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integration, determine the kinetic energy of the distributedparameter system in terms of the velocity at the coordinate of the lumped system. On this basis determine the equivalent lumped inertia at that coordinate. Units for J and Js are kg.m2 Units for K are N.m/rad. Assume that the angular speed of the shaft (in torsional motion) is linearly distributed, with zero at the fixed end and Wj at the rotor end. Consider a small segment sx of the shaft at an axial distance x from the fixed end, as shown in Figure 1.

(b) (i) (ii)

x

dx

x wJ l

Js dx l

**Figure 1:Elemental segment of the flexible shaft Moment of inertia of the elemental segment =
**

Js sx l

(Note: This is true because the shaft is uniform). Angular speed of the elemental segment =- w j (Note: This follows from the linear speed distribution)

x l

1 Js ç l Kinetic energy of the element = sx è 2 l

æx

ö wj ÷ ø

2

**1 Js æ x ö KE of the overall shaft = ò dx ç WJ ÷ èl ø s 2 l
**

2 l 1 Js Wj 1J 2 2 = 3 ò x .dx = 2 3s WJ 2 l s

l

2

Hence, the inertia of the flexible shaft can be approximated by a lumped J inertia s located at the rotor end. 3 Total inertia = J + iii.

Js . 3

Equation of free torsional motion of the lumped system: J ö& æ ç J + s .÷ q& +Kq = 0 3 ø è Natural frequency of torsional motion of the lumped system K . = J + Js / 3

Problem 2

(a) Force transmissibility indicates how much of a dynamic force of a machine is transmitted to its supporting structure. Motion transmissibility indicates how much of a support motion is transmitted to the inertia of a machine. One is the complementary concept of the other. For a particular machine, the two functions are identical. For good vibration isolation, the magnitude of the transmissibility function has to be minimised in the operating frequency range.

(b)

(i)

Equation of bending (rotational) motion of the pump unit can be written with reference to the free body diagram shown in Figure 2.

t

ts

ts

q

Figure 2 Free-body diagram of the pump and the support structure. Note that the inertia of the cantilever is neglected. Hence the moment Gs directly transmits from the rotor to the mounting location of the building. From the bending cantilever we have: t s = Kq From Newton s 2nd law for the rotor we have: && J q = t - t s =t - Kq Or, && t = J q + Kq Hence: ts Kq = && t J q + Kq In the frequency domain, we have the transmissibility function (with s = jw ):

Gs K = 2 G -w J + K

(ii)

Since, in the isolation region w 2 ³ K / J , the transmissibility magnitude T is given by

T =

K w J -K

2

The lower end (w min ) of the operating speed range is the most critical because it has the greatest transmissibility (or worst isolation). So, we design for w min Hence, T = K w min 2 J -K

2

or, K= Given, J = 50 kg.m2 T=1

w min =

2 w min JT 1+T

0.8 = 0.2

1, 200 ´ 2p = 40p rad/s 60

Substitute:

( 40p ) K=

´ 50 ´ 0.2 = 1.316 ´ 105 N.m/rad 1 + 0.2

2

(iii) Start with a more conservative (smaller) value for T and design K for the undamped case. Now use the transmissibility equation for the damped case and calculate T. If this value is not lower than the specified value, reduce T further and repeat the computations.

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