French pronunciation is the most difficult aspect of learning French for many students, particularly English speakers.
It takes a lot of practice to pronounce French correctly, but if you really want to speak French, good pronunciation is essential. A vowel is a sound that is pronounced through the mouth (and, in the case of nasal vowels, the nose) with no obstruction of the lips, tongue, or throat. Some general guidelines for the pronunciation of the French vowels:
y y y
Most French vowels are pronounced further forward in the mouth than their English counterparts. The tongue must remain tensed throughout the pronunciation of the vowel. French vowels do not diphthong. In English, vowels tend to be followed by a y sound (after a, e, or i) or a w sound (after o or u). In French, this is not the case - the vowel sound remains constant: it does not change into a y or w sound. Thus the French vowel is a "purer" sound than the English vowel.
A, O, and U are sometimes called hard vowels and E and I are soft vowels, because certain consonants (C, G, S) have a "hard" and a "soft" pronunciation, depending on which vowel follows. Vowels followed by M or N are usually nasal. Nasal pronunciation can be very different from the normal pronunciation of each vowel. A nasal vowel is a sound made by expelling air through the mouth and nose without obstruction of the lips, tongue, or throat. Nasal pronunciation can be very different from the normal pronunciation of the same vowels. Accents may change the pronunciation of vowels.
Vowels: French vowels are here separated into single vowels (accented and unaccented), and vowel groups. The letter 'e' is treated in other section. Note that the vowels 'i' and 'u' can generally be pronounced with consonant sounds. As French as croissants are the accents peppered over French vowels. The effects the acute, grave and circumflex have on pronunciation are given below. Of the remainder, some serve to distinguish otherwise identical words (For example: la vs là, and ou vs où), while others are merely garnish (For example: gîte, mûr). In addition, there is the dieresis which separates vowel sounds. For example, naïve is not pronounced 'nev', but as two separate syllables, na-ive.
a a â i i o o ô u u y
a ah ah ee y aw o o ew w ee
sack ah bah meet yet saw bone bone
sac pas gâteau police bien dome clos cône lune suis
generally before 's' and 'z'
before a vowel generally before s and z
before another vowel Between g and a vowel, u is silent before a consonant
y y y y
o (generally) - make with rounded half-open lips. ô - like Scots 'oh': keep your lips tightly pursed. u - hold your tongue in the position for 'ooh' and say 'ee'. u (before a vowel) - like y as in 'yet', but with your lips in position to say 'ooh'.
The Letter E: This ubiquitous letter can be pronounced in several different ways.
LETTER SOUND AS IN
e e e ê è é
let about come
cerveau le chaise forêt sèche blè
Also pronounced as 'a' in a few words, eg 'femme' and the ending '-emment' see below usually silent - see bellow Generally, When ê comes in a syllable before a é sound, it changes to that sound
e e ay
set set say
é - a single sound between English 'ee' and 'e'.
Note: Unaccented e is silent (a) when final (generally) and (b) in the second-last syllable after a single consonant. It is pronounced like 'a' in 'about' (a) in monosyllables (eg de, le), (b) in the second-last syllable after two or more consonant sounds, and (c) when final after two or more consonants. Nasal Vowels: Essential to any French caricature, nasal vowels are vowels pronounced through both the mouth and nose. Knowing when to nasalise in French is quite easy; actually doing it is harder. Any time m or n come after a vowel but not before one, you have a nasal vowel. LETTER SOUND WORD Other Spellings
an in on
Ah -> anN ee -> aN oh -> ohN
tante singe son
am, en, em im, un, um, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim om
and pronounced with a 'y' sound after them.like French ô. but nasalised on . LETTER SOUND AS IN WORD NOTES
ai au eau ei eu oi ou ou
e o o e ir wa oo w
set bone bone set bird wag boot wet
lait faux eau beige seul toi sou oui before a vowel spelt oeu in a few words
euwith rounded lips and no 'r' sound (Pronounced with tightly rounded lips when final)
Note: Before a vowel. ai.
.y y y
an . but nasalised in . Any other vowels that come together should be pronounced separately. and ui are spelt with a y. ei.like French a. but nasalised
Vowel Groups: The following vowel letters in combination make single vowel sounds.like French è. eg 'mayonnaise'. oi.
Of the 18 French consonants. you must open your mouth to complete the word.newstand fleurs .flowers pomme . except that you don't linger on them. You can't pronounce French with a lazy mouth. r. someone might say soup without opening his mouth at the end of the word. In French. However. Another few words of caution: In French. the consonants at the end of a word are not usually pronounced.
. q only appears before u in French. there is a slight aspiration after pronouncing French consonants. except for c. As in English. The letter w appears in words from German and English and is pronounced as English v or w. d. f. let them explode and move on to the vowel that follows. t and v are pronounced pretty much as in English.february kiosque . l. thus "swallowing" the last sound.apple tomate . Remember to articulate. k. and l (the consonants in the word careful). French easy consonants: LETTER b d f k l p t SOUND beh deh eff kah ell peh teh WORD bonbons . p.candy dinde . French consonants are pronounced almost like in English. In English.tomato
There is no inintial aspiration when pronouncing French consonants. f.turkey février . b.
with your uvula. LETTER SOUND AS IN ch gn il qu tch th ti sh ny y k ch t sy ship onion yet quiche check Thomas WORD NOTES chic Boulogne oeuil quand tchèque thé run the sounds together see below pronounced (kw) in a few words very rare rare before a vowel. two are pronounced as in English: ph and sc (pronounced [s] before e or i).LETTER SOUND c c ç g g h j m n r s s x x y
AS IN cash set set god measure hour measure more not sit zip fix exam yet
WORD NOTES cache cette ça gant gens hier je moi non rouge soie pause fixe exercise yeux generally before e. i and y always silent syllable initial syllable initial generally between vowels generally between vowels (ex-) before a vowel
c s s g zh zh m n r s z ks gz y
r . and u generally before e.
Of the several consonant and vowel-consonant combinations used in French. o. similary '-tie' is pronounced like French 'si'
pass you action
.pronounced at the back of the throat. Needs lots of practise. i and y only occurs before a.
ENDING IN GENERAL EXCEPTIONS un million un billion un bastion un invité un musée une plage une rage une image une peau
un lion un scion un avion un comité un lycée une page une nage une cage l'eau (fem. that is. Countries and names that end in e are usually (but not always) feminine. adjectives.just learn each word as gender + noun and then you'll know them forever.they are either masculine or feminine.
. The plural form will usually sound the same as the singular. While the indefinite form of the article is un or une. even if the person is a man!). but please don't use these as a way to avoid learning the genders of nouns . the French add the letter S when they write. whether that thing is concrete (For Example a home. they change depending on the gender of the noun they precede or follow. happiness). The gender of some nouns makes sense (homme (man) is masculine. Nevertheless. but there are always exceptions. its plural form is des for both masculine and feminine nouns. femme (woman) is feminine) but others don't (personne (person) is always feminine.Definition: A noun is a word that represents a thing. In French. It is very important to learn a noun's gender along with the noun itself because articles.)
-eau Plural of Regular French Nouns
Most French nouns form their plural by adding the letter S. Examples in French: un livre une chaise book chair
There are some tendencies in the gender of nouns. all nouns have a gender . and some verbs have to agree with nouns. There are a few common patterns. a cat) or abstract (an idea.
In addition. When a noun ends in e. Note that the gender rules apply only to people and some animals. invité invitées amie Amies FEM. paysanne gardienne patronne boulangère danseuse actrice
. They do not apply to objects. there is no difference between the masculine and feminine forms SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. Many of the rules here also apply to adjectives. or z there is no difference between the singular and plural forms SINGULAR le fils le gaz PLURAL les fils les gaz
D. never both. invitée
B. paysan gardien patron boulanger danseur acteur FEM. touriste touristes
C. Most nouns add an e for feminine and an s for plural SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL invités ami amis MASC. many nouns that refer to people have both a masculine and a feminine form.Nearly all French nouns have different forms for singular and plural. When a noun ends in s. which have a masculine or a feminine form. A. x. touriste touristes FEM. Irregular gender patterns ENDING -an -en -on -er -eur -teur MASC.
Elles means they when all of the nouns (both people and things) referred to are feminine. Irregular plural patterns ENDING -ail -al -eau -eu -ou SINGULAR travail cheval château feu bijou PLURAL travaux chevaux chateaux feux bijoux
Definition: A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. Subject pronouns replace this person or thing. Ils and elles are pronounced exactly like il and elle. Subject Pronouns The subject of a sentence is the person or thing which performs the action.
. as a result. on (he. Thus il can refer to a male he or a masculine noun it and elle can refer to a female she or a feminine noun it. as the forms of verbs change for each one. You must understand subject pronouns before you begin conjugating verbs. Since all nouns are either masculine or feminine. French pronouns are inflected to indicate their role in the sentence. they use the 3rd person subject pronouns which correspond to their gender. Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns. the subject pronoun defaults to the masculine ils. If there are any masculine nouns. elles (they) Note: j' (I) is only used when followed by a vowel or mute h. there are many more pronouns in French than there are in English. elle. Different kinds of French pronouns: 1. French draws them in many places where English does not.E. SINGULAR PLURAL (I) (we) Je/j' nous (you familiar) vous (you people) tu il. she) ils.
Tu m'aimes. Note: When deciding between direct and indirect objects. and le/la change to m'. I'm talking to him. He sees her. her) Note: Me. She wrote to me. Direct object pronouns take the place of the direct object nouns.
y Indirect Object Pronouns Indirect objects are the people or things in a sentence to/for whom/what or the action of the verb occurs. Examples in French: Je le mange. te. Je vous donne le pain. words that replace the direct object. for example: tu prends l¶avion (you take the airplane). I'm eating it. the pronoun is placed in front of it.2. I love you. He buys books for them. Je t'aime. SINGULAR PLURAL (me) (us) me/m' nous (you familiar) vous (you people) te (you formal) les (them) vous le (l'). that person/thing is an indirect object. If it is not preceded by a preposition. While the direct object noun follows the verb. You love me. la (l') (him. SINGULAR PLURAL (me) (us) me/m' nous (you familiar) vous (you people) te (you formal) leur (them) vous (him. tu le prends (you take it). the general rule is that if the person or thing is preceded by a preposition. t'. and l' in front of a vowel or mute h. Il la voit. Elle m'a écrit. y Direct Object Pronouns French language has direct object pronouns. Il leur achète des livres. her) lui Examples in French: Je lui parle. it is a direct object.
. I'm giving the bread to you.
Note: Je le lui donne I give it to him the first pronoun is subject (I). SINGULAR me (myself) (yourself familiar) te vous (yourself formal) (himself. They aren't getting dressed. moi. elle (him. the second pronoun is direct object (le). I think he's right. to answer questions) SINGULAR (me) moi (you familiar) toi (you formal) vous lui. soi. to emphasize nouns or pronouns. after c'est and ce sont.
. and with the reflexive verbs you will find reflexive pronouns. I think he's wrong. elles PLURAL (ourselves) nous (yourself) vous (themselves) se
1. Moi. I don't know. himself. We're talking to each other. y Reflexive Pronouns As we have learned in the verbs section. which are placed in front of the conjugated verb For example: Je me lave (I wash myself). je pense qu'il a tort. Ils ne s'habillent pas. To emphasize nouns or pronouns (accent tonique) Je pense qu'il a raison. her) Examples in French PLURAL (us) nous (you people) vous (them) eux. herself) se Examples in French: Nous nous parlons. the third one is indirect object (lui) because it is the one to which the action is occurring. y Disjunctive Pronouns French disjunctive pronouns (also known as stressed pronouns) are used to emphasize a noun or pronoun that refers to a person. reflexive verbs express an action that acts upon the subject. A disjunctive pronoun is widely used (after prepositions. Je ne sais pas.
. Carlos and I are playing tennis. They love Machupicchu. vous êtes très gentils. C'est toi qui étudies l'art. To answer questions Qui va à la plage? Who is going to the beach? Lui. After prepositions (indirect object) Vas-tu manger sans moi ? Are you going to eat without me? Louis habite chez elle. I saw him and her.
4. You and he are very kind.
6. Je les ai vus. Toi et lui. He is. She is taller than you (are).
5. lui et elle. Louis lives at her house. This is your book. After c'est and ce sont (accent tonique) Ce sont elles qui aiment Machupicchu. After que in comparisons Elle est plus grande que toi. Ce livre est à toi. When a sentence has more than one subject or object Carlos et moi jouons au tennis. You're the one who's studying art.2.
. After the preposition à to indicate possession Quel livre est à toi ? Which book is yours? Ce stylo est à moi.. Neither you nor I understand it. seul.ni Je ne connais que lui ici. With -même(s) for emphasis Prépare-t-il le dîner lui-même ? Is he making dinner himself? Nous le ferons nous-mêmes. With the negative adverb ne.
. He's the only one I know here. With words like aussi. Lui seul a travaillé hier.
9. and surtout Elle aussi veut venir. Ni toi ni moi ne le comprenons.ni.. She wants to come too. We'll do it ourselves.
10.. He alone worked yesterday.7.
8. This pen is mine.que and conjunction ne...
or characteristic Il habite à la française He lives in the French style un enfant aux yeux bleus blue-eyed child / child with blue eyes fait à la main made by hand aller à pied to go on / by foot
y French Prepositions (à) . The book is for you. or noun that precedes it. style. adjective. in)
Definition: À is a very important preposition. Its many different meanings and uses in French include all of the following. Location or destination J'habite à Paris I live in Paris Je vais à Rome I'm going to Rome Je suis à la banque I'm at the bank 2.(to. prepositions are words which link two related parts of a sentence. Le livre est pour toi. Manner. Il est de Paris. He is from Paris. at. 1.Definition: In French. Je parle à Jean. despite its tiny size. Examples in French: I'm talking to Jean. Distance in time or space J'habite à 10 mètres de lui I live 10 meters from him Il est à 5 minutes de moi He is 5 minutes from me 3. They are placed in front of nouns in order to indicate a relationship between that noun and the verb. Point in time Nous arrivons à 7h00 We arrive at 7:00 Il est mort à 100 ans He died at the age of 100 4.
or clause. verb. Derrière expresses position or location (figurative or literal) and means behind. pronoun. Après expresses something to do with time and means after. It can be used in front of a temporal expression. It can be used only in front of a noun or pronoun. Après and derrière are used in the following circumstances: 1. après 3h00 after 3:00 après le cours after the class après avoir mangé after eating après qu'il le fera after he does it 2. derrière la maison behind the house chercher derrière les apparences look behind (beyond) appearances
Definition: There is often confusion between the prepositions après and derrière and their opposites avant and devant. Purpose or use une tasse à thé teacup / cup for tea un sac à dos backpack / pack for the back 8. Possession un ami à moi a friend of mine Ce livre est à Jean This is Jean's book 6.5. In the passive infinitive À louer for rent Je n'ai rien à lire I have nothing to read
y French Prepositions (après & derrière) . noun. Measurement acheter au kilo to buy by the kilogram payer à la semaine to pay by the week 7.
He's in front of you. avant midi before noon avant l'examen before the test avant de partir before leaving avant que nous ne partions before we leave 2. Cause On oublie tout avec le temps One forgets everything in time Tu m'énerves avec ce bruit You're bothering me with this noise 3. It can express 1. It can be used only in front of a noun or pronoun. devant la voiture in front of the car devant les juges before the judges devant le danger faced with / in the face of danger. noun.(before)
Definition: Because they can both mean before. pronoun. 1. and besides that I'm hungry
. Something in addition: avec ça et avec ça ? anything else? j'ai froid et avec ça j'ai faim I'm cold. Devant expresses position or location (figurative or literal) and means before or in front of. Accompaniment J'irai avec toi. I'll go with you Il est d'accord avec nous. Il est devant toi. verb.
y French Prepositions (avec) . or clause. Avant expresses something to do with time. But there's a big difference in the way they are used. It can be used in front of a temporal expression. He agrees with us 2.y French Prepositions (avant & devant) . there is often confusion between the prepositions avant and devant.(with)
Definition: Avec is the French equivalent of with.
among (une coutume) chez les Français (a custom) among the French 4.4. at/to the house of chez mon oncle at/to my uncle's house chez moi at/to my house. English haven't a equivalent word. in the work/writings of chez Molière in Molière's work/writing
. (at) home 2. at/to the office/store of chez le médecin at/to the doctor's office chez le boucher at/to the butcher's 3. It can mean any of the following: 1.(among)
Definition: Chez is a great French word. The equivalent of an adverb: avec + noun avec joie joyfully avec colère angrily Examples in French: se fâcher avec qqun to get mad at someone se lever avec le jour to get up at the crack of dawn se mettre en rapport avec to get in touch with prendre des gants avec qqun to handle someone with kid gloves
y French Prepositions (chez) .
Time (en vs dans) dans la semaine during the week dans la journée during the day dans une semaine in one week Examples in French: dans les coulisses behind the scenes dans le doute when in doubt être dans le pétrin to be in a jam dans mes projets in my plans dans le sens de la longueur lengthwise
Definition: The French preposition dans must be followed by an article or some other determiner. It usually means in. Physical location dans la boîte in the box dans la rue in the street boire dans une tasse to drink from a cup prendre qqchose dans une boîte to take s.5.t. in the drawer monter dans le train to get on the train voir qqun dans l'escalier to see someone on the stairs 2. Figurative location dans la situation actuelle in the current situation dans ces conditions in/under these conditions 3.t.t. from a box copier qqchose dans un livre to copy s. c'est une habitude it's a habit with him c'est bizarre chez un enfant it's strange for a child
y French Prepositions (dans) . for/with chez lui. but can indicate all of the following: 1. from a book dans l'avion on the plane mettre qqchose dans le tiroir put s. it cannot be followed directly by a noun.
Starting point or origin partir de Nice to leave from (out of) Nice Je suis de Bruxelles I'm from Brussels 3. Depuis means since or for. about)
Definition: De is a very important and versatile preposition with many different meanings and uses in French.y French Prepositions (de) . As a preposition. depuis and pendant are used.(since. Many English speakers tend to translate for as pour. Contents / description of something une tasse de thé cup of tea un roman d'amour love story (story of/about love) 4. Defining feature le marché de gros wholesale market une salle de classe classroom 5. It is used with a verb in the present tense to talk about an action that began in the past and continues in the present.(from. Possession or belonging le livre de Carlos Carlos's book la bibliothèque de l'université the university library 2. it can express or indicate all of the following: 1. of. Means / manner of doing something écrire de la main gauche to write with one's left hand répéter de mémoire to recite from memory
y French Prepositions (depuis) . Cause mourir de faim to die of / from hunger fatigué du voyage tired from the trip 6. for)
Definition: To express the duration of an event in French. Depuis quand étudiez-vous le français? How long have you studied French?
. but this is rarely correct when talking about time.
with no article. Depuis can also be used to indicate an action that was occuring (in the imparfait) when it was interrupted by another action (in the passé composé). Location il est en prison j'habite en banlieu he is in jail I live in the suburbs
2. I saw a film during my stay. I've studied French for 6 years. il m'attendait. Pendant ce temps.(in. Pendant combien de temps avez-vous étudié le français ? How long did you study French? J'ai étudié le français pendant 3 ans.J'étudie le français depuis 6 ans. During this time. J'étudie le français depuis 2000. to)
Definition: En is nearly always used directly in front of a noun. but it refers to an action in its entirety that has no relation to the present. It can indicate all of the following: 1. Depuis quand dormais-tu quand je suis arrivé ? How long had you been sleeping when I arrived? Pendant means for. Je vais habiter en France pendant 2 mois. Pendant also means during. It can be used for both the past and the future. on. I studied French for 3 years. J'ai vu un film pendant mon séjour. Time en août en 3 jours en semaine in August in three days during the week
y French Prepositions (en) . he waited for me. I'm going to live in France for 2 months. I've studied French since 2000.
it usually means for. Material un pull en laine une maison en bois wool sweater wooden house to be in good health to be at war to be in pajamas
y French Prepositions (pour) . Like or as I'm speaking to you as a Je te parle en friend ami Il agit en enfant He's acting like a kid 4.... I bought you a gift. Means voyager en train rentrer en taxi to travel by train to return by taxi
5..3. He did it for me. It can indicate all of the following: 1.(for)
Definition: Pour can be followed by a noun. pronoun. Il l'a fait pour moi. Purpose/Intention J'ai acheté un cadeau pour toi. transformer une salle to change a room into an office en bureau traduire en français 7. Transformation to translate into French to disguise oneself se déguiser en . Condition or appearance être en bonne santé être en guerre être en pyjama 6. or infinitive..
. When it is followed by a noun or pronoun. as..
Here's the train to Rouen. Il doit signer pour moi. Duration of future event Je vais y habiter pour un I'm going to live there for a year. This store is closed for repairs. it's a good idea. Point of view Pour nous. For us. 5. 3. J'ai voté pour Chirac. Cause Je suis condamné pour vol. Voici le train pour Rouen. I paid for us. Ce magasin est fermé pour réparations.2. Il parlera pour une heure. I voted for Chirac. In favor of Il est pour la peine de la mort. c'est une bonne idée.
. I was convicted of theft. 4. 6. He is in favor of the death penalty. One per hundred It's hot for the fall. He left for Ottawa. He is everything to me. He has to sign for me. In place of / In exchange for J'ai payé pour nous. 8. Direction Il est parti pour Ottawa. Il est tout pour moi. Comparison/Relationship Un pour cent Il fait chaud pour l'automne. an. 7. He will speak for an hour.
It's hard without money.y French Prepositions (sans) (without)
Definition: Sans is the French equivalent of without. Sans argent. It can express Lack He left without me. c'est difficile. The equivalent of an adverb: sans + noun a homeless man un homme sans abri une femme sans préjugés an unbiased woman
y French Prepositions (sur) . je serais triste. boulevard. Il est parti sans moi. Elle est venue sans être invitée. Condition Sans mes amis. le marché sur la chaussée. She came uninvited. market in the road. avenue it's snowing all over il neige sur tout le Canada Canada Approximate time arriver sur les six to arrive around 3 o'clock heures elle va sur ses 60 ans she's going on 60 over a period / the course of sur une période d'un a year an
. I'd be sad. l'avenue
a book on the table on my way
to turn to the left to return to Paris
at the stadium. If it weren't for my friends. le boulevard.(on)
Definition: Sur usually means on: un livre sur la table sur ma route Sur can also indicate: Direction tourner sur la gauche revenir sur Paris Position sur le stade.
a book on the table on my way
to turn to the left to return to Paris
at the stadium.Proportion / ratio trois fois sur quatre un enfant sur cinq une semaine sur deux Subject / topic un article sur les roses une causerie sur l'égalité
three times out of four one child in five every other week an article on roses a talk on / about equality
y French Prepositions (sur) . le boulevard.(on)
Definition: Sur usually means on: un livre sur la table sur ma route Sur can also indicate: Direction tourner sur la gauche revenir sur Paris Position sur le stade. market in the road. boulevard. le marché sur la chaussée. avenue it's snowing all over il neige sur tout le Canada Canada Approximate time arriver sur les six to arrive around 3 o'clock heures elle va sur ses 60 ans she's going on 60 sur une période d'un over a period / the course of a year an Proportion / ratio three times out of four trois fois sur quatre one child in five un enfant sur cinq every other week une semaine sur deux Subject / topic an article on roses un article sur les roses une causerie sur l'égalité a talk on / about equality
We are going to the market.. journée.. future tense. Current actions and situations Nous allons au marché.
Definition: French verb tenses & conjugation is discussed in the present tense. past tense...y French Prepositions (vers & envers) . His attitude toward Son attitude envers les children. imperative tense. We're going around noon. l'argent. Rouen. Je suis fatigué. I was around (near) J'étais vers Provence. Provence. Turn to(ward) the right. called le présent or le présent de l'indicatif. imperfect tense.
PRESENT TENSE The French present tense. Present tense is used to express: 1. Vers means toward or around in time and space We're going toward Nous allons vers Rouen. but in difference circumstances.... I am tired. Tournez vers la droite. Nous allons vers midi.(toward)
Definition: Vers and envers both mean toward. enfants. and past perfect tense.
. is quite similar in usage to the English present tense.. J'y vais vers la fin de la I'm going around the end of the day. Ses pensées envers His thoughts on money. chiens. Envers means toward in a figurative sense He is cruel toward his Il est cruel envers ses dogs.
We've visited Paris several times. If I can. They have already eaten. The passé composé is used to express: 1. L'éducation est importante. Je visite des musées le samedi. He goes to school every day. e is leaving right away. often used in conjunction with the imparfait. Habitual actions Il va à l'école tous les jours. 2. I ate five times yesterday. Hier.
COMPOUND PAST TENSE Le passé composé is the most common French past tense. j'irai avec toi.
. I visit museums on Saturdays. j'ai mangé cinq fois. Education is important. 5. The earth is round. Conditions in si clauses Si je peux. 3. I will go with you. 4. Actions which will occur immediately J'arrive ! I'll be right there! Il part tout de suite. An action or state of being completed in the past As-tu étudié ce weekend ? Did you study this weekend? Ils ont déjà mangé. An action repeated a specific number of times in the past Nous avons visité Paris plusieurs fois.2. Absolute and general truths La terre est ronde.
. J'irai au magasin demain I will go to the store tomorrow. nous mangerons. called conjugations. and une fois que (once). you can conjugate the majority of French verbs.
REGULAR VERBS (PRESENT REGULAR) Definition: -ER verbs. A number can be either singular or plural. After après que (after). or third ('il. Regular verbs that end in these letters are all conjugated the same way in all of the tenses. When he arrives. talked to the doctor. Quand il arrivera. elle. quand (when). Si j'ai le temps.3. dès que (as soon as). je le ferai If I have time. A conjugation is made up of six different forms. Saturday he saw his mother. whereas in English the present tense is used. Once you learn how to conjugate one regular verb in each category. -IR verbs. and 'nous' in the plural). when the action of the verb is in the future.
FUTURE TENSE Le futur is used for upcoming events. A person can be first ('je' in the singular. A series of actions completed in the past Samedi.
Je le ferai si j'ai le temps I will do it if I have time. and 'ils. Ils mangeront sur l'avion They will eat on the plane. lorsque (when). a parlé au médicin et a trouvé un chat. second ('tu' in the singular. depending on whether we are talking about just one person. or several people. and found a cat. and 'vous' in the plural). aussitôt que (as soon as). espérer que (to hope that). Je vous téléphonerai dès que je pourrai. il a vu sa mère. I'll call you as soon as I can. and -RE verbs are regular verbs. It is usually translated as will. I will do it. elles' in the plural).
Definition: The Verbs lists in English and French follow regular patterns. on' in the singular. the future tense is used in French. we will eat. which indicate various numbers and persons.
on joue PLURAL 1º Person: nous jouons 2º Person: vous jouez 3º Person: ils. the masculine form. In English. 'nous' meaning 'we'. Note that all the person endings of the verb are different (unlike in English. and 'elles' if you are referring to a feminine plural noun. elles jouent
At the top of the table is the infinitive. 'vous' meaning 'you' (plural) and 'ils' or 'elles' meaning 'they'. does chase the cat. In French there is only the one form to express all these shades of meaning. it plays PLURAL 1º Person: we play 2º Person: you play 3º Person: they play
VERB: jouer SINGULAR 1º Person: je joue 2º Person: tu joues 3º Person: il. Regular French verbs ending in -er belong to the first conjugation. Each verb form is made up of the stem of the verb ('jou-) and a person ending. jouer. 'je' meaning 'I'. The difference between 'il' and 'elle' is the same as 'he' and 'she' in English. because all nouns in French are either masculine or feminine. Every verb form begins with a pronoun. 'il' meaning 'he' or 'it'. which means 'to play'. is chasing the cat. First conjugation verbs are recognized by the infinitive ending in (-er). that is. French uses 'ils'. 'elle' meaning 'she'. elle.Verbs with (-ER)
VERB: to play SINGULAR 1º Person: I play 2º Person: you play 3º Person: he. If there is a mixture of masculine and feminine nouns. 'tu' meaning 'you' (singular). For Example:
. For Example: The dog chases the cat. we have three ways of expressing the present tense. It is worth noting that the present tense expresses an action which is going on at the time mentioned. English concept of 'it' doesn't really apply to French. 'They' is expressed by 'ils' if you are referring to a masculine plural noun. she. where all but one of the verb forms were the same).
'they likes rabbits'.to accomplish bâtir . in other words. we need to find the stem of the verb. the stem of the verb. such as jouer. 'we'. elle accomplit PLURAL 1º Person: nous accomplissons 2º Person: vous accomplissez 3º Person: ils. elles bâtissent
accomplir .'Je jouer' means 'I play'. Next. substitute one of the personal pronouns ('I'. Likewise.to choose
. elle bâtit PLURAL 1º Person: nous bâtissons 2º Person: vous bâtissez 3º Person: ils. 'they') for the subject of the verb. and removing the -er from the end.
How to Form a Regular (-er) Verb in French. the stem of the verb aimer (to like) is aim-.
Verbs with (-IR)
VERB: accomplir SINGULAR 1º Person: je accomplis 2º Person: je accomplis 3º Person: il. and the ending. To find the number and person that you need. because we are using a plural pronoun instead of a singular). you need to know the number and person that you are talking about. 'she'. 'it'. (If we use the pronoun 'they'. 'the girl' can be replaced by 'she'.to build choisir . For example: In the sentence 'the girl likes the rabbits'. elles accomplissent Verbs of this type:
y y y
VERB: bâtir SINGULAR 1º Person: je bâtis 2º Person: tu bâtis 3º Person: il. is found by taking the infinitive (jouer). 'she likes rabbits'. the sentence doesn't make sense. In French. 'he'. in other words. and 'I do play'. 'you'. To form a verb correctly in French. 'you'. 'I am playing'. the stem of verbs ending in -er. leaving jou-.
to defend descendre .to seize
Verbs with (-RE)
VERB: entendre SINGULAR 1º Person: je entends 2º Person: tu entends 3º Person: il.to obey punir .to render répandre .to fill réunir .to hear étendre . elle vend PLURAL 1º Person: nous vendons 2º Person: vous vendez 3º Person: ils.to punish remplir .to wait défendre .y y y y y y y y y y
embellir . to spread out fendre .to stretch.to split fondre .to grow up obéir . elles vendent
attendre .to melt pendre .to reunite réussir . elles entendent Verbs of this type:
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
VERB: vendre SINGULAR 1º Person: je vends 2º Person: tu vends 3º Person: il. elle entend PLURAL 1º Person: nous entendons 2º Person: vous entendez 3º Person: ils.to tighten vendre .to make beautiful envahir .to spread répondre .to invade finir .to hang pondre .to answer tendre .to succeed saisir .to lay an egg perdre .to sell
.to descend entendre .to lose rendre .to finish grandir .
it is il/elle est PLURAL nous sommes we are you are vous êtes they are ils/elles sont VERB 2: (avoir . make) SINGULAR I make je fais you make tu fais he.IRREGULAR VERBS (PRESENT REGULAR) A number of verbs in French are irregular. it makes il/elle fait PLURAL nous faisons we make vous faites you make ils/elles font they make
VERB 5: (prende . she. it he. The following is a list of the most popular French irregular verbs: VERB 1: (être .to put) SINGULAR SINGULAR I take I put je prends je mets you take you put tu prends tu mets he. she.to do.to be) SINGULAR I am je suis you are tu es he.to go) SINGULAR I go je vais you go tu vas he. it il/elle prend il/elle met takes puts
. she. she. their present tenses don't conform to the usual pattern of regular -er verbs. she.
French Irregular Verbs A number of verbs in French are irregular. Following are the most popular irregular verbs in French language. she. in other words. in other words. it goes il/elle va PLURAL nous allons we go vous allez you go ils/elles vont they go
VERB 4: (faire . it has il/elle a PLURAL nous avouns we have you have vous avez ils/elles ont they have
VERB 3: (aller .to have) SINGULAR I have je ai you have tu as he. their present tenses don't conform to the usual pattern of regular -er verbs.to take) VERB 6: (mettre .
. 2. elle n'a rien dit. elle. meaning that one syllable of the word is pronounced more emphatically. except for the final syllable of each rhythmic group. Je n'en sais rien. Put the word to be emphasized at the beginning or end of the sentence
Carlos. je l'aime bien. In order to emphasize a specific word in French. There are two different ways to use the French accent tonique. I don't know anything about it Chantal didn't say anything I gave the book her
Note: When emphasizing people.PLURAL nous prenons we take vous prenez you take ils/elles they take prennent
PLURAL nous mettons we put vous mettez you put ils/elles they put mettent
The French tonic accent is quite different than its English counterpart. 1. Chantal n'a rien dit. individual words can be stressed in order to show particular emphasis on them. à elle. Carlos. In addition. In English. Use the construction c'est. Je l'aime bien. The word that might be said louder in English in order to show emphasis is in bold. moi. Je lui ai donné le livre. Chantal. stressed pronouns are used. Moi..
I like Carlos a lot. In French. each syllable of a word and each word is pronounced with the same emphasis. you must use either the accent affectif or the accent tonique. je n'en sais rien. each word has one stressed syllable..
ï. he's the one who did it! / Carlos that did it!
There are five different kinds of accent marks used in written French.
3. They are: Accent Letters used acute accent (accent aigu) grave accent (accent grave) circumflex (accent circonflexe) diaeresis (tréma) cedilla (cédille) é only è.C'est Carlos que j'aime. ô. ê. û ë. C'est votre réponse qui n'est pas juste. î. c'est lui qui l'a fait ! Accent Marks
It's Carlos. I like them.
I like Carlos a lot. ù â. Use both of these constructions together for very strong emphasis
Carlos. A necklace was stolen. C'est moi qui les aime. Your response is not correct. ü. à. ÿ Ç only
. C'est un collier qui a été volé.