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1.What is meant by FAN-IN & FAN-OUT? The fan-in of a digital logic gate refers to the number of inputs. A logic designer has to select the fan-in to accommodate the number of inputs.e.g. a 2 input NOR gate has a fan-in of 2. Fanout is defined as the maximum number of inputs of the same IC family that the gate can drive maintaining its output levels within the specified limit. 2.What is noise margin? The noise margin allows the digital circuit to function properly if noise voltages are within the limits of Vnh and Vnl for a particular logic family. The noise immunity of a logic circuit refers to the circuits ability to tolerate the noise without causing spurious changes in the output voltage. 3.What is the propagation delay? Propagation delay is otherwise called as Gate delay. It is basically the time interval between the application of an input pulse and the occurrence of the resulting output pulse, at the time same it limits the speed at which they can operate. 4.What is power dissipation? The amount of power than an IC can dissipates when an certain amount of electrical power is applied for the operation. This power is supplied by one or more power supply voltages connected the power pin(s) on the chip. 5.Define TTL. It is abbreviated as Transistor transistor logic, TTL is named for its dependence on transistors alone to perform basic logic operations in saturation mode. 6.Define ECL. Emitter Coupled Logic has been developed which prevents transistor saturation,thereby increasing overall switching speed by using a radically different circuits structure, called Current Mode Logic(CML). 7.Define RTL. It is abbreviated as Register Transfer Logic which uses Registers as a primitive component in the digit system instead of flip-flops. It is also described as the information flow and processing tasks among the data stored in the registers in a concise and precise manner.
8.Define Tri-State TTL. The tristate configuration is a third type of TTL output configuration. It utilizes the high-speed operation of the totem-pole arrangement while permitting outputs to be wired-ANDed(connected together).TTL allows three possible output stages: HIGH, LOW and low impedance. 9.What is totem-pole? capacitance is rapidly charged or discharged through the low output impedance. Totem pole transistor are used because they produce a LOW output impedance. This means that the output voltage can change quickly from one state to the other because any stray output 10.Define Schottky TTL. Schottky Diode is that it has very little capacitance and fast recovery time. So it can be switched rapidly without storage time delays. Hence Schottky TTL uses smaller resistor values to help improve switching times. This increase the average power dissipation to about 20mW. 11.Explain the TTL characteristics. a.The operation of input circuit is similar to the DTL gate. b.A typical transfer characteristics is as the input voltage is increased from zero, the output remains constant till the input approaches one diode drop. c.The TTL output characteristics is when the output stage of TTL serves as a source of current to the load. 12. Explain the characteristics of ECL.(or)What are the advantages of ECL over TTL? a. It is the fastest of logic families. The popular 10K and 100K ECL families offer propagation delay as short as 1ns. b. Transistor are not allowed to go into the completer saturation and thus eliminates the storage delays. c.Switching transients are less because power supply current is more stable than in TTL and CMOS circuits. 13.What are the disadvantages of ECL. a.As logic levels are kept close to each other, noise margin is reduced and it is difficult to achieve good noise immunity. b.Power consumption is more because transistors are not completely saturated.
Logic flexibility. 17.What are the restrictions of totem-pole circuits in open collector TTL IC? They are not suitable for the following areas.14. d.Operating speed. The fan out capability of the gate is governed by its sourcing and sinking characteristics. so that it find use in industrial applications. resulting in improved noise immunity. a. CMOS circuit contains both NMOS and PMOS devices to speed the switching of capacitive loads. a. 16. But the difference is the gate is a source for any succeeding circuits when its output is in 1 state and it is a sink when its output is in 0 state. which is almost an extension of discrete logic circuits. This is belongs to DTL IC family.Supply voltage.Fan-in and Fan-out. It makes use of diodes and BJTs.Operating speed: Slower than TTL series. 20. c. 19. f. The DTL is a low-cost saturated logic type digital IC family.What is the difference between Current Source and Current Sink.Extending the gates to perform complex functions in an IC chip. g.Define HTL. a. logic applications.Define DTL. b. It consumes low power and can be operated at high voltages.Power dissipation.(25ns to 100ns) b. Each input terminal of the gate has to sink 2mA(maximum) when it has to be in 0 state as compared to less than 1 microamps when sourcing for 1 state.Availability of complex functions. . e.Define CMOS. 15.Every CMOS is vulnerable to the building up of electrical charge on its insulated gate. 18.Explain the characteristics of Digital IC. but is specially designed for high threshold(HTL) or high noise immunity(HNL).Noise immunity and Noise generation.Sketch the typical CMOS characteristics.
Epitaxial growth. DTL-Diode Transistor Logic HTL-High threshold Logic.uses both P. both pnp and npn.Diffusion.Driving non-standard loads(e.Isolation Technique. 21. g. 24.NOR.What are the process involving in IC fabrication? a. a. d.uses only P-channel enhancement MOSFETs.channel devices.OR-tieing of output leads of different gates to perform additional functions.The circuit is similar to RTL. c. h. Its important features are: a. ECL-Emitter Coupled Logic. i.Ion implantation. this process is quite attractive for LSI/VLSI realization.except that there are no base resistors used.What are the advantages and disadvantages of DTL? ADVANTAGES: a.Metallisation.NAND.PMOS.Oxidation.What are the types of digital IC families. c.Exclusive-OR. b. b. 25. e. 22.The circuit uses BJTs.etc are available.g. b.Compatability with TTL ICs: this improves flexibility in system design.Classify the basic families of MOS. Therefore the operating speed is quite high.Availability of many functions:AND.and N. TTL-Transistor transistor Logic. RTL-Resistor Transistor Logic. b.What is I^2L IC’s? It is abbreviated as Integrated Injection Logic(IIL).Wafer preparation.OR.b. f. 23. sometimes also called as Merged Transistor Logic(MTL).NMOS-uses only N-channel enhancement MOSFETs.Assembly and Packaging.electromechanical relays). c. .CMOS(complementary MOS.Photolithography.
High power dissipation.Counters. high voltage switches.High cost.Power dissipation is very less c. DISADVANTAGES: a. 27. required current sourcing and sinking capabilities may exceed than those provided by standard TTL. Useful for SSI.List the application of HTL.Compatability with discrete circuits.etc.Low noise immunity.Low operating speed. So the buffer ICs used for increasing the sinking ad sourcing capability of bus are called bus drivers. . c.What is the use BUS DRIVERS in TTL? When devices are more.therefore not usefull in industrial applications. d.etc. what are the application of DTL? a. 26. 29.Ease of interfacing with discrete circuits. It is useful for all circuit applications in industrial environment employing motors.The input cannot be left open.Small computers.Limited operating speed. linear ICs and electromechanical components. b. when the output circuit load is passive.What are the advantage and disadvantages of HTL? ADVANTAGES: a. c.c.Low power dissipation.Wired Output capability. DISADVANTAGES: a. d.ON-OFF control circuits. b. 30. b.typically 50.Fan out is more than TTL. b.What is the difference between CMOS and TTL? CMOS: a.shift registers. 28. b. c.Instrumentation.High temperature sensitivity of threshold voltage.
d. d.Operations. TTL: a. b.Power dissipation is more than CMOS.The presentation of digital functions in register transfer function logic is very user friendly. Less susceptible to noise.List the basic components to describe the RTL.but it is constant depend on switching speed. b. 31.Registers and their functions.Information.Control function.List the advantage of RTL.How the impurity doping is controlled during the IC fabrication? The impurity doping is controlled by varying the concentration of chlorides of impurity elements in the epitaxial reaction chamber. d. c. a. 31.It describes the information flow which is very concise and precise in manner. a.Fan out for TTL is 10.More susceptible to noise. . b.The input can be left open. 32. c.
small input offset current 5. versatility. Discuss the functions of buffer and level shifting stage in op-amp. • Power and signal sources • Measuring and display systems. Small input offset voltage.amp. 6. What are the applications of op-amp? Because of their low cost. Define input offset voltage? The dc voltage. Define common mode gain of op-amp. 2. • Infinite voltage gain • Zero output impedance • Infinite input impedance • Zero offset voltage . ? The gain with which it amplifies the common mode signal to produce the output is called common mode gain of the differential amplifier it is denoted as Ac. Define the differential gain of op amp. when no signal is applied at the input terminals. 4.The input offset voltage depends on the temperature. small size. when the terminal is grounded. flexibility and dependability op-amps are used in the fields of. 3.to avoid loading on the sources. 2. Characteristics of ideal op.UNIT-II – OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER 1. which makes the output voltage zero. 6. The gain with which differential amplifier amplifies the difference between two input signals is called differential gain of differential amplifier. This prevents loading of the high gain stage. It is defined as the ratio of the differential voltage gain Ad to common mode voltage gain Ac. High CMRR. 4. Then the signal is given to the last stage which is the output stage. Ad = V0 / Vd. The buffer is usually an emitter follower whose input impedance is very high. High voltage gain. 8. 3. 7. Low input bias current. 5. Define CMRR? The ability of a differential amplifier to reject a common mode signal is expressed by a ratio called common mode rejection ratio denoted as CMRR. • Process control and instrumentation.? The basic requirements of input stage of an op amp are: 1. ? The level shifting stage brings the dc level down to ground potential. • Computers and communication systems. High input impedance. What are the basic requirements of input stage of an op-amp. is called input offset voltage.
when the other terminal is grounded is called input offset voltage. the op amp is generally not used as amplifier in the open loop configuration. Why op amp cannot be used in open loop configuration? Due to high open loop gain. 14. This indicates the inability of op amp to work as a linear small signal amplifier in the open loop mode. 11. By application of negative feedback. it can be increased to a desired value. 9.? • Open loop gain: it is the voltage gain of the op-amp when no feedback is applied. op amp either shows +V sat or –V sat level. which makes the output voltage zero. With the help of negative feedback. 10. Practically it is several thousands. keeping other power supply voltage constant.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Parameter Open loop voltage gain Output impedance Input impedance Input offset current Input offset voltage Bandwidth CMRR Slew rate Input bias current Power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) Practical value 2*10^5 75 ohms 2 m ohms 200 nano A 2 milli volt 1 meg hertz 90 dB 0. s. it can be reduced to a very small value like 1 or 2 ohms. • Improves stability • Reduces frequency distortion . Define PSRR. • Bandwidth: the bandwidth of practical op-amp in open loop configuration is very small. Write any three characteristics of practical op-amp. Define slew rate The slew rate is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage with time. • Output impedance: it is typically few hundred ohms.5 V/ micro sec 80 nano A 30 micro volt / V 13. • Input impedance: it is finite and typically greater than 1 M ohm. It is also called power supply sensitivity (PSS) 12. Hence. What is the advantage of negative feedback in op amp circuit? • Reduced Open loop gain. • Infinite slew rate. The power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) is defined as the ratio of the change in input offset voltage due to the change in supply voltage producing it. • Input offset voltage: the dc voltage. Write the practical value of the following of IC 741.• Infinite bandwidth • Infinite CMRR.
depending on which input is higher. This is the principle of virtual ground. low power consumption and some other features is called instrumentation amplifier. Define precision rectifier? The major limitation of rectifier circuit using diodes is that they cannot rectify the voltages below cut-in voltage of diodes. Write the operating modes of op amp? 1. Explain the principle of zero crossing detectors? The basic comparator can be used as the zero crossing detector i. the inverting terminal is also at ground potential. • Low dc offset • Low output impedance. 21. though there is no physical connection between the inverting terminal and the ground. 16. but most of the transducer outputs are generally of very low level signals such a low level signals are not sufficient to drive the next stage of the system. If the non inverting terminal is grounded by the concept of virtual short. • High gain accuracy • High CMRR • High gain stability with low temperature coefficient. . State the concept of virtual ground? This means the differential input voltage Vd between the non inverting and inverting input terminals is essentially zero.e. Closed loop configuration 17. 18. it compares the signal voltage applied at one input of an op amp with a known reference voltage at the other input. A circuit which used for the rectification of voltage below the cut-in voltage and provides the ideal diode characteristics is called precision rectifier. What is instrumentation amplifier? The measurement of the physical quantities is generally carried out with the help of a device called as transducer. and produces either a high or a low output voltage. high input impedance to avoid loading. hence the special amplifier which is used for such a low level amplification with high CMRR. 19. 20. Open loop configuration 2. What are the basic requirements in output stage of op amp? • Large output voltage and output current swing capability • Low output impedance • Shout circuit protection • Low quiescent power dissipation.. What are the important features of instrumentation amplifier? The important features of instrumentation amplifier are.• • It reduces the non linearity and noise in op amp Improves frequency response 15.
Define V – I and I – V converter? V-I converter: It is the circuit in which the output load current is proportional to the input voltage. 23. • The input impedance depends on the input impedance of non inverting amplifiers which is extremely high. • The CMRR of the op amp A3 is very high and most of the common mode signal will be rejected. It should have high input impedance in order to avoid the loading of input sources. • The gain variation is easy and precise.22. Why instrumentation amplifier should have high slew rate and input impedance? The slew rate of the instrumentation amplifier must be as high as possible to provide maximum undistorted output voltage swing. analog weight scale. • Various signal wave shaping circuits. What are the application of V-I converter? The various application of V-I converter are • Low voltage dc voltmeter • Low voltage ac voltmeter • Diode tester and match finder • Zener diode tester . List out the practical application of the integrator and differentiator? Integrator: • In the analog computers. What are other names of V-I converter and I-V converter? V-I converter is also known as Transresistance amplifier or voltage controlled current source. Depending upon the connection of load there are two types of V I converter namely floating load type and grounded load type I-V converter: It is the circuit in which the output voltage is proportional to input current. • As a rate-of –change detector in the FM demodulators. • In solving the differential equations. 26. light intensity meter. 25. • In analog to digital converters. • Gain depends on external resistances and hence can be adjusted accurately and made stable by selecting high quality resistances. 28. Mention the advantages of instrumentation amplifier using op amp? The advantages of this circuit are. • In ramp generators. temperature indicator. 24. Differentiator: • In the wave shaping circuits to detect the high frequency components in the input signal. 27. I-V converter is also known as Transconductance amplifier or current controlled voltage source. Write some applications of instrumentation amplifier? The instrumentation amplifier along with the transducer bridge can be used in many practical applications some of them are temperature controller.
To have output compatibility with digital devices op amp output must swing between two logic levels suitable for certain logic family. What are the applications of the analog multiplier? There is no. and negligible input offset current and input offset voltage. Phase detector. between saturation levels and also respond instantaneously to any change of condition at its input. and phase angle detection. Window detector. 32. The output obtained in this circuit is in natural logarithm to obtain the logarithm to base 10 proper scaling is to done. Define log and antilog Amplifier? Log amplifier: The circuit in which the output is obtained as the function of logarithm of the input voltage Vin is called log amplifier.Level detector. It can be indicated using LED’s. Duty cycle controller. 33. When compared to the log amplifier the position of diode and resistor are interchanged. To have better response time op amp output must switch rapidly. What are the applications of I-V converter? The I-V converters were used in photodiode detector. • It is used as sine to square wave generator. 34. photoFET detector. squaring of signals. Time marker generator. • In is used for on and off of controllers. Applications of Schmitt trigger circuit? • Schmitt triggers used for eliminating comparator chatter. . There are two types of comparator namely inverting comparator and non-inverting comparator. 35. What is comparator and write the type of comparator? A comparator is a circuit which compares a signal voltage applied at one input of an op amp with a known reference voltage at the other input. Zero crossing detector .4343 ln (X). high gain. • It is used in Wave shaping circuit. What is window detector? Window detector is used to mark the instant at which an unknown input is between two threshold levels. To have better comparator accuracy op amp must have CMRR. 2. 36. Log10 X = 0. 30.29. 3. Antilog amplifier: The log amplifier can be easily turned around to provide antilog or exponential function called as antilog amplifier. of applications of analog multiplier such as Frequency doublers. Pulse generator. 31. Application of the comparator? The various application of the comparator are. real power computation. Write the limitations of the op amp as comparator? 1. dividing and multiplying two signals. frequency shifting.
What is meant by linear regulator? In series regulators . 6. Define voltage regulator? Its an electronic circuit that provides a stable DC voltage independent of the load current. Define load regulation? The change in the output voltage for a change in load current and it is expressed in mV or percentage of V0.error amplifier 3.output voltage is fixed .6V. Since the transistor conducts the active or linear region. such as 5V.I0max : the load current may vary from zero to rated maximum output current.thermal shutdown: the IC has the temperature sensor which turns OFF the IC when it becomes too hot. 4. 10. Mention the examples of monolithic regulators? 78XX/79XX series and 723 general purpose regulators. Limitations of three terminal IC regulator? 1. What voltage options are available in 78XX/79XX voltage regulators? There are 7 options available.not short circuit protection. Define line/input regulation ? It is defined as the percentage change in the output voltage for a change in input voltage and it is expressed in mV. 2.24V.series pass transistor 4.feedback network 5. 8.12V.15V. Define ripple rejection? The IC regulator not only keeps the output voltage constant but also reduces the amount of ripple voltage. 4.series regulator 2. It is expressed in dB. 2.switching regulator 3.Analog IC application 1.the output voltage is controlled by the continuous voltage drop taking place across the series pass transistor.8V.UNIT – III. 11.V0 : the regulated output voltage is fixed at the value as specified by the manufacturer.reference voltage circuit 2. 12.18V. 7. 3. 9. What is the need of adjustable regulator? In the laboratory one may need variable regulated voltage or voltage that is not available as standard fixed voltage regulator. What are the characteristics of three terminal of IC regulators? 1.this regulators are also called linear regulators.the unregulated input voltage must be atleast 2V more than the regulated output voltage.this can be achieved by using a fixed three terminal regulator. What are the types of voltage regulators? 1. temperature and AC line voltage variations. Mention the parts of series regulators? 1. 2.
3.easier to build accurately as only two precision metal film resistors are required. 16. What are the 2 techniques used in DAC converter? Binary weighted resistor type R/2R ladder type.large values of filter capacitors are required to decrease the ripple. of binary weighted type ? V0= -VR(b12-1+b22-2+b32-3+…+bn2-n) 21.due to low line frequency .for smaller values the loading effect may occur.it has no short circuit current limits 14. . 17. In switched mode . 3. Limitations of IC 723? 1. What is meant by ADC converter? It’s a quantizing process whereby an analog signal is converted into equivalent binary word. node voltages remain constant with changing input binary words. 18. 3. 2. What is meant by DAC converter ? A DAC accepts an n-bit input word in binary and produce an analog signal proportional to it. 20. Limitations of linear voltage regulator? 1. What are the drawbacks of binary weighted type? 1. Write the output voltage eq.the wide range of resistors has restrictions on both higher and lower ends. What is meant by current driven DAC? In this . 22. the shunt resistors are used to generate n binary weighted currents which are added according to switch positions controlled by the digital input and then converted into voltage to give analog voltage.in inverted R/2R ladder . the pass transistor is used as a controlled switch and operated at cutoff or saturated state.Wide range of resistor values are required 2. the pass transistor is operated in linear region to provide a controlled voltage drop across it with a steady DC current flow. 2.It has no in-built thermal protection 2.efficiency is very low 15.the input step-down transformer is bulky and the most expensive component of linear RPS mainly because of low line frequency.13.number of bits can be expanded by adding more sections of same R/2R values.the finite resistance of the switches disturbs the binary weighted relationship among various currents. Advantages of R/2R ladder type? 1. What is the function of the pass transistor in switched mode regulators and series regulators? In series . 19.
31. 33. 34. 28. High pass filter allows high frequency signals and attenuates low frequency signals. When does the flattest pass band occurs in low pass filters? It occurs for damping coefficient of 1. What is meant by VFC factor ? It is defined as the modulation voltage required to produce the frequency shift for a VCO. Advantages and disadvantages of dual slope ADC? Highly accurate Low cost Immune to temperature caused to variations in R and C. What is the damping coefficient for bessels filter? It is heavily damped and has a damping coefficient of 1. What is successive approximation converter? This technique uses a very efficient code search strategy to complete n bit conversion in just n clock periods.414. Define voltage-to-frequency converter? It produces a pulse train whose frequency is linearly proportional to an analog input voltage. The disadvantage is that speed is low 25.dual slope ADC 27.charge balancing ADC 2. 26. What are the types of passive filter ? Low pass filter High pass filter Band pass filter Band reject filter 32. What is meant by integrating type ADC and mention its types? It performs conversion in an indirect manner by first changing the analog input signal to a linear function of time or frequency and then to digital code. The types are 1. Typical specifications of VFC? Wide dynamic range Ability to operate to relatively high frequency Low linearity error High scale factor accuracy 29.23. .73. 24. Define dual slope ADC? Dual slope conversion is an indirect method for A/D conversion where an analog voltage and a reference voltage are converted into time periods by an integrated and then measured by a counter. Define filter? A frequency selective electric circuit that passes electric signals of specified band of frequencies and attenuates the frequency signals outside the band is called electric filter. Define low pass and high pass filter? Low pass filter allows low frequency signals and attenuates high frequency signals. 30.
Draw the waveform for VCO obtained at output. 4. band pass and high pass filter responses. 4. Define band pass and band reject filter? A BPF is a frequency selector which allows one particular band of frequencies to pass.Function generation. What is voltage to frequency conversion factor? The voltage to frequency conversion factor Kv is defined as Kv= f o/ Vc Vc is the modulation voltage required to produce the frequency shift f for a VCO. Timing capacitor(Ct) 3. Draw the block diagram of VCO. Voltage Vc at the modulating input terminal pin 5. What are the applications of VCO? The various application of VCO are: 1. 7. What is the voltage controlled oscillator? A voltage controlled oscillator is an oscillator circuit in which the frequency of oscillations can be controlled by an externally applied voltage.35. . 2. What is the phase detector and what are the two types of phase detector? A circuit that provides a dc output voltage which is related to the phase difference between an oscillator signal and a reference signal to keep it in synchronism with reference signal. 36. Draw the pin diagram of IC 566(VCO). 6. 8. What is the output frequency of VCO and how can it be changed? The output frequency of VCO is f o=2(Vcc-Vc)/CtRtVcc It can be changed either by 1. What is meant by state variable filter? It uses two OP-AMP integrators and one OP-AMP adder to provide simultaneous second order low pass.What is a phase locked loop? A phase locked loop is basically a closed loop system designed to lock the output frequency and phase to the frequency and phase of an input signal.FM modulation 2. Timing resistor (Rt) 2.In frequency multipliers. 5. A BRF is a frequency selector which attenuates one particular band of frequencies to pass. UNIT IV-PLL &555 TIMER 1. 10.Signal generation(Triangular or Square wave) 3. 9. The two stages are digital and analog. VCO is used to produce square and triangular waveforms whose frequency is controlled by control voltage. 3. What is the other name of VCO and what is it used for? The other name of VCO is voltage to frequency converter. The VCO provides the linear relationship between the applied voltage and oscillation frequency.
What is the major difference between digital and analog PLL s? The analog multiplier is basis of analog phase detector . In digital phase detector when will the maximum dc output voltage occur? The maximum dc output voltage occurs when the phase difference is 180 degree because at that time the output of the Ex-OR gate is high.here the output is filtered sum or difference of two input frequencies. 20. What are the 3 stages of PLL? The three stages of PLL are free running. 14. The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with an input signal is called the capture range. If input is square wave then VCO can be directly locked to the n-th harmonic of the input signal without connecting any frequency divider in between. 15. 21. Define pull in time . This depends on the initial phase and frequency difference between the two signal as well as on the overall loop gain and loop filter characteristics. microseconds to hours. 16. capture and locked or tracking. 22. What are the applications of PLL? Frequency Multiplier Frequency Synthesizer Frequency Shift Keying Demodulator FM Detector AM Detection Frequency Translation 18. What is the main purpose of timer circuits? IC timer circuits can produce very accurate and stable time delays . Whereas EX-OR is the basis of digital phase detector and the output is symmetrical square wave at twice the input frequency.What is the use of low pass filter in PLL? The low pass filter may be passive or active type. Define lock – in range.The lock range is usually expressed as a percentage of fo the VCO frequency. The LPF controls the capture range and lock range of PLL. This parameter is also expressed as percentage of fo. 12.Draw the functional diagram of 555 timer . 13. What are the modes of operation of a timer? Timer can be used in monostable or astable mode of operation.11. For perfect lock the VCO output should be 90 degree out of phase with respect to the input signal because at that time error voltage is zero.. The range of frequencies over which the PLL can maintain lock with the incoming signal is called the lock in range or tracking range .Define capture range. 19. How can frequency multiplication be achieved using PLL? Frequency multiplication can be obtained by using PLL in its harmonic locking mode. The total time taken by the PLL to establish lock is called pull in time. 23.When is the loop considered locked? Loop is considered to be locked when input and output frequency are equal. 17.
How is a Schmitt Trigger constructed using 555? For Schmitt trigger. It also reduces the crosstalk in the multiplexer. FSK generator . It can also be used for speed control and measurement. 2. which provides a square wave output. in 555 timer two internal comparators are tied together and externally biased at Vcc/2 through R1 and R2. burglar alarm. How is square wave output obtained from Schmitt trigger using 555 timer? The sine waves of the amplitude exceeding the reference levels causes the internal flip flop to alternatively set and reset. The primary use of the sample and hold circuit to hold the sampled analog input voltage constant during the conversion time of A/D converter. Pulse-Position Modulator and Schmitt trigger. f=1.What is the output frequency in astable mode? The output frequency in astable mode is.Why is a capacitor connected between pin 5 and ground in 555timer? A capacitor (0. 32. 29.missing pulse detector .What are the application of 555 timer in astable mode? The applications of 555timer in astable mode are FSK generator. 28. The sample and hold circuits does this task. .24.01 F) is connected between control voltage terminal and ground to bypass noise or ripple from the supply. What are the advantage of sample and hold circuits? a.pulse width modulator. 27. UNIT-V-SYSTEM DESIGN 1. Define sample and hold circuits? The sample and hold circuit sample the value of input signal in response to a sampling command and hold it at the output until arrival of the next command. pulse position modulator etc. 25. frequency divider .Define duty cycle? The duty cycle. What are the application of 555 timer? Application of 555 timer are as waveform generator. b. ramp generator . D of a circuit is defined as the ratio of ON time to the total time period T=(tON +tOFF). 31. 3.What is the use of missing pulse detector circuit? Missing pulse detector circuit is used to detect missing heartbeats. What is the need of sample and hold circuits? To minimise the occurrence of the errors it necessary to hold the value of the analog input voltage constant during the conversion process.45/(Ra+2Rb)C 30. Draw the monostable multivibrator using 555 timer? 26.
List the application of sample and hold circuit. 11List the waveform produced by the function generator. The function generator is a laboratory signal source. frequency synthesizer comes under the application of Phase Locked Loop. 9.What is the advantage of Function Generator. What is the function of PLL in frequency synthesizer? The PLL produce the precise series of frequency that are derived from a stable crystal controlled oscillator. a.What is the difference between frequency synthesizer and frequency multiplier? Though both are comes under the application of PLL . c. c. Explain the basic need to construct the frequency synthesizer. . Basically.The use of suitable sine wave synthesis circuit along with the function generator makes it possible to obtain sine waveform from the triangular waveform. Digital interfacing b.e. 10. b. a. but the difference is ‘divided by M network’ is added at the input of phase lock loop. it comprises a triangular waveform generator whose frequency can be controlled smoothly as well as in steps.Explain Function Generator. Phase Locked Loop(PLL) can be used as the basis for frequency synthesizer.square wave from triangular wave train. 5. The generator can also produce a square wave train at the same frequency as the triangular wave train. 7. The frequency synthesizer is a laboratory signal source which offers the same stability and purity for its output waveform as that of a standard frequency.4. 6. Define Frequency synthesizer. Pulse modulation systems. Analog to digital converter circuits. frequency synthesizer is similar to frequency multiplier circuit .Triangular wave(equal positive and negative slopes as well as maximum amplitude. a.Sine waveform from the triangular wave(using sine wave synthesis) b.i. 8.
However.How the length of the PRBS waveform is designed? The maximum length of the PRBS waveform is (2^n-1) bits. PRBS is one form of the noise which can be easily generated in the laboratory.seismology. 15.Briefly explain the Pseudo Random Binary Sequence(PRBS). studies on biomedical phenomena. 17.How frequency is limited in the function generator? Leakage resistance associated with Capacitor(in feedback path) limits the lowest frequency of operation of the circuit. It can be obtained by a proper choice of the tappings for the shift register. 13.it can be useful in many applications. 19. which have to be linear and follow combinational logic. e.What is the use of the noise signal? Noise is required nowadays as a test signal for a variety of measurements. for the evaluation of multichannel PCM systems.How several tuning range can be obtained for function generator? Several tuning ranges can be provided by switching in integrating capacitors of different values at C. where n is the number of stages in the shift register. where the actuating signal are of the ON-OFF type. .How to generate the PRBS waveform? A shift register with suitable feedback is useful to generate the PRBS waveform.What is voltage dependent attenuator circuit? The synthesis of a sine wave from the triangular waveform is usually carried out by employing a voltage dependent attenuator circuit in function generator. in decade steps. The inputs to the feedback network.vibrating testing.whereas the high frequency limit is brought about by the slew rate of the OP-AMP. 18. 16. 14.12.What is the role of clock frequency in PRBS generator? The frequency of the PRBS waveform is the same as the clock frequency of the shift register. aerodynamics.But its amplitude probability distribution is not typical of natural random noise.g.g.e. are the outputs at selected stages of the shift register. A biased diode resistor network or FET circuit is very useful for this purpose.
What is Bar-graph display? Bar-graph displays are analog displays which are useful in electronics instruments as trend indicators of voltage and currents. 24. a.Because the waveform is periodic. They use a closely packed array(e. b.aircraft and automobile instruments as well as consumer items. 21. the latter being more popular from the point of view of power saving.such as clocks and wrist watches. 25. power. the strobing technique provided a considerable saving in d. 26. 22.c.What is the use of strobing technique in 7-Segment LED display? In addition to reducing the number of code converters and drivers. Digital instruments.20.List some display system in electronics.g.GaP).LEDs are directly usable in dot-matrix form.List some display technologies in Display system and design.The LEDs being active displays uses pn junction diodes in compound semiconductors(such as GaAs. . But the LCDs are usable either as transmissive displays or as reflective displays.. The display of numeric data is commonly done using different display technologies of which LEDs(Light emitting Diode) and LCDs (Liquid Crystal display) are the most popular now. power to achieve the same display intensity. What is the use of CRT in LED(light emitting diode and LCD(liquid crystal display)? For alphanumeric display applications. complete information on the statistics of the signal is obtained by averaging over a time interval (2^n-1)*clock period. semicircular) of display elements(LED being very common) which are independently driven.c. are highly compatible with ICs and require low d.computers. In contrast.CRTs(Cathode Ray Tube) are the most widely used with LEDs and LCDs closely following it. linear.(2^n-1) b. are some popular examples of display applications.List some of the important features of the PRBS generated by the shift register.Being miniature point sources of light.calculators. LCDs are passive displays making use of electro-optic effects in certain organic chemicals.The sequence has an odd number of bits in the pattern i. Display systems are required for several applications in electronics. 23. but their driving power requirements being more far lower than LEDs.e.What is the difference between LED and LCD in power requirement and display mode? a.
Briefly explain the design of a 5-digit display using 7-segmented LED. The utility of a DVM can be easily extended to multiple functions. 32.efficient(good contrast in bright ambient light). b.List some of the advantage of Digital Voltmeter. 28.The LCDs require very little power for operation.It is bright. The design of a 5-digit display system using 7-segment LED characters at the output of a digital instruments(such as frequency counter) . 29. It is also a useful building block of digital instrumentation systems.Low power consumption and it is compatible with ICs.What is meant by Digital Voltmeter? The digital voltmeter(DVM) is an extremely useful laboratory instrument.g. In this.27.What is the use of the Segmented LCDs? Segmented LCDs can be used as static displays or dynamic displays.How to achieve flickering free display? The strobing frequency (which is used to refresh rate of the characters) is maintained at a high value(>16Hz. b.Low cost per element. 31.LCDs characters are available with single back electrode or split back electrode construction.What are the features of 7-Segment LCD? a. a. c. .LCDs have large turn-ON and –OFF times typically 10s of msec. 30. typically 1microamps at 5v. c. a set of 5 decade counters accumulate the count at the end of every sample of measurement and it is required to display the same on the LED characters.digital multimeter(DMM) by the addition of simple auxiliary hardware.e. preferably around 100 Hz) so that display appears free from flicker.
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