressure is considered and its resultant force is calculated (Fig. 3).

Horizontal water pressure

w

at interface of level 1 and 2:

w1

=

w

h

1

= 10 2.2 = 22.000 kPa

Resultant forces of water pressure S

w

in 2 levels:

S

w1

=

1

2

w1

h

1

=

1

2

22 2.2 = 24.200 kN/m

S

w2

=

1

2

w1

h

2

=

1

2

22 0.83 = 9.130 kN/m

Points of action of resultant forces:

x

1

= 2.300 m z

1

= 0.6

2.2

3

= 1.333 m

www.nesotware.eu 7 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

Figure 3: Hydrodynamic pressure

w

x

2

= 2.300 m z

2

= 0.6 +

0.83

3

= 0.323 m

Total resultant force of the water pressure S

w

:

S

w

=

2

i=1

S

wi

= 24.2 + 9.130 = 33.330 kN/m

Total point of action of the resultant force S

w

:

x = 2.300 m

z =

2

i=1

S

wi

z

i

S

w

=

32.267 2.952

33.330

= 1.057 m

Checking for overturning stability. The moment rotates around the beginning of

system of coordinates (left bottom corner of the footing).

Resisting moment M

r

is reduced by coecient of overall stability of structure

s

= 0.9:

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Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

M

r

= 0.9 (116.484 1.601 + 10.155 2.3) = 188.833 kNm/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: M

r

= 188.83 kNm/m

Driving moment M

o

:

M

o

= 0.430 0.2 + 41.859 0.929 + 33.33 1.057 = 74.017 kNm/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: M

o

= 74.02 kNm/m

Usage:

V

u

=

M

o

M

r

100 =

74.017

188.833

100 = 39.2 % O.K.

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 39.2 % O.K.

Checking for slip. Slip in the inclined footing bottom is checked. (Fig. 4).

Figure 4: Forces acting in the footing bottom - normal and shear soil reaction N and T, total

vertical and horizontal forces acting on the structure F

vert

and F

hor

Total vertical and horizontal forces F

vert

and F

hor

:

F

vert

= 116.484 + 10.155 = 126.638 kN/m

www.nesotware.eu 9 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

F

hor

= 0.430 + 41.859 + 33.330 = 74.758 kN/m

Normal force in the footing bottom (inclination of footing bottom

b

= 5.711

, see

Fig. 4):

N = F

vert

cos

b

+ F

hor

sin

b

N = 126.638 cos 5.711 + 74.758 sin 5.711 = 133.449 kN/m

Shear reaction in the footing bottom:

T = F

vert

sin

b

+ F

hor

cos

b

T = 126.638 sin 5.711 + 74.758 cos 5.711 = 61.786 kN/m

Eccentricity of the normal force (inclined width of the footing bottom d = 2.311

m):

e =

d

2

M

r

0.9

M

o

N

=

2.311

2

188.830

0.9

74.017

133.449

= 0.138 m

Maximal allowable eccentricity:

e

alw

=

d

3

=

2.311

3

= 0.770 m > e = 0.138 m O.K.

Resisting force H

r

:

H

r

=

s

(N tan

d

+ c

d

(d 2 e))

H

r

= 0.9 (133.449 tan 24.545 + 5.714 (2.311 2 0.138)) = 65.316 kN/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: H

r

= 65.38 kN/m

Driving force H

d

:

www.nesotware.eu 10 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

H

d

= T = 61.786 kN/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: H

d

= 61.79 kN/m

Usage:

V

u

=

H

d

H

r

100 =

61.786

65.316

100 = 94.6 % O.K.

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 94.5 % O.K.

1.3 Bearing capacity of the foundation soil

Bearing capacity of the foundation soil is set as R

d

= 100 kPa and is compared with

stress in the inclined footing bottom.

Usage - eccentricity:

V

u

=

e

e

alw

100 =

0.138

0.770

100 = 17.9 % O.K.

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 17.4 % O.K.

Stress in the footing bottom:

=

N

(d 2 e)

=

133.449

(2.311 2 0.138)

= 65.570 kPa

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: = 65.20 kPa

Usage:

V

u

=

R

d

100 =

65.570

100

100 = 65.57 % O.K.

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 65.2 % O.K.

1.4 Dimensioning - analysis of wall section

Cross-section in the level of the x-axis in Fig. 5 is analysed. Rectangular section (width

b = 1 m, height h = 1.4 m) is made from plain concrete C20/25 (characteristic strength

of concrete in tension f

ctk

= 2200 kPa, characteristic cylindrical strength of concrete in

compression f

ck

= 20000 kPa). Verication of cross-section made from plain concrete is

realized according to EN 1992 1-1 [1].

www.nesotware.eu 11 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

Figure 5: Dimensioning of cross-section

Calculation of weight and centroid of the wall. Weight of the construction:

W = 23 (3.5 0.7 + 0.5 3.5 0.7) = 84.525 m

Centroid of the construction:

x =

23 (3.5 0.7 (0.7 + 0.35) + 0.5 3.5 0.7

2 0.7

3

)

84.525

= 0.856 m

z =

23 (3.5 0.7

3.5

2

+ 0.5 3.5 0.7

3.5

3

)

84.525

= 1.556 m

Calculation of active pressure. In the rst level is same active pressure as in the

verication of the whole wall (part 1.2). Centroids of all forces are recalculated.

Vertical geostatic stress

z2

in the second level:

z2

= 27.0 + 16.561 2 = 60.121 kPa

Active pressure

a2b

at the end of second level (value at the beginning is same, i.e.

a2a

= 4.121 kPa):

a2b

= 0.402 60.121 2 5.714 0.588 = 17.424 kPa

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Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

Resultant force of the active pressure S

a2

and horizontal, resp. vertical component:

S

a2

= 0.5 (17.424 4.121) 2 + 4.121 2 = 21.545 kN/m

S

ax2

= S

a2

cos

d2

= 21.545 cos 13.636 = 20.938 kN/m

S

az2

= S

a2

sin

d2

= 21.545 sin 13.636 = 5.079 kN/m

Points of action of resultant forces:

x

1

= 1.400 m z

1

= 2.84 + 0.8 = 2.040 m

x

2

= 1.400 m

z

2

=

0.5 4.121 2

2

+

1

6

(17.424 4.121) 2

2

4.121 2 + 0.5 (17.424 4.121) 2

= 0.794 m

Total resultant force of the active pressure S

a

and horizontal, resp. vertical com-

ponent:

S

ax

= 20.989 kN/m S

az

= 5.092 kN/m S

a

= 21.598 kN/m

Point of action of resultant force S

a

:

x = 1.400 m z =

2.040 0.052 0.794 20.938

21.598

= 0.797 m

Calculation of water pressure. Water pressure grows with height (h = 2 m).

Horizontal water pressure

w

in the level of analysed cross-section:

w

=

w

h = 10 2 = 20.000 kPa

Resultant force of the water pressure S

w

:

S

w

=

1

2

w

h =

1

2

20 2 = 20.000 kN/m

www.nesotware.eu 13 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

Point of action of the resultant force:

x = 2.300 m

z =

2

3

= 0.667 m

Verication of shear strength. Shear and normal force, bending moment and shear

strength of cross-section are calculated.

Design shear force:

V

Ed

= 20.989 + 20 = 40.989 kN/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

Ed

= 40.94 kN/m

Design normal force:

N

Ed

= 84.525 + 5.092 = 89.617 kN/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: N

Ed

= 89.57 kN/m

Area of cross-section:

A

cc

= b h = 1 1.4 = 1.4 m

2

Stress in cross-section area:

cp

=

N

Ed

A

cc

1000

=

89.617

1.4 1000

= 0.064 MPa

Design strength of concrete in compression (coecients

cc.pl

= 0.8,

c

= 1.5):

f

cd

=

cc.pl

f

ck

c

= 0.8

20

1.5

= 10.667 MPa

Lower value of characteristic strength of concrete in tension:

f

ctk.005

= 0.7 (0.3 f

2

3

ck

) = 0.7 (0.3 20

2

3

) = 1.547 MPa

Design strength of concrete in tension (coecients

ct.pl

= 0.8,

c

= 1.5):

f

ctd

=

ct.pl

f

ctk.005

c

= 0.8

1.547

1.5

= 0.825 MPa

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Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

Limit stress:

c.lim

= f

cd

2

f

ctd

(f

cd

+ f

fctd

)

c.lim

= 10.667 2

Shear strength:

f

cvd

=

f

2

ctd

+

cp

f

ctd

max(0,

cp

c.lim

)

2

2

f

cvd

=

0.825

2

+ 0.064 0.825

0

2

2

= 0.857 MPa

Design shear strength (k = 1.5):

V

Rd

=

f

cvd

A

cc

k

=

0.857 1.4

1.5

= 799.523 kN/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

Rd

= 799.37 kN/m

Usage:

V

u

=

V

Ed

V

Rd

100 =

40.989

799.523

100 = 5.1 % O.K.

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 5.1 % O.K.

Verication of cross-section loaded by bending moment and normal force. Mo-

ment turns around the cross-section centroid.

Design bending moment:

M

Ed

= 84.525 (0.856 0.7) 5.092 0.7 +20.989 0.797 +20 0.667 = 13.355 kN/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: M

Ed

= 13.32 kNm/m

Normal force eccentricity:

e =

M

Ed

N

Ed

=

13.355

89.617

= 0.149 m

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Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

0.9

h

2

= 0.9

1.4

2

= 0.63 m > e = 0.149 m

Eective height:

= h 2 e = 1.4 2 0.149 = 1.102 m

Design normal strength ( = 1.0):

N

Rd

= f

cd

= 1.102 1 10.667 = 11754.239 kN/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: N

Rd

= 11758.56 kN/m

Usage:

V

u

=

N

Ed

N

Rd

100 =

89.617

11754.239

100 = 0.8 % O.K.

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 0.8 % O.K.

1.5 Verication of the wall - inuence of earthquake

Second stage of calculation shows the same wall with the inuence of earthquake. Calcu-

lation of earthquake eects is made according to Mononobe-Okabe theory [2], [3]. Factor

of horizontal acceleration is k

h

= 0.05 (inertia force acts horizontally in unfavorable di-

rection) and factor of vertical acceleration k

v

= 0.04 (inertia force acts downwards).

Coecients of reduction of soil parameters and coecient of overall stability of construc-

tion are equal to one (

m

=

mc

=

s

= 1.0). Therefore design soil properties are same

as characteristic values in Tab. 1.

Calculation of weight of the wall. Weight of the wall W = 116.484 kN/m (see part

1.2) is increased by weight force from earthquake.

Horizontal and vertical component of weight force from earthquake:

W

eq.x

= k

h

W = 0.05 116.484 = 5.824 kN/m

W

eq.z

= k

v

W = 0.04 116.484 = 4.659 kN/m

www.nesotware.eu 16 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

Calculation of front face resistance. Pressure at rest on front face of the wall is

considered same as in part 1.2, i.e. resultant force is S

r

= 0.430 kN/m.

Calculation of active pressure. Active pressure

a

and resultant force S

a

are calcu-

lated similarly as in the calculation without earthquake (part 1.2), geostatic stress

z

is

same, i.e.

z1

= 27.000 kPa and

z2

= 77.179 kPa.

Coecients of the active pressure in both levels:

K

a1

=

cos

2

26.50

cos 15

1 +

sin(26.5+15)sin(26.55.711)

cos 15cos(5.711)

2

= 0.371

K

ac1

=

cos 26.5 cos 5.711 cos 15 (1 + tan 0 tan 5.711)

(1 + sin(26.5 + 15 5.711)) cos 15

= 0.562

K

a2

=

cos

2

27

cos 15

1 +

sin(27+15)sin(275.557)

cos 15cos(5.557)

2

= 0.363

K

ac2

=

cos 27 cos 5.557 cos 15 (1 + tan 0 tan 5.557)

(1 + sin(27 + 15 5.557)) cos 15

= 0.556

Depth h

0

in the rst layer of soil MS, where is neutral active pressure (

a

= 0 kPa):

h

0

=

2 c

1

K

ac1

1

K

a1

=

2 12 0.562

18 0.371

= 2.019 m > h

1

= 1.5 m

Active pressure is in the whole rst level equal to zero.

Active pressure

a

in the second layer of soil SC:

a2a

= K

a2

z1

2 c

2

K

ac2

= 0.363 27 2 8 0.556 = 0.903 kPa

a2b

= K

a2

z2

2 c

2

K

ac2

= 0.363 77.179 2 8 0.556 = 19.126 kPa

Total resultant force of the active pressure S

a

and horizontal, resp. vertical com-

ponent:

www.nesotware.eu 17 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

S

a

= 0.5 (

a2b

a2a

) h

2

+

a2a

h

2

S

a

= 0.5 (19.126 0.903) 3.03 + 0.903 3.03 = 30.344 kN/m

S

ax

= S

a

cos

2

= 30.344 cos 15 = 29.310 kN/m

S

az

= S

a

sin

2

= 30.344 sin 15 = 7.854 kN/m

Point of action of the resultant force:

x = 2.300 m

z =

1

6

3.03

2

(19.126 0.903) +

1

2

3.03

2

0.903

1

2

3.03 (19.126 0.903) + 3.03 0.903

+ 0.23 = 0.826 m

Increase of active pressure caused by earthquake. Earthquake increases the eect

of active pressure.

Seismic inertia angle in the rst layer of soil MS:

1

= arctan

k

h

1 k

v

= arctan

0.05

1 + 0.04

= 2.752

Seismic inertia angle in the second layer of soil SC, where is restricted water:

2

= arctan

sat

k

h

(

sat

w

) (1 k

v

)

= arctan

20.5 0.05

(20.5 10) (1 + 0.04)

= 5.362

Coecients K

ae

for the active pressure in both levels:

K

ae

=

cos

2

( )

cos cos

2

cos( + + )

1 +

sin(+)sin()

cos(++)cos()

2

www.nesotware.eu 18 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

K

ae1

=

cos

2

(26.5 2.752)

cos 2.752 cos(2.752 + 15)

1 +

sin(26.5+15)sin(26.52.7525.711)

cos(2.752+15)cos(5.711)

2

= 0.410

K

ae2

=

cos

2

(27 5.362)

cos 5.362 cos(5.362 + 15)

1 +

sin(27+15)sin(275.3625.557)

cos(5.362+15)cos(5.557)

2

= 0.443

Normal stress

d

for calculation of earthquake eects (stress grows from the bottom

of the wall -

d2

is in the footing bottom level and

d0

is in the terrain level):

d2

= 0 kPa

d1

=

2

h

2

(1 k

v

) = 16.561 3.03 (1 + 0.04) = 52.186 kPa

d0

=

d1

+

1

h

1

(1 k

v

) = 52.186 + 18 1.5 (1 + 0.04) = 80.266 kPa

Increase of the active pressure from earthquake eects in the rst layer of soil MS:

ae0

=

d0

(K

ae1

K

a1

)

1 k

v

= 80.266

(0.410 0.371)

1 + 0.04

= 3.014 kPa

ae1a

=

d1

(K

ae1

K

a1

)

1 k

v

= 52.186

(0.410 0.371)

1 + 0.04

= 1.959 kPa

Increase of the active pressure from earthquake eects in the second layer of soil

SC:

ae1b

=

d1

(K

ae2

K

a2

)

1 k

v

= 52.186

(0.443 0.363)

1 + 0.04

= 4.003 kPa

ae2

= 0 kPa

Resultant forces of increase of the active pressure S

ae

and horizontal, resp. vertical

components:

www.nesotware.eu 19 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

S

ae1

= 0.5 (

ae0

ae1a

) h

1

+

ae1a

h

1

S

ae1

= 0.5 (3.014 1.959) 1.5 + 1.959 1.5 = 3.730 kN/m

S

aex1

= S

ae1

cos

1

= 3.730 cos 15 = 3.603 kN/m

S

aez1

= S

ae1

sin

1

= 3.730 sin 15 = 0.965 kN/m

S

ae2

= 0.5

ae1b

h

2

= 0.5 4.003 3.03 = 6.064 kN/m

S

aex2

= S

ae2

cos

2

= 6.064 cos 15 = 5.857 kN/m

S

aez2

= S

ae2

sin

2

= 6.064 sin 15 = 1.569 kN/m

Points of action of resultant forces:

x

1

= 2.300 m

z

1

= 2.8

1

2

1.5

2

1.959 +

1

3

1.5

2

(3.014 1.959)

1.5 1.959 + 0.5 1.5 (3.014 1.959)

= 3.603 m

x

2

= 2.300 m

z

2

= 0.23

2

3

3.03 = 1.790 m

Total resultant force of increase of the active pressure S

ae

and horizontal, resp.

vertical component:

www.nesotware.eu 20 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

S

aex

=

2

i=1

S

aexi

= 3.603 + 5.857 = 9.460 kN/m

S

aez

=

2

i=1

S

aezi

= 0.965 + 1.569 = 2.535 kN/m

S

ae

=

S

2

aex

+ S

2

aez

=

9.460

2

+ 2.535

2

= 9.794 kN/m

Point of action of the resultant force S

ae

:

x = 2.300 m

z =

2

i=1

S

aexi

z

i

S

aex

=

12.981 10.485

9.460

= 2.480 m

Calculation of water pressure. Water pressure is same as in the verication of the

whole wall (part 1.2), i.e. resultant force of the water pressure is S

w

= 33.330 kN/m.

Checking for overturning stability. The moment rotates around the beginning of

system of coordinates (left bottom corner of the footing).

Resisting moment M

r

:

M

r

= (116.484 + 4.659) 1.601 + (7.854 + 2.535) 2.3 = 217.810 kNm/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: M

r

= 217.83 kNm/m

Driving moment M

o

:

M

o

= 0.430.2+29.310.826+9.462.48+33.331.057+5.8241.817 = 93.377 kNm/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: M

o

= 93.43 kNm/m

Usage:

V

u

=

M

o

M

r

100 =

93.377

217.810

100 = 42.9 % O.K.

www.nesotware.eu 21 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 42.9 % O.K.

Checking for slip. Slip in the inclined footing bottom is checked. (Fig. 4).

Total vertical and horizontal forces F

vert

and F

hor

:

F

vert

= 116.484 + 4.659 + 7.854 + 2.535 = 131.531 kN/m

F

hor

= 0.430 + 29.310 + 9.460 + 33.330 + 5.824 = 77.494 kN/m

Normal force in the footing bottom (inclination of footing bottom

b

= 5.711

, see

Fig. 4):

N = 131.531 cos 5.711 + 77.494 sin 5.711 = 138.589 kN/m

Shear reaction in the footing bottom:

T = 131.531 sin 5.711 + 77.494 cos 5.711 = 64.022 kN/m

Eccentricity of the normal force (inclined width of the footing bottom d = 2.311

m):

e =

d

2

M

r

M

o

N

=

2.311

2

217.810 93.43

138.589

= 0.258 m

Maximal allowable eccentricity:

e

alw

=

d

3

=

2.311

3

= 0.770 m > e = 0.258 m O.K.

Resisting force H

r

:

H

r

= 138.589 tan 27 + 8 (2.311 2 0.258) = 84.981 kN/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: H

r

= 85.07 kN/m

Driving force H

d

:

H

d

= T = 64.022 kN/m

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: H

d

= 64.05 kN/m

www.nesotware.eu 22 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

Verication Manual GEO5 Gravity Wall

Usage:

V

u

=

H

d

H

r

100 =

64.022

84.981

100 = 75.3 % O.K.

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 75.3 % O.K.

1.6 Bearing capacity of the foundation soil

Bearing capacity of the foundation soil is set as R

d

= 100 kPa and is compared with

stress in the inclined footing bottom.

Usage - eccentricity:

V

u

=

e

e

alw

100 =

0.258

0.770

100 = 33.5 % O.K.

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 33.1 % O.K.

Stress in the footing bottom:

=

N

(d 2 e)

=

138.589

(2.311 2 0.258)

= 77.178 kPa

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: = 76.72 kPa

Usage:

V

u

=

R

d

100 =

77.178

100

100 = 77.2 % O.K.

Result from program GEO5 Gravity Wall: V

u

= 76.7 % O.K.

References

[1] Czech normalization institute: EN 1992-1-1, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete

structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. CNI, Prague, 2006

[2] Mononobe N., Matsuo, H.: On the determination of earth pressure during

earthquakes. In Proc. Of the World Engineering Conf., Vol. 9, pg. 176, 1929

[3] Okabe S.: General theory of earth pressure. Journal of the Japanese Society of

Civil Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1926

www.nesotware.eu 23 1989 - 2009 Fine Ltd.

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