Orbital Maneuvers
InPlane
Hohmann Transfer
Plane Changes
Ground Track
TwoLine Elements
MAE 155A
NASA Image
2
MAE 155A
InPlane Maneuvers
Any conic orbit can be converted to any other conic orbit by adjusting velocity.
A spacecraft travels on the trajectory defined by its velocity at a point.
orbit 1
orbit 2
AV
2
=V
i
2
+V
f
2
2V
i
V
f
cos o
AV
V
i
V
f
r
Smallest impulse (lowest energy)
transfer occurs when the two
orbits are tangent to each other
o
3
MAE 155A
Flight Path Angles
Inplane velocity changes result in a new flight path angle for the orbit.
AV
V
i
V
f
r
o
y
i
=y
f
+o
y
i
= flight pathof initial orbit
y
f
= flight path of final orbit
y
i
y
f
tan y
i
=
e
i
sin0
i
1+e
i
cos 0
i
tan y
f
=
e
f
sin0
f
1+e
f
cos 0
f
4
MAE 155A
Hohmann Transfer
The Hohmann transfer is the minimum energy transfer between two coplanar non
intersecting orbits.
orbit 1
orbit 2
Hohmann
transfer
orbit
AV
1
=V
pt
V
i
AV
2
=V
at
V
f
r
i
r
f
r
pt
,V
pt
=radius , velocity at periapsis of transfer orbit
r
at
,V
at
=radius , velocity at apoapsis of transfer orbit
r
pt
=r
i
r
at
=r
f
AV
1
=impulse at 1
AV
2
=impulse at 2
V
i
=velocity oninitial orbit
V
f
=velocity on final orbit
[1]
[2]
5
MAE 155A
Plane Changes
A plane change results when an outofplane impulse is applied at the intersection of
the initial and final orbital planes.
AV =2V
i
sin
o
2
)
AV
V
i
V
f
o
AV
2
=V
i
2
+V
f
2
2V
i
V
f
cos o
V
i
=V
f
AV
2
=2V
i
2
2V
i
2
cos o
AV
2
=2V
i
2
1cos o)
but
AV
2
=4V
i
2
sin
2
o
2
)
6
MAE 155A
Earth Orbit Parameters
Ascending
Node
Inclination
Reference
Direction
True
Anomaly
Space Vehicle
Longitude of
Ascending Node
Reference
Plane
Argument of
Periapsis
o
D
t
0
There are many models available for
predicting satellite ground track.
Most differ by Earth models and the
treatment of disturbances.
This level of detail is probably not
needed for preliminary design.
7
MAE 155A
Two Line Element Set (TLE)
http://celestrak.com/ includes TLE database of many Earth orbiting satellites.
IRIDIUM 8 [+]
1 24792U 97020A 10299.38526309 .00000106 000000 309094 0 2343
2 24792 86.3922 252.5015 0002489 82.3093 277.8393 14.34217875705502
TLE Line 2 Format:
1 0101 Line number
2 0307 Satellite number
3 0916 Inclination [Degrees]
4 1825 Right Ascension of the Ascending Node [Degrees]
5 2733 Eccentricity (decimal point assumed)
6 3542 Argument of Perigee [Degrees]
7 4451 Mean Anomaly [Degrees]
8 5363 Mean Motion [Revs per day]
9 6468 Revolution number at epoch [Revs]
10 6969 Checksum (Modulo 10)
o
t
D
0
e
M
0
n
8
MAE 155A
Ground Track Prediction
Mean Motion:
Mean Anomaly:
Eccentric Anomaly:
True Anomaly:
Argument of Latitude:
Argument of Longitude:
n=
.
u
a
3
a=

u
n
2
1/ 3
M=M
0
+nt t
0
)
E=M+e sin E
tan
0
2
)
=
.
1+e
1e
tan
E
2
)
u=0+o
D=D
0
+o
e
t t
0
)
t
0
=reference time that defines
D
0
, M
0
)
o
e
=Earth rotation rate
9
MAE 155A
ECEF Coordinates
Orbit Radius:
The satellite position is then converted from the perifocal plane to EarthCentered
EarthFixed (ECEF) coordinates.
The ECEF reference frame is fixed to the earth and rotates with it.
ECEF Xaxis points toward prime meridian and Zaxis lies on Earth's axis of rotation.
r=a1e cos E)=
a1e
2
)
1+e cos0
X =r cos ucosDr sin usin Dcos t
Y =r cosusin D+r sin ucos Dcost
Z=r sin usin t
10
MAE 155A
GPS PRN 25 Ground Track
PlanetFixed Frame EarthFixed Frame