ID 24 Gonzales, Gugol, Jueves


 PALEOLITHIC - hunting gathering lifestyle; use crude stone tools; lived in caves and rock-shelters near rivers  MESOLITHIC- use of tiny tools that had handles out of materials like jasper, agate, carnelian, chalcedony, quartz and flint. The types of tools include blades (sometimes serrated), crescents, triangles, points, scrappers, etc.  NEOLITHIC- agricultural revolution and use of ground and polished tools like celts, axes, adzes and hammer-stones

 Rock Paintings
 done in red stone or haematite

 Bhimbhetka rock shelters in

Madhaya Pradesh- earliest paintings from Mesolithic period; a UNESCO World heritage site.

 Rock Engravings
 appear on smooth rock surfaces

Rock Paintings in Bhimbhetka rock shelter, Madhya Pradesh

open to rain and weather  Rock engravings that appear in Mandori, Gandad and Ghariala which show human and animal figures.


 Indus Civilization (3000-2000BC)  Vedic Civilization (1500-800BC)

 Buddhist India
 Hindu India  Mogul India (1527-1857)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

7. 8. 9. 10.

Pur or Royal Fort- defended town rampart (Prakara) rammed foundation (Vapra) gateway (Gopura Dvara) with bastions (Attalaka) Broad Road (Mahapatha) – divides the city into blocks Houses- two-storey houses had several rooms, a kitchen and a bathroom around a courtyard Great Bath (Mangala-Pushkarini) Granary (Koshthagara) Assembly Hall (Sabha or Samthagara) “College” Royal Palace (Prasada)

Left: Grey Sandstone Dancer Right: Red Sandstone Male Torso

Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-daro. Bronze

Terracota Fertility Goddess

Vedic Civilization

 Aryans- Caucasians that came from the Caucus

Mountains in the North-West

 Originally nomadic  became partly pastoral and partly

agricultural  brought a new language, Sanskrit  introduced many of the basic concepts about humanity, life, the world, and the universe

 Vedas- Hindu scriptures which also contained hymns

and prayers addressed to various gods along with detailed descriptions of for ritual offerings  Vedic period- time period when native Indian beliefs were dominated by those introduced by the Aryans



 

Huts (grama) - had circular walls of bamboos covered with domical roof of leaves or thatched grass. Bamboo fence/palisade composed of two upright posts (thabha) and three horizontal bars (sanchi) threaded through the holes. Gamadvara, a special entrance/ primitive portcullis
Hindu- gopuram (cow-gate) Buddhist- torana, torii (Jap) and piu-lu (China).


Palaces- built during the Timber Era.

 Aryans were AN-ICONIC  Vedic Influence on Indian Art Symbols:
 Divinities

Buddhist India


Architectural Forms
(Free Standing)
1. Stupa is a burial mound made

from bricks.

Rock-Cut Architecture

1. Memorial/ Ashoka Pillars

Uttar Pradesh, Sarnath. 5th C

Hindu India

Architectural Form

Mogul India

What are the different What are the subdivisions different of theof a Hindu Temple? parts of a Stupa? parts Pre-colonial Period?

Colonial India


Colonial India

MAIN altar of the Bom Jesus, Velha Goa, with gold-embossed figure of St. Ignatius Loyola. Baroque Rococo at its dazzling best, wrought by Indian craftsmen.

Reference: 1/7/515936107dbrSAi_ph.jpg

Colonial India

In sculpture • fluttering draperies, realistic surfaces and dazzling metals Carvings • sculpting church – oriented motifs and themes • gold painted wood carving, the challenges of crafting ceilings, outsized altars, retable and pulpits

Colonial India

Side-altars, Mapusa (left) and Daman (right)

Colonial India

Traditional India treated its buildings as massive sculpture.

Colonial India

Carved section of temple complex (above). A rich, living tradition of the Indian craftsman’s plastic handling of stone and wood. Inverted-lotus ceiling of Daman church (left).

Colonial India

Baroque-rococo retable, Church of St. Cajetan, Velha Goa. (LEFT) Side altar, Bom Jesus Church, Velha Goa. (RIGHT)

Colonial India

Main altar of Church of St. Francis of Assisi (left). Metal-carving of the brackets in the Jain Temple at Mt. Abu (right).

Colonial India

• Churches

In the evolution of spectacular church interior, the tile was the dominant decorative element in the first phase, with gold-painted carved wood confined to the altars

Remarkable Feature: Gilt-richness not only of the focal area of the sanctuary retable but also of the side-altars, chapels and pulpits.

Colonial India

Church Interior, village of Sta. Cruz

Colonial India

Interior of the Holy Spirit Church, Margao.

Colonial India

Helder Carita – Interiores em Portugal

Colonial India

Spandrels and arches, Church of St. Francis of Assisi

Colonial India

Main altar, Seminary Church, Rachol

Colonial India

Side altar

Colonial India

•Portuguese Azujelos (tile tradition) Art
is concerned in themes and motifs.

Tiles became such an important element of architecture that tile-makers began to make them to order for covering vast architectural surfaces in the facades, interiors and garden settings.
blue-and-white tile

Colonial India

Polychrome altar-frontal

Colonial India

Hindu mythological theme of tile covering

Colonial India

Polychrome tile panel

Colonial India

Pot-and-plant, with stylized birds on either side

Colonial India

•Carpentry, Artifacts and Textiles Portuguese cabinet-making with wood-carving and interior décor art went with it, was for long eras.

No use for beds, heavy tables and settees

Colonial India

Mediterranean-Islamic ideal of interior decor

Colonial India

Baroque-backed sofa

Colonial India

Portuguese Bed

Colonial India

(Left) Vicar’s Chair (Right) Chair with flattened-lotus motif

Colonial India

Earlier cabinet-making in Portugal

Colonial India

Confessional in Bom Jesus

Colonial India

Embroidered textile

Colonial India


Braganza house at Chandor.

Colonial India

Colonial India

De Silva house at Margao

Colonial India

Palacio of a Hindu land-owner

Colonial India

Colonial India

Colonial India

Colonial India

British India
Cenotaphs – Empty Tombs

Gurdwara – Sanctuaries

Colonial India


Colonial India

Victoria Terminus, Bombay

Colonial India

Bombay High Court

Colonial India

Notable Architecture (COLONIAL)

Colonial India

JAMMU Annex of the New Palace

Colonial India

KOLKATA Victoria Memorial Hall

Colonial India

VADODARA Senate House of Vadodara College

Colonial India

What are the features mostly seen in the Church/Houses/ Interiors

Post-colonial / Modern


The Great Divide
 Indian Independence

Act 1947  India and Pakistan


Charles-Édouard Jeanneret

Pierre Jeanneret

Chandigarh (The Fort of Chandi)
 Union state of Punjab and Haryana  Located strategically

 Personal interest of Prime Minister Jawaharlal

Nehru  To reflect new modern, progressive outlook

Le Corbusier
 Congrès International d'Architecture

 Urban functions
 Anthropometric plan form  Hierarchy of road and pedestrian network

Le Corbusier
High Court

Le Corbusier
Assembly Hall

Pierre Jeanneret
Gandhi Bhawan

Pierre Jeanneret
Punjab University Library

Balkrishna Vithaldas Dosh

BV Dosh
Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad

Charles Mark Correa

Charles Mark Correa
Hindustan Lever Pavilion, New Delhi (1961)

Charles Mark Correa
Gandhi Sanghralaya

Raj Rewell/ Raj Rewal

Raj Rewell/ Raj Rewal
Asiad Village / Asian Games Village , New Delhi (1982)

Fariburz Sabha
Lotus Temple, New Delhi (1986)

World Centre of Vedic Learning

Domestic Dwellings


Indian Towns
 Cluster of buildings  Balconies overlooking the streets  Courtyards providing public spaces

 Terraces for other activities

 Weather  Closure

 Respect

Royal Palace

Indian Town


Vastu Shastra

The Five Elements

Air (Vayu)

Water (Jala)

Fire (Agni)

Earth (Bhoomi)

Space (Akash)

Gods and goddesses

Common Colors
 Aquamarine  Ochre

 Saffron
 Indigo  Pistachio Green  Shocking Pink  Pomegrenate Red  MangyoYellow


 mind that is inclined towards divine

perception and intelligence


Visual Art

Abstract Indian Art
 Distortions in proportions, spatial

compositions and nonrepresentational color schemes  Cubism, Futurism, Impressionism and abstract expressionalism.

Abstract Indian Art
Sacha Jafri’s new style of Magic Realism

Abstract Indian Art

Abstract Indian Art
Gaganendranath Tagore

Realistic Indian Art
 depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see.  elements of fantasy and surrealism in the

subjects  Pseudo realism

Raja Ravi Verma


Untitled by Hemen Majumdar

Erotic Indian Art
 Existent in pre-colonial era, but it was only after AD 1200 when it appeared in a larger scale because miniatures becoming a predominant art

form for the royalty.  It was only after independence, when a few artists started taking eroticism as main subject matter of their art.  In the post liberalization era, the society became more liberal. The Indian films became bolder, nudity became more accepted. This has encouraged artists to experiment with newer forms of art bordering on the subject of erotic.

Erotic Indian Art

Contemporary Indian Sculptures
 The predominant mode of visual art in ancient India  Ramkinker Baij – father of modern

Indian sculpture

Deviprasad Chowdhuri


 Design/Motifs/Elements seen in textiles

ranges from abstract figures to fruits, plants and animals like the elephants.


 a popular style of dyeing made by traditional resist dyeing technique of tie-and-dye.

 India - Tie and Dye [].avi

 one of the most famous fabric weaves in India which is based on the ikat technique of making parts of the

yarn resist the dye by wrapping.

 stitching of round or square mirror onto the cloth to make cushion covers, bed spreads, wall hangings and

table covers.

 flowerwork

 fragile, white embroidery patterns on pastel cottons.

Who are the famous Post Colonial Architects?

        

Agrawala, V. (1965). Indian Art. Prithivi Prakashna. Bahga, Sarbjit, and Surinder Bahga. Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret : Footprints on the Sands of Indian Architecture. New Delhi: Galgotia Pub., 2000. Print. Bhattacharya, S. K. Trends in Modern Indian Art. New Delhi: M D Publications PVT, 1994. Print. Brown, P. (1959). Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Periods). D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private Ltd. Freeman, Michael. India Modern. London: Mitchell Beazley, 2005. Print. Issar, T.P. (1998). GOA DOURADA: The Indo-Portuguese Bouquet. INDIA: T.P. Issar. (architect) Kamiya, Takeo. (1996). Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Japan: All Nippon Printing Co. Ltd. La Plante, J. D. (1992). Asian Art. Wm. C. Brown Publishers. Metcalf, Barbara D., and Thomas R. Metcalf. A Concise History of Modern India. Cambridge. Print. "Modern Architecture of India." Encyclopedia of India's Art, Culture, Architecture, Heritage and People. Web. 28 June 2011. <>. Monisha, Bharadwaj. Inside India : Quintessential Indian Style. London: Kyle Cathie, 1998. Print. Seth, Sunil. Indian Interiors Interieurs De L'Inde. Cologne, Germany: Taschen, 2004. Print. Taylor, Brian Brace. Raj Rewal. London: Mimor, 1992. Print.

  

Volwahsen, Andreas. Splendours of Imperial India. New York:Prestel Publishing, 2004. Print.
Wolpert, S. A. (1999). India. University of California Press. "21st Century Indian Art." 21st Century Indian Art | 21st Century Indian Art. Web. 14 July 2011. <>.

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