This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The Hypnotechs Group no. 3
Group No 3 (The Hypnotechs)
Names: • Amit Gawande • Sheel Aurangabadkar • Janmejay Singh • Minal Anand • Zobar Rizvi • Akshita Rao • Richard
Roll No: 12 04 18 02 43 42 30
MOST IMPORTANTLY THANKS TO OUR PARENTS. THE HYPNOTEC HS . AND GOD WHO PROVIDED US WITH THE RESOURCES FOR THE COMPLETION OF THE PROJECT. WHOSE CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK HELPED US COMPLETE THIS PROJECT.Acknowledgements OUR SINCERE THANKS GO TO RUMINA MAM WHO GUIDED US EVERY INSTANT IN COMPLETING THIS PROJECT. WE WOULD ALSO LIKE TO THANK ALL THOSE FRIENDS AND RELATIVES.
v. The three types of Influencers 2. iii. Thoughtful Persuasion 1. Introduction • Persuasion – Magic or Science • The two Routes to Successful Persuasion • Persuasion effect: The 4 patterns Of Influence II. vii. vi. How to… i. Build Trust and sell experience ii.Index I. iv. Conclusion • The Icons of Influence of the Twentieth century • Bibliography . III. Use Personality type to persuade Give words added impact Win people’s heart and mind Structure and Packaging Target the groups Outwit your opponents Mindless Persuasion – Some Triggers of Automatic Influence IV.
Magic. and one can hardly resist the persuasion after some time. This has been approached even in movies such as Psycho (By Alfred Hitchcock). you are unique. And this ‘rebel’ worship group is easiest to persuade and ever the target of advertisers. He claimed that messages such as ‘Buy this product’ were being flashed across the screen for 1/3000 th of a second. Because sometimes our persuasion can lead to years of war. who are fooled by messages such as. Another fear induced in people was their belief that they were being subliminally persuaded. in a particular case. there is no escape. except to understand what persuasion is. to quick for the human eye to see but subliminally convincing the customers to buy their product. or Science? Aristotle said – "Rhetoric is the art of discovering. But what has to be understood is that Persuasion is neither black magic. the available means of persuasion. The most easily flattered are the self centred people. . topped by the speeches of the politicians and so on and on do persuade us. nor the work of cheap tricksters." But Persuasion has often been believed to be a dark magic. ‘don’t follow the crowd. Because if persuasion reaches the superego. And persuasion requires no defence. This fear was propagated by a Canadian professor Mr. It is a versatile art that aims at understanding human psychology and using the skill to persuade others to your thinking. If we pause to consider. Because the price for our being naïve is too high. William Bryan Key. Seducing Ourselves A lot of people believe that they are immune to persuasion. the hundreds of commercials. practiced by Businessmen and Advertisers. Join us’. or however you wish them to think.Persuasion .
4. our focus is not on the topics. When thoughtful. Polarization effect Polarization occurs when the gap increases the more you talk. In this case. you begin to negotiate. 1. or advantageously. . Fixation Effect Fixation takes place when both sides take up fixed positions and refuse to move. we carefully consider what the persuader is trying to express and weigh the odds of considering his offer by asking more questions and asking for more information. Persuasion effect . But when being persuaded mindlessly. and we rely more on our instincts. In a typical negotiation. 3. one side successfully persuades the other people to agree to their position. or reactions of our friends etc.The four patterns of Influence Management professor Charles Margerison identified four conversation patterns that occur when people try to influence each other. It is easier to persuade anybody who is mindless towards persuaders.Thoughtful Persuasion. This usually occurs when both sides unfairly attack the other’s position. regardless of what the other side says. Skilled persuaders manage to negotiate from a position of strength. thoughtfully and mindlessly. you give a little. Mindless Influence The Two Routes to Successful Persuasion One responds to persuasive messages in two ways. 2. Negotiation Effect If a person does not accept your persuasion totally. Persuasion Effect The First pattern is called the persuasion effect. and get a little from them.
knowledge and training. The second group of foxes may be irredeemable.THOUGHTFUL PERSUASION Foxes. This group can be converted but with intensive training. The only solution to convert them is a character transplant. They do not lose any opportunity to manipulate others. then they will remain donkeys forever. and Donkeys The Three Types of Influencers FOXES Foxes are cunning. BLOODHOUNDS Bloodhounds are of the detective breed. For them. ruthless and competitive. They have the ability to turn a winwin situation into a lose-lose situation. TURNING DONKEYS INTO BLOODHOUNDS Yes. life is a competition. you can turn donkeys into bloodhounds through education. But those donkeys who are rigid and don’t want to see through the world’s eye. but just for mutual gain. persuasion. One are those who are over-ambitious but do not have the ability to turn a win-lose haggle into a win-win agreement. DONKEYS Donkeys lack in self confidence. They are very cautious and think in long term relationships. are selfish and they delight when they win and you lose. TURNING FOXES INTO BLOODHOUNDS Foxes fall into two groups. . they win and you lose. They spoil everything and lack skill and techniques to manage a situation properly. Bloodhounds. These foxes lack trust. They can turn any situation to their advantage. For them the opportunity is not good or bad.
we must be truthful. you have to sell the credibility of the organization you represent. Since1980. you have to sell the credibility of your ideas. Selling Expertise Once trust has been established." —Edward R. Suppose a property investment broker calls you with a hot tip on a newly listed property. you normally have to be effective on all three levels. . You might see the broker as an expert and this might induce you to buy. 3) At the third level.But suppose you accidentally overhear your broker telling a colleague about a property just listed. One technique is to make sure the target person or audience is absolutely convinced that the person doing the speaking is not trying to persuade them. McKinsey consultants.How to build trust and sell expertise "To be persuasive. To be credible. To be believable. the world's most profitable management consultancy group. Will you purchase the property? It depends. it is much easier to build the second pillar of credibility expertise. we must be believable. In 1995. This is best appreciated by McKinsey's. Murrow Increasing Trust While Decreasing Bias Researchers into persuasion have also discovered ways you can increase a person's apparent trust worthiness while decreasing the apparent bias of a message. 2) At the second level. produced a book from a McKinsey internal research project describing the practices of America's best companies. To be successful in persuasion. McKinsey's earned $1. we must be credible. The book ‘In Search of Excellence’ leaped onto the best-seller list. you are very likely to be convinced. The Three Levels of Credibility 1) At the first level. Because the broker was not trying to influence you. Tom Peters and Robert Waterman. you have to build your personal credibility.5 billion in fees. In 1981. or you could see the broker as biased. the McKinsey staff has churned out over fifty books. given that he or she stands to make a sizeable commission .
. the feeler can be described as heart over head. and reason. Feelers are persuaded more by a strong emotional call than cold. For feelers. If the thinker can be described as head over heart. so be it — even if it means upsetting or hurting the feelings of others. On the other hand. A knowledge of Personality Type helps you: • Identify how the people you want to persuade like to be persuaded • Identify what kind of information the people you want to convince take notice of and remember • Identify how the people you want to influence make decisions • Talk your clients' or audience's language • Quickly build the rapport required for successful persuasion. 'thinkers' are driven by facts. logic. Decision making or reaching conclusions. The idea of personality type goes back over seventy years to the work of Swiss psychologist Carl. With this information.PERSUASION BY PERSONALITY TYPES Reading the other person and using personality types to persuade is an art that borders on the science! Scholars of Personality Type have found that our behaviour is surprisingly predictable and have identified a number of personality types into which we all fit. all feelings are important. and decisions should be made based on both facts and sympathy. When it comes to making a decision. They like to weigh the pros and cons of an issue. 'feelers' make decisions keeping in mind the emotions or feelings of others who will be affected. it's so much easier for a professional persuader to tailor his or her presentation to meet the other person's precise needs. hard logic. If the facts point to the need for a tough decision.
.those who judge and those who perceive Judgers prefer to make decisions quickly. perceivers prefer to keep their options open. The key when persuading is to remember different Personality Types prefer to be persuaded in different ways. On the other hand. As a persuader. a perceiver believes an "empty desk is the symbol of an empty mind. Perceivers are much more happy than judgers to let others take charge and run the show. They like to be decisive. They prefer to hold off decisions until they absolutely have to make them. most people reveal enough clues through their behaviour to allow you to approximately match your style to their preferences. they like stepping in and taking charge. Judgers are likely to believe a "cluttered desk indicates a cluttered mind". Judgers like to be in control. uncertainty and indecision create anxiety.Resolving Issues . you are not going to know the Personality Type of everyone you want to convince. However. when it comes to making decisions.
the content is often more important than the body language. Listen to their words. Alas. By contrast. Listen to their tone of voice. "It's not what you say. Best Impression The Art of Image Management First impressions as they say. we do the following: Scan their face and eyes. it was calculated in an extensive study. If you don't connect with your first impression. Politicians are very aware of this universal personality trait. Never judge a book be its cover. In information-heavy presentations. Shake their hands. it's how you say it" is at best a half-truth.First Impression. ''You don't get a second chance to make a first impression" has some . we have fallen prey to forming opinions based on first impressions. if appropriate. as we could say! President Roosevelt. Look at their body. the message will often be of critical importance. Examine what they are wearing. The relative impact of nonverbal and verbal communication is very dependent upon the persuasive context and therefore varies dramatically from presentation to presentation. a polio patient. only 2 show Roosevelt in a wheelchair. in every facet of our lives. The actual message will be of minimal importance. those figures have been discredited as "exaggerated and suspect" by top nonverbal scholars. During an important presentation. you may never connect.000 photographs in the presidential library. the verbal component accounts for just 7 percent of the impact. . campaigned from cars and trains. are last impressions. the impact of body language will be allimportant. At a social function. The saying. you are left with the conclusion that nonverbal communication accounts for 93 percent of the impact of a message. When we meet someone for the first time. He never allowed himself to be photographed in his wheelchair. Nothing could be further from the truth. is another idiom that we have been brought up with. However. The saying. Out of a total of 35. When you add the visual and vocal components together.
The Art of Image Management In today's world of visual media. Inc. analyst with Salomon Bros. "The short-term impact of a chief executive's personality on the stock price is incredible. . we may conclude that while first impressions are important. Research shows it takes just two minutes to make your first impression... absurd little moustache. within four minutes people have made up their minds and the initial impressions are locked in. A CEO's presentation and personality have a lot to do with how analysts and portfolio managers view a company. chief executives don't have to monitor opinion polls. It can take six to eight meetings to overcome a bad initial impression. but they do have to watch their share price. In the same way. Why? Hitler's posturing.scientific basis. ''The chief executive is the major determinant of the stock price. . Virtually all of today's political leaders have been made over at some point. Bill Gates was probably underrated by some of his early competitors because of his "nerd" or "geek" appearance. and slicked-down hair made him look stupid. says. ." Thus. they should not be the sole instrument to form lasting generalizations on any person or subject. First impressions can undoubtedly mislead us. . . Both Winston Churchill and Neville Chamberlain didn't take Adolf Hitler seriously at first. few professional persuaders leave image management to chance." says leadership guru Warren Bennis. Hugh Zurkuhlen. Unlike politicians.
They talk with win-win based phrases. use attention grabbing words such as ‘free’. To be a good speaker one must also avoid fillers. hereby convincing by their straightforward and to the point manner. they speak with confidence and skill. assertiveness etc. ‘discount’. such as affirmative language. hesitations and vagueness. . The attractive features of the product have to be utilized to the extreme. The power talkers have many characteristics.Power Talk! – How to give words added impact The most powerful persuaders are the ones who can control and manipulate words. ‘new’ etc. Another quality is that they speak decisively. That is. But a fact is that whatever you do. the person you are trying to convince wants to know what is the advantage for him in it all. And most importantly. a feature of the product must seem as unique and is the target of the advertising. We also use the USP (unique selling proposition). They also avoid disclaimers. When talking. hedges and qualifiers. So we must target the people’s wants and not just their needs.
specific facts. fresh information etc. – Keep it short and simple. individual case study.I. It has also been observed that information is extraordinary compelling in groups of three. let alone remember. Another trick is the two-part contrast such as old/new etc. The evidence has to be carefully chosen. for the people. from credible sources. and appealed to the masses. A deep rooted secret is to keep your main message at the beginning or end of the presentation. We should speak first if the audience is to consider our message at a later date. that is the question’ in the play Hamlet by Shakespeare. don’t ignore attacks from rivals.S. A large number of slogans have gone down in history’s pages. This should be done by expressing respect for your rivals then persuading with the rebuttal. Information around the middle is quickly forgotten. such as ‘to be or not to be. three to five points are enough.S. A defensive argument and an efficient rebuke should come immediately. by the people’ by Abraham Lincoln. The most brilliant speeches in history have been short. coherent. This is also the secret behind advertisers who focus not on massive data. Another trick is to grab the audience’s attention with a dynamic beginning. Keep repeating exposures. but always stress on the central point. At the most. But if the decision has to be immediate speak last. The best method to structure your argument is to revolve it around a single theme.Winning People’s Minds – How to structure and Package your message The concept is simple K. Such contrasts have been very successful. Most presenters overwhelm the audience with massive information. And the end has to be strong. catchy punch line and focus on it for advertising. The slogan of ‘Do or Die’ by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was simple. direct. The theme will be the body for crux of the argument. . to the point and presented with control and dexterity. Don’t expect to persuade the audience immediately. but a simple. And to conclude. which they do not even manage to absorb. like ‘of the people.
The politician who one day tells farmers she supports farm subsidies and the next day tells factory workers she supports lower food prices can easily lose the trust of both groups. . One of the easiest ways to discredit a politician is to show that he or she is making conflicting promises to different groups. identify which subgroup has the numbers. 3. appeal to the different groups in your audience with different parts of your message. Don't promise "everything to everyone. you may end up alienating everyone. Look for creative ways to influence each subgroup by offering each of them a different reward. Setting Realistic and Achievable Goals many persuaders make the mistake of trying to achieve too much. Where possible. Then concentrate your efforts on the groups that count. Look at a typical snack food commercial: It promises kids a great taste while reassuring parents that the snack is healthy and nutritious.How to Target and Influence Different Groups 1. Identify which subgroup has the most power. 2. Identify who in the audience you really have to win over.'' If there are groups in your audience with competing sub agendas.
• Diversion It is just shifting the focus of attention from your weakness or your opponent’s strengths. This is done using jargon. Tactics of Downplaying – • Omission Omission is simply leaving out damaging information. And they intensify their opponent’s weakness.Strategy Pure and Simple – The Intensify/Downplay Strategy How to Outthink and Outwit your opponents The persuaders have following ways of achieving their aims. complicating simple issues etc. Say animal experimenters are associated with cruelty and inhumanity. • Confusion The final way to downplay your weakness or your opponent’s strength is to create confusion. Such as highlighting the features of that which they want to promote. They also downplay their own weakness And lastly they downplay their opponent’s strengths Tactics of Intensification – • Repetition The best way to intensify good or bad features about a product or person is to repeat the same idea over and over again • Association Associating a person with a certain idea is a powerful tactic. . They can Intensify their strong points. • Composition One of the easiest ways to intensify a message is to change the physical makeup of the message. The result is that we have half truths or biased evidence.
They resort to simple logic to avoid thinking.Mindless Persuasion The Triggers of Automatic Influence As we already know. but when a reason is given. the mindless persuasion is when people do not think while responding. The following are some triggers for instant influence: Reciprocation Commitment and Consistency Authority Scarcity Liking . Humans are by nature lazy or don’t want to think needlessly. Our minds are programmed to mindlessly refuse reasonless persuasion requests. we get persuaded without actually considering the reason.
you get what you negotiate”. Power of reciprocation Reciprocation rule is very powerful. Reciprocation and Negotiation “You don't get what you deserve in life. The implicit request is. it can make us accept request from the people we dislike . Hare Krishna temples and communes set up in 1960 was able to spread globally within a decade because. The persuasion weapon was the reciprocation rule.Reciprocation . "I've made a concession.The Law of Give-and-Take The reciprocation rule states that we should repay in kind what someone has given us: If a friend does us a favor. we feel obligated to pay him or her back.Politicians are very much aware of this fact and they use this techniques to hold or to gain their voter bank. Salesmen’s are one of the experts in implementing these techniques. cheap brush as a gift before beginning their sales pitch. now it's your turn. The great majority of books on negotiation urge their readers to start with a small concession — and then wait for the other side to reciprocate.'' . a door-knocking Fuller Brush salesmen gave householders a small. they discovered one of society's most powerful persuasion techniques — a weapon that was able to overcome the Krishna’s appalling negative image and induce the public to make generous donations. — Anonymous The reciprocation rule controls the compromise process that is central to most negotiations.
. and they find it hard to wriggle out of any wrong commitment. The psychological force in their commitment is almost super-egoistic. Apart from being legal proof. they get entrapped by it. they experience a powerful urge to be consistent in their commitment. This example also leads to an observation. But the largest danger people face is that once they commit themselves. Amongst other things. it has a deep-seated psychological impact. that greater our effort. more committed we become.Commitment and Consistency A remarkable nature of people is that once they make a commitment. and people almost subconsciously tend to waver less from their commitments they make in writing. One tends to hold fast to the commitments made in front of other people. and has to be used wisely and positively. Another secret of powerful persuasion is to get a commitment in writing. they would continue the act consistently for all the years of their college life. Finally. it can be considered that Commitment is an art of persuasion too. if a student or group of students have committed themselves to cleaning whatever garbage they see in their college campus. one may also observe that public commitments are usually stronger than private commitment. For example.
For example. authority is like a glowing beacon of power. we would look more professional. Used properly. it can lighten up our future by helping us in the present. an appropriate dress is required to support one’s profession. Lastly. From the experiment we draw the conclusion that we should challenge authority when it’s used arbitrarily or dangerously.The influence of Position The Milgram Studies These were experiments conducted by Professor Stanley Milgram at Yale university. one should reinforce the authority that comes from one’s position based on expertise and competence. authoritative and hence persuasive if we come in a business suit than if we come in casuals. And logically. . a police person should use his rank within the society to make sure that at least around him no one breaks the law or does anything damaging to the society. It was discovered that a large part of the adults would go extraordinary lengths to obey command from a legitimate authority.Authority . The purpose of the experiment was to see how far people are influenced by their sense of duty to authority. To conclude. For example.
Caught up by the promotion. Moreover. the French associated potatoes with leprosy. When we discover that something is scarce or may be unavailable.The Rule of the Rare The Scarcity Principle In essence. shoppers rush to buy items they would usually ignore. one of our first thoughts is that it must also be valuable. As soon as the potatoes became unavailable.It took the guile of Catherine the Great.Scarcity . we want things most when we have to compete for them. to turn this negative perception around. Usually they offer some phenomenal deals on a few prominently advertised loss leaders. . the scarcity principle took hold and the popularity of potatoes suddenly soared. Potatoes haven't always been a popular food staple: In the late 1700s. the Germans considered potatoes were only good as cattle fodder. Her soldiers then posted large notices throughout the countryside warning the populace not to steal potatoes. the scarcity principle says we value what is scarce. the Empress of Russia.Anyone who has stood in line when department stores hold a sale should understand how these retailers create a competitive frenzy. Competing for Resources . She ordered her men to enclose the potato fields with high fences. The scarcity principle works best when things we have and value suddenly become scarce.It were a brilliant psychological ploy.
when you attend a party and your host tries to sell you something you buy it not only because you might like the product but also because you want to please your friend and host. This helps by giving a personal side to the persuasion. But be cautious of taking a strong stand on a controversial topic. and praise him in different ways yet focusing on the same topic. This helps you to get your influence quietly penetrate from them as well. It is wise to look for areas where you can work and socialize together. In business and politics. you are less likely to trust him than the word of your friend. . Controlled research has identified amongst several factors that increase liking are similarity and praise. who says that the policy is actually good. the best referrals are usually friends of the person you want to influence. compliment him. For example. The people whom we like usually share our ideals and morals. Discover. identify the areas wherever praise is possible. if someone tells you of a new housing policy. For example. Another approach is to emphasize the similarities you share with the person you want to influence.LIKING We always do something or the other just to please our friends even when we don’t want to do it. and focus on the areas where it is legitimate. if a person is very good at managing the commercial aspect of any business. For example. When you find something similar with others you like them more as you bond better with them.
Mahatma Gandhi) did the unbelievable by using non violence as his ideology in a country simmering with violent fury against the British. and unwaveringly. Bapu (i. the clothes. but even Hitler performed the incredible by getting the entire Germany unified. His appearance was also aimed at a certain crowd. but his persuasion has left the world shaken even till today. love for truth and loyalty to nation. the salt. reciprocation and contrast (due to his totally new concept of using truth and peace as weapons). conformity. and managed to survive throughout. But here we cannot ignore the other side. But if we consider the finer aspects. Mao.Icons Of Influence - The most influential persuaders of twentieth century The twentieth century saw seven great political persuaders – Lenin. Stalin. commitment. He used all the basic needs in his ideas. especially because they have to get approval of the public before taking any decisions. The presence of Hitler. all we can do is to emulate the great leaders while sustaining our ethics. the poor masses of India. Gandhiji had all the features that a persuader requires – language. Roosevelt. Moving to Roosevelt and Churchill. largely suffering due to poverty. especially the incredible way in which they convinced the masses to follow them loyally. they too were awesome persuaders. All these leaders have been remarkable in their respective fields. Again. yet he was the beacon of hope for Britain when they needed him. Gandhi and Hitler. Churchill. Stalin and Lenin amongst the great leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi might seem stunning. and he proved his skills as persuader by managing to gain help from America during the second world war. winning four elections. And yet Roosevelt was a better persuader because he was consistent. liking. because even though Churchill lost maximum elections. To conclude. He of course played on the racial pride of the Germans and their dislike of Jews. what he did was not magic either.e. . The great democratic leaders have to be great persuaders. efficient.
Harry Mills .com 6.Influence Science and Practice 3. Joseph R.Mastering the art of persuasion iinfluence and Seduction 4. Harvard book review – Robert Cialdini .persuasiontoday. Robert Cialdini . www. Morgan n king .Bibliography 1.Introduction to Psychology 5.Artful Persuasion 2. Plazo .
Thank You PROJECT CONCLUDED… By The Hypnotechs Group no. – 3 BMM Bhavan’s College .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.