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Alkyd paints can only be used above water (not submerged) as the water resistance is poor.

They are not used on zinc primer or galvanised steel as a chemical reaction saponification - would occur with the binder, with subsequent blistering and flaking. The drying/curing process is also temperature-dependent. This is because alkyd paints dry or cure by absorbing oxygen from the air. This is a chemical reaction and such reactions are always influenced by temperature. The degree of pre-treatment required for the substrate can vary from Sa 2 to Sa 2V2, depending on the purpose of the paint and the environment to which the paint is exposed. By modifying the alkyds for example with styrene or silicon, other properties can be achieved. (ii) Physically Drying Paints The group of physically drying paints contains generic types such as chlorinated rubber (CR), vinyl and acrylic-based paints. These are being withdrawn from the market due to the high content of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The chlorinated compounds in CR paints also give off chlorine on ageing. Physically drying paints are single-component, and dry by pure evaporation of the solvents. This means that these paints are not so sensitive to the ambient temperature during application and drying (does not apply to waterborne acrylic). They are also resoluble by other paints which contain strong solvents or in contact with thinners. CR paints are used outdoors both above and under water. Vinyl-based paints are used only above water. Acrylic is used as a top coat, as it retains its gloss better than chlorinated rubber or vinyl in such systems. Acrylic is also used as primers in waterborne systems. (iii) Chemically Curing Paints Chemically curing paints are thermosetting plastics, unlike physically drying paints which are thermoplastics. Thermosetting plastics are more resistant to chemicals than thermoplastics as they form an insoluble three-dimensional network after curing. These paints are normally two-component' The supplier provides these paints in two separate containers, one for the base and the other for the curing agent. We often refer to these as component A and component B. Before painting, the two components must be mixed. It is particularly important to mix the components in the correct ratio and to ensure good agitation. The curing process is a chemical reaction between the base and curing agent, so application and curing -are temperature-dependent. It is equally important to apply the paint to the substrate before the chemical reaction has proceeded for too long after mixing of the components. We often talk of the usage time (pot life) of paints. When the pot life has elapsed, the paint becomes dry and finally completely hard and cannot be applied. (iv) Some Chemically Curing Paint Types (a) Epoxy paints have excellent chemical resistance, particularly to alkalis. They have good adhesion both to steel and concrete and good water resistance. Epoxy can be modified using phenol, coal tar and hydrocarbon resin to give special properties, e.g. better chemical resistance, better penetration, better water resistance etc. One drawback with many epoxy paints is that they contain large quantities of solvent. However, other types have now been developed with a high solids content (mastic products) with excellent "all round" properties. There are also a solvent-free epoxy paints which
are used for drinking water tanks. Waterborne Epoxy paints are increasingly being

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give a better working environment. Chemical resistance however is slightly reduced.


used today because the

(b)

Zinc Epoxy (organic) or Zinc Ethylsilicate (inorganic) are used as cathodic protective primers on blast-cleaned substrates. Zinc ethylsilicate (solventbased) and alkali silicate (waterborne) are also often used inside storage tanks for solvents because of the extremely good solvent resistance. Polyurethane paints are also thermosetting plastics. They are used as top coats on epoxy ( which chalks in sunlight) as they have excellent weatherresistance and durable gloss. Polyester paints are thick coat paints used in areas where a high degree of wear resistance is required. For example gangways, production decks, dam walls (concrete) for power stations etc. These paints are applied in thick coats (e.g. 2 x 750 4m) and cure quickly (a few hours). They also have good chemical resistance. Vinylester is also a thick coat paint (2x750 m).It has good chemical resistance and is often used inside storage tanks for chemicals. Such paints can be used on both steel and concrete.

(c)

(d)

(e)

(v)

Antifouling All surfaces exposed to seawater will be "attacked" by marine organisms. When these organisms attach and grow, they cause a significant increase in surface roughness. On a ship's hull, this results in greater friction resistance and hence increased fuel consumption. This topic is separately dealt with in another unit.

Figure 6.5: Badly Fouled Ship Hull

6.5 PREPARATIONS PRIOR PAINTING


(i) Steelwork Before a structure is painted, a number of operations must be performed on the substrate. The initial work required is generally known as "steelwork". Steelwork is a very important part of the surface treatment and must be carried out before cleaning and priming of the steel. Good steelwork will ensure that the life time of the paint system.meets expectations. In practice, it is impossible to achieve a long life time for a paint system if the steelwork is omitted or poorly performed. The requirements for preparation will always be part of the paint specification.

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Figure 6.6: Sharp Edges

Figure 6.7: A well rounded edge will ensure a sufficient paint film over the entire construction

Figure 6.8: Prior to Pre-Treatment these must be Grinded away to form an acceptable Substrate for the Paint System

F i gu re 6 .9 : D isc G ri ndi n g o f We ld Be ads , Sharp Edges etc. by means of a Disc Grinder

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Figure 6.10: Grinding of Notch with Rotating File

Steelwork involves the following stages before cleaning and priming: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) All sharp edges are rounded to a radius of at least 2 min by grinding. All welding beads and slag are grinded off. Surface defects such as lamination, etc. are removed by grinding. Undercutting in the weld is repaired before priming. Rough manual welds to be grinded. Gas-cut edges are to be grinded before priming.

Pre-Blasting Preparation Laminations, Undercuts, Welding Seams

Figure 6.11: Section Manholes, Well Grinded Edges

Figure 6.12: The Sharp Edges have been Rounded Prior to Blast-Cleaning : Good

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(ii) Pre- Treatment I has been completed, pre-treatment can begin. The purpose of preparation is to ensure that the substrate is suitable for application of the paint, i.e. the steel is sufficiently clean and rough. Contaminants such as of I, grease and salts for example cannot be removed by blast-cleaning. Before preparation begins, the steel must be properly cleaned. Cleaning removes contamination and impurities such as oil, grease, salt, dust and dirt.

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Figure 6.13: Removal of Marine Growth, Salts and Loose Paint by Low Pressure Washing

Salts from a marine atmosphere which are deposited on the structure, and welding fumes from manual welding are examples of salts which should be washed off before preparation. Salts can cause osmotic blistering and oil will reduce the adhesion of the paint. Salts must be removed with plenty of fresh water. Oil and grease cannot be removed with water alone; strong alkali washing agents and solvents must be used. Once the substrate is clean, pre-treatment can begin. Here is a brief list of some methods: (a) Blast-Cleaning: To ensure maximum paint adhesion, a rough surface is required. In view of this, blast-cleaning is the best preparation method. Blastcleaning removes old paint, rust and scales and gives a clean rough surface. Possible blast-cleaning methods are dry blast-cleaning, slurry blast-cleaning (addition of water) and wet blast-cleaning (water with addition of abrasives). Dry blast-cleaning gives a clean dry surface and the required roughness but causes considerable dust which contaminates the immediate environment. Slurry and wet blast-cleaning give a rough, clean surface without dust, but create flash rust. It has been found that much of the abrasives remain on the substrate after blast-cleaning. Such contaminants may on some alloys cause a risk of corrosion at these points. For preparation of stainless steel, aluminium and galvanised steel, it is important to use nonmetallic abrasives,

Figure 6.14: Corrosion has taken Place Almost the total area has been Spot Blasted 15

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Figure 6.15: Surface preparation by spot blasting ( b ) U l t r a H i g h - P r e s s u r e W at e r Cl e a ni n g : T hi s pr e pa r at i o n me t h o d i s becoming increasingly common. The method consists of removing contamination, corrosion products and old paint by applying water to the substrate under extremely high water pressure (up to 2500 bar). The method has two essential advantages: no cloud of blasting dust is created to contaminate the immediate environment as in traditional blast-cleaning, and water-soluble salts are removed from the substrate. It is important to use clean water so that the substrate is not contaminated by the water used. The method gives a clean surface but will not give any extra roughness to steel. The original roughness of the steel is retained where intact paint is removed, but the corrosion pattern on corroded areas will be considered as roughness where corrosion has occurred. One disadvantage with water cleaning is that the tendency to form flash rust on the steel will increase as moisture is added to the substrate. The degree of flash rust depends on the relative humidity, the temperature of the steel and atmosphere, and the cleanliness of the surface.

Figure 6.16 (iii) Mechanical Cleaning: Use of mechanical cleaning tools such as steel brusl gr i ndi ng equi pment or machi ni ng, does not achieve the same degree cleanliness and roughness as blast-cleaning and the adhesion between substrate and the paint system will therefore be reduced. Needle guns example often cause excessive roughness or break-up of the substrate.

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Paint Technology

Figure 6.17: Tools for mechanical cleaning

Mechanical rotating wire brush Needle gun Hand Wire brush

The method to be used will be described in the paint specification and is primarily selected on the basis of: Purpose of the structure Exposure conditions Required life time Restrictions related to environmental requirements and safety.

6.6 PAINT APPLICATION


The protective properties of paint have no effect unless the paint is applied correctly. Many people think that all the problems are solved as soon as the anti-corrosive paint is applied in the specified film thickness. It is, however, a fact that the method of application can be equally important with regard to the final result. The following" general guidelines for application are recommended: All coating systems must be applied in accordance with their product data sheets. Application must take place under controlled climatic conditions suitable for the particular product in use. If thinning of the paint is required, this must be done in accordance with recommendations given in the data sheets. Correct coating intervals, i.e. max./min recoating times according to data sheets, must be respected. Film thickness measurements must be made after each stage of application. The wet-film thickness of each coat must be checked and adjusted, so that the coating thickness meets the requirements in the specification. Maximum and minimum paint film thicknesses given by the technical data sheets from the paint supplier must be satisfied. Stripe coating must be done with brush for the first coat. (Roller application can be used on subsequent coats).
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The paint must be applied by means of the most suitable equipment and correct application technique. Methods of application include the following: wing: Brush Roller Airless spray

Airless Spray: Good

Paint Brush Good, but Slow

Roller: Poor, Particularly for the First Coat

Figure 6.18: All methods have their good and bad points

(i) Application Technique Brush Application From a technical point of view the ideal method of applying a paint is with a brush. The advantage of brushing is that the paint is worked well into the surface so that gaps, pores and pits are filled up, for example in uneven welding seams. Also the paint brush is moved back and forth, moving the paint or coating in two or more directions. Each of these actions makes the coating flow over the surface in several directions, increasing the intimate contact of the paint with the surface. This is particularly valuable where a coating with only low wetting characteristics is applied. Another action of the brush is that of stippling or dabbing the coating on to the surface. This is particularly important when applied around bolt heads, rivets, welds, and in corners. Such a movement aids in filling pinholes, pits and rough surfaces with the coating. In many cases the physical action created by using the brush is the only one that can make the coating flow into these areas. Neither rolling nor spraying will do this so well.

Type of brushes Flat paintbrush...............................................................................................

Application

Large Surfaces

Oval sash and trim brush .............................................................................. Small surfaces Fitch brush ..................................................................................................... Small surfaces Oval varnish brush ........................................................................................ Rough work Flat varnish brush .......................................................................................... Medium work French bristle varnish brush ......................................................................... High-grade work Lettering brush .............................................................................................. High-grade work Lettering brush .............................................................................................. Small surfaces Painter's dustes .............................................................................................. Cleaning work Figure 6.19: Types of Brushes and their uses
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Paint Technology
OVAL SASH TRIM

FLAT

LETTERING

PITCH

FLAT VARNISH

Figure 6.20: Various types of Brushes

Figure 6.21: A Paint Brush is an Excellent Tool for Stripe Coating

Stripe coat with paint brush: Where difficult access with spray Inside edges and holes Manual welding seams Comers. angles Sharp edges
g .

Figure 6.22: Stripe Coating

Coating should be brushed on to all areas which for any reason cannot be properly spray coated. Surfaces not accessible to brushes should be painted by other suitable means to ensure a uniforms paint film of adequate thickness. The main disadvantage with brush application is that the coats will be thinner and less even than obtainable by spraying. Also the method is time consuming. III practice therefore we see that the brush is mainly used for: Touching up areas which are difficult to reach Stripe coating of edges, corners, weld seams, around notches, etc.

Ideally, a paint brush could be used for the first coat of paint and the subsequent coats could be applied using a paint roller or., alternatively, by means of airless spray.

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Stripe Coating Painting always begins with "stripe coating", Stripe coating means applying an extra coat of paint on areas where experience has shown that it is difficult to achieve the specified film thickness by spray. Typical areas which should be stripe coated are sharp edges, notches, welds (particularly manual welds) and areas which are difficult to reach with a spray gun. The aim is to ensure good wetting of the substrate. Stripe coatin g should also be used between each coat. A stripe coat can be applied with a roller on the previous coat where suitable.

Figure 6.23: Note the Contrasting Colours. Excellent Work

Figure 6.24: Proper Striping Before 2d Coat _________________________________________ T O

4b,
V011,

Figure 6.25: Proper Stripe Coating

Roller Application Application by roller is a commonly used method. Rolling is primarily suitable for areas large flat are such as the exterior of a tank or the flat side of a ship. Experiments