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© 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this
copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.
Network Protection & Automation Guide
-ii
Network Protection & Automation
Guide

NETWORK PROTECTION & AUTOMATION
GUIDE, EDITION MAY 2011

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copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.
Network Protection & Automation Guide
-iii
CONTENTS

1 Introduction
2 Fundamentals of Protection Practice
3 Fundamental Theory
4 Fault Calculations
5
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of
Power System Plant
6 Current and Voltage Transformers
7 Relay Technology
8 Protection: Signalling and Intertripping
9
Overcurrent Protection for Phase and
Earth Faults
10 Unit Protection of Feeders
11 Distance Protection
12 Distance Protection Schemes
13
Protection of Complex Transmission
Circuits
14 Auto-Reclosing
15 Busbar Protection
16
Transformer and Transformer-Feeder
Protection
17
Generator and Generator-Transformer
Protection
18
Industrial and Commercial Power System
Protection
19 A.C. Motor Protection
20 System Integrity Protection Schemes
21 Relay Testing and Commissioning
22 Power System Measurements
23 Power Quality
24 The Digital Substation
25 Substation Control and Automation
Appendix A Terminology
Appendix B IEEE/IEC Relay Symbols
Appendix C
Typical Standards Applicable to
Protection and Control Numerical Devices
Appendix D Company Data and Nomenclature
Index

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copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.
© 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this
copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.
/|s.cmo:|c 11
Chapter 1
Introduction
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© 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this
copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.
© 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this
copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.
/|s.cmo:|c 21
Chapter 2
Fundamentals of Protection Practice

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Protection Equipment
2.3 Zones of Protection
2.4 Reliability
2.5 Selectivity
2.6 Stability
2.7 Speed
2.8 Sensitivity
2.9 Primary and Back-up Protection
2.10 Relay Output Devices
2.11 Tripping Circuits
2.12 Trip Circuit Supervision



2.1 INTRODUCTION
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© 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this
copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.
Network Protection & Automation Guide
2-2
Figure 2.2: Example power system
R
1
GS G
1
T
1
G
2
T
2
R
2
GS
A 380kV
Hydro power station
380kV B
L
1A
L
1B
380kV C
L
2
L
3
L
4
T
4
B'
T
3
33kV
T
5
T
6
110kV C'
380kV
CCGT power station
T
8
T
7
E
G
5
R
5
GS
G
6 GS
R
6
GS
G
7
R
7
T
9
D
220kV
Steam power station
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T
10
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11
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4
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4
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6
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© 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this
copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.
Chapter 2˜Fundamentals of Protection Practice
2-3

Figure 2.3: Onset of an overhead line fault
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copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.
Network Protection & Automation Guide
2-4
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GS
Feeder 2 Feeder 1 Feeder 3
Zone 6
Zone 5 Zone 7
Zone 4
Zone 3
Zone 2
Zone 1

Figure 2.5: Division of power systems into protection zones
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A
FF
Feeder
protection
Feeder
protection
Busbar
protection
Busbar
protection
(a) CTs on both sides of circuit breaker
(b)CTs on circuit side of circuit breaker

Figure 2.6: CT locations
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Figure 2.7: Overlapping zones of protection systems
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copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.

EDITION MAY 2011 Previously called Protective Relays Application Guide First Edition Reprinted June 1966 January 1967 August 1968 November 1970 September 1971 February 1973 January 1974 Second Edition Reprinted March 1975 November 1977 December 1979 November 1982 October 1983 October 1985 Third Edition Reprinted June 1987 September 1990 March 1995 Network Protection & Automation Guide First Edition July 2002 © 2011 ALSTOM GRID ISBN: 978-0-9568678-0-3 MAY 2011 Published by Alstom Grid Alstom Grid Worldwide Contact Centre www. ƒŠƒ€’‡Œ… —ƒ‘ „   Œ‚ ’†  “‘ƒ -ii © 2011 Alstom Grid. .com/grid/contactcentre Tel: +44(0) 1785 250 070 www. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.Network Protection & Automation Guide Network Protection & Automation Guide NETWORK PROTECTION & AUTOMATION GUIDE.alstom.alstom.com/grid ‘‘ All rights reserved.

Motor Protection System Integrity Protection Schemes Relay Testing and Commissioning Power System Measurements Power Quality The Digital Substation Substation Control and Automation Terminology IEEE/IEC Relay Symbols Typical Standards Applicable to Protection and Control Numerical Devices Company Data and Nomenclature © 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.Network Protection & Automation Guide CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Index Introduction Fundamentals of Protection Practice Fundamental Theory Fault Calculations Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant Current and Voltage Transformers Relay Technology Protection: Signalling and Intertripping Overcurrent Protection for Phase and Earth Faults Unit Protection of Feeders Distance Protection Distance Protection Schemes Protection of Complex Transmission Circuits Auto-Reclosing Busbar Protection Transformer and Transformer-Feeder Protection Generator and Generator-Transformer Protection Industrial and Commercial Power System Protection A.C. -iii .

© 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid. .

For 2011. we name a mix of new authors for this edition.this book offers a mix of both. In the list opposite. and key historical figures at Stafford who have contributed significantly to the advancement of APPS and NPAG. This course. GOOSE. phasor measurements and wide area schemes. Advancements in protection and control application engineering have assisted the authors in exploring and integrating the new techniques and philosophies in this edition. and hence the quality and integrity of our book. including IEC 61850. reference textbook. the Network Protection and Automation Guide advances too. This book is a précis of the Application and Protection of Power Systems (APPS) training course. Beginners and experts alike will each feel satisfied in their search for relaying. Ethernet station bus. communication and control knowledge. . is vibrant and evolving. Alstom has capitalised on its pool of experts at the St Leonards Centre of Excellence in Stafford UK to launch a new edition. We sincerely hope that this book assists your navigation through a challenging and rewarding career in electrical power engineering. which Alstom (and its predecessor companies at Stafford) has been running for over 50 years.Chapter 1 Introduction Since 1966. Protection and control has long been termed an art. We acknowledge and thank Alstom colleagues in the wider Alstom Grid and Alstom Power organisations for photographs used within this book. rather than a precise science . the Network Protection and Automation Guide (formerly the Protective Relays Application Guide) has been the definitive reference textbook for protection engineers and technicians. impartial. The digital substation. Michael Bamber Michael Bergstrom Andrew Darby Susan Darby Graham Elliott Peter Harding Graeme Lloyd Alan Marshall Allen Millard Andrew Myatt Philip Newman Anthony Perks Steve Pickering Stephen Potts Simon Richards Jack Royle Peter Rush Brendan Smith Mark Stockton Paul Wilkinson Alan Wixon John Wright Alstom Grid © 2011 Alstom Grid. by the ingenuity and dedication of the trainers. As APPS progresses. whilst retaining vendorindependence – as we continue to deliver the genuine. and precision time synchronising is also detailed. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid. whilst never losing sight of the key basic principles and concepts. 1-1 . process bus. measurement. an intensive programme. New chapters treat topics such as system integrity protection and remedial action schemes.

© 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid. .

1 illustrates the complexity of a typical power station Figure 2.3 2.10 2.8 2. Frequent or prolonged power outages result in severe disruption to the normal routine of modern society.2 2. which is demanding ever-increasing reliability and security of supply.7 2.9 2. A power system comprises many diverse items of equipment.11 2. power system design is inevitably a compromise.Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Protection Practice 2. Figure 2. The system should be designed to deliver this energy both reliably and economically. As the requirements of reliability and economy are largely opposed.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of an electrical power system is to generate and supply electrical energy to consumers. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.5 2. Figure 2.1 2.2 shows a hypothetical power system.12 Introduction Protection Equipment Zones of Protection Reliability Selectivity Stability Speed Sensitivity Primary and Back-up Protection Relay Output Devices Tripping Circuits Trip Circuit Supervision 2. 2-1 .4 2.6 2.1: Modern power station Alstom Grid © 2011 Alstom Grid.

.2: Example power system 2-2 © 2011 Alstom Grid.Network Protection & Automation Guide Key GS: Generator T: Transformer R: Resistor L: Line Hydro power station GS R1 G1 G2 GS R2 T1 T2 380kV A L2 L1B L1A 380kV C L3 380kV L4 B T5 T6 T3 T4 110kV Steam power station GS R3 G3 G4 GS R4 C' 33kV CCGT power station R5 GS B' G5 G6 GS R6 G7 GS R7 T10 T11 T7 T8 T9 220kV D L7A 380kV T14 L6 E 380kV L7B T15 T12 T13 L8 Grid Substation F T16 T17 L5 G 33kV D' Grid 380kV F' 110kV G' Figure 2. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.

however. which may only be readily expressible by mathematical or graphical means. Only by doing this can the objectives of the power system be met and the investment protected. This shows the importance of protection systems within the electrical power system and of the responsibility vested in the Protection Engineer.4 provides an illustration of the consequences of failure to provide adequate protection. CBs. is that the power system should operate in a safe manner at all times. fuses. relays. it can burn through copper conductors or weld together core laminations in a transformer or machine in a very short time – some tens or hundreds of milliseconds. batteries. Excluded are devices such as Current Transformers (CTs). Relays frequently measure complex functions of the system quantities. operating conditions and construction features of power systems. according to the limitations of the technology used. x Protection Scheme: a collection of protection equipment providing a defined function and including all equipment required to make the scheme work (i.3: Onset of an overhead line fault Many items of equipment are very expensive. Circuit Breakers (CBs) and contactors Figure 2. the system must be utilised as much as possible within the applicable constraints of security and reliability of supply. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid. For example. Figure 2. No matter how well designed.2 PROTECTION EQUIPMENT The definitions that follow are generally used in relation to power system protection: x Protection System: a complete arrangement of protection equipment and other devices required to achieve a specified function based on a protection principle (IEC 60255-20) x Protection Equipment: a collection of protection devices (relays.Chapter 2˜Fundamentals of Protection Practice Figure 2. The destructive power of a fault arc carrying a high current is very large.3 shows the onset of a fault on an overhead line. 2-3 .). © 2011 Alstom Grid. and so the complete power system represents a very large capital investment. etc. it has been necessary to develop many types of relay that respond to various functions of the power system quantities.4: Possible consequence of inadequate protection 2. They are described in more detail in Chapter 7. The provision of adequate protection to detect and disconnect elements of the power system in the event of fault is therefore an integral part of power system design. simple observation of the fault current magnitude may be sufficient in some cases but measurement of power or impedance may be necessary in others.e. To maximise the return on this outlay. More fundamental. Relays may be classified according to the technology used: x electromechanical x static x digital x numerical The different types have varying capabilities. Even away from the fault arc itself. heavy fault currents can cause damage to plant if they continue for more than a few seconds. CTs. and these faults may represent a risk to life and/or property. etc. Figure 2.) In order to fulfil the requirements of protection with the optimum speed for the many different configurations. faults will always occur on a power system.

Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 7 Feeder 3 Feeder 1 Feeder 2 Zone 6 Figure 2. The terminology used in describing protection systems and relays is provided in Appendix A. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid. In this example.7: Overlapping zones of protection systems For practical physical and economic reasons. either several relays.5.3 ZONES OF PROTECTION To limit the extent of the power system that is disconnected when a fault occurs. the start will be defined but the extent (or ‘reach’) will depend on measurement of the system quantities and will therefore be subject to variation.5. the circuit breaker being included in both zones. Unit type protection results in the boundary being a clearly defined closed loop. 2-4 © 2011 Alstom Grid. A fault at F would cause the busbar protection to operate and open the circuit breaker but the fault may continue to be fed through the feeder. so that no part of the power system is left unprotected. . or. as shown in Figure 2. the zone may be unrestricted. to ensure that the remote end of the feeder is also tripped. Busbar protection 2. the zones of protection should overlap. accommodation for current transformers being in some cases available only on one side of the circuit breakers. An arrangement using several quantities may be required. This problem is dealt with by intertripping or some form of zone extension.6(b). each responding independently to a different quantity may be used. protection is arranged in zones. These methods are explained extensively in chapters 11 and 12. This is shown in Figure 2. In this case. The principle is shown in Figure 2. Ideally. this ideal is not always achieved. the three most common methods (IEC. If the feeder protection is of the type that responds only to faults within its own zone (see section 2. more commonly. the Alternatively.6(a).Network Protection & Automation Guide In many cases.7 shows a typical arrangement of overlapping zones.2). section between the current transformers and the circuit breaker A is not completely protected against faults. Feeder protection (a) CTs on both sides of circuit breaker A Busbar protection GS Zone 1 F Zone 2 Feeder protection (b)CTs on circuit side of circuit breaker Figure 2.6: CT locations Zone 3 The point of connection of the protection with the power system usually defines the zone and corresponds to the location of the current transformers.5: Division of power systems into protection zones Figure 2. owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors. a single relay containing several elements. each responding to a single quantity. IEEE/ANSI and IEC61850) are provided in Appendix B. it would not operate. since the fault is outside its zone. Figure 2. Different symbols for describing relay functions in diagrams of protection schemes are used. it is not feasible to protect against all hazards with a relay that responds to a single power system quantity.

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