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HDOT : Irving v.

Lipstadt : Defense Documents

Table of Contents 1.Qualifications to give historical evidence: II. Purpose of the Expert Opinion Report III. Implementation of the Final Solution IV. Documentary Evidence for the Systematic Mass Killing of Jews by Shooting [Introduction] Documentary Evidence for the Systematic Mass Killing of Jews by Shooting A. Scale of killing: B. Escalation: C. Camouflage Langauge: D. Implications: V. The Evidence for the Killing of Jews through Gas in Chelmno, Semlin, Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka: A. Documentary Evidence for the emergence of a program to kill the Jews of Europe: B. Documentary Evidence concerning the gassing of Jews at Semlin, Chelmno, and on Soviet occupied territory in gas vans: 1. Semlin 2. Chelmno: 3. Einsatzgruppen C. Documentary Evidence concerning the Camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. D. Eyewitness Testimony concerning Gassing at Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. First Category Second Category: Third Category: Fourth category: Fifth category: 5.5 Documentary Evidence concerning Aktion or Einsatz (Operation) Reinhard (alternatively spelled Reinhardt)

1.Qualifications to give historical evidence: I am a Professor of History at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington, where I have taught since 1974. Beginning the fall semester of 1999, I will take up a new position as the Frank Porter Graham Professor of History at the University of North Carolina--Chapel Hill. I received my B.A. in History from Oberlin Colege in 1967, and my M.A. and Ph.D. in Modern European History from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1968 and 1975 respectively. My scholarly career has been devoted to the study of National Socialist Germany and the Holocaust. I have published four books in this field: The Final Solution and the German Foreign Office (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1978); Fateful Months: Essays on the Emergence of the Final Solution (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985; revised and expanded edition, 1991); Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), with translations in German, Dutch, French, Italian, and Swedish; and The Path to Genocide (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), with translations in German and Italian. In addition I have published more than thirty-five articles and delivered my than thirty-five scholarly papers in the field. In early 1999 I delivered the George Macaulay Treveylan Lectures at Cambridge University. I have been engaged as an expert witness for five cases involving accusations of "war crimes" under the Nazi regime: the Wagner case in Australia, the Grujicic and Kisluk cases in Canada, and the Serafimovich and Sawoniuk cases in the United Kingdom.

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II. Purpose of the Expert Opinion Report I have been asked to write a report the addresses the following issues: 1. What is the documentary evidence concerning the implementation of a policy to kill the Jews on German-occupied Soviet territory through shooting. 2. What is the state of evidence concerning the implementation of a policy to kill Jews by means of gas in camps other than Auschwitz, and particularly in the camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. 3. What is the state of evidence concerning the emergence and existence of an overall plan of the Nazi regime to kill the Jews of Europe. 4. What is the state of evidence concerning the importance and purpose of the Wannsee Conference. 5. What is the state of evidence concerning the naming and purpose of "Operation Reinhard."

III. Implementation of the Final Solution The Nazi regime implemented the Final Solution or mass murder of the European Jews caught within its empire primarily by two methods--shooting and gassing. In the territories occupied by Germany after June 22, 1941 (with the exception of the district of Bialystok and partial exception of the district of Galicia), shooting was the most common method employed to kill Jews. The Jews of central and western Poland i.e. the Polish territory held by Germany since September 1939, and those deported from all over Europe to Poland during the war for the most part perished in the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka, and the gas vans of Chelmno. 3.2 The evidence for these killing operations is of four types used commonly by scholars in the writing of history and judicial authorities in the conducting of trials: (1) contemporary documentation; (2) witness testimony recorded later (from survivors, perpetrators, and bystanders); (3) material evidence; and (4) circumstantial evidence. Because the Nazi regime sought to destroy not only the Jews of Europe but also the documentary evidence and material evidence (i.e. the mass graves and death camps), the evidence with which scholars and judicial authorities can work is both less than complete and not symmetrical for the two killing methods. In particular, the documentation of mass killing by shooting in the territories occupied by Germany after June 1941 is quite extensive, while documents relating to gassing in Poland is scant. For gassing, therefore, witness testimony and circumstantial evidence play a much larger role.

IV. Documentary Evidence for the Systematic Mass Killing of Jews by Shooting [Introduction] Documentary Evidence for the Systematic Mass Killing of Jews by Shooting Prior to the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Reinhard Heydrich (Himmler's deputy and Chief of the Security Police and Security Service) assembled four mobile SS units known as Einsatzgruppen. They were designated A, B, C, and D for the Baltic, Central, Southern, and Romanian fronts respectively. The four Einsatzgruppen were in turn divided into smaller units referred to as Einsatzkommandos and Sonderkommandos. By agreement with the German army, these SS units were permitted to move forward with the advancing German military and operate up to the front lines.

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In the rear areas police functions were exercised by the Order Police, which included rural police stations of the Gendarmerie, urban police stations of the Schutzpolizei, mobile Police Battalions, and growing auxiliary police units composed of native recruits working on behalf of the Germans called Schutzmannschaften. Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS and Chief of German Police, also designated three Higher SS and Police Leaders (North, Central, and South) to coordinate all joint police activities behind the front. By far the richest collection of surviving documents relevant to the systematic mass murder of Jews through shooting are the reports from the Einsatzgruppen recorded in the so-called Ereignismeldungen or Event Reports compiled by Heydrich's staff in Berlin. One hundred and ninety-five Event Reports were compiled between June 23, 1941, and April 24, 1942.1 Eleven "Activity and Situation Reports (Tätigkeits und Lageberichte) of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and SD in the USSR" were also compiled by Heydrich's staff between July 31, 1941, and March 31, 1942. These Activity and Situation Reports summarized the contents of the Event Reports (bi-monthly for August and September 1941 and otherwise monthly) and were widely circulated throughout the German government2. Three other reports originating from the Einsatzgruppen (two by the commander of Einsatzgruppe A, Franz Stahlecker3 , and one by his subordinate, the commander of Einsatzkommando 3, Karl Jäger4 , as well as a series of orders from Heydrich are also significant5 . One reason for this extensive reporting from the Einsatzgruppen and its systematic compilation in Berlin is revealed by a message from Heinrich Müller, the head of the Gestapo within Heydrich's Security Police, to the four Einsatzgruppen on August 1, 1941. "The Führer is to be kept informed continually from here about the work of the Einsatzgruppen in the East"6 These collections of Einsatzgruppen documents certainly constitute the primary though not the only documentary sources for the killing operations into the spring of 1942. Thereafter, for contemporary written records, the historian is dependent upon a mixed collection of German documents originating from a number of sources, such as the Higher SS and Police, the civil administration of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, the mobile Police Battalions, the Gendarmerie stations, and the military. This report will not attempt a complete history of the destruction of Soviet Jewry as reflected in these German documents. Rather it will focus on four issues: 1) the scale of killing; 2) the steady escalation of the categories of Jews targeted for execution; 3) the use of open and camouflage language in the documents; and 4) the implications for our wider understanding of Nazi Jewish policy and the Final Solution. A. Scale of killing: The various reports and documents are incomplete concerning the total number of Jews and others executed by various German and collaborator units on occupied Soviet territory. Nonetheless, if one simply adds the summary numbers contained in the surviving documents, even the partial total gives a sense of the scale on which the killing was carried out. Einsatzgruppe A: Einsatzkommando 2 reported having shot 34,193 people by February 2, 1942.7 Einsatzkommando 3 reported having killed 133,346 people by November 25, 1941.8 Einsatzgruppe B: On November 14, 1941, Einsatzgruppe B reported that its "total number" (Gesamtzahl) of "liquidations" (Liquidierungen) had reached 45,467.9 Einsatzgruppe C:
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it shot 10.5% were non-Jewish (mostly identified as communist functionaries or mentally-ill).600 in late 1941.. On July 31. it reported shooting 2. Report No. Three days later. reported from Minsk that in the previous ten weeks some 55.504 Krimchaks (categorized racially as Jews). Wilhelm Kube. 152 communists.000 people. 1941.12. 1941. 64 political functionaries.11 These cumulative totals do not distinguish between Jewish and non-Jewish victims. and Sonderkommando 5 reported having shot 36.652 killings. 15 political officials.947 executions. on December 29.000 Jews in Rowno (the latter with help from EK 5). For instance. and 79 looters and saboteurs. 824 Gypsies.286 Jews. 1941. and asocials. however.21 An additional Einsatzgruppe "for special purposes" operated in the areas immediately across the demarcation line in Belarus and the Ukraine once the original four Einsatzgruppen had moved further east. For example.042 or barely 1. On the top of the front page was the initialled 4 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . was reported to have killed 44. 51. 1942.125 persons. the same Jeckeln was credited with reducing the Jewish population of Riga from 29. it reported a rare reversal. of which only 2. 84 partisans. 1941.147 people as of December 7. it reported killing 11.17 Sonderkommando 4a conceded that "the total number. 21 saboteurs and looters.18 Einsatzkommando 5 occasionally offered specific breakdowns of its victims as well. 60 political functionaries.15 For the latter half of January.302 persons in the first weeks after the invasion.of those executed included." in August (meist Juden). Friedrich Jeckeln. etc. 1942. the Higher SS and Police Leader for South Russia.13 For the last two weeks of December 1941. a police unit operating on Soviet territory just over the border from the town of Tilsit in East Prussia was credited with liquidating 3. for the period November 2-18. 1942. the Event Reports occasionally record killings by other units as well. In addition to giving figures for the four Einsatzgruppen themselves. does identify all its victims.000 were Jews.". it reported shooting 3. in addition to a relatively small number of political functionaries.12 For the period November 16-December 15.14 For the first two weeks of January 1942. 1941.27 On December 26. this unit was credited with 3. in which 1. 1942. it was credited with an additional 12. but it often did in its bi-weekly reports.615 Jews. Bialystok. 12 looters.645 Jews. 1942. 2.22 For several periods in Sonderkommando 4a reported having shot 59.1942. on November 5.10 Einsatzgruppe D reported having shot 91. and 46 saboteurs and looters. other documents provide a glimpse of continued killing of Jews on a massive scale. And for the following week it reported shooting 1..16 By the estimate of Einsatzgruppe C in late October. and 47 saboteurs and looters. and the Northeast submitted a report on the campaign against the partisans for the three-month period from September 1 to December 1. "mostly Jews.678 people as of April 8.hdot. active communists.018 people as of November 40. and 122 communists.650 Jews.471 Jews.25 Transferred to become Higher SS and Police Leader North in November 1941.19 For the week of November 23-30. above all Jews. there is compelling evidence to conclude that the overwhelming majority of the people reported executed by the Einsatzgruppen were in fact Jews.HDOT : Irving v. The Jäger Report (summarizing the activities of Einsatzkommando 3 in Lithuania up to December 1941). The report was signed by Heinrich Himmler.9.500 to 2.037 Jews and 31 communist officials in the previous two weeks. Einsatzgruppe D did not make this distinction in its cumulative totals. and 212 communists. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www.20 In short.24 He was subsequently credited with 10. it had "liquidated" (liquidiert) some 80. Results of the antipartisan campaign from 1.000 Jews had been killed in his district.23 The Higher SS and Police Leader South. Russia South.26 For the period beyond the spring of 1942. it reported shooting 3. it reported executing 17. For the last ten days of July. 85 partisans.. to 1.000 Jews in Dniepropetrovsk and 15. 1941.. though in a much less complete fashion. the report was retyped in the so-called Führer-type (especially large type that Hitler could read without his glasses) and retitled: Reports to the Führer on combatting partisans. For instance. people guilty of sabotage..639 communists and partisans were reported shot along with 685 Jews. Ukraine. the Ukraine. the head of the civil administration in western Belarus.176 Jews. of which 75. and 414hostages..

Only Einsatzkommando 3. September. . On June 24. B. propagandists. For the period July 22-August 3. 1941."36 And: "The emphasis of the operational activity was directed first of all against the Jewish intelligentsia. Finally. for Einsatzgruppe C: "Leaders of Jewish intelligentsia (in particular teachers. the entire Jewish intelligentsia has been liquidated (teachers.The arrested Jewish men are shot without delay and interred in previously prepared graves..28 Why would Himmler include the killing of 363.und Staatsstellungen).211. lawyers. and 27. On a separate line for "Jews executed." They were also instructed to "promote" (fördern) pogroms. except medical personnel). while they arrest the men. and 7." it listed 14. 1941. gave an exact statistical breakdown between male and female Jewish victims. For example. who by coincidence were present there.12. The most specific document in this regard is a summary "in compressed form" (in gedrängter Form) of pre-invasion instructions to the Einsatzgruppen that Heydrich passed on to the Higher SS and Police Leaders of July 2. the Einsatzgruppen had been instructed "to execute" (zu exekutieren) communist functionaries. professors.211 Jews in a report to Hitler on anti-partisan warfare? According to Himmler's appointment book. snipers.337 killed in battle. 1941.The Latvians drive the Jewish families out of town. etc. 1941. and "other radical elements (saboteurs. it reported killing 1. the Security Police in Tilsit organized three mass executions totalling 526 victims who were "primarily Jews.. and particularly professionals and community leaders.. In one execution every male Jew in the town of Krottingen was shot.30 On July 17. 25."29 (Als Partisanen auszurotten) In short.828 executed after interrogation. . he and Hitler had discussed the "Jewish question. the Tilsit commando killed all the adult male Jews of Krottingen but not the Jewish women and children. There is no surviving copy of pre-invasion orders to the Einsatzgruppen concerning the killing of Jews. "Jews in party and state positions" (Juden in Partei."34 For Einsatzgruppe A: "Actions against the Jews are going on in an ever-increasing number. and one week later this figure had increased to 3." (nur jüdischen Frauen und Kinder verblieben sind) Further executions were carried out in Augustowo. Heydrich issued another written order for the execution of all Jews found in German POW camps.hdot. were targeted. had themselves briefed on the measures implemented by the Tilsit Security Police and approved them completely. assassins.33 Numerous Einsatzgruppen reports of July indicate that adult male Jews.42."35 And for Einsatzgruppe B: "In Minsk.HDOT : Irving v.302. and November in the category of "bandits" a total of 1.31 From the very beginning it was clear these instructions did not limit the shooting of Jews to those strictly in "party and state positions" but rather were understood and interpreted broadly to encompass the shooting of large numbers of adult male Jews." The result of their conversation was noted succinctly: "to be annihilated as partisans. lawyers."37 As noted already. and that in two incidents four Germans had been shot at from behind. Moreover. etc. annihilating Jews and solving the so-called "Jewish question" under the cover of killing partisans was the agreed-upon convention between Hitler and Himmler. Soviet officials) liquidated." the report had two sub-categories: on a line for "executed. however.743 people." (vorwiegend Juden) The reason given was that the Jewish population had supported the Red Army. by local anti-Jewish elements but "without trace" (spurenlos) of German involvement. agitators. "The Reichsführer-SS [Himmler] and the Gruppenführer [Heydrich]. In the category of "accomplices and suspects. According to Heydrich.256.. this interpretation was immediately approved by Himmler and Heydrich."32 By early July the Tilsit Security Police and its subordinate border police stations reported shooting a total of hand-written note: "submitted 31.349 male Jews and 5 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . October. 737 executed immediately after battle. Heydrich noted that Himmler had explicitly ordered that he be kept continuously and fully informed of the activities of the Einsatzgruppen. and "only Jewish women and children were left. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www." The report noted for August. Escalation: The categories of Jews targeted for killing by the Germans steadily expanded. euphemistically dubbed "self-cleansing attempts" (Selbstreinigungsversuchen). on December 18." it listed 363.

46 In December Einsatzgruppe B reported the elimination of the Bobruisk and Vitebsk ghettos through the shooting of 5.145 Jews were shot. 1942."40 The War Diary of Police Battalion 322 shows a similar transition. 1942. Vileyka. including 64 Jewish women. 1941.48 Such actions aiming at total extermination of the Jewish population were not limited to large cities. Jäger was informed by Stahlecker that the latter had received "general orders from above that cannot be discussed in writing. 1941. and Baranovichi. On September 1 third company took part in the execution of the Jews who had been seized. with clear impetus from the top SS leaders.44 "On November 6 and 7. the killing campaign escalated once again when entire communities of Jews (with the exception of indispensable skilled workers) were killed in so-called "large-scale actions."45 Beginning on November 30. explained to a meeting of officials from the civil administration: At present a complete liquidation of the Jews is not possible due to the frost. two months later.000 Jews were shot. and Estonia) can be seen as practically solved and cleansed. Latvia. On March 2-3. On August 6. and he explained the inadequacy of the method: "Driving women and children into the swamps did not have the intended success. because workers were still needed from among the ranks of the Jews. 5. Hofmann assured his listeners that "in the spring large-scale executioners would be initiated again. where about 15.090 Jews respectively."42 Beginning on August 15."49 In early 1942. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www.281 and 4.hdot.000 Jews in six weeks in the Minsk region. By early October the Battalion was shooting Jews "of both sexes" (beiderlei Geschlechts) without providing any explanation or rationalization. Following killing actions in smaller cities and rural areas. The massacre of over 33. 1941: "All Jews must be shot. Then the chief of the Order Police met with Higher SS and Police Leader von dem Bach-Zelewski in Minsk on August 29.000 Jews had been executed there.000 Jews were killed in Chevron. In early August its third company carried out executions of all adult male Jews but still spared Jewish women and children on its march from Bialystok to Minsk. because the swamps were not so deep that a sinking under could occur. and later in the month 15.600. progress continues to be made on the clarification of this problem on other occupied territories in the east. and "Report No. and the following day Police Battalion 322 was assigned to a "thorough Jewish action" (gründliche Judenaktion) or roundup in the Minsk." the ghetto was emptied and 3. it received an "explicit order" (ausdrüklicher Befehl des RF-SS) from Himmler on August 1. Nonetheless.52 As noted from the Kube's report of July 31.43 Beginning in late September.41 Once again the detailed statistics of Jäger's Einsatzkommando provide the clearest evidence of the transition. large-scale killing did indeed begin again."51 With the warming weather in the spring of 1942.47 In early December 1941 Einsatzgruppe D noted that some 10. on the killing of 55. because the ground is too frozen to dig pits which would then be available as mass graves for the Jews.HDOT : Irving v.38 The escalation of the killing campaign to include Jewish women and children began in early August 1941. The inclusion of Jewish women was justified by their alleged failure to wear the Jewish star.51 for the Führer" 6 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . it noted that almost 10. Heydrich reported: "While the Jewish question in the Ostland (by which he presumably meant the Baltic states of Lithuania. entire towns and then even entire regions were repeatedly proclaimed "free of Jews. 1941."50 Outside the Baltic the pace of killing slowed temporarily in the winter of 1941-42 for two reasons."39 The reply of SS-Sturmbannführer Magill demonstrated that he fully understood the purpose of Himmler's order. When the 2nd SS Cavalry Regiment was preparing to sweep the Pripet Marshes.500 to 172 female Jews.000 Jews in Kiev followed on September 29-30.721 Jews were executed in Minsk. namely the killing of Jewish women and children through drowning. the action against Jews that had been prepared for some time was carried out in Rovno. following a decision "to liquidate the Jews of Zhitomir definitively and radically. As SS-Sturmbannführer Hofmann. 1941.000 Jews lived in Simpferpol. A complete eradication of the Jews was also not possible." (Grossaktionen) On September 19. Jäger's statistics demonstrate a sharp increase in the number of Jews being shot and the inclusion of large numbers of Jewish women and children. the Higher SS and Police Leader North reduced the Jewish population of the Riga ghetto from 29. Drive the female Jews into the swamp. head of the Security Service in Minsk.

At this point. however. this included even the skilled Jewish workers providing irreplaceable manpower for the German war economy. I must plead unconditionally for leaving the most needed artisans and manpower. looting or plundering. and sabotage.000 persons had been "liquidated. the SS and Polizeistandortführer in Brest-Litovsk. in October 1942. Informed of the impending "overall resettlement of the Jews" (generelle Umsiedlung der Juden).org/en/trial/defense/browning/view/printall on the execution of 363." On other occasions. and Jews are killed for no other reason than being Jewish. I foresee severe economic damage resulting from the lack of labor. the goal of making these territories "free of Jews" through killing is openly admitted. For instance." Included in the list of victims. the killing was particularly intense in the summer and fall of 1942. Friedrich Wilhelm Rohde. Clearly the killing of the vast majority of these 75. extermination. the claim of legal proceedings in connection with shootings was at times clearly formulaic and transparently specious. incitement and spreading rumours.211 Jews in the Ukraine and Bialystok in the four months of August through November. The large number of surviving documents for this region allows a more careful examination of this use of language. On October 15-16.hdot. 1942. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www."57 In the end.59 As indicated by Einsatzgruppe C. and execution "according to martial law. the shooting of Jews was justified because of insufficient food supplies or because the 7 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 .000 of these were persons "who on the basis of investigation could be proven guilty of anti-German or bolshevik activities. and the factories came to a complete standstill for a shorter or longer time. as can be seen from documentation relating to the killing of the Jews in the region of Brest-Litovsk in the fall of 1942. there were large-scale Jewish evacuations in Volhynia as a result of which every Jew was removed from all the factories. It noted that by late October 1941. only 8.000 victims were Jews. and sometimes the documents claim that the Jews were "convicted" and the executions were carried out "according to martial law. The remainder were finished off on the basis of reprisal measures. were only three political functionaries and one saboteur."53 These appeals were in vain.54 The war diary and reports of Police Regiment 15 show that the Jews working in camps and on state farms in the region were also executed. from the standpoint of labor mobilization." and "resettlement. the rest of the victims were 137 Jews and 599 mentally ill persons. were shot. liquidation. many killings of Jews were explained or justified as "reprisals. No one can take this responsibility from me." that is collective punishment of the Jewish community for some alleged transgression by unidentified individuals. convicted. Camouflage Langauge: The documents concerning the killing of Jews on occupied Soviet territory contain both open and camouflage language. pleaded: "Insofar as the Jewish question is solved in Brest. however.000 Jews was not the result of individual offenses that led to investigation. Einsatzgruppe C reported that 75.000 Jews of Brest. 80." "deportation." In the same report. The implication that Jews were investigated. even the Jewish skilled workers important to the German war economy were no longer spared. Often the documents speak frankly of shootings. the 20. On other occasions. Sonderkommando 4a reported shooting 740 people in the first week of November "according to martial law.55 The totality with which Jewish labor was executed in this region can be seen from a subsequent report of the military armaments commando: "Then. supporting the partisans. conviction."56 In late July 1942 Himmler wrote emphatically: "The occupied eastern territories will be free of Jews. C. etc.000 of its 80." He was supported by the local commissioner (Gebietskommissar) Franz Burat: "Although the total resettlement of the Jews from the Kreisgebiet is desirable from the political standpoint. or production dwindled to a mere fraction." Many times one or more rationalizations are given to justify the mass killing of Jews as a response to or "reprisal" for some alleged provocation. and shot "according to martial law" (standrechtlich) for alleged individual offenses is dispelled by Einsatzgruppe C's own reporting.HDOT : Irving v. including 9."58 Moreover.000 workers." However." "evacuation. This involved a variety of accusations: refusing to work. executions. The carrying out of this very difficult order has been placed on my shoulders by the Führer. Elsewhere they use words such as "special treatment.

1942.4 On two occasions in the Einsatzgruppen reports. saboteurs among them." (liquidiert) In Mogilev Einsatzkommando 8 and the Order Police "led 113 Jews to liquidation. 8 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . During this process a total of 4. the Jewish action was carried out in Brest-Litovsk..000. Einsatzkommando 8 "executed" (exekutierte) 41 persons. 21 of July 13. 627 Jews were "liquidated. Jews were to be killed for being Jewish." (brachte 113 Juden zur Liquidierung) In Schidow. the report explained how this was done.) In Bobruisk Einsatzkommando 8 "executed" (exekutierte) 418 persons.hdot.HDOT : Irving v. "Resettlement" and "deportation" are also terms the appear in German documents in a similar fashion. he explained the activities of his police station using different language."67 Einsatzgruppe D reported that it had begun preparations for "the deportation of 12-13. whether a pretext was listed or not..They arrested the Jews and put them into concentration camps where they were subjected the same day to special treatment." and "shot" in the reports. For instance. Furthermore." (Die Rayhon Krupka kann damit als judenfrei angesehen werden. Up until now some 20. not for what they had done."61 (Juden allgemein) Einsatzgruppe A also listed reasons for shooting: alongside participation in the communist party. partisan activity. the term "special treatment" (and in this case also "evacuation") was often used interchangeably with "liquidated. 1941.sonderbehandelt) One month later Einsatzgruppe B reported a long list of actions. In Belowchstchina 272 Jews were "liquidated. And in fact many executions were reported without any alleged justification whatsoever. namely that 150 Lithuanians were recruited "to take part in the liquidation of the Jews. and thus about 500 Jews.60 4. was quite simply: "Belonging to the Jewish race. The report notes that by July 8 the Einsatzkommando in Vilna had "liquidated" 321 Jews." Two pages later in the same report. the "total liquidation of the Jews in the ghetto of Vitebsk began. The term "special treatment" (Sonderbehandlung) appears in the Events Reports for the first time in No. Among the reasons listed by Einsatzgruppe C was quite simply: "Jews in general. without any serious pretense that it was supposed to camouflage what was happening.000 Jews have been shot."66 (In Witebsk wurde das Ghetto ger" Jews were deemed a source of infectious disease or were simply too old and unfit for work." (wurden 996 m"nnliche und weibliche Juden der Sonderbehandlung unterzogen) In Borisov 83 Jews were "shot." (liquidiert..) In short. "Participation in the action against the Jews in the city and Kreisgebiet Brest-Litovsk since October 15. wobei insgesamt 4090 Juden beiderlei Geschlechts erschossen wurden. 1941." (widersetzlichen Juden) Then on October 8."63 Einsatzgruppe B reported in one paragraph that 640 Jews from the Nevel ghetto had been "liquidated." (der restlosen Liquidierung der im Ghetto in Witebsk befindlichen Juden begonnen. "222 Jews were led to liquidation.. (italics mine) This work has now begun. Jews were killed for whom they were. in which various terms were used interchangeably to indicate killing. and finally 52 Jews who had fled from Gorodok were "specially treated. the Gendarmerie district leader of Brest reported: "On October 15 and 16. the reasons for executions are spelled out systematically." (erschossen) In Krupka and Sholpenitsche 912 and 833 Jews respectively were "liquidated. Simultaneously the complete resettlement of the Jews in the Kreisgebiet Brest-Litovsk also occurred. 1942. however. and espionage."65 (sonderbehandelt) A subsequent report stated: "In Vitebsk. In all some 20.025 Jews "were subjected to special treatment. Without exception they were racially and mentally inferior elements.3.) In Ostrovno 169 Jews were "shot" (erschossen). Die Zahl der zur Sonderbehanldung gelangenden Juden beläuft sich auf etwa 3000." "executed. In a further action another 812 male and female persons were subjected to special treatment.000 Jews have been resettled up until now."64 (wurden." In the very next paragraph it reported that in Janovichi 1." (liquidiert) "The Rayon Krupka can now be considered free of Jews. sedition. are liquidated daily. In Talka.090 Jews of both sexes were shot." (222 Juden zur Liquidierung gebracht wurden) Then in Marina-Gorka.000 Jews. . Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. the ghetto was evacuated.) In Minsk. "996 male and female Jews were subjected to special treatment. The number of Jews handed over to special treatment came to some 3. Es handelte sich durchweg um rassisch und geistig minderwertige Elemente. "primarily" (vorwiegend) Jews."62 (Zugehörigkeit zur jüdischen Rasse) In short. including "rebellious Jews. In einer weiteren Aktion wurden noch 812 m"nnliche und weibliche Personen der Sonderbehandlung unterzogen.

V. On July 27. 1941. Sobibor. with the explicit goal of making these territories "free of Jews. In his summary report of October 15. Clearly their reports were intended to show that government policy was being carried out with zeal and efficiency. Higher SS and Police Leader North. The reservations would also facilitate "the later collective deportation of the Jews to a reservation outside Europe. 1941. 9 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . liquidation. shooting."73 Indeed." Thus the inclusion of the Krimchaks and Gypsies in the fate of the Jews occasioned no special notice among the population. and Gypsies" in early December 1941." "evacuation. "Their extermination. Einsatzgruppe D noted that "Krimchaks. the nature of the orders Stahlecker had received from higher authority but could not put in writing are suggested by Jäger's statistics: his unit began the systematic killing of Jewish women and children on August 15.were attached. together with that of the actual Jews and the Gypsies in the Crimea.HDOT : Irving v.74 D. had issued a set of provisional guidelines for the treatment of the Jewish population without either consulting Stahlecker or delineating any role for the SS. the Reichskommissar for the Ostland. which Jäger was to transmit to Lohse orally.70 Stahlecker instead sent Jäger a three-page position page. Implications: The systematic mass-murder of Jews on occupied Soviet territory primarily through shooting." and "deportation" interchangeably with execution. In documents for external use.usually counted as part of the Jewish population. Such a thorough documentation does not exist concerning the fate of the Jews from the rest of Europe." is clearly visible in the surviving German documents. according to basic orders. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. providing for ghettoization and forced labor of Jews at the moment and "resettlement" (Umsiedlung) later. to whom selected manpower . where the Jews would be separated by sex to prevent further procreation. Instead of ghettoization in the cities. was accomplished for the most part by the beginning of December Krimchaks."72 This scenario of deporting the Jews first to reservations in the open spaces of the Ostland and then later out of Europe was designed only for outside consumption." "resettlement. Their actions were neither the unauthorized initiatives of a few rogue commanders nor the product of a sporadic breakdown in discipline in the heat of battle. however. The Evidence for the Killing of Jews through Gas in Chelmno. however. as Stahlecker's own documents show. urged Stahlecker to meet with Lohse to discuss the matter. Extensive executions in the cities and flat lands were therefore carried out through special units. and drawing conclusions from circumstantial evidence. Hinrich Lohse. The commanders in the field were explicitly told to report extensively. and extermination." In a handwritten note at the end. What can be learned from these documents concerning the intentions and actions of the regime and its use of language is essential.."69 Thus SS documents for internal use openly employed terms like "special treatment. as they were both in Kovno. Both method and goal are transparent. in interpreting the scantier documentation. such language was often used to camouflage what the SS was doing or intended to do. Stahlecker added that the Lohse draft "to a great extent touches on general orders from higher authority to the Security Police that cannot be discussed in writing.. Semlin. he wrote: "It was expected from the start that the Jewish problem would not be solved solely through pogroms. as both Hitler and Himmler were to be kept well informed. Stahlecker sketched out a plan of "Jewish reservation areas" (Judenreservatsräume) in the open spaces.68 In a later document. Belzec.71 Stahlecker explained that Lohse's guidelines. just days after receiving Stahlecker's position paper. was the most complete removal possible of the Jews. evaluating the credibility of eyewitness testimony. were in conflict with the orders that had been given to Einsatzgruppe A. Hans Adolf Prützmann. On the other hand the goal of security police cleansing work. The most blatant and cynical act of deception and camouflage can be seen by juxtaposing the internal documents of Einsatzgruppe A with its communications to the civil administration in its region in August 1941. Work shops and factories would eventually be constructed there to exploit Jewish Lithuanaia partisan troops and in Latvia troops of the Latvian auxiliary police .hdot.

No "comprehensive draft" for a Final Solution is among the surviving German documents found after the war. not at all unusual. Himmler informed the Gauleiter of the Warthegau. Hermann Göring authorized Reinhard Heydrich to take charge of Jewish emigration from the Third Reich. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www."79 On October 23. In particular. "as a first step" (als erste Stufe). it is a quite normal occurence. In August 1941 a number of Spanish Jews living in Paris had been arrested. it is not shared in every aspect by other able and learned historians of the Holocaust. Heydrich in Prague announced that Riga and Minsk would also be destinations for the deportation of German Jews. the chief of the Gestapo.HDOT : Irving v. then began on October 15. First. In the spring of 1941 Heydrich began organizing the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and Security Service. In turn. 1941.78 The deportations. Heinrich Müller. Then on July 31. then dispatched a circular to all police agencies announcing Himmler's order that Jewish emigration was to be stopped. was now authorized to draw up plans concerning the fate of all other Jews under German control. Second. of course. and they do not agree upon Hitler's precise role in this decision-making process. which spearheaded the murderous attack on Soviet Jewry that summer. Such disagreements over historical interpretation are. Heydrich was to submit a "comprehensive draft" (Gesamtentwurf) of the preliminary measures for this "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" (Endlösung der Judenfrage) promptly.000) to Spanish Morocco--a proposal endorsed by the German Foreign Office as fully in line with previous German policy of emigrating or expelling Jews overseas. On the contrary." Thus Himmler intended. What follows is my interpretation concerning the emergence of the Final Solution."77 On October 10. but Heydrich. While historians who have done extensive archival research on Nazi Jewish policy agree that such a program was implemented by the Nazi regime.80 What did the end of Jewish emigration overseas so that even Spanish Jews would not be "too much out of the direct reach of the measures for a basic solution to the Jewish question to be 10 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . In the wake of the Kristallnacht pogrom. taken together. 1941. which led the Spanish government to suggest the possibility of evacuating all Spanish Jews (some and Treblinka: A. to deport the Jews to the incorporated territories (especially the ghetto of Lodz) "in order to deport them yet further to the east the next spring. On September 18. Documentary Evidence for the emergence of a program to kill the Jews of Europe: The Nazi program to murder all the Jews of Europe within the German grasp was called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" (Endlösung der Judenfrage). 1941. Arthur Greiser: "The Führer wishes that the Old Reich and Protectorate be emptied and freed of Jews from west to east as quickly as possible. On October 17. when he procured an authorization again signed by Göring. they are not unanimous in their conclusions about several important aspects of historical interpretation. Göring delegated jurisdiction over Jewish policy that involved policing and emigration to the SS. But other documents have survived that indicate a series of changes in Nazi Jewish policy in the fall of 1941 that. and on January 24.76 This was not an order for the Final Solution.75 Heydrich's jurisdiction expanded to include the expulsion of Jews. the man who was currently in charge of the Einsatzgruppen killing campaign on occupied Soviet territory. the Spanish would not effectively guard them in Morocco. Heydrich blocked the Spanish proposal for two reasons.hdot. The first was a reversal of Hitler's previous policy that the deportation of German Jews would not take place until after the war. first to Lodz. entrusting him with the task of making "all necessary preparations" for a "total solution to the Jewish question" (Gesamtlösung der Judenfrage) within the German sphere of influence in Europe. The second major change in German policy was the ban on Jewish emigration overseas. "In addition these Jews would also be too much out of the direct reach of the measures for a basic solution to the Jewish question to be enacted after the war. constituted a program for the systematic mass murder of European Jewry. they do not agree as to precisely when the Nazi regime decided upon a policy of systematic and total mass murder. Hitler placed Hermann Göring in charge of coordinating Jewish policy. Poles. and Gypsies from the Polish territories incorporated into the Third Reich in the fall of 1939. Heydrich expanded his jurisdiction yet further. 1939.

was taking shape by late October 1941. In the near future many of the Jewish vermin will be exterminated through special measures. and for Europe when not a single Jew lives on the 11 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . and 5) was discussing the construction of "gassing apparatuses" in Riga. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. Minsk. children. Himmler had a four-hour discussion with Alfred Rosenberg. 3) was planning a "reception camp" in the east for non-working Jewish women. Jews deported from Europe were not simply going to be expelled into eastern Russia. surviving documents show that by late October 1941 the Nazi regime: 1) had ended a longstanding policy of creating a Europe free of Jews through emigration and expulsion overseas. The reporters were not yet to print the details of what was happening in the east. A second relevant document is a short hand-written letter of October 23. On November 15. 1941. who works in the east on the settlement of the Jewish question. and this question can only be solved in a biological eradication of the entire Jewry of Europe.HDOT : Irving v. he explained. 1941. who was not happy about the imminent deportation of German Jews to Riga. The statements of leading Nazis in the following months certainly point to a widening recognition that mass killing. Concerning the fate of the Jewish women. Alfred Rosenberg. it clearly was not a labor camp. and elderly. Paul Wurm.82 5. children. and Eichmann's second deputy. Those capable of labor would be sent "to the east" later. including deportation to reception camps and the use of gassing as a method of killing.and physically handicapped patients in German hospitals and asylums) and then with Adolf Eichmann (Heydrich's special advisor on Jewish policy). as this reception camp was for women. In the east some six million Jew still live. to Hinrich Lohse. even if it was not to be implemented until the following spring (after the expected end of the war). 2) had begun deporting German Jews to the east into ghettos where they awaited deportation further east the following spring.1. 1941. Between October 18 and 21. Wurm wrote: Dear Party Comrade Rademacher! On my return trip from Berlin I met an old party comrade. the Jews will be deported by waterway to the reception camp in the east. These documents suggest that a policy of systematic extermination. but rather they were to be interned in a German "reception camp" not yet built. Among the topics Rosenberg dealt with was the Jewish question. and elderly. children. After the trip Rademacher reported how the adult Jewish men in Serbia had been shot by the German army. when he returned to Berlin. and elderly. met first with Viktor Brack of the Führer Chancellery (where he was involved with the so-called euthanasia program for the killing of mentally. and Riga and then "yet further east the next spring" mean? Did they mean nothing more than expulsion into eastern Russia or Siberia after the defeat of the Soviet Union still expected by the spring of 1942? A combination of three documents dating from the end of October 1941 suggest otherwise. 1941. Under the circumstances there were no objections "if those Jews who are not fit for work are removed by Brack's device" in the meantime. that Franz Rademacher found waiting for him from the foreign editor of Der Stürmer. 4) was planning for the destruction of Jews through "special measures". According to Wetzel. Friedrich Suhr."81 In short. Rademacher reported: "Then as soon as the technical possibility exists within the framework of the total solution to the Jewish question. Wetzel then drafted a letter to be sent by his boss. the Foreign Office expert for Jewish affairs.8 What did Wurm mean by "special measures" for the destruction of Jews in the east? On October 25. Franz Rademacher.83 In short. so that German Jews incapable of work could be "removed" immediately. Rademacher's counterpart in the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories. Eichmann confirmed to Wetzel that Jewish camps were about to be set up in Riga and Minsk to receive German Jews. not expulsion. Brack declared himself ready to aid in the construction of "gassing apparatuses" ("Vergasungsapparate) on the spot in Riga. but they needed sufficient background so that the press could give its treatment the proper "color" (Farbe).org/en/trial/defense/browning/view/printall enacted after the war" mean? What did the deportation of German Jews first to Lodz. visited Belgrade. The Jewish question is only solved for Germany when the last Jew has left German territory. Eberhard Wetzel.84 Three days later Rosenberg gave a "confidential" background report to the German press. Furthermore.hdot. was now the goal of the regime.

the result would be their own destruction. We must put an end to the Jews. and ministerial director of the Reich Chancellery (Kritzinger). liquidate them yourselves! Gentlemen. and the German declaration of war on the United States. and the Occupied Eastern Territories (Meyer and his deputy Leibbrandt). just beneath the cabinet minister level. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. He prophesied that. that this did not change the emerging German policy of systematic mass killing. But he did have one goal: "Germany's objective would then be solely the destruction of the Jewish element residing in the Arab sphere under the protection of British power. and indeed in conjunction with the important measures to be discussed in the Reich. The world war is here." When Germany had defeated the Soviet Union and broken through the Caucasus into the middle east. the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. I must also say: if the Jewish tribe were to survive the war in Europe. The Führer once spoke these words: If united Jewry should once more succeed in unleashing a world war. after the Soviet counter-offensive around Moscow. .. That was no figure of speech.for this reason it is necessary to expel them over the Urals or eradicate them in some other way. because the Jew in Europe will also have found his end. but he assured his audience that "nonetheless we will take some kind of action that will lead to a successful destruction.85 On November 28. I must ask you.. 1941. Germany would have no imperial goals of its own and would support Arab liberation. that I want to say quite openly. Hitler met with the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. Justice (Freisler). had originally been scheduled for December 8. direct a similar appeal to non-European nations as well. the Race and Resettlement Main Office (Hofmann). where "important measures" were to be discussed in January. the Undersecretary of the Foreign Office (Luther).. and the Security 12 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . if they were once again to cause a world war. Hitler stated: "Germany was resolved.87 Hans Frank. there could be no doubt any longer that there would be no end to the war by the following spring. Known as the Wannsee Conference. then the peoples who have been incited to this war will not be its only victims. European continent up to the Urals. They must go. Concerning the Jewish question. I have entered into negotiations for the purpose of deporting them to the east. the destruction of the Jews must be the inevitable consequence. In any case a large migration of Jews will be set in motion. Frank did not yet know how unprecedented destruction on this scale could be done.Before I continue to speak I would ask you to agree with me on the following principle: we want to have compassion only for the German people. Hitler assured the Grand Mufti. were by protocol the highest ranking officials that Heydrich could invite to a meeting over which he--as Himmler's deputy--would preside. to ask one European nation after the other to solve its Jewish problem. Yet Hitler made clear in a speech to the top echelons of the Nazi party on December 12. wherever we encounter them and wherever it is possible. 1942. the Führer is determined to make a clean sweep.HDOT : Irving v. We must destroy the Jews. Thus vis-a-vis the Jews I will in principle proceed only on the assumption that they will disappear. who attended this meeting. But what is to happen to the Jews? Do you believe that they will be lodged in settlements in the Ostland? In Berlin we were told: why all this trouble. as well as the Office of the Four Year Plan (Neumann) and Party Chancellery (Klopfer).hdot. In January a large meeting will be convened in the Reich Security Main Office by SS-Obergruppenführer Heydrich. returned to the General Government and explained what he had learned in Berlin to his district governors and division leaders. otherwise for no one in the whole world.. arm yourselves against any thoughts of compassion. 1941. . Others have had no compassion for us. in order to preserve the entire structure of the Reich. Also attending were the heads of the Gestapo (Müller). but was postponed until January 20. while we had sacrificed our best blood for Europe's preservation. As an old National Socialist. it was attended by the State Secretaries of the ministries of the Interior (Stuckart). The State Secretaries. and at the proper time. step by step."86 In December 1941. the General Government (Bühler)."88 What Frank called the "large meeting" in Berlin under the chairmanship of Heydrich. then this war would be only a partial success. we cannot use them in the Ostland or the Reichskommissariat either.

and on Soviet occupied territory in gas vans: 13 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . It would appear that Goebbels received an expurgated version of the protocol only much later. He noted in his diary entry of March 7. according to Heydrich. Eichmann. 1942. Bühler understood perfectly well that the Final Solution meant more than working Jews to death. Documentary Evidence concerning the gassing of Jews at Semlin. 1942. as a further possible solution. The protocol summarized in detail lengthy discussions about policy toward Jews in mixed marriage and their children without resolution. Switzerland. namely Heydrich and Himmler's disliked rival. and the only surviving copy is the one that was sent by Heydrich to the Foreign Office on January 26. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. Sobibor. There is no record of Heydrich having chaired any other meeting with such an illustrious list of leading officials of the Nazi regime in attendance in his entire career. Heydrich then went on to explain just what he meant by this." it makes no mention of what was to happen to those Jews who were not capable of work to begin with. The Jews of the Warthegau were already being gassed at this moment.hdot.. The evacuations. the "concentration" of the Jews of Poland in the three tiny villages of Belzec.90 One notable Nazi leader had not sent a representative to the Wannsee Conference.. were to be regarded "solely as temporary measures" (lediglich als Ausweichmöglichkeiten). of course. representing a natural selection. commander of Einsatzkommando 2 in Latvia. the Jews were neither going to be concentrated "later. On one point the protocol was exceptionally brief.89 Apparently the Reich Interior Ministry received a copy at the same time. Josef Goebbels of the Propaganda Ministry. and those who did not would be "treated accordingly. for already at another meeting on January 29. because this remnant. The Jews would be utilized for labor in the east. however. in the East. after the appropriate prior approval of the Führer. whereby a large part will doubtless fall away through natural diminution. The remnant that finally survives all this." Thirty copies of the protocol of the Wannsee Conference were made. for "practical experiences" (praktischen Erfahrungen) were already being gathered that would be of great significance for the "imminent" (kommende) Final Solution. the protocol merely noted cryptically: "Finally there was a discussion of the various types of possible solutions. Chelmno. to begin with. and the gassing of Serbian Jews in the Semlin camp outside Belgrade was imminent." He noted the Wannsee Conference figure of 11 million Jews in Europe and then wrote: "They will have to be concentrated later." nor sent to Madagascar after the war. concerning a report "from the SD and police regarding the final solution of the Jewish question. A total of 11 million European Jews. namely how were the Jews to be destroyed. B. and Sweden. possibly an island. If the protocol indicates that Jews capable of work were to be subjected to such strenuous labor that most would die. its Jewish expert. signed by Göring on July 31. to prepare a Final Solution to the Jewish question throughout Germany's sphere of influence in Europe. Heydrich then stated: "In place of emigration. 1942. will have to be treated accordingly.HDOT : Irving v. Heydrich's invitations to the meeting were accompanied by copies of his authorization. Separated by sex. including even those from neutral countries like Ireland. because there was no transportation problem there and most of the Jews there were already incapable of work. such as Madagascar can be assigned to them after the war. however."91 In reality. and Treblinka was about to begin. the Jews capable of work will be led into these areas in large labor columns to build roads. made reference to the conference of January 20. for he urged that it begin in the General Government. Heydrich briefly reiterated his authority to prepare a European-wide Final Solution and reviewed the policy of emigration until its prohibition in the fall of Police in the General Government (Schöngarth). must be regarded as the germ cell of a new Jewish reconstruction if released. Without any explanation as to actual content of the discussion.. because it is undoubtedly a question of the part with the greatest resistance. as well as Heydrich. Moreover. would be involved. and that concerned the question Frank had raised in December. and Rudolf Lange. Bernhard Lösener. 1941. the evacuation of the Jews to the east has now emerged.

. the head of the military administration in Serbia. and had all the Jewish women and children concentrated in a camp and at the same time. informed the commanding general in Serbia. Chelmno: Beginning in December 1941. Semlin After the male adult Jews in Serbia had been shot in the fall of 1941. procured a 'delousing vehicle' that will now finally have carried out the clearing of the camp in some 14 days to 4 weeks. that there was no longer a Jewish question in Serbia. Thus Rauff asked the Criminal Technical Institute. Rauff informed the Criminal Technical Institute that the staff doctor at the Mauthausen concentration camp had requested a gas van. and therefore they and the truck were being sent back. Walter Kuntze.. In one surviving letter.HDOT : Irving v. and the Military Commander Southeast. Jews from the Lodz ghetto and other towns in the Warthegau were deported to the small village of Chelmno.000 Jews in my territory in an action approved by you in agreement with the Chief of the Reich Security Main Office SS-Obergruppenführer Heydrich will be completed in the next two to three months. children.99 2. I request the procurement of steel canisters of carbon monoxide or other remedies for implementation be initiated from your end."100 The completion of this task was not without incident."93 No gas van was available for Mauthausen at this time.94 On April 11. Goetz and Meyer. "Because I assume that the concentration camp Mauthausen cannot wait for an indefinite time for availability. one would not be available for some time. because they were all in use in three other places: Semlin near Belgrade. Harald Turner." Moreover. concerning technical alterations in the production of the "special trucks.280. however. and this number declined to 491 Jews as of May 22. Emanuel Sch"fer. where the chief chemist Albert Widmann had earlier advised the euthanasia program on the use of carbon monoxide in gas chambers to kill mentally.98 And Schäfer reported to Berlin.. and with the Einsatzgruppen on occupied Soviet territory. "The special trucks constructed by us are at this time all in action in accordance with the order of the Chief of the Security Police and SD. wrote to Himmler's adjutant. for help.and physically handicapped patients. "had carried out their special task". They register a population of 5. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. Demand exceeded supply.96 On May 29. as can be seen in a report in the motor pool section of the RSHA of June 5. 1942. 1942. The reports cease to mention the presence of any Jews or even the existence of a "Jewish camp" in Semlin as of June. and by late March 1942 the number of Jews in Semlin had reached 6. Karl Wolff: Already some months ago I had everything that could be got hold of in the way of Jews in this land shot. Chelmno (Kulmhof) near Lodz. However. with the help of the SD. On May 1. concerning the "special Saurer truck" (SpezialwagenSaurer)--Saurer was the larger of the two truck models used for conversion into gas vans--that the two drivers. Franz Rademacher at the Jewish desk in the Foreign Office wrote: "The Jewish question in Serbia is no longer acute. Paul A surviving file of documents92 shows that gas vans called "special trucks" (Spezialwagen and Sonderwagen) were constructed and dispatched by Office II D 3 (Friedrich Pradel's motorpool section of Walter Rauff's division for technical affairs) within Heydrich's Reich Security Main Office. 1942.780 Jews--"mostly women and children"--in the "Jewish camp Semlin" on March 3."97 Ten days later the head of the Security Police in Belgrade. and elderly were interned in a makeshift camp constructed in the old fair grounds of Semlin across the river from Belgrade. 1.hdot. 1942. Arthur Greiser wrote to Himmler: "The special treatment of some 100. 1942. The planned deportation to a "reception camp" in the east never took place.95 The 10-day reports of the military commander in Serbia document a steady decrease in the number of Jewish inmates in the Semlin camp between early March and late May. the women." 14 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 .

put to sleep peacefully. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. were not technical. one month after Becker's report. However.000.000 Jews. Dr. The known explosion in Chelmno must be deemed an isolated case. could travel cross country only in dry weather but were unusable after a rain. shooting and gassing. with the deportation of 35-38. so that many trucks were no longer airtight. according to Becker's report. but he did not think this subterfuge would preserve secrecy for long. For this reason those to be executed suffer death from suffocation and are not.101 The deportations from the Warthegau to Chelmno continued in 1942 until the provinces had been made free of Jews and the population of the Lodz ghetto had been reduced to less than 90. to which most Polish Jews were deported. without any defects in the vehicles being encountered. The men suffered "enormous emotional and health injuries" (ungeheure seelische und gesundheitliche Schäden) and complained of headaches after each unloading. The chief of security police in Riga reported in mid-June 1942.000 were processed by three trucks in action. such is not the case with the documents concerning the camps located in the three tiny villages of Belzec.3.105 In preparation for the simultaneous influx of Jewish transports from outside the Third Reich and Slovakia. as intended. If the documents concerning the Einsatzgruppen and the "special trucks" speak openly about the methods of killing.103 Despite such problems. 102 3.e. The clearing of the Lublin ghetto began on March 16. Moreover. that in German-occupied Belarus "a Jewish transport arrived weekly that had to be subjected to a special treatment. i. In order to finish the job as quickly as possible. the same day that the clearing of the 15 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . for example. Documentary Evidence concerning the Camps of Since December 1941. The large model Saurer trucks with Einsatzgruppen C and D. Only a small Jewish quarter is being preserved for the Jews who still work for German agencies. he reported. In March 1942 the Nazi regime began two simultaneous programs: the deportation of Jews from the Third Reich and Slovakia into the General Government. The 3 special trucks on hand there did not suffice for this purpose!" He thus requested an additional large Saurer model to add to the other Saurer and the two small Diamond model trucks. Since Monday.1 On May 16. Jews are seized and sent eastward. Its cause must be traced to operator's error. 1942. the quite scant surviving documentation makes clear that these were neither labor camps nor transit camps." (Todeswagen) He had had them disguised by painting windows on the side. the gas vans were still in demand. and Jews were sent there simply to be killed. 1942: Resettlement of the Jews. and Treblinka. March 16. the greatest problems with the gas vans. the drivers without exception open full throttle. the ghetto of Lublin is being cleared of Jews. Hermann Höfle on Globobnik's staff met with Richard Türk of the Lublin district's Department of Population and Welfare on March 16. August Becker submitted a secret report to Walter Rauff concerning his inspection tour of the gas vans being used by the Einsatzgruppen.104 C. the rough terrain had loosened seals and rivets. as noted in a weekly report circulated by the propaganda division on March 21. and Treblinka.HDOT : Irving v. The trucks of Einsatzgruppe D had become so well known to the civilian population that they openly referred to them as "death trucks. Sobibor. and the deportation of Jews in the General Government (initially from the districts of Lublin and Galicia) to a camp at Belzec--a small village on the Lublin side of the border between these two districts. Daily some 2." The result was gashlty-horribly distorted faces and bodies covered with excrement and vomit (verzerrte Gesichter und Ausscheidungen). 97. Sobibor. Einsatzgruppen 5.2. "The gassing is without exception not undertaken properly. It is therefore reckoned that the action will be completed by April 1.hdot. 1942. Nonetheless.

all that is known is the existence of a collection camp some distance from the Belzec train station on the district border.. the furthest border station in Kreis Zamosc. shortly after the clearing of the Lublin ghetto began. he could receive daily 4-5 transports of 1. 1942. Kreishauptmann Weienmeyer has as yet been able to learn nothing about final outcome of the deportation. and the arrival of a SS-commando of some 60 men. To what extent this evacuation can be equated with a decimation remains to be seen. These Jews would cross over the border and would never return again to the General Government.107 After the clearing of the Lublin ghetto.110 The Oberfeldkommandant reported the following month: The Jewish population displays the deepest depression. German documents from the district of Galicia make clear that not only were Jews not arriving in their district from the Lublin district via Belzec.109 Second. If this separation is not possible at the departure station. through which some 30.108 In short. precisely those sent to Belzec: Beginning with Lublin. There was no pretense that this was a work camp. There was no pretense that such numbers of Jews could all remain in Belzec.e. the German documents make clear that tens of thousands of Jews were being sent to the camp at Belzec in the spring months of 1942.. in the meantime it is whispered also among the Jews that the evacuees never reach the resettlement territory that is alleged to them as the destination. the Kreishauptmann of Pulawy reported on May 13. for only non-working Jews were sent Lublin ghetto began. Türk again reported on a discussion that had taken place between Höfle and two Kreishauptmänner (county heads) in the Lublin district.hdot. but on the contrary. Türk reported the results of the conversation: 1) It would be expedient to divide the Jews in the transports coming into the district of Lublin already at the departure station into those capable and those not capable of work. Josef Goebbels confided to his diary about the fate of the non-working Jews.106 On March 20. Not much will remain of the Jews. in a tiny village guarded by a mere 60 men. 1942: Within the Jewish population of Lemberg a noticeable unrest has spread in regard to a deportation action that has begun. one must then switch over to dividing the transport in Lublin according to the above-mentioned viewpoint. 2) Jews not capable of work must all go to Belzec. The Oberfeldkommandant in Lwow (Lemberg) reported on March 19. with the guarantee that they would never return.822 Jews from the Kreis Pulawy were expelled over the Bug on the instruction of the SS and Police Leader.000 elderly and other unemployed Jews shall be seized and allegedly transferred to a territory near Lublin.In conclusion he declared. For instance. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www." that is sent across the border into the district of Galicia. 3) Hauptsturmführer Höfle intends to build a large camp. i. which is completely understandable because on the one hand in various locations in the district the well-known actions against the Jews occur again and on the other hand in Lemberg the temporarily interrupted resettlement of Jews resumes. 4) Piaski will be freed of Polish Jews and become the collection point for Jews coming from the Reich. Thus the explanation given by the SS was that these Jews were "expelled over the Bug. only working Jews remained. Jews were simultaneously being deported from the district of Galicia westward to Belzec. 111 16 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . that is entirely closed off.000 at the end station of Belzec.HDOT : Irving v.) With the exception of sick and old Slovakian Jews in the ghetto of Opole. in which the Jews capable of work can by classified according to profession and requisitioned. on March 27. The procedure is a pretty barbaric one and not to be described here more definitely. Two factors make the acceptance of such an explanation utterly untenable. deportations were carried out in various parts of the Lublin district. First. 1941: "In the period from May 6-12 inclusive. 16. the Jews in the General Government are now being evacuated eastward. 1942. On the whole it can be said about 60 percent of them will have to be liquidated whereas only about 40 percent can be used for forced labor." (The Bug River was the demarcation line between the German and Soviet occupation zones in 1939-41 and formed the boundary between the districts of Lublin and Galicia thereafter. .

and stink of the dead--when unloading the train cars some 2.118 Ostrow. Sobibor received transports of Jews deemed incapable of work. OK Ostrow reports that the Jews in Treblinka are not adequately buried and as a result an unbearable smell of cadavers pollutes the air. Radom district. the Jews sent to Belzec never returned. whose men helped round up the Jews in Kolomyja and nearby towns and then guarded two transports to Belzec on September 7 and 10. like Belzec.205 Jews. in train after train. Fischmann commanded 17 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . Moreover. Massive deportations from Warsaw to Treblinka began on July 22. the total had reached 434. it should be noted. entry to the War Diary of the Oberquartiermeister of the military commander in Poland. Moreover. on September 10 finally crawled into Belzec at 6:45 pm on September 11. the fate of the Bialystok Jews in the fall of 1942 was clearly stated in Himmler's report to Hitler of December 31. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. By June 23. As Lieutenant Westermann concluded: "The ever greater panic spreading among the Jews due to the great heat. 254.116 Surviving fragmentary train schedules also show that Jews were deported from northern Lublin district. The second involved 8. 1942. First. If Höfle clearly lied about the purpose of Belzec. these deportations from Bialystok make clear that Treblinka was not a transit camp for the expulsion of Jews eastward from the General Government. as can be seen in the report of Lieutenant Fischmann of June 20. and July 1942. The camp at Treblinka was located in a tiny village just off the main railline between Warsaw and Bialystok near the eastern border of the General Government. overloading of the train cars. though without specifying the method of killing. Rather the tiny village of Treblinka. Like Belzec.112 The trains deporting Jews from Galicia did indeed go to Belzec.211 "Jews executed." Nevertheless the train that left Kolomyja at 8:50 pm. Month after month. in one regard he told the truth: with the exception of a handful of escapees. The Jews of Bialystok were among the 363. The SS and Police Leader." The fate of the Jews sent to Treblinka is also reflected in a report noted in the October 10. the district governor Fischer reported that a total of 400. 1942.117 The deportations from Bialystok.000 Jews had been deported. one train with 5.1943. They were then packed into train cars. was a point at which transports of Jews converged from east and west. Many had been held for days without food and forcemarched 35-50 kilometers to the train in blistering heat. 1942. In October the Oberfeldkommandant reported again: The resettlement actions continue undiminished. as can be seen in the letter from the State Secretary for the Transportation Ministry.769 Jews in 50 train cars and went without incident.000 Jews departs daily via Malkinia to Treblinka. the Germans in Galicia were busy insuring that their district was becoming free of Jews. twice per week a train with 5. was some 20 kilometers from Treblinka.hdot. and the trains came from both Lublin and Cracow to the west and Galicia to the east. as can be seen in the report of Reserve Lieutenant Westermann of the 7th company of Police Regiment 24. but resumed in August.000 Jews were found dead in the train--made the transport almost unworkable. a district east of Treblinka. The first contained 4. 1942. virtually without ventilation.329 Jews "resettled" (ausgesiedelt) with only 21. June.000 Jews departs Przemysl for Belzec. in many cases 180-200 per car."115 When deportations from the city and surrounding district of Warsaw came to an end in early October. The documentary evidence makes clear that Belzec and Treblinka were camps to which hundreds of thousands of Jews were sent to be killed. and the Bialystok district to Treblinka as well. The Jews are informed of their fate. Indicative is the statement of a member of the Lwow Jewish council: We all carry our death certificates in our pocket--only the date of death is not yet filled out. Friedrich Katzmann. Karl Wolff: "Since July 22. tens of thousands of Jews were taken to the little village of Belzec. are of special significance for two reasons. The scant surviving documentary evidence concerning the purpose of Sobibor indicates that the Germans considered it in the same category as Treblinka and The deportations from Galicia broke off during the months of May.113 As in the rest of Hitler's Europe. the allegation that Belzec was a transit camp through which Jews were expelled from Lublin into Galicia is totally disproven by German documentation. to Himmler's adjutant. reported that as of November 10.000 Jews still in labor camps.989 Jews had been resettled.114 In short. Albert Ganzenmüller.HDOT : Irving v. but that it was inaccessible due to railline repairs during the peak months of the killing campaign of July-October 1942. 1942. 1942.

and Treblinka. he also noted that further transports to Sobibor were not possible until October due to construction on the railline. D.122 Clearly. no contemporary document specifically states how the Jews sent to these three camps were killed.. and Treblinka.. Jewish escapees from these three camps. who were deemed capable of work. According to Globocnik.hdot. Stangl was "the best camp commander. and the corpses of the murdered Jews were first buried and then later cremated. they were used to kill the police guard that accompanied a train that departed Vienna with 1. The testimonies of three such visitors are very important.1 The first category..1.000 Jews from Vienna for the Lublin district. and analyze the individual testimony of each of more than one hundred relevant eyewitnesses. however. Jewish.HDOT : Irving v. is easily the smallest. The first is Adolf Eichmann. It is not possible in the framework of this report to identify. who had the greatest share of the entire action. Sobibor was a camp no different in purpose than Belzec and Treblinka. and Treblinka from areas both to the east and west and were never seen again. and moreover that the military 20 kilometers from Treblinka complained about the pestilential smell caused the inadequate burial of the Jews there. and Treblinka. Herff. 1942. On June 17 Lieutenant Stangl took delivery of the remaining 949 Jews in Sobibor... Sobibor. Sobibor. I will instead identify five categories of eyewitnesses and then provide examples of testimony from each category. testimonies of German visitors. namely: 1 train per day from the district of Radom to Sobibor. While surviving German documentation reveals that hundreds of thousands of Jews not considered essential for labor were sent to the three small villages of Belzec. In the late 1950's he gave an interview to a Dutch journalist Willem Sassen and corrected the resulting transcript.. summarize. First Category 5. and Treblinka. he was 18 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . 1 train per day from the northern Lublin district to Belzec and 1 train per day from the central Lublin district to Sobibor. probably from November 1.4.000 Jews" of the General Government noted: After the completion of the restoration of the line Lublin-Chelm. A very large body of testimony--from numerous German. Sobibor. there are errors and contradictions as well as both exaggerations and apologetic obfuscation and minimization. 1942. and Ukrainian eyewitnesses--provides evidence that the Jews sent to Belzec. As in any body of eyewitness testimonies. trained at Trawniki. to plan allocation of transportation for the future "evacuation of 600.119 In the same letter in which Ganzenmüller informed Wolff of the daily transports from Warsaw to Treblinka and the twice-per-week transports from Przemysl to Belzec. and Treblinka were killed in gas chambers with carbon monoxide from engine exhaust. Poles living in the immediate area of these three camps. Globocnik included Franz Stangl. the commandant at Sobibor who was then transferred to Treblinka. German visitors to the camps of Belzec. Eyewitness Testimony concerning Gassing at Belzec." Included on the list of promotion recommendations for the SS-Sonderkommando "Einsatz Reinhard" were personnel from all three camps of Belzec. German personnel stationed in the camps of Belzec. and assigned as guards to these three camps. SS-Obersturmführer Pohl of Globocnik's staff met the train in Lublin on June 16 and selected 51 Jews between the ages of 15 and 50. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www.121 And in his promotion recommendations to Himmler's chief of personnel. A brief summary of the interview was published in Life Magazine. the other urgent transports can also be carried out. Sobibor. Ukrainian auxiliaries taken from POW camps. Sobibor. but in this case there is above all overwhelming concurrence on three facts: gas chambers existed in these camps. Polish.120 The protocol of a meeting in Berlin on September 26 and 28.123 After his arrest. Sobibor.

who boasted (falsely) of a recent visit by Hitler. measuring 5 x 5 meters apiece. of whom 1. Globocnik also claimed (with great exaggeration) that in Belzec. The camp was still empty and the motor was not yet there. 1942. and then the naked Jews were driven between two barbed wire fences to the gas chamber by Ukrainian guards. Servatius. The Order Police captain explained to Eichmann that one building had to be made airtight to serve as a gas chamber. According to Gerstein. had a posthumous memoir published in 1980. For 2 hours and 49 minutes. and 20. Ein historischer Zeugenbericht. where he remembered the railway station with the sign Treblinka. In several accounts he also described his visits to Auschwitz. They arrived on August 17. Treblinka.HDOT : Irving v. the women's hair was cut off. and one other camp in the fall of 1941 whose name he did not remember but which fits the description of Belzec at that time. entitled Ich Adolf Eichmann.000 Jews were killed daily with "diesel exhaust gas. looking through glass peep hole in the door of one of the gas chambers. The second German visitor was Kurt Gerstein. and on August 19. in order for them to be killed in the death camps in Poland as part of the Final Solution. where the gassing facilities were larger. Eichmann confirmed that he had been in charge of organizing the deportation of Jews from all over Europe. commented that the Jews were weeping "as they do in the synagogue.126 He gave testimony in court. he and Pfannenstiel travelled to Belzec and were shown around the camp by SS-Hauptsturmführer Obermeyer. in which Jews would be killed by carbon monoxide exhaust from a Russian U-boat motor that would be attached. when the autumn colors were at their peak. and accidently encountered the Secretary to the Swedish Embassy in Berlin. By his own account. they witnessed the arrival of a 45-wagon transport from Lwow (Lemberg) with 6. His death was ruled a suicide by French 19 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . he was sent by Heydrich to Globocnik in Lublin to report on how Hitler's order to kill the European Jews was going to be carried out. It was the fall of 1941. Von Otter later confirmed this encounter with Gerstein.1. Eichmann visited another camp. a covert anti-Nazi who infiltrated the SS and became head of the Disinfection Services of the Waffen-SS.2 According to Eichmann.132 Gerstein wrote one handwritten French and two type-written German versions of this report in April 1945 and died in a French prison cell the following July." (Dieselauspuffgasen) Gerstein's task was to disinfect the huge amounts of clothing taken from the interrogated extensively in Israel. Gerstein travelled by train from Warsaw to Berlin. they were searched for valuables and gold dental work was broken out.4. to take 100 kilos of prussic acid to Globocnik in Lublin. Before the corpses of the Jews were tossed into a large trench. based primarily upon the Sassen transcripts. 5.128 In all of these testimonies. Hermann Höfle on Globocnik's staff drove him out of Lublin to a site where he was introduced to an Order Police captain.000. with the editorial help of the lawyer Rudolf Aschenauer." At a dinner in the visitors' honor. Then Jewish workers opened the outside doors to the gas chambers and took out the bodies.130 On the following morning.129 he was ordered by Eichmann's deputy. the engine started. Pfannenstiel made a speech about "the greatness of the work" being done there.000. Approximately 750 Jews were driven into each of 4 gas chambers. Eichmann and his escort then crossed the highway to a place where 2-3 wooden buildings were under construction. Gerstein told the Swede all he had just seen and urged him to make it known to the outside world. Chelmno. and then the men would be sent to work. An SS man offered soothing assurances that they should inhale deeply to prevent lung infection. In a feverish conversation lasting hours. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. Rolf Günther."125 He prepared notes for his defense attorney. The Jews were forced to undress (the piles of shoes were allegedly 25 meters high).127 And his widow. and met with Globocnik. Wilhelm Pfannenstiel. They were accompanied by a Professor of Hygiene at the University of Marburg/Lahn.700 Jews. and he saw "veritable mounds of clothing and underwear.124 He composed his hand-written "Meine Memoiren. Treblinka. that remained in the private papers or Nachlass of the latter that were donated to the Bundesarchiv. The following day Gerstein drove to Treblinka. and the gassing took 32 minutes.hdot." Finally. According to his testimony. Pfannenstiel. 25. Here he saw naked Jews standing in line behind the barbed wire about to be driven into the gas chambers. On the night of August 21-22. 115 to 130 feet high. Sobibor respectively 15. he also witnessed the gassing of Jews in a gas van at Chelmno. August 20.450 were already dead. SS Sergeant Heckenholt131 struggled to start the engine. Göran von Otter. In the following summer of 1942.

. After undressing the male Jews and the women with children were led separately through the tube. They all gave pre-trial depositions. Twenty-nine such German camp personnel were indicted and brought before German courts in the 1950's and 1960's.hdot. Gitta Sereny. in which German mentally. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www." Günther did not accompany them to Lublin. in which hundreds of thousands of Jews were killed. It is also corroborated by other categories of witnesses from Belzec.136 Alfred Schluch had worked at the euthanasia institutes of Grafeneck and Hadamar prior to his assignment to Belzec in February or March 1942. But none of them denied that the camps were equipped with gas chambers. and it is not clear whether Gerstein or Globocnik was the faulty source. He did not go to Treblinka after visiting Belzec and thus did not give a speech there. because they must have been convinced from my words or gestures that they were actually to be bathed. Hermann Gley. the women had their hair prison officials. In other statements.. Into That Darkness. because in his opinion I could have a pacifying effect on the Jews. Erich Bauer. his testimony is fully corroborated by Pfannenstiel. and Treblinka. A third eyewitness account is that given by Professor Wilhelm Pfannenstiel in a series of depositions he gave to judicial authorities in Germany in the 1950's. the ambulant Jews proceeded to the assembly place. At least 26 of the 29 had prior experience in the so-called "euthanasia" program. In one of the barracks the men and in the other the Jewish women and children had to undress." Many aspects of Gerstein's testimony are unquestionably problematic. Erich Fuchs. He described the routine killing procedure of the Belzec camp as follows: After unloading. namely that he was in Belzec and witnessed the gassing of a transport of Jews from Lwow. and he had not made any remark about the Jews weeping as they do in a synagogue. Franz Stangl held the highest rank as commandant of first Sobibor and then Treblinka. such as that a total of 25 million Jews and others were gassed. Many claimed that they had had no choice but to carry out the duties that they had been assigned. who was interviewed at length on hidden camera by Claude Lanzmann. The gassing at Belzec had taken only 18 minutes. Second Category: The second category of eyewitnesses is comprised of Germans who were stationed at Belzec. The speech was given by Wirth and also by his translator. exhaust gas from an engine was piped in.134 Of these 29 men. But in the essential issue. I had to direct the Jews along the path to the gas chamber after they left the undressing barracks. After the Jews had entered the gas 20 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . a guard at Treblinka. Outside of judicial proceedings. Next the Jews were then led to the undressing barracks. and gold teeth were taken from the corpses before they were stacked in a trench by Jews who did the "dirty work. and Heinrich Matthes. he also gave extensive testimony in long interviews with the British journalist. Wirth had installed me there. Sobibor.My position in the tube was quite near the undressing barracks. At the unloading the Jews were told that they were going to be resettled and before that had to be bathed and disinfected. that are easily accessible in her book. Gerstein also added grossly exaggerated claims about matters to which he was not an eyewitness. an SS officer made soothing remarks.135 The testimony of Franz Suchomel. the Jews were driven into four of six gas chambers in the building. I believe that I made the way to the gas chambers easier for the Jews. can be seen and heard in latter's documentary film Shoah. He did confirm that the Jews had to strip naked.133 Pfannenstiel claimed that Gerstein's version was "false" and "full of exaggerations. not 32 minutes. Among the judicial testimonies of the other 27 camp personnel brought to trial in Germany were those of Alfred Schluch. a Jewish capo.HDOT : Irving v.and physically handicapped were gassed in one of six "institutes" or killing centers in Germany. such as the height of the piles of shoes and clothing at Belzec and Treblinka. Gerstein himself is clearly the source of exaggeration. and many denied that they had committed any harmful or malicious acts beyond routine compliance with their obligatory duties. Several statements he attributes to Globocnik are clearly exagerrated or false.

hdot. About 4 weeks after the beginning of the cremation operation the second fire site was constructed.2. The corpses were pulled out of the chambers and immediately examined by one of the dentists. work Jews dragged the people who had been killed out of the gas chambers and transported the victims by means of lorry to the graves. . Then the general exhumation and cremation of the corpses began.4 Heinrich Gley arrived in Belzec in the summer of 1942 and was eventually assigned to the "cremation commando. After about 5 to 7 minutes--and I only estimate the length of time--the peephole into the gas chamber was looked through to establish whether everyone was dead.. there was no turning back. After some 20-30 minutes there was complete silence in the gas chambers. at the second site some 240.. but all leaned in a jumble this way and that. We placed the motor on the a concrete base and installed the connection between the exhaust and the pipeline. gave the following testimony concerning the construction of the gassing facilities at Sobibor: On Wirth's instructions I drove to Lemberg in a truck and picked up a carburator engine. because I saw and experienced everything myself. who was stationed first at Belzec. At first it did not chambers..000 could be correct.We unloaded the motor. he testified: As I remember the gassing was stopped at the end of 1942. It was possible to cremate some 2000 corpses at one fire site within 24 hours.. Perhaps 3 or 4 times I also led certain groups through the tube to the gas chambers.. The chambers were densely packed. It may sound astonshing that the Jews went unsuspecting to their death. Then we tested the motor. whom I already knew from Belzec. The dentist removed rings from the fingers and pulled out gold teeth. the other kneeling. the doors were tightly closed by Hackenholt himself or by the Ukrainians assigned to him. that I transported back to Sobibor. .HDOT : Irving v. At this point in time." (Verbrennungskommando) Concerning the burning of the corpses. The Jews only became suspicious when they were already in the gas chambers. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. After all no member of the permanent staff in Sobibor could exempt himself over the course of time from having to perform this and all other functions occuring durng the destruction process.5 Erich Fuchs. I repaired the ignition and the valve with the result that the motor finally started up. Resistance occurred extremely seldom. therefore.000 over 4 months. watercooled). For this reason the corpses did not lie on the ground. Then Hackenholt started the motor that was used for the gassing. 8 cylinder. with others the eyes had rolled. one prone to the side. some 30-40 women were gassed in the chamber. others in part with saliva. It was a heavy Russian gasoline engine (probably a tank engine or tractor engine) with at least 200 PS (V-motor. I was also occasionally assigned to supervise at this place. As best I remember. a Jewish work commando under the direction of a capo arrived and took the corpses out of the chambers. The chemist. each according to the space around. After this procedure the corpses were thrown into the large graves nearby. Later the victims were cremated.After the gas chambers were aired out. where he served from April 1942 to November 1943.The doors were sealed airtight and immediately the gassing procedure commenced. the other forwards. The lips and nose tips of some of the corpses had turned blue. Naturally this is a matter of estimates based on averages. it might have lasted from November 1942 until March 1943.. Only then were the outer doors opened and the gas chambers aired out. . The Jews had been very tightly packed into the gas chambers.2. To figure the total number of corpses at 500.137 5. Thus I can exactly describe the procedures.139 Erich Bauer testified to the gassing procedure at the Sobibor camp.000 corpses were cremated at the first site over 5 months. and indeed at first at one and then later at two fire sites. when there was snow already on the ground. however.4. the one backwards. The cremation was carried out day and night without a break. Then the chambers were opened.138 5. With some the eyes were closed.140 21 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . went into the gas chamber with a measuring instrument in order to test the concentration of gas. The valuables recovered in this way were tossed into a box that had been provided.4. the people were gassed and dead. some 300. In conclusion a test gassing was then conducted. On average. The corpses were at least partially besmirched with excrement and urine.

and the bodies were buried. At first trains arrived daily. Next they were led through the same gate to the gas chambers. "The corpses were pulled out of the graves. who had to break out the gold teeth of the corpses. The testimonies were given under oath and signed. and then the number of incoming transports gradually diminished. "These had to carry away the corpses and later to cremate the corpses. The people were locked in the chambers for 10-15 minutes. He was captured by the Germans in July 1941 and eventually was sent to 22 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . wood. and the burning of the corpses began. 24 hours through. However. 1976. who were for the most part Ukrainians recruited out of the POW camps for captured Soviet soldiers and sent to a special SS training facility at Trawniki southeast of Lublin.HDOT : Irving v. Others emigrated abroad. He testified: The entire time that I was in Treblinka. pre-trial testimony on May 25. including to the U. He was sent to Trawniki in March 1942. Department of Justice. and a Jewish work commando had to take the corpses to a grave already dug near the gas chambers on the grounds of the camp. Next the chambers were opened. The upper part of the camp was that part of Treblinka in which the gas chambers were located and in which the corpses of the Jews who had been killed were at first put in graves and later were cremated. about 120 per camp. and in some cases even twice daily. several train cars at a time were uncoupled and brought into the death camp.. three on each side of the entrance. having returned to the Soviet Union.142 Captured in August 1941. and everything was burned. In the camp the train car doors were opened. This was not finished until March 1943. before the corpses were removed from the gas chambers. The Jews were killed in the six gas chambers. More numerous were the guards. they were decomposed. where some of them faced judicial investigation by the Office of Special Investigations in the U. They all had to undress in one room. Then the Jews were led through a gate surrounded by barbed wire into a wooden barracks. Then in late fall. to American investigators in Hartford. There were metal rails. and those testifying had been advised of their right not to give self-incriminating testimony."141 All of these above testimonies of camp personnel were given to German judicial authorities in the course of pre-trial investigation. Connecticut. The incoming transports of Jews came to an end in late 1942. the graves were opened. and the Jews were told that they had come to work and that now they would be taken to the bath and should hand over their valuables. Third Category: Approximately 30 Germans were stationed at each of the camps and held the key supervisory positions.143 Feodor Federenko gave sworn. Matthes' job was to supervise the Jewish workers in the upper camp. and then served at Belzec from August 1942 to March Heinrich Matthes was assigned to Treblinka in the summer of 1942." Then on February 3.hdot. There were also work Jews. Next they were told to undress. one worker from the Jewish work commando tore out the gold teeth from the dead. and the burning of the buried corpses began. he gave the following testimony about procedures after the first small wooden building with three gas chambers had been replaced with a larger cement structure with six chambers: Upon the arrival of a train. About his experiences in Belzec. where they undressed and where their hair was cut. I served in the upper part of the camp. Peter Petrowitsch Browzew was taken to Trawniki at the end of 1941 and assigned to Belzec in June 1942. Browzew escaped from Belzec and joined a partisan band.S. Aleksandr Illarionwitsch Semigodow testified that he was captured at the outbreak of war in June 1941 and volunteered to serve with the Germans to escape a very probable death by starvation in the POW camp at Cholm. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. the corpses burned.S. Some of these men. 1943. gave testimony to German judicial investigators who were collecting evidence for the trial of Karl Streibel. the commandant of Trawniki. No difference was made between men and women. In general the chambers were usually crammed with some 200 Jews. There were six gas chambers. day and night.

For the next three months the terrible smell of burning bodies pervaded the area and could be detected up to 15 kilometers away. Beginning in March 1942 transports began arriving.148 Some testimonies were recorded even before the end of the war. In the fall the transports stopped. which enabled them to know much more about the camps than other Poles in the surrounding areas.146 According to Kozak sand was poured between the double walls of one small building. including not only by gas but also by steam and electricity. Here he was picked out of the camp and sent to Trawniki for training. The smell of burning bodies reached Wlodawa 9 kilometers away. Stanislaw Kozak and Edward Ferens both testified immediately after the war about their construction work in Belzec. 1943. loading them on the stretchers. Construction on the camp began March 1942. This is where the gas chambers were. Fedorenko testified over three days in greater detail."144 At his subsequent denaturalization hearing in June 1978. "I saw how they were loading up dead people. and heard all kinds of rumors of how the Jews were killed.147 Three German officers arrived in the fall of 1941 and measured the station ramp. Jan Jrzowski and Jan Piwonski worked at the train station in Sobibor. between November 1 and December 23." Later in his testimony. an uprising occurred in the camp. he testified: "Some were picked for work and the others. heavy doors covered with rubber." he replied: "I was where the gas chambers were. The transports began arriving in April.HDOT : Irving v. . and by fall the smell of decaying corpses was detectable. each with two doors. In late August or early September 1942. at Belzec. Fifth category: Concerning the last category of the large POW camp in Cholm. sometimes 2-3 per day. In October 1942 an excavator arrived. He denied that he had actually entered the section of the camp where the gas chambers were located but admitted that he had once been posted on a guard tower overlooking this section of the camp. The fire within the camp could be seen clearly at night. including the first small gas chamber with only three rooms. The graves were opened and the corpses burned. and the observant Poles wondered about the arrival and unloading of large. they went to the gas chambers." Concerning the unloading of Jews from the trains. one entering from a interior corridor and the other exiting to the outside. and an excavator was employed to open and empty the mass graves. On October 14. Samuel Rajzman. after which it was closed."145 Fourth category: 5. While the Poles worked on these buildings. approximately 50 Jews from each camp survived the war. the black-uniformed auxiliaries dug a large pit behind it..4. he reconfirmed that this part of the camp "is where there was the workers that took the bodies and buried them or stacked them in the holes. whose interior was partially covered with zinc sheeting. smelled the terrible odors of the camps. he was assigned to Treblinka. directly across from the ramp where the transports for the camp were unloaded." Asked if he was assigned to the forced labor camp or the camp "where they had gas chambers. Some Polish witnesses had particular vantage points.And they were loading them in a hole.. The building had three rooms. "Yes. For instance. When Edward Ferens asked the German supervisor the purpose of the building.150 23 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 .4.1 Many Poles in the villages around these camps saw the endless flow of transports. The doors were very strong and covered with rubber. the latter merely laughed. a small force of Polish workers was employed to construct the initial buildings. The camp was then dismantled.hdot. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. 1941. I knew.149 and one Treblinka survivor. He was asked: "Were you aware of the fact that thousands of Jews were being exterminated in Treblinka?" He answered. they opened outward and were secured with crossbars on the outside. due to prisoner uprisings and breakouts in Treblinka and Sobibor. testified very briefly before the International Military Tribunal at Nürnberg.

became known as Operation Reinhard. 1944. The motor was always run exactly for 20 minutes. distortion. the SS and Police Leader in the district of Lublin. for which Globocnik wanted a quick confirmation of financial propriety. a cabman from Cracow. After the motor had been turned off. It was a cover letter for Globocnik's submission of a final financial accounting of the program. The testimonies of many others have subsequently been collected. under the command of Odilo Globocnik. Perhaps as many as six prisoners escaped individually from Belzec. 1942. He was only one of eight prisoners selected as skilled workers to join the Jewish labor force in the camp that day.then the motor was started. Rudolf Reder."154 An early document mentioning "Einsatz Reinhard" dates from July 18.. exaggeration. especially at Yad Vashem. and on the roles of particular individuals.153 In his very early testimony of December 1945. Gerstein. for instance. after which Moniek gave one of the machinists the signal to turn it off.5 Documentary Evidence concerning Aktion or Einsatz (Operation) Reinhard (alternatively spelled Reinhardt) The deportation of Jews to and killing of Jews in the camps of Belzec. error. He could see the gas chambers even more closely when he delivered gasoline (Benzin) to the engine room at the end of the corridor that ran between the three gas chambers on each side.HDOT : Irving v. given the "odium" (Globocnik's own expression) that attached to his past reputation in financial matters. So little documentary evidence explicitly dealing with Operation Reinhard survived because it was intentionally and systematically destroyed in 1943 and 1944. for several months he operated the excavator that dug graves behind the gas chamber. Once again. It is a form on which the personnel specially authorized "for the carrying-out of the work of the Jewish resettlement within the framework of 'Operation Reinhard' with the SS and Police Leader in the 24 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . Globocnik gave another reason for urgently concluding an audit of the financial side of Operation Reinhard. The work of the motor was watched over by the prisoner Moniek. has given extensive post-war testimony. The expression Operation Reinhard appears in only a few German documents. and Treblinka. Sobibor. They differ.. The testimonies of both survivors and other witnesses to the events in Belzec. Odilo Globocnik.. and Treblinka are no more immune to forgetfulness. On the way between the ramp of the chamber and the grave. after the documents of all other work in this matter have already been destroyed. all the doors were tightly shut. namely that its "records must be destroyed as soon as possible. This is clearly revealed in a letter from its director. on how long each gassing operation took. He emigrated to Canada in 1953. claimed the camps used diesel motors. on the number of undressing barracks. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. He gave the following description: In these chambers the people were packed so tightly together. Sobibor. and that the hundreds of thousands of corpses of Jews killed there were first buried and then later cremated. the corpses were then pulled to the mass graves already dug out beforehand by machine. Once again. and Treblinka were death camps whose primary purpose was to kill in gas chambers through the carbon monoxide from engine exhaust.152 but only one.hdot. As soon as all chambers were crammed full. however. In November 1942 Reder escaped his captors and survived in hiding in Lwow until the arrival of the Red Army. dentists pulled gold teeth from the corpses. but witnesses who actually serviced the engines in Belzec and Sobibor (Reder and Fuchs) spoke of gasoline engines. and repression than eyewitness accounts of other events in the past. 5. on the order of Moniek the prisoners opened all the doors wide and pulled the dead in pairs out of the chambers with the help of straps placed around the hands of the corpses. on the dimensions and capacity of the gas chambers. and many have been published. 1942. Reder recounted how he had been deported from Lwow to Belzec on August 17. human memory is imperfect. to Heinrich Himmler of January 5. as well as the confiscation of their property.151 The situation regarding Belzec is much different. namely that Belzec. that even after death they were found in standing position. each crammed with 100 Jews. without exception all concur on the vital issue at dispute. in a train of 50 cars. citing Globocnik. . Working in the camp as a mechanic.

It noted: "The Reichsführer-SS [Himmler] had approved in principle the promotion of the most deserving officers and men after his visit to the Sobibor camp. some 42. Moreover. 25 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 ."157 A second letter of the same date. in view of Globocnik's transfer. proposed promotions of the officers and men of Aktion Reinhard. where they could continue to use their expertise in gassing. 1943. 1943. and Franz Stangl as "camp commanders. 1943.159 On October 27. Aktion Reinhardt also dealt with "the evacuation itself" (die Aussiedlung selbst) and "the utilization of labor. 1943. from Globocnik to Gruppenführer von Herff of the SS Central Officer for Personnel of the same day and sent by courier. which I directed in the General Government.HDOT : Irving v. concerning the "Jewish resettlement" (Judenumsiedlung) under any circumstances to anyone outside of Operation Reinhard. and Treblinka." (die Verwertung der Arbeitskraft) In a brief section of the report devoted to the evacuation. I have terminated Aktion Reinhardt. and the factories had been idled. but on November 3." (Lagerführer) The remaining non-commissioned officers on the list "had been employed in Aktion 'Reinhard' since the beginning and had proven themselves in the best possible manner. Several conclusions can be drawn from this miniscule remnant of Operation Reinhard documents. The first of these. the latter should turn over an audit of the "'Reinhard' account" (Konto 'Reinhard') to Pohl. 1944. The enclosed promotion list was for "members of the SS-Special Commando 'Einsatz Reinhard'.) Among the recipients of the Jewish property collected during Operation Reinhard were the Ministry of Economics and Reichsbank as well as the Ministry of Finance. Globocnik confirmed to Herff in the SS Central Office for Personnel that included on his staff of 434 men were 92 men "from the Führer's Chancellery for the carrying out of Aktion Reinhard. and Poniatowa were shot in an SS killed action code-named "Fall Harvest" or Erntefest. Sobibor. 1943. It did not mention Himmler's visit to Sobibor specifically but stated that Himmler "on the occasion of his visit in March had visited installations of Aktion 'Reinhard'" and approved promotions. and Treblinka. Globocnik submitted his final report on the "economic part of Aktion Reinhardt. Sobibor. 1943. 1943." and the occupants had to be paid continuously to maintain the farmsteads. Himmler wrote to Oswald Pohl.164 (In this regard it should be noted that on November 3-4. Globocnik reported that the "installations" (Einrichtungen) created for the operation had been "entirely cleared away. Franz Lublin district" acknowledged having been oriented to specific rules of secrecy by SS-Hauptsturmführer Höfle on Globocnik's staff.'"155 One surviving file of Aktion Reinhard documents (partially burned) concerns the camp personnel at Belzec. there was "an explicit prohibition against photography in the camps of 'Operation Reinard. head of the Economic and Administrative Main Office of the SS. Concerning the utilization of labor. Globocnik noted that he had had a workforce of some 52."162 It is only at this point in the fall of 1943 that the alternative spelling of "Reinhardt" rather than "Reinhard" first appeared in the documents. verbal or oral. and Globocnik that." It identified Christian Wirth as Inspector and Gottlieb Hering."160 These were the men who formerly staffed the institutes of the "euthanasia" program for killing mentally." (Wirtschaftlicher Teil der Aktion Reinhardt) This report made clear that alongside the seizure and utilization of Jewish property." (zur Gänze weggeräumt) Moreover. 1943. addressed to SS-Obersturmführer Kuno Ther of the SS Central Office for Personnel. On September 22. Another surviving file of documents that mention Aktion Reinhard concern the audit of Operation Reinhard following Globocnik's transfer from the General Government to Triest in the fall of 1943. Globocnik wrote Himmler from Triest: "As of October 19. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www.hdot.000 working in 18 enterprises.and physically handicapped Germans and were subsequently assigned to the camps of Belzec.000 Jews in the work camps of Lublin.156 Two letters date from April 13."158 Subsequent correspondence in the file concerning the recommended promotions of Aktion Reinhard personnel confirmed Himmler's visit and inspection of Sobibor but dated it precisely to February 12.163 On January 5. and dissolved all camps. all the manpower had been withdrawn from the work camps. They were forbidden to make any communication. Trawniki. "for purposes of surveillance a small farmstead had been founded in each camp. was slightly rephrased.161 On November 4.

23. 500-1-25.41.41. EM No.41.1.41).41.66.157. 9.143. 11.42. 3.42. EM No. The most complete collection can now be found in Klein. the totals were 1.42. 8. 14. Operation Reinhard was directed by Odilo Globocnik.163. The Tätigkeits. Inland II 431.56. EM No.41 is Nürnberg Document 180-L. The second.26. Staatssekretär Fritz Reinhardt of the Finance Ministry is not mentioned in any of the documents.071 Gypsies. 156. 20. 21. the totals were 1. 16.Exekutierten sind wiederum neben einer relative geringen Anzahl von politischen Funktionären. Die Einsatzgruppen in der besetzten Sowjetunion 1941/42. No. Karl Jäger's report of 1. Sobibor. 764 communists. 10. undated draft report is Nürnberg Document PS-2273.und Lageberichte des Chefs der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD (Berlin.41.649 Jews.42.41. 421 Gypsies and asocials.12.153.42. Dez.41. 5.42.190. 6.41 24. the SS and Police Leader of Lublin. and 400 partisans. however. 156. and the Finance Ministry was only one of a number of recipients of Jewish property. 12.2. 170. The Ereignismeldungen or Event Reports are found in Bundesarchiv. 17. 1. EM No.8. 2.67. vol.1. Ereignismeldung (hereafter EM) No.2. 132.. 342 (Müller to Einsatzgruppen A. B. 12. The first Stahlecker report of 15. 16.." Special Archives Moscow (hereafter SAM).8..128. 6. 1. 29. 8. For March 1942. 27. 23. For February 1942. 14. and EM No. Jäger Report. EM No. 9.42 8.266 Jews. 1997). There are no cumulative figures reported for SK 4a and EK 6 of EG C. 18.150.7. EM No. Nothing in the surviving documents.) 7.2.1. EM No.41.12. and No.8. and every effort was made to erase all physical traces of the three camps. EM No.41. entitled "Gesamptaufstellung der im Bereich des EK. EM No.42. (Dem Führer soll von her aus lfd.8. 3 bis zum 1. Fritz Reinhardt. 4. 15. and Treblinka and who had earlier worked in the gassing institutes of the "euthanasia" program in Germany. 19.58.41. 1941 durchgefürten Exekutionen. 20. Die Einsatzgruppen in der besetzten Sowjetunion 1941/42: Die Tätigkeits. printed in IMT. This book also contains many other relevant documents. and EM No. The exploitation of Jewish labor and property were collateral aspects of Operation Reinhard. asocials. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www.4.12. No. EM No. 190.enthalten). ed. and the SS "special commando" of Operation Reinhard was made up of personnel who staffed the death camps of Belzec. The deportation of Jews to and the gassing of Jews in these camps was the central purpose of Operation Reinhard.und Lageberichte are found the Political Archives of the German Foreign Office. They are not published in full in: Peter Klein. 19.42.11. aktiven Kommunisten. 9. and 119 partisans and looters.41. Saboteuren usw. in erster Linie Juden. EM No. R 58. and mentally-ill. 184.hdot. 16. 1.133. EM No.43.10. 28.11.11. 2. (In der Summe der. 178. EM No. EM No. 2.9. is farfetched and finds no support in the surviving documents. EM No. D. 18. C. and the spelling of Operation Reinhardt with a "t" as in his name begins only in late 1943.42. 739 communists. 25..165. EM No. EM No. Die Einsatzgruppen.41. Notes 1. 8.4. explicitly indicates that Operation Reinhard was named for the assassinated Reinhard Heydrich. 26 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . 13.HDOT : Irving v. EM No.42. The notion that Operation Reinhard was a program for collecting and exploiting Jewish property and was named after the state secretary of the Finance Ministry. 18. Berichte über die Arbeit der Einsatzgruppen im Osten vorgelegt werden. p. 22.1.

500-1-758. EM No. Attentäter. in: Bundesarachiv-Militärarchiv Freiburg.41 44. 8.12. EM No. Appendix 2 to Order No. 1.7. 331-40. (grundsätzliche. EM No.8.9.41. 47. printed in: Klein.42.12. 2. 19. Kommandostab des RFSS.42. Rechtsanwälte usw mit Ansnahme der Medizinen) liquidiert worden. SAM.12.42 27.41. Die Einsatzgruppen in der besetzten Sowjetunion 1941.42. (Am 6. 19.11. 92.143. EM No. 8: Guidelines for the commandos of the Security Police assigned to the POW camps.12. SAM.000 Juden erschossen werden konnten.41. 29.155.11.] 35. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. 170. 2.41.41. 5. ed. No. 8. 12. 148. von dem Back-Zelewski. Propagandeure. EM No.9. 17. EM No.41. Kube to Lohse.hdot.41.41.7. 189.41. 30. Professoren.1942 (Berlin.7.A. 11. EM No. 5. EM No . Report of HSSPF. 12.41. liessen sich über die von der Staatzpolizeistelle Tilsit eingeleiteten Massnahmen unterrichten and billigten diese in vollem Umfange. pp. 11. Himmler. For Zhitomir on September 19.7.10. and Report to the Führer No. EM No. 16.41. 101.1. and Korsemann. 500-1-25. signed by H.41. 372-75. Riga. 150. 1997).41. [Führer der jüdischen Intelligenz (insbesondere 25. 24.8.10. wärend sie die Männer festsetzen..) 40. 26. EM No.) 36.1. in Military Archive Prague. EM No. EM No. EM No. 2. EM No.41. 39. 1. 49.42. printed in: Klein.41. 7.13. November wurde die schon länger beplant [sic] gewesene Judenaktion in Rowno durchgefü. (Sämtliche Juden müssen erschossen werden. 23. and 29-31. 5.1. denn die Sümpfe waren nicht so tief.41.41. bei der rund 15.Die jüdischen Familien werden durch die Letten aus der Stadt vertrieben.2. EM No.8. 31.41.41. 19.] 31.41. 1372-5-23: Himmler's appointment book (Terminkalandar)..12.) 41. EM No.7.32. 7. pp.135. 48. und 7.10. Heydrich to Jeckeln..41.S. Sowjetbeamte) liquidiert. (Weiber und Kinder in die Sümpfe zu treiben.42. 2. 32. Judenweiber in die jüdische Intelligenz. Himmler order to SS Calvary Regiment.12. 18.41. 15. dass ein Einsinken erfolgen konnte. . 1. Holocaust Memorial Museum as: Accession 1997. Staatspolizeistelle Tilsit to Müller (RSHA IV A 1). EM No. den er haben sollte.. 16. 34. in YIVO Occ E 3-41. 26.7.) 46. usw). 101. EM No. NS 19/2566.19. RS 3-8/36.12. 148.7.1. schriftlich nicht zu erörternde Befehle von höherer Stelle) 43.41. Hetzer. 500-1-25. 29.42. die dort zufällig anwesend waren. 1-3. EM No.41. 1941: EM No." 6. in Bundesarchiv. hatte nichte den Erfolg. For Kiev on September 29-30: EM No. (A copy of this document is now available in the U. 11. 106. (Der Reichsführer-SS und der Gruppenführer.156. 1. SAM. in: Prague Military Archives. in: Historical State Archives..8.8. 129. 16. (die Judenschaft von Shitomer endgültig und radikal zu liquidieren) 45.0328). War Diary of Police Battalion 322.43. Rechtsanwälte.HDOT : Irving v. Die Einsatzgruppen. (Das Schwergewichte der exekutiven Tätigkeit richtete sich zunächst gegen die jüdische Intelligenz. EM No. entry of 18.Die festgesetzten männlichen Juden werden kurzerhand erschossen und in vorbereiteten Gräbern begraben.41.) 38. Magill report on the Pripet action. Prützmann.8. 3. 54. 143. [sonstigen radikalen Elemente (Saboteure. Die Einsatzgruppen.24. Jäger Report. 28. entries of 9. 323-28. Hand-written note by Stahlecker to Jäger on his "draft over the issuing of temporary guidelines for the treatment of Jews in the territory of the Reichskommissariat Ostland. [In Minsk ist nunmehr die gesamte jüdische Intelligenzschicht (Lehrer. in Moscow Special Archives.41. Heckenschützen. 145.12. 51. 42.4. (Die Aktionen gegen die Juden gehen stärker weiter. EM No.] 37. EM No. printed in: Peter Klein. pp.10. 27 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . 25. .41.41.7.) 33.

3. Die Durchführung dieses sehr schweren Befahls [sic] hat der Führer auf meine Schultern gelegt. R 94/7. 126.. die dann als Massengräber für die Juden zur Verfügung stehen. 92.41. (Obwohl vom politischen Standpunkt aus die restlose Aussiedlung der Juden aus dem Kriegsgebiet erwünscht ist. 9. 53. 128.. 143. sofern in Brest die Judenfrage einmal gelöst wird. Diese Arbeit hat jetzt begonnen und so werden laufend täglich nunmehr etwa 500 Juden u. 148. Meeting of department and section heads. bezw.000 Juden umgesiedelt worden sein. 8.Einsatz bei der Aktion gegen die Juden in der Stadt und im Kreisgebiet Brest-Litowsk vom 15. da die Erde zu stark gefroren sei.10. 1370-1-53.42.) 64.41.HDOT : Irving v.41. EM No.. weil aus den Reihen der Juden immer noch Arbeitskräfte benötigt werden. 62.9.) 59.1. (Am 15.wurden eingewiesen. RW 30/15.42. 157. EM No.9. (Eine restlose Liquidierung der Juden sei zur Zeit wegen des Frostes nicht möglich. (Im Oktober 1942 fanden nun in Wolhynien die grossen Judenevakuierungen statt.41. EM No. 111.) 58.41. sich an der Liquidierung der Juden zu beteiligen.3. Anschliessend erfolgte auch die restlose Umsiedlung der Juden im Kreisgebiet Brest-Litowsk. Monthly report of the military armaments commando. reject. 12.41.9. strikeout. 178. 92. 67.9. 66. "ausmerzen" has a literal meaning (in the gardening context) of to "cull." In this context." 52. 56. (die Umsiedlung der 12-13. Saboteure liquidiert. weed out" and figurative meanings of to "eradicate. EM No. Report of SS. EM No. 51. 24. Die Verantwortung kann mir ohnedies niemand abnehmen.10.000 Juden.42. in BA.10.42. 21. Minsk. 19. Krimtschakes and Zigeuner) 28 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . die die Juden festnehmen und sich in Konzentrationslager schaffen. .7.11. October 1942.42. 26. 186.Im Frühjahr werde jedoch wieder mit starken Exekutionen begonnen werden. Police Regiment 15. (Die besetzten Ostgebiete werden judenfrei. R 94/6 (Ich sehe. und 16. 65.. Report of district labor office in Brest. EM No. 29.9. EM 94. R 6/243.hdot.11.).42. EM No. in BA. Report of Gendarmerie District Leader Brest. 7021-148-2. 8.) 54.41.) 57. EM No. die Fertigung bis auf Bruchteile zusammenschrumpfte. 25. wipe out.4.41. wo sie nach am gleichen Tag der Sonderbehandlung unterzogen werden.) According the the Langenscheidts dictionary. Hierfür wurden 150 litauische Beamte abgestellt." "expunge. 61. in: Central State Archives Moscow. sodass die Betriebe auf kürzere oder längere Zeit vollkommen zum Erliegen kamen. 13.. Im ganzen sollen bis jetzt etwa 20.42. (Die litauische Ordnungsdienst.42. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. EM No.42. R 94/7. 60. EM No.41. Memo of Stadtkommissar Brest. 10. 25." and "cast off. 27. Activity and Situation Report No. um Gruben ausheben zu können. 92. 19. in BA. EM No. EM No. 8.and Standortführer Brest.10.42.10. in BA. EM No.10. 3.42 wurde in Brest-Litowsk die Judenaktion durchgeführt. durch die aus allen Betrieben die Juden restlos entfernt wurden.10. 23. 63.11. clearly "Ausmerzung" is synonomous with "Liquidierung" or "liquidation" and hence should be translated as "eradication" or "elimination. Bis jetzt sind etwa 20.42.000 Juden erschossen worden. 4." "eliminate. EM 50.12. Nürnberg Document NO-626: Himmler to Berger. 124. Report of the Gendarmerie district leader Brest. (denen aufgrund von Ermittlungen eine deutschfeindliche oder bolschewistische Tätigkeit nachgewiesen werden konnte. Der verbliebende Rest ist aufgrund von Vergeltungsmassnahmen erledigt worden. 195.42. muss ich vom Standpunkt des Arbeitseinsatzes aus mich unbedingt für die Belassung der notwendigsten Handwerker und Arbeitskräfte einsetzen.42. EM No. Activity and Situation Report 10th company. in BA.41.2. Eine völlige Ausmerzung der Juden sei auch deshalb nicht möglich.9. 55.41. 28.41.7. R 94/7. Report of Gebietskommissar Brest. in BA. 9. 27. schwere wirtschaftliche Schäden infolge Mangel an Arbeitskräften eintreten. 23. Volhynia-Podolia. in: Central State Archives. R 94/7. 173.a. 25. for February 1942.12.1..) 68. in: Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv Freiburg. . 15.42 ab. Minsk. 27.10. 23.

75. (Sobald dann im Rahmen der Gesamtlösung der Judenfrage die technische Möglichkeit 69.41 (Nürnberg Document 180-L. Inland II A/B 59/3. A second version of Wetzel's draft. is NO-996 and NO-997. 29 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 .. Notes on conference chaired by Heydrich in Prague. in: Political Archives of the German Foreign Office. III 246.10.10. 18. umfangreiche Exekutionen in den Städten und auf dem flachen Lande durchgeführt).um sie im nächsten Frühjahr noch weiter nach dem Osten abzuschieben) 78. 266-67.41. Wurm to Rademacher.10. multiple meanings of the word in the German original. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. Inland II 177). O-53/144/409-10.7.. 13 and 17.720-722 (Document 46b).11. Pol.41. p. he was sending Lohse the record of Wetzel's conversations with Brack and Eichmann. 2nd edition). printed in IMT. XIII. (Darüber hinaus wären diese Juden aber auch bei den nach Kriegsende zu ergreifended Massnahmen zur grundsätzlichen Lösung der Judenfrage unmittelbaren Zugriff allzusehr entzogen) 80. 687). Stahlecker report.12.) 83. 27. 15.grundsätzliche. (wenn diejenigen Juden die nicht arbeitsfähig sind. 81.41 (Eichmann trial document T/1209). "Betrifft: Entwurf über die Aufstellung vorläufiger Richlinien für die Behandlung der Juden im Gebiet des Reichskommissariates Ostland. Andererseits hatte die sicherheitspolizeiliche Säuberungsarbeit gemäss den grundsätzlichen Befehlen eine möglichst umfassende Beseitigung der Juden zum Ziel. pp.beigegeben wurden. initialed by Wetzel. Nürnberg Document NG-2586-A: Göring to Reich Interior Ministry. 19.41. (von den allgemein zu den Juden und den Zigeuner auf den Krim erfolgte im wesentlichen bis Anfang Dezember 1941. entry of 15.41. mit den Brackschen Hilfsmitteln beseitigt werden) According to Langenscheidts dictionary. denen ausgesuchte Kräfte . Rosenberg to lohse.10. (Es war von vornherein zu erwarten. 23."(das Nähere über den Stand der Angelegenheit zu entnehmen) 84. 26. HSSPF Riga to Stahlecker. 4.8. Luther memoranda. .41. dass möglichst bald das Altreich und das Protekorat vom Westen nach Osten von Juden geleert und befreit werden.) 70. 71. (Auf meine Rückreises aus Berlin traf ich einen alten Parteigenossen.9.41. 74. "beseitigen" has the literal meaning of "remove" and two of its figurative uses are "dispose of" in the context of garbage and "do away with. in Wetzel's handwriting.41. 72. 10. in Political Archives of the German Foreign Office.110. In this version the letter writer stated that he had no objection to proposals concerning the Jewish question contained in a report from Lohse of October 4.41. O-53/144/412. Jager Report. copy in: YVA.. Here is a case where an English translation cannot capture the simultaneous. 77." "liquidate" and "purge" in the context of killing.41.39 (copy in Political Archives of the German Foreign Office. Adler.41.5. (Der Führer wünscht. Nürnberg Document NO-365: draft letter. Himmler Terminkalendar. dass allein durch Progrome [sic] das Judenproblem im Ostlande nicht gelöst werden würde. 24. However.41.11. 5. Stahlecker to Heydrich. pp. 15. Nürnberg Document PS-3943 and NO-5219: Report from the Occupied Eastern Territories. Theresienstadt 1941-1945 (Tübingen.. 23. der im Osten an der Regelung der Judenfrage arbeitet. Historical State Archives. printed in: H. No. Rademacher report.hdot.. 25. in Moscow Special Archives. (des späteren gesammelten Abtransportes in ein aussereuropäisches Judenreservat.10. vol. werden die Juden auf dem wasserwege in die Auffanglager im Osten abgeschoben. 1372-5-23.41. in: Political Archives of the German Foreign Litauen Partisanentrupps." 6.8.8. 22. Himmler to Greiser. Nürnberg Document NO-5329: Himmler file note on conversation with Rosenberg. Part 2. in Lettland Trupps der lettischen Hilfsoplizei . T-175/54/2568695. 79. 570-72. . 73. Nürnberg Document PS-710: Göring to Heydrich. 1960. in National Archives. copy in: YVA.42. Es wurden daher durch Sonderkommandos. In nächster Zeit wird von dem jüdishen Ungezeifer durch besondere Massnahmen manches vernichtet werden.G.) 82. pp. schriftlich nicht zu erörternde Befehle von höherer Stelle an die Sicherheitspolizei erheblich berührt).10. printed in: Akten zur Deutschen Aussenpolitik. 25. he asked Lohse "to infer the particulars concerning the state of the matter. vol. 1. 76.. Inland II 194. printed in IMT. Abt. Müller Runderlass.41.1. 31. D.HDOT : Irving v. Riga: Stahlecker draft memo.

(Mit den Juden--dass will ich Ihnen auch ganz offen sagen--must so oder so Schluss gemacht werden.42. wenn der letzte Jude das deutsche Territoriums verlassen hat. und diese Frage nur gelöst werden in eine biologischen Ausmerzung des gesamten Judentums in Europe. 457-8. XIII. . und für Europa wenn kein Jude mehr bis zum Ural auf dem europäischen Kontinent steht. Aber was soll mit den Juden geschehen? Glauben Sie. einen Weltkrieg zu entfesseln. zu der ich Herrn Staatssekretär Dr.Ich möchte Sie bitten: einigen Sie sich mit mir zunächst.) ) 90.. sie nach dem Osten abzuschieben. alle gemäss Befehl des Chefs der Sicherheitspolizei und des 30 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 ...11. Jedenfalls wird eine grosse jüdische Wanderung einsetzen. pp. sie dabei ihre Vernichtung erleben würden. eine natürliche Auslese darstellend. Der Führer sprach einmal das Wort aus: wenn es der vereinigten Judenschaft wieder gelingen wird. Im Januar findet über diese Frage eine grosse Besprechung in Berlin statt. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www.. 88.dazu ist es nötig. 515. Protocol of Ostministerium conference. wo immer wir sie treffen und wo es irgend möglich ist.. VAA Berichte. Der Weltkrieg ist da. und zwar im Zusammenhang mit den von Reich her zu besprechenden grossen Massnahme. Die Judenfrage ist für Deutschland erst gelöst. um das Gesamtgefüge des Reiches hier aufrecht zu erhalten. Er hat den Juden prophezeit. Documents on German Foreign Policy. (In grossen Arbeitskolonnen. 91. R 58/871. Rosenberg speech. copy to Pradel.1.. man wird sie im Ostland in Siedlungsdörfen unterbringen? Man hat uns in Berlin gesagt: weshalb macht man diese Scherereien. Inland II 177.41.42.HDOT : Irving v..) 89. Die anderen haben auch kein Mitleid mit uns gehabt. die irgendwie zu einem Vernichtungserfolg führen. 27. die Vernichtung der Judentums muss die notwendige Folge sein). (An Stelle der Auswanderung ist nunmehr als weitere Lösungsmöglichkeit nach entsprechender voheriger Genehmigung durch den Führer die Evakuierung der Juden nach dem Osten. in BA. Zt. auf die Formel: Mitleid wollen wir grundsätzlich nur mit dem deutschen Volke haben. Frank speech at Regierungssitzung of 16. sonst mit niemandem auf der Welt.3. . wir können im Ostland oder im Reichskommissariat auch nichts mit ihnen anfangen.hdot. No. 93. ed. Wir müssen die Juden vernichten. . 26. Bühler entsenden werde. Sie müssen weg. 1975). bevor ich jetzt weiterspreche. D.. 2. XIII. wenn sie noch einmal einen Weltkrieg herbeiführen würden. . Ich werde daher den Juden gegenüber grundsatzlich nur von der Erwartung ausgehen. 29. liquidiert sie selber! Meine Herren ich muss Sie bitten. 87. entsprechend behandelt müssen. in: Political Archives of the German Foreign Office.Der allfällig verbleibende Restbestand wird. BA.. . 498-99 (entry of sondern dann wird der Jude in Europa sein Ende gefunden haben. in Political Archives of the Foreign Office. dann werden die Blutopfer nicht nur von den in den Krieg gehetzten Völkern gebracht werden. unter Trennung der Geschlechter.12. wir aber unser bestes Blut für die Erhaltung Europas geopfert hätten. wobei zweifellos ein Grossteil durch natürliche Verminderung ausfallen wird. 147-48. sie über den Ural zu drängen oder sonst irgendwie zur Ausmerzung zu bringen. Das ist keine Phrase gewesen. Ich habe Verhandlungen zu dem Zwecke angeknüpft. R 58/871. da dieser. Ich muss auch als alter Nationalsozialist sagen: wenn die Judensippschaft in Europa den Krieg überleben würde.. (Die von uns gefertigen Sonderwagen sind 85. in Political Archives of the German Foreign Office. reinen Tisch zu machen. The Goebbels Diaries (New York. 1948).. pp. bei Freislassung als Keimzelle eines neuen jüdische Aufbaues anzusprechen ist.. Pol. da es sich bei diesen zweifellos um den widerstandsfähigsten Teil handelt.. dann würde dieser Krieg doch nur einen Teilerfolg darstellen. printed in Das Diensttagebuch des deutschen Generalgouverneurs in Polen 1929-1945 (Stuttgart. (Im Osten leben noch etwa sechs-Millionen Juden. pp. Protocol of the Wannsee Conference and Heydrich cover letter to Luther.Abschliessend wurden die verschiedenen Arten dere Lösungsmöglichkeiten besprochen. werden die arbeitsfähigen Juden strassenbauend in diese Gebiete geführt. dass. 18. 882-84. sich gegen alle Mitleidserwägungnen zu wappnen. Diese Besprechung soll im Reichssicherheitshauptamt bei SS-Obergruppenführer Heydrich gehalten werden.1.wir den aber doch Eingriffe vornehmen. (Bezüglich der Judenfrage ist der Führer entschlossen. Bd. Teil II. 92.) 86. Rauff to Criminal Technical Institute. Inland II 179.41). dass sie verschwinden. Die Tagebücher von Joseph Goebbels. Louis Lochner. pp.

20. because. an eight. (Die Vergasung wird durchweg nicht richtig vorgenommen. (4) a strongly protected light that would operate during the first minutes.5. Nürnberg Document 501-PS. and daily report. Die bekannte Explosion in Kulmhof ist als Einzelfall zu bewerten. Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv Freiburg. Greiser to Himmler.4. 30. (Schon vor Monaten habe ich alles an Juden im hiesigen Lande greifbare erschiessen und sämtliche Judenfrauen und Kinder in einem Lager konzentrieren lassen und zugleich mit Hilfe des SD einen 'Entlausungswagen' angeschaft. printed in: IMT.000 Juden in meinem Gaugebiet wird in den nächsten 2-3 Monaten abgeschlossen werden können. 5. report on the trip of the Military Commander Southeast to Serbia." Himmler subsequently gave Greiser permissions to subject tubercular Poles deemed incurable to "special treatment.. (Seit Dezember 19421 wurden beispielweise mit 3 eingesetzten Wagen 97.. (2)Shortening the large Saurer model.Da ich annehme.42.42. (Die von Ihnen im Einvernehmen mit dem Chef des Reichssicherheitshauptamtes SS-Obergruppenführer Heydrich genehmigte Aktion der Sonderbehandlung von rund 100.6.). Yad Vashem Archives.42. Schäfer to Major Pradel. They could not negotiate the Russian terrain fully loaded. fully loaded truck could operate much more quickly. (Die Judenfrage ist in Serbien nicht mehr akut. Thus all "fluids" would flow to the middle. and "thicker filth" could be hosed out afterward. including: (1)The installation of two narrow slits with lightweight flaps that would facilitate the rapid inflow of CO while avoiding overpressure. xxxix and 266.) In this letter. 9.. signed by Just. pp.000 verarbeitet.) 94. 102. Mauthausen nicht unbestimmte Zeit bis zur Verfügungstellung warten kann. 1.42.6.) 98. (haben den Sonderauftrag durchgefuehrt) 100. R 58/871. March-June 1942 97. and the cover equipped with a small sieve. Lodz. 30.5.HDOT : Irving v. ohne dass Mägel an den Fahrzeugen auftraten. 3.) 96. Nürnberg Documents NOKW-221 and NOKW-1077: 10-day report.42. 22. A shortening of the rear compartment would not disadvantageously affect the weight balance.42. geben die Fahrer durchweg Vollgas. A shorter.10. printed in: Faschismus-Getto-Massenmord. 19. 101.5.41. RSHA II D 3.11." NO-249. "Actually a compensation in the weight distribution takes place automatically through the fact that the cargo in the struggle toward the back door during the operation is always is preponderately located there. R 40/27-30: 10-day reports (10. pp. in BA. 26. and thus too much empty space existed to be filled quickly with carbon monoxide. Gestapo situation report. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. 7-14. .42. 16.42. bitte ich die Beschaffung von Stahlflaschen mit Kohlenoxyd twelve-inch hole should be made in the floor and provided with a cover opened from outside. IV (348).3.4. II D 3 Vermerk. dass das SD im Einsatz. Nürnberg Document NO-246.hdot.3. 266.3. Report of Statistical Office of Lodz on the Jewish population in 1940. andere Hilfsmitteln zur Durchführung von dort aus in die Wege zu leiten. Durch diese Massnahme erleiden die zu Exekutierenden den Erstickungstod und nicht wie vorgesehen. vol. Greiser to Himmler. from Berlin Document Center file of Turner. 11. Nürnberg Document NOKW-926. The floor should be slightly inclined. The Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto. dass das Ladegut beim Betrieb in dem Streben nach der hinteren Tür immer vorwiegend dort liegt. O-/79. 10. 29.4. 10. so the "cargo" would not make a bolting of the door difficult by pressing against the back door in panic when plunged into darkness.3. Pol. (3) To facilitate cleaning.L.) 31 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . der nun in etwa 14 Tage bis 4 Wochen auch die Räumung des Lagers endgültig durchgeführt haben wird. Um die Aktion möglich schnell zu beenden. 103.6. overburdening the front axle. in Political Archives. Turner to Wolff. p.5.42. Becker to Rauff.) The report then proposed a series of improvements. and thus the operating time was greatly lengthened. 20. 21. Nürnberg Document 501-PS. the "thin fluids" would exit even during the operation. Greiser went on to ask if the Sonderkommando employed for the Jewish action could then be used to free the Warthegau from the threat posed by the Poles with "open tuberculosis.103-5. Rademacher memorandum. den Einschläferungstod.42.3. Ihre Ursache ist auf einen Bedienungsfehler zurückzuführen.. 95." (Tätsächlich findet aber ungewollt ein Ausgleich in der Gewichtsverteilung dadurch statt. 99.5) of the plenipotentiary commanding general in Serbia.

822 Juden aus dem Kreis Pulawy über den Bug ausgewiesen worden. in die Gegend von Lublin verbracht werden sollen. Ludwigsburg.42. Die 3 dort vorhandenen S-Wagen reichen fuer diesen Zweck nicht aus!) 105. ein grosses Lager zu bauen. 15. Er wird damit gerechnet.9. 107. Überfüllung der Waggons und den Leichengestank--es befanden sich beim Ausladen der Waggons etwa 2000 Juden tot im Zuge--machten den Transport fast undurchführbar. vol. O-53/79/476.3. Westermann report to KdO Lemberg. Inwieweit diese Evakuierung einer Dezimierung gleichzusetzten sein wird. (Die immer grosser werdende Panik unter den Juden. Report of OFK 365. Amt für In. T-501/215/97. 18. Mit einer Aussiedlung von 35-38.. bleibt abzuwarten. müsste man evtl. The Goebbels Diaries.42. 2)Hstuf. Mai bis 12. das ihnen als Reiseziel angegeben wird. die Aktion beendet ist.) 106.Abschliessend erklärte er. Louis Lochner. Verw. (Aussiedlung von Juden.5. wird das Ghetto in Lublin von Juden geräumt. wie angegeben. 20.3.. vorgerufen durch starke Hitze. T-501/216/1129. Türk Vermerk. pp. in National Archives. Report of OFK 365. in National Archives.) 111.106-7. Seit Montag. da einmal in verschiedenen Orten des Distrikts die bekannten Aktionen gegen die Juden wieder einsetzten und zum anderen in Lemberg die vorübergehend unterbrochene Aussiedlung von Juden ihren Fortgang nimmt. nicht im Arbeitsprozess stehende Juden Lembergs erfasst und. (trifft woechentlich ein Judentransport ein. Report of OFK 365. Das Judentum ist über sein Schicksal unterrichtet. printed in: IMT.hdot. pp. printed in: DiM. was auch durchaus erklärlich ist. (In der Zeit vom 6.. Kreishauptmann Pulawy. O-53/79/470-1. dass die Evakuierten das Ansiedlungsgebiet. No.42..3. Es bleibt lediglich ein kleiner jüdischer Wohnbezirk erhalten für die Juden. der einer Sonderbehandlung zu unterziehen ist.000 Juden wird gerechnet. O-53/134/1813.) 113. (Die jüdische Bevölkerung zeigt tiefste Niedergeschlagenheit.000 ältere und sonstige. in 104.42. BdS Ostland to RSHA. in YVA.4. II D 3 a. dazu übergehen. Wenn diese Auseinderhaltung auf der Abgangsstation nicht möglich ist. 14. niemals erreichen. die noch für deutsche Dienststellen arbeiten. 14. durch die etwa 30. 3)Piaski wird von polnischen Juden freigemacht und wird Sammelpunkt der aus dem Reich kommenden Juden. (Die Umsiedlungsaktionen gehen unvermindert weiter. (Innerhalb der jüdischen Bevölkerung Lembergs hat eine merkliche Beunruhigung Platz gegriffen mit Rücksicht auf eine begonnene Aussiedlungsaktion. copy in YVA.) Documents containing numerous references to the deportation of Jews from towns in the Lublin district in the spring of 1942 can be found in this file as well as O-53/79 and O-53/85 109. ed.) A more legible. Täglich werden rund 2000 Juden erfasst und nach Richtung Osten geschafft. Bezeichnend ist der Ausspruch eines Mitgliedes des Lemberger Judenrates: Wir tragen alle unseren Totenschein in der Tasche--es ist nur der Sterbetag noch nicht ausgefüllt. to Department of Population and Welfare.) Piaksi is a small town southeast of Lublin on the rail line between Lublin and Belzlec.6. 21.42. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www.) 112. 32-33. 175-76. 501-PS. 19. Lublin. 17. 26. T-501/216/203. USSR Ord. O-53/83/115-16.HDOT : Irving v.3. es dürfte sich inzwischen auch bei den Juden herumgesprochen haben. Diese Juden kämen über die Grenze und würden nie mehr ins Generalgouvernement zurückkommen. in welchem die einsatzfähigen Juden nach ihren Berufen karteimässig erfasst und von dort angefordert werden können.4. 17. Weekly report of Haubtabteilung Propaganda. er könne 4-5 Transporte zu 1000 Juden mit der Zielstation Belzec aufnehmen. II. Copy in: Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen. retyped copy of this 32 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . in National Archives.42. den 16. die in den Distrikt Lublin kommenden Judentransporte schon auf der Abgangsstation in arbeitsfähige und nichtarbeitsfähige Juden zu teilen.) 108. (Krieshauptmann Weienmeyer hatte über den Endablauf der Aussiedlung noch nichts erfahren können. dass bis zum 1. Türk Vermerk. Höfle ist daran.3. den Transport in Lublin nach den obengenannten Gesichtspunkten zu trennen. das aber völlig abgeschlossen ist und die Ankunft eines SS-Kommandos von ca. 60 Mann. 110.42. (1) Es wäre zweckmässig.. 116/508-10. Mai einschliesslich sind auf Weisung des SS und Polizeiführers 16. . lediglich bekannt ist das Vorhandsein eines Sammellagers in einiger Entfernung von Bahnhof Belzec an der Distriktgrenze. in YVA.

Wirth's adjutant was named Josef Oberhauser. 134. dass die Juden in Treblinka nicht ausreichend beerdigt seien und infolgedessen ein unerträglicher Kadavergeruch die Luft verpestet.11.6. 20.7. Proz. 208-212. Robert Jührs. Sobibor.51 are also printed in Friedländer. Bundesarchiv Koblenz. 1983). The Trial of Adolf Eichmann: Record of Proceedings in the District Court of Jerusalem (Jerusalem.7 fährt täglich ein Zug mit 5000 Juden von Warschau über Malkinia nach Treblinka. Erwin Lambert.2. Ganzenmüller to Wolff. in which many excerpts from the Gerstein report and other correspondence are published. O-51/163/42-43. printed in Faschismus-Getto-Massenmord. 183-86. not Heckenholt. 130.hdot. 1 Zug pro Tag von Distrikt Lublin Nord nach Belzec und 1 Zug pro Tag vom Distrikt Lublin Mitte nach Sobibor.) 119. with promotion list.7. in YVA.50). T-501/219/461. November 1942.HDOT : Irving v. pp. 125. Werner Dubois. Globocnik to Herff. 1964. Kurt Gerstein: The Ambiguity of Good (New York. 131. 301-2. 222-23. ed. (OK Ostrow meldet. ed." See also: Saul Friedländer. not Obermeyer. 8 AR-Z 252/59. 28. 1933-1945 (New York.59 are printed in: Nationalsozialistische Massentötungen durch Giftgas. August Miete. printed in: IMT. was in charge of the gas chambers at Belzec. Excerpts from a deposition of 9. (Nach der Beendigung der Wiederinstandsetzung der Linie Lublin-Chelm... Rothfels omitted some of Gerstein's allegations of Pfannenstiel's conduct as "purely personal notes. copy in: Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen Ludwigsburg. and Bundesarchiv Koblenz. written for the Swedish Foreign Office on August 7. pp. All. 114. Facsimile copies of these train schedules are printed in the appendices of: Raul Hilberg. in National Archives. 117. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. concerning the evacuation of Jews. 118. Kurt Franz. vol. Kurt Gerstein.6.42. Published by Leoni am Starnberger See. 6/1-6. and pp. Ernst Zierke.5. warscheinlich ab 1. pp. pp. Mbfh Polen. Copies of the transcripts of Eichmann's taped conversations with Sassen. 37. ausserdem zweimal wöchentlich ein Zug mit 5000 Juden von Przemysl nach Belzek. p. Aide memoire. 8 AR-Z 151/59. (Seit dem 22. Joseph Oberhauser. 133. 198-202.. Karl Alfred 33 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . Otto Horn. Nürnberg Document NO-2207. The Stones Cry Out: Sweden's Response to the Persecution of the Jews. I. Copies of these interrogations can be found in six volumes in: Bundesarchiv Koblenz. The 29 indicted personnel of Belzec. werden auch die anderen dringenden Transporte durchgeführt werden können. Erich Bauer. Heinrich Unverhau. 126. pp. August/September report of the Warsaw district governor to Bühler. 58-59. 1. vol.000. Fischmann report. Zentrale Stelle. Ganzenmüller to Wolff.43. 128. 398 and 401.An edition of the Gerstein report was published by Hans Rothfels in the Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (1953). Proz. A man named Lorenz Hackenholt. published in: Steven Koblik." Life Magazine 49/22 (28. Willi Mentz. 1993).41-31. 127. "Eichmann tells his own damning story. 216-17. 6/169. Proz. 198-99. 6/54-60. der den grössten Anteil an der ganzen Aktion hatte) 123.11. Johann Kleier. Heinrich Matthes.6. and Adalbert Rüerl (Frankfurt/M. Gustav Müzenberger. pp. 120. 132.42. 121. copy in YVA. 41-44 (Pfannenstiel testimony.) 122. 228. 177-194. 1945. Hubert Gomerski. 30.42. corrected in Eichmann's hand. Franz Rum. Nürnberg Document PS-1553/RF-350. Otter also recounted the meeting in an interview. pp.. Sonderzüge nach Auschwitz (Mainz.11. 6. can be found in the Israeli State Archives. 1942. pp. Excerpts have been published in: Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police.) 116. and Treblinka were: Josef Hirtreiter. 120-21. All. 115. War Diary of the Oberquartiermeister. July 24. by Jochen von Lang. Rheinischer Merkur. Excerpts of the testimony of 9. Hermann Langbein. Bundesarchiv Koblenz. by Eugen Kogen. 135-41 (testimony of 9. 6/119.. 1988). 129. NO-2207. Katzmann to Krüger. (Der beste Lagerleiter.59). All. O-53/113 /348-61. nämlich: 1 Zug pro Tag vom Distrikt Radom nach Sobibor. 173-74.31-32. 1969). Otto Stadie. 124.12. Protocol of conference of September 26 and 28. All. 28.43.60). document contains the figure 200 rather than 2. and several interviews with Koblik. Franz Suchomel. 1981). pp.

9. Erich L. Die Juden waren in die Gaskammern sehr eng eingepfercht worden. kam ein jüdisches Arbeitskommando unter Leitung eines Kapos und holte die Leichen aus den Kammern heraus. 208 AR-Z 252/59. dann an zwei Feuerstellen. Die Vorgänge kann ich also genau schildern. Im Durchschnitt wurden demnach an der einen Feuerstelle etwa 5 Monate lang insgesamt 300 000 Leichen. Kurt Bolender.Mein Standort am Schluch war in unmittlebarer Nähe der Entkleidungsbaracke. Daran anschliessend wurden die Juden zu den Entkleidungsbaracken geführt. pp. Sobibor. die andere vorgebeugt. 8. London. Nach etwa 5 bis 7 Minuten--und diesen Zeitraum schätze ich nur--wurde durch ein Guckloch in die Gaskammer hineingeschaut. Alfred Ittner. mit dem die Vergasung ausgeführt wurde. pp. Die Leichen wurden aus den Kammern herausgezogen und von einem Zahnarzt sogleich untersucht. . Aus diesem Grunde lagen die Leichen nicht am Boden. einem jüdischen Kapo. Dann began die allgemeine Ezhumierung und Leichenverbrennung. Erst dann wurden die Aussentore geöffnet und die Gaskammern gelüftet. Nach der Entkleidung wurden die Juden getrennt nach Männern und Frauen mit Kindern durch den Schlauch geführt. and Treblinka camp personnel has been printed in: Nationalsozialistische Massentötungen durch Giftgas. 1974. Die Ansprache wurde von Wirth. In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide in the Reflection of their post-War Prosecution in West Germany: The 'Euthanasia' and 'Aktion Reinhard' Trial Cases (The Hague. 135.Nachdem die Gaskammern gelüftet worden waren. Bei einigen waren die Augen geschlossen. Es handelt sich hier natürlich um durchschnittliche Schätzungen. um festzustellen. Etwa 4 Wochen nach Beginn der Verbrennungsaktion wurde die zweite Feuerstelle errichtet.. Bei den Leichen konnte ich z. Die auf diese Weise anfallenden Wertgegenststände wurden von ihm in einen bereitstehenden Karton geworfen. Ich glaube. An earlier study of the Aktion Reinhard trials is: Adalbert Rüerl. weil ich alles selbst gesehen und miterlebt habe. vol. als schon Schnee lag. und zwar zunächtst an einer. 146-193. an der zweiten etwa 4 Monate lang 240 000 Leichen verbrannt. eine andere knieend. denn sie mussten aus meinen Worten oder meinen Gesten zur Überzeugung kommen.HDOT : Irving v. Franz Wolf. Eine Feuerstelle bot die Möglichkeit. Sobibor. ((Die Vergasungen sind nach meinem Erinnerungsbild Ende des Jahres 1942.) 138. Chelmno (Munich.T. 208 AR-Z 252/59. aber auch von seinem Dolmetscher.hdot. 1697-8 (testimony of Henrich Gley). vol. pp. pp. dass sie zur Umsiedlung kämen und zuvor noch gebadet und desinfiziert werden sollten. eingestellt worden. binnen 24 Stunden etwa 2000 Leichen zu verbrennen. as well as a list of the trials. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. Nachdem die Juden die Gaskammern betreten hatten.. die eine zurück-. and Franz Stangl. sie dürfte von November 1942 bis März 1943 gedauert haben. ob bei allen der Tod eingetreten ist. wie der Platz war. gehalten. Treblinka. wurden die Türen von Hackenholt selbst oder von den ihm zugeteilten Ukrainern fest verschlossen. Nach Verlassen der Entkleidungsbaracke musste ich den Juden den weg zur Gaskammer weisen. Additional testimony of the Belzec. Die Gesamtzahl der Leichen auf 500 000 zu 34 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . sondern sie hingen kreuz und quer durcheinander. ZStL. Auch an dieser Stelle habe ich gelegentlich Aufsichtsdienst gehabt. Karl Frenzel. Portions of Schluch's testimony are also printed in: Nationalsozialistische MassenTötungen durch Giftgas. Die Leichen waren wenigstens teilweise mit Kot und Urin.. 1977). sehen. 1512-13 (testimony of Alfred Schluch). can be found in: Dick de Mildt. ZStL. 136. bei anderen waren die Augen verdreht. Brief sketches of most of the defendants. Hans-Heinz Schött. je nach dem. Die Verbrennungen wurden Tag und Nacht ununterbrochen durchgegührt. dass sie tatsächlich gebadet werden sollten. Bei der Entladung wurde den Juden gesagt. 1996). In der einen Baracke mussten sich die männlichen und in der anderen die weiblichen Juden und Kinder entkleiden. Sodann setzte Hackenholt den Motor in Betrieb.. . dass ich den Juden den Weg dorthin erleichterte. weil ich seiner Meinung nach beruhigend auf die Juden einwirken konnte. NS-Vernichtungslager im Spiegel deutscher Strafprozesse: Belzec. 167-68. Erich Fuchs. Heinrich Gley. Der Zahnarzt ertfernte Fingerringe und zog etwa vorhandene Goldzähne heraus. 137... (Die gehfähigen Juden hatten sich nach der Entladung an den Sammelplatz zu begeben. dass die Lippen und auch Nasenspitzen blaulich verfärbt waren. eine zur Seite liegend. andere zum Teil mit Speichel besudelt. Wirth hatte mich deswegen dort eingewiesen. Nach dieser Prozedur wurden die Leichen in die vorhandenen grossen Gräber Schluch.

Der Chemiker. dass die Juden ahnungslos in den Tod gegangen sind. . Alsdann probierte ich den Motor aus. Es gab auch Arbeitsjuden.Die Türen wurden luftdicht verschlossen und sofort setzte der Vergasungsvorgang ein. Wir stellten den Motor auf einen Betonsockel und errichteten die Verbindung zwischen Auspuff und Rohrleitung.Diese haben die Leichen weggetragen und später die Leichen verbrannt. Ein Unterschied zwischen Männern und Frauen ist nicht gemacht worden. hat ein Arbeiter aus dem 35 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 . May 1973). IV. 208 AR-Z 251/59. and vol. Die Kammern waren dicht gefüllt. Es handelte sich um einen schweren russischen Benzinmotor (vermutl. 990 (testimony of Erich Bauer). dass der Motor schliesslich ansprang. Die Juden wurden erst misstrauisch. Arbeitsjuden zerrten die getöteten Menschen aus den Gaskammern heraus und transportierten die Opfer mittels Loren zu den Gruben. Im Anschluss daran wurde eine Probevergasung durchgefürt. ZStL. pp.. 459-61. ZStL..) 139. ZStL. II.HDOT : Irving v. die den Leichen die Goldzähne ausbrechen mussten. sie waren verwest. Alle mussten sich in einem Raum ausziehen. dürfte richtig sein. August 1974 and August 1975).. III. dass 30-40 Frauen in einer Gaskammer vergast worden sind. p. Ich glaube mich zu entsinnen. Panzermotor oder Motor einer Zugmaschine) mit mindestens 200 PS (V-Motor. den ich schon aus Belzec kannte. Testimony of Erich Fuchs. Bevor aber die Leichen aus den Gaskammern fortgeschafft wurden. brannten die Leichen..hdot. 705-9 (testimony of beziffern. (Ich fuhr auf Anweisung des Wirth mit einem LKW nach Lemberg und holte dort einen Vergasungsmotor ab. Nach etwa 20-30 Minuten trat in den Gaskammern völlige Stille ein. . habe ich im oberen Teil des Lagers Dienst getan. die ich in Treblinke war. Allgemein war es üblich die Kammern mit etwa 200 Juden vollzupropfen. (Auch ich habe etwa 3oder 4mal zur Vernichtung bestimmte Gruppen durch den Schlauch zu den Gaskammern geführt.. wassergekühlt). pp. wo sie sich auszogen und wo ihnen die Haare abgeschnitten wurden.) 142. Alsdann wurden die Kammern geöffnet. by Adalbert Rückerl (Munich. pp.. ZStL.) 141. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt gab es jedoch kein Zurück mehr. den ich nach Sobibor transportierte. p. Es mag verwunderlich sein. Er funktionere zunächst nicht. (Nach Ankunft eines Zuges wurden jeweilig einige Waggons abgekoppelt und in das Todeslager umgeleitet.I. Im übrigen kann sich wohl kein Angehöriger des Stammpersonals in Sobibor davon ausnehmen. . in welchem die Juden getötet wurden und in welchem die Leichen der getöteten Juden zunächst in grosse Gruben reingelegt und später verbrannt wurden. vol.Wir luden den Motor ab.. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. 143. II 208 AR 643/71 (investigation of Karl Streibel). Holz und dann brannte man alles an. als sie bereits in den Gaskammern waren. vol. 2053-4 (testimony of Heinrich Matthes). Später wurden die Opfer verbrannt. Semigodow.Man zog die Leichen aus den Gruben heraus. Anschliessend wurden die Kammern geöffnet und ein jüdisches Arbeitskommando musste die Leichen zu den bereits ausgehobenen Gruben--in unmittelbaren Nähe der Gaskammern--auf dem Gelände des Lagers. Es gab dort Schienen. Anschliessend wurden sie aufgefordert sich auszuziehen. ed.) 140. vol. II 208 AR 643/71. Die Juden sind danach durch einen stacheldrahtumzäumten Gang in Holzbaracken geführt worden.. diese und alle sonstigen bei dem Vernichtungsvorgang anfallenden Funktionen im Laufe der Zeit ausgeführt zu haben. 10. die Menschen waren vergast und tot. vol. begab sich mit einem Messgerät in die Gaskammer. (Die ganze Zeit.. um die Gaskonzentration zu prüfen. dass sie hier zum Arbeitseinsatz kommen und dass sie jetzt zum Baden geführt werden und ihre Wertsachen abgeben sollen. in welchem sich die Gaskammern befanden. 561-627 (testimonies of Peter Petrowitsch Browzew. 166. Der obere Teil des Lagers war der Teil von Treblinka. Die Menschen wurden für 10-15 Minuten in die Kammern eingesperrt. Anschliessend hat man sie durch den gleichen Gang in die Gaskammern geführt. 24 Stunden hindurch. 208 AR-Z 230/59. bringen. pp. . 5. 1977). Tag und Nacht. Widerstand hat sich höchst selten ergeben. Im Lager wurden die Waggontüren geöffnet und den Juden mitgeteilt. Ich reparierte die Zündung und die Ventile mit dem Erfolg. printed in: NS-Venichtungslager im Spiegel deutscher Stafprozesse. Es waren 6 Gaskammern zu je 3 Kammer auf jeder Seite des Ganges. 8 Zyl.

153. 152-53. (Belege baldigst vernichtet werden müssen. file nr. 1450. 441-50 (testimony of Jan Piwonski). the testimonies of Abraham Krzepicki and Jankiel Wiernik in jüdischen Arbeitskommandos den Toten die Goldzähne herausgerissen. 151. Doc. 147. 1996).. Archives of the Holocaust. Vernietigingskamp Sobibor (Amsterdam. nachdem von allen anderen Arbeiten in dieser Sache die Unterlagen schon vernichtet sind. ihn abzuschalten. U. Case No. printed in: Faschismus--Getto--Massenmord: Dokumentation über Ausrottung und Widerstand der Juden in Polen wärend des zweiten Weltkrieges. 1945 and 1946). 152.S. Sobibor: Martyrdom and Revolt (New York. 11. From the Ashes of Sobibor: A Story of Survival(Evanston. die Leichen wurden dann zu den vorher mit Maschinen ausgehobenen Massengr#x00E4. 157. 243-50. . vol. 324-9. Thomas Blatt. 1222 (testimony of Edward Ferens. by Tatiana Berenstein. 1577 (testimony of June 12-14. 1979). 410-416 (testimony of Jan Krzowski) and pp. VI. 1993).1. (Der Reichsführer-SS hat nach Besichtigung des 36 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 .4.7.hne heraus. 5. The Death Camp Treblinka: A Documentary. US Department of Justice. die man den Leichen an die H#x00E4. there was also a separate nearby work camp in the Treblinka region. pp. pp. This are reproduced in facsimile in: Archives of the Holocaust. A7 333 486. 150.43. ZStL. USA vs. pp. and p. separate area contained Jewish workers who emptied bodies from the gas chambers. p. p. WA. dass man sie sogar nach dem Tode in stehender Position in den Kammern vorfand. v. Unterwegs zwischen der Rampe der Kammer und dem Grab zogen die Dentisten den Leichen die goldenen Z#x00E4. In addition to the camp with gassing facilities under Stangl. wurden alle Türen dicht verschlossen. Die Arbeit des Motors überwachte der Häftling Moniek. and Richard Glazer. IMT. 13 with no accompanying information. estimates that some 60 escapees from Treblinka survived the war and provides a list of 69 names.44. pp. One section of the Treblinka death camp contained Jewish workers who collected and sorted clothing and valuables. The Death Camp Treblinka. pp. Belzec (Krakau. 29 very brief eyewitness testimonies of Sobibor survivors are published in: Miriam Novitch. and p. 284-90. 145. 429: letter to the SS Central Office for Personnel. For example. May 25. Feodor Fedorenko. The Death Camp Treblinka: A Documentary (New York.dann wurde der Motor in Gang gesetzt. A long excerpt of the Kozak testimony has been printed in: Nationalsozialistische Massentötungen durch Giftgas. Eight considerably longer testimonies of Treblinka survivors are published in: Alexander Donat. Rudolf Reder. Artur Eisenbach. Alexander Donat. Der Motor war immer genau 20 Minuten in Betrieb. III. pp.. 981-89.und Polizeiführer im Distrikt Lublin. 1992). Nach der Ausschaltung des Motors machten die Häftlinge auf Befehl von Moniek alle Türen breit auf und zogen zu zweit mit Hilfe von Riemen. 77-188. printed in IMT.HDOT : Irving v. a second. pp. wonach Moniek einem von den Maschinisten das Zeichen gab. 1980). 148. 688-90. VI. Trap with a Green Fence: Survival in Treblinka (Evanston. Sobibor: The Forgotten Revolt (Issaquah. vol. 1995). District Court for the Southern District of Florida. 226-28. vol. p. 1129-32. 12.. Berlin Document Center. ein ausdrückliches Photografier-Verbot in den Lagern des "Einsatzes Reinhard") 156. ZStL. vol. 70-71. VIII. 1946). lists the names of 47 survivors. 333-34. ). Bernard Mark and Adam Rutkowski (East Berlin.bern gezogen. p. II 208 AR 643/71. 208 AR-Z 252/59: vol. die Toten aus den Kammern heraus.42. (bei der Durchführung von Arbeiten bei der Judenumsiedlung im Rahmen des "Einsatzes Reinhard" beim SS. Jules Schlevis. vol. 1946). signature burned. For example. ed. 146. 8 AR-Z 252/9 (investigation of Josef Oberhauser).nde anlegte. 1195 (testimony of Stanislaw Kozak. II. 1978). 1325. 11. Sobald alle Kammern vollgestopft waren. 'Einsatz Reinhard' secrecy pledge. 13. ein Droschkenkutscher aus Krakau. 1997). 34. The two most recent book-length memoirs of survivors are: Thomas Blatt.) 144. 18.hdot. (In diesen Kammern wurden die Menschen so zusammengedrängt. part 2. vol. pp. 500. ZStL. ed. II.) 155. 1976. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. V... 149. Sworn statement of Feodor Fedorenko. 1175-80 (testimony of December 1945). 77-2668-Civ-NRC. vol. Nürnberg Document 4024-PS.) 154. Globocnik to Himmler. pp. by Henry Friedlander (New York.

v. part 1.10.. Globocnik to Himmler. 13. part 2. Nürnberg Document 4024-PS. acknowledging Globocnik's previous letter. p.) 163. 11. Doc. v.sind seit Beginn bei der Aktion "Reinhard" eingesetzt und haben sich bestens bewä Lagers Sobibor. Archives of the Holocaust.10. 11.43. (von der Kanzlei des Führers zur Durchführung der Aktion Reinhard) 161.. (Ich habe mit 19.43. Archives of the Holocaust. Doc. die ich im Generalgouvernement geführt habe. 432-439.) 158. 4. 144: Globocnik to Herff. Globocnik report on the economic aspects of Aktion Reinhardt.HDOT : Irving v. 164.34. 339-49. 69-70. 68-9. Himmler adopted the Reinhardt spelling in his letter of November 30. vol. accessed 11 June 2011 37 de 37 11/6/2011 01:11 .11.9. 162. 1942.Angehörige der SS-Sonderkommando "Einsatz Reinhard") 159.hdot. vol.43. (Aus Überwachungsgründen ist in den Lagern je ein kleiner Bauernhof entstanden) Popups by overLIB http://www. 27.. vol. printed in: IMT. 160. 335-7. 70-89. v. pp. . 34. Doc. pp. Lipstadt : Defense Documents http://www. Nürnberg Document 4024-PS. and promotion list. 22. printed in: IMT. pp. (anlässlich seines Besuches im März Einrichtungen der Aktion "Reinhard" besucht. 34.hdot..43 die Aktion Reinhardt. einer Beförderung der verdientesten Führer und Männer grundsätzlich zugestimmt. part 2. Nürnberg Document NO-3034: Himmler to Pohl and Globocnik.4. abgeschlossen und all Lager aufgelöst. 430: Globocnik to Herff. Archives of the Holocaust. 260. pp.43. 11. pp.