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MEANINGOFMARKETINGRESEARCH

Theterm"MarketingResearch"iscomposedoftwowords"Marketing"and"Research". Marketing Marketingbasicallyconsistsofspotting theneedsofcustomersandmeetingtheminthebest possiblemannerthroughappropriateproductionanddistributionactivities. Thetermmarketingreferstobuyingandsellingactivities.Exchange/transferofownershipisthe essenceofmarketing. Research Researchmeansdetailed/systematic/comprehensivestudyofaproblem.. Researchisaprocessinvolvingaseriesofstepstocollectandanalyzetheinformationneeded fordecisionmakinginthedesired/specificfieldofinquiry.Thetermresearchcanbeappliedto anyfieldofhumanactivity. Research means studious enquiry" or "thorough, honest and impartial study conducted by trainedmenusingscientificmethods".Itmeansdetailedstudyrelatingtoaparticularsubject. ThetermMRisusedextensivelyinmodernmarketingmanagement.Itactsasatoolforaccurate decision making in marketing of goods and services. It is also useful for studying and solving differentmarketingproblemsfacedbybusinessunits..Here,thedetails(informationanddata) of the marketing problem are collected and studied, conclusions are drawn and suggestions/recommendations are made to solve the problem quickly, correctly and systematically. In MR/ marketing problem is studied in depth by collecting and analyzing all relevant information and solutions are suggested to solve the problem relating to consumers, product,marketcompetition,salespromotionandsoon. MRisaspecialbranchofmarketingmanagement.Itiscomparativelyofrecentinorigin.MRacts as an investigative arm of a marketing manager. It suggests possible solutions on marketing problems for the consideration and selection by a marketing manager. It also acts as an important tool to study buyer behavior, changes in consumer lifestyles and consumption patterns,brandloyaltyandforecastmarketchanges. DEFINITIONSOFMARKETINGRESEARCH: Letusnow,considersomedefinitionsofMR: (1) The most widely accepted definition of marketing research is given by American Marketing Association(AMA).TheAMAhasdefinedmarketingresearchas"thesystematicgathering,recording andanalyzingofdataaboutproblemsrelatingtothemarketingofgoodsandservices (2)AccordingtoRichardD.Crisp:"Marketingresearchisthesystematic,objectiveandexhaustivesearch forandstudyofthefactsrelevanttoanyprobleminthefieldofmarketing." (3) According to Philip Kotler: "Marketing research is systematic problem analysis, model building and factfindingforthepurposeofimproveddecisionmakingandcontrolinthemarketingofgoodsand services." (4)Luck,WalesandTaylorhavedefinedmarketingresearchas"theapplicationofscientificmethodto thesolutionofmarketingproblems"

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(5) Green and Tull have defined marketing research as "the systematic and objective search for and analysis of information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing." OBJECTIVEOFRESEARCH The purpose of research is to discover answers through the application of scientific procedures. The mainaimofresearchistofindoutthetruthwhichishiddenandwhichhasnotbeendiscoveredasyet. Thougheachresearchstudyhasitsownspecificpurpose,wemaythinkofresearchobjectivesasfalling intonumberofbroadgrouping: Togainfamiliaritywithaphenomenonortoachievenewinsightsintoit(studieswiththisobjectin viewaretermedasexploratoryorformulativeresearchstudies. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies withthisobjectinviewareknownasdescriptiveresearchstudies); To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with somethingelse(studieswiththisobjectinviewareknownasdiagnosticresearchstudies). To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesistestingresearchstudies). CHARACTERISTICSOFMARKETINGRESEARCH: (1) Systematic and continuous process: MR is a continuous process. This is natural as new marketingproblemsareboundtocomefromtimetotimeinthecourseofmarketingofgoods andservices.Onetypeofresearchisnotadequatetoresolveallmarketingproblems.Similarly, new research projects will have to be undertaken to solve new marketing problems and challenges.Amarketingcompanyfacesnewmarketingproblemsfromtimetotime.Forfacing these problems marketing research activities need to be conducted on a regular basis. A marketing company has to conduct MR regularly for its survival & growth in the present dynamicmarketingenvironment. (2) Wide/comprehensiveinscopeandapplication:MRiswideinscopeasitdealswithallaspects of marketing of goods and services. It is more than just collecting data on marketing. Introduction of new products, identification of potential markets, selection of appropriate selling techniques, study of market competition and consumer preferences, introduction of suitableadvertisingstrategyandsalespromotionmeasures,aresomeareascoveredbyMR.It plays a role in all the three phases of the management process in marketing: planning, implementationandevaluation. (3) Emphasizes on accurate data collection and critical analysis: In MR, required data should be collectedobjectivelyandaccurately.Thedatacollectedmustbereliable.Itshouldbeanalyzed in a systematic manner. This will provide comprehensive picture of the situation and possible solutions. (4) Offers benefits to sponsoring company and consumers: MR is useful to the sponsoring company. It raises the turnover and profit of the company. It also raises the competitive capacity and creates goodwill in the market. It enables a company to introduce consumer orientedmarketingpolicies.Consumersalsogetagreeablegoodsandmoresatisfactiondueto MRactivities.

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(5) Commercialequivalentofmilitaryintelligence:MRisthecommercialintelligenceactivity.Itis similartomilitaryintelligencewheresystematicstudyismadebeforetakinganymilitaryaction. MRactsastheintelligencetoolofmarketingmanagement. (6) Toolformanagerialdecisions:MRactsasatoolinthehandsofmanagementforidentifyingand analyzingmarketingproblemsandfindingoutsolutionstothem.Itisanaidtodecisionmaking. Itsuggestspossiblesolutionsfortheconsiderationandselectionbymanagers.MRisanaidto judgmentandneverasubstituteforit. (7) Applied type of research: MR is applied knowledge. It is also called 'decisional research as it provides specific alternative solutions to deal with a specific marketing problem. It studies specific marketing problem and suggests alternative solutions and possible outcome of each alternative. In addition, it is both science and an art. MR is also becoming highly professional activity. (8) Reduces the gap between the producers and consumers: MR is an essential supplement of modern competitive marketing. It is useful for understanding the needs and expectations of consumers. It reduces the gap between producers and consumers and adjusts the marketing activitiestosuittheneedsofconsumers. (9) Not an exact science: MR is both science and an art. It collects information and studies marketingprobleminascientificmanner.Theinformationcollectedisalsoappliedtoreallire problem.However,MRisnotanexactscience.Itonlysuggestspossiblesolutionsandnotthe exactsolutiontomarketingmanagerforconsiderationandselection.Atpresent,MRistreated asaprofessionalactivity.Wehaveprofessionalagencies(MRagenciesoradvertisingagencies) dealingwiththemarketingproblemsoftheirclientsoncommissionbasis. (10) Use of different methods: MR can be conducted by using different methods. Data can be collected through survey or by other methods like observation method or experimentation method.Evencomputersandinternetareusedfordatacollection.Theresearcherhastodecide themethodthatissuitablefortheconductofresearchproject.Thisselectionisimportantasthe useofunsuitablemethodsaffectthequalityofresearchwork. (11) Dynamic character: MR is dynamic in nature. Its scope is fast expanding along with the new developmentsinthefieldofmarketing.ThisisnaturalasMRisessentiallyfordealingwithnew problemsandchallengesinthefieldofmarketing.Inaddition,developmentsinothersubjects such as economics, statistics, computer science, sociology, psychology, cultural anthropology andbehavioralsciencesalsobringcorrespondingchangesinthefieldofMR.Newmethods,new techniques, etc., are used while conducting the research activities. This suggests that MR is a dynamicandprogressivesubjectwithnewdevelopmentstakingplaceregularly. (12) Closelyconnectedwith marketinginformationsystem:Both theconcepts areinterrelated.In fact, MR is one component of MIS. Both are useful for solving marketing problems and for accurateandquickdecisionmakinginthefieldofmarketing. (13) Phenomenalgrowth:MRhasmadeaphenomenalgrowthsinceitsinception.Ithasbecomean important tool in the hands of management (to solve marketing problems) along with the adventofconsumerorientedphilosophyinmodernbusiness.Theincreasingresearchbudgets ofcompaniesaretheindicatorsofitstremendousgrowthinrecentyears.

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MARKETRESEARCHV/SMARKETINGRESEARCH: The two terms market research" and "marketing research" are used interchangeably though there is differenceinthemeaningandscopeofthetwoterms."Marketresearch"isusedasapopularsynonym for"marketingresearch".Marketisapartofmarketingandmarketresearchisonlyapartofmarketing research. It covers only a few aspects of marketing. According to Philip Kotler, the term "market research"isaccuratefordescribingresearchintothemarket,itssize,geographicaldistribution,income and so on. However, it fails to cover the idea of research into the effects of marketing efforts on the marketforwhichtheterm"marketingresearch"ismoreaccurate.MRisincreasinglycomingintofavor as the term that describes both ideas. Marketing research need not be treated as pure academic research.Itisatypeofappliedresearchwithscientificorientation. Distinctionbetweenmarketresearchandmarketingresearch Dimension MarketResearch MarketingResearch Meaning Market research directly relates to Marketingresearchisasystematicand search/study of market situation i.e. size, location, comprehensive market competition and features different aspects of marketing of customers. It provides details including the current marketing aboutthemarketfordecisionmaking problems and challenges for decision andpolicyframing. making&policyframing. Nature Market research is a branch of Marketing research is one branch of MarketingInformationSystem. marketingresearch. Scope The scope of market research is The scope of marketing research is limited/restricted to the study of comprehensive & wide as it covers all marketormarketsituation aspectsofmarketing. Typeofterm Market research is a narrow term as Marketing research is a wide/broad itrelatestooneaspectofmarketing term as it covers all aspects of marketing Objective Market research is undertaken in Marketing research is undertaken in order to deal with the problems and order to study varied types of challenges relating to different marketing problems such as product aspects of market such as line, marketing mix, advertising, competition, market demand and packaging,brandingandsoon. consumerneeds GROWINGIMPORTANCEOFMARKETINGRESEARCH: Marketing research has received attention and importance along with the growth of highly competitiveconsumerorientedmarketingphilosophy.Researchactivitiesindifferentaspectsof marketing are necessary and useful in such competitive and flexible marketing environment. Large companies marketing consumer items noted the growing need of MR activities in the marketing decisionmaking process. They naturally took initiative in conducting research activities within the organization itself. This was followed by the formation of specialized

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marketingresearchagenciesandadvertisingagenciesforthispurpose.Thisishowprofessional orientation was given to MR. Many marketing research departments and agencies were establishedafterWorldWarII. MRactivity(asweunderstandtoday)iscomparativelynewinthefieldofmarketing.Thisactivity probablybeganaround1950s(Moderneraofmarketingresearch)andattractedtheattention of companies interested in marketing their products in the national and global markets. However,theconceptofMRgotfirmrootsinthemarketingactivityafter1910.Firsttimethe marketing research techniques were used by newspapers to predict the election results. However,duringtheseconddecadeof20thcentury,marketingresearchemergedasavaluable managementtooltosolvemarketingproblems.Inthedevelopedcountries,marketingresearch activity is conducted on scientific lines. Even in India, large manufacturing companies treat marketing research as an essential supplement of planning and decisionmaking in the marketing field. It is treated as an indispensable tool for profitable and consumeroriented marketing.ThepopularityofMRincreasedafter1960duetotheintroductionofcomputersin datacollectionandanalysis.Intheearlyperiod,marketingresearchactivitieswereconfinedto market studies only but in 1950s research relating to marketing activities was broadened to includeallmanagerialaspectsprice,produceplaceandpromotion.Inlate1950'smotivational andpsychologicaltechniqueswereintroducedtogeneratemoreinformationonconsumers. Severalfactorshavecontributedtothegrowingimportanceofmarketingresearch.Forexample, duetolargescaleproduction,producerscouldnothavedirectcontactwiththeconsumers.This createdmanyproblemsbeforeproducers.Forsolvingallsuchproblemsdevelopedduetothe gapbetweenproducersandconsumerandmarketingresearchactivitiesprovetobeuseful. Secondly,theshiftingfromsellersmarkettobuyers'marketmadeitnecessarytohavebetter understanding about consumer netexpectations. For this, marketing research proved to be useful. Thirdly, the introduction of computers has contributed to the growth of marketing research activity. Fourthly,rapidchangesinthebusinessenvironment,shifttoconsumerorientedphilosophyin businessarealsoresponsibleforgrowingimportanceofmarketingresearch. Finally,thescopeofmarketinghaswidenedduetopopulationgrowthanddevelopmentofrural markets.MRprovedtobeusefulfordealingwiththeproblemscreatedbynationalandglobal markets.Inbrief,growingimportanceofmarketingresearchinthepresentmarketingsystemis the net result of various factors and forces available in the present marketing system. At present, MR activities are undertaken by marketing companies on their own. In addition, marketing research consultants and agencies provide expert advice to companies on general andspecificmarketingproblemsoftheirclients.

RelevanceofMRunderGlobalization: Thebusinessworldisfastmovingtowardsglobalizationinwhichallcountriesparticipate.Everycountry hastofacecompetitioninthedomesticaswellasinexportmarketing.Survivalintheglobalbusinessis possible through quality improvement, cost reduction and by attracting consumers through various sales promotion techniques. Here, MR offers helping hand to companies. It offers suggestions for survivalunderglobalcompetitiveenvironment.Inbrief,theimportance/relevanceofMRisfastgrowing alongwiththeglobalizationofbusiness.Itisamustforsurvivalandgrowthunderglobalization.Current marketing scenario is different as compared to traditional one. There is a new trend towards

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liberalizationandglobalization.Markets(domesticaswellasforeign)arebecominghighlycompetition. New companies and new products are entering in the markets. Survival is difficult under the present marketing environment. Here, MR offers various services. It is, now, a professional activity with new developments in regard to scope/coverage and techniques. In brief, MR has great relevance in the currentmarketingscenarioinIndiaaswellasinallcountriesdevelopedanddevelopingoftheworld. MR has enormous capacity to help and guide marketing companies in regard to their marketing problemsandchallenges. FUNCTIONSOFMARKETINGRESEARCH: MRperformsfivebasicfunctions.Theseare:Description,evaluation,explanation,predictionandfinally aid in decisionmaking. These functions are related to the research project undertaken. Usually, every researchstudyperformsallthefivefunctionsexplainedbelow: (1)Description:MRprovidesdataandgivesinformation/descriptionofcustomerswhobuytheproduct. This includes information about their age/sex, education, income and the amount of money that theyarewillingtospendontheproduct.Descriptionofthecustomersisusefulinordertodraw certainconclusionsaboutthecustomersandtheirbuyingbehavior.Evenmarketingstrategiescan bedecidedaspertheinformationavailable. (2)Evaluation:MRisusefulforunderstandingtheviews/reactionsofthebuyers.Thisincludesviewsof consumersonpackaging/advertising/salespromotionmeasuresused.Amanufacturergetsthese details as well as the information about his product in comparison with the products of his competitors. This facilitates evaluation of the marketing policies. For example, how far the packaging of the product is attractive to consumers or superior as compared to packaging by competitorsandsoon. (3) Explanation: MR gives explanation to certain questions of a manufacturer. It may be related to decline in sales, retailers negative reaction or resistance of consumers in a particular marketing area. MR enables a manufacturer to understand why sales are reducing (causes) or why the response of the retailers is negative or why consumers in a particular region are not willing to purchaseaspecificproduct.Suchexplanationisimportantasitenablesamanufacturertoadjust hismarketingpoliciesinordertorectifytheprevailingunfavorablesituation. (4)Prediction:MRconductspredictionfunction.Suchpredictionsmayberelatedtoconsumers,market environment/market competition, possible socioeconomic changes and so on. This prediction function enables a manufacturer to understand how much people will spend on the specific productinthenextyearorthefashionsthatconsumersmaypreferinthenextyear.Inaddition, prediction about the possible turnover in the years to come is also possible through suitable marketingresearchstudies.Inbrief,marketingresearchisusefulforunderstandingthemarketing

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environmentlikelytodevelopinfuture.Thisfacilitatesproperadjustmentinthemarketingpolicies forthefutureperiod.Inthissense,thepredictionfunctionisimportantevenwhenallpredictions madethroughresearchstudiesmaynotprovetobefullycorrect.However,thetrendindicatedcan beusedforappropriatepolicydecisions. (5)AidinDecisionmaking:OnemorefunctionofMRistofacilitatetheprocessofdecisionmakingin the marketing field. MR guides the manufacturer as regards the manner in which he can make effectiveadvertisingappealorcreateincentiveamonghissalesmen/distributors.Italsogiveshim guidanceasregardspricefixationandsalespromotiontechniquesthatwillbeusefulforthefuture period. This function of marketing research is closely related to other functions that it performs. Thesefunctionsfacilitatereasonablycorrectdecisionmakingbymarketingmanagers. ADVANTAGES/IMPORTANCEOFMARKETINGRESEARCH: 1. Indicatescurrentmarkettrends:Marketingresearchkeepsbusinessunitintouchwiththecurrent markettrendsandoffersguidanceforfacingmarketsituationwithconfidence. 2. Pinpoints deficiencies in marketing policies: MR pinpoints the deficiencies as regards products, pricing, promotion, etc. It gives guidance regarding different aspects of marketing. They include productdevelopment,branding,packagingandadvertising. 3. Explains customer resistance: MR is useful for finding out customer resistance to company's products.Theresearcheralsosuggestsremedialmeasurestodealwiththesituation.Thismakesthe productsandmarketingpoliciesagreeabletoconsumers. 4. Suggests sales promotion techniques: MR enables a manufacturer to introduce appropriate sales promotiontechniques,selectmostconvenientchannelofdistribution,suitablepricingpolicyforthe productsandprovisionofdiscountsandconcessionstodealers.Marketingresearchfacilitatessales promotion. 5. Offers guidance to marketing executives: MR offers information and guidance to marketing executives while framing marketing policies. Continuous research enables a company to face adverse' marketing situation boldly. It acts as an insurance against possible changes in market environment. 6. Facilitatesselectionandtrainingofsalesforce:Marketingresearchisusefulfortheselectionand trainingofstaffinthesalesorganization.Italsosuggeststheincentivesthatshouldbeofferedfor motivationofemployeesconcernedwithmarketing. 7. Promotes business activities: Marketing research enables a business unit to grow/expand its activities. It creates goodwill in the market and also enables a business unit to earn high profits throughconsumerorientedmarketingpoliciesandprogrammers. 8. Facilitatesappraisalofmarketingpolicies:Researchactivitiesenablebusinessexecutivestohavean appraisal of the present marketing policies in the light of findings of research work. Suitable adjustmentsinthepoliciesarealsopossibleasperthesuggestionsmadebytheresearchers. 9. Suggestsnewmarketingopportunities:MRsuggestsnewmarketingopportunitiesandthemanner inwhichtheycanbeexploitedfully.Itidentifiesemergingmarketopportunities.

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10. Facilitatesinventorystudy:Marketingresearchisusefulfortheevaluationofcompanysinventory policies and also for the introduction of more efficient ways of managing inventories including finishedgoodsandrawmaterials. 11. Provides marketing information: MR provides information on various aspects of marketing. It suggests relative strengths and weaknesses of the company. On the basis of such information, marketingexecutivesfinditeasytoframepoliciesforthefutureperiod.MRprovidesinformation/ guidanceandalternativesolutionstocurrentmarketingproblems. 12. Suggestsappropriatedistributionchannels:MRcanbeusedtostudytheeffectivenessofexisting channelsofdistributionandtheneedofmakingsuitablechangesinthedistributionsystem. 13. Providesinformationonproductacceptance:Marketingresearchhelpsinknowingtheprobability of acceptance of the product in its present form. It is also useful for the introduction of modificationsintheexistingproductlineofafirm. 14. Creates progressive outlook: MR generates a progressive and dynamic outlook throughout the businessorganization.Itpromotessystematicthinkingandasenseofprofessionalizationwithinthe company.Italsocreatesenthusiasmamongmarketingexecutives.Thisbringssuccessandstability tothewholebusinessunit 15. Haswidersocialsignificance:MRisofparamountimportancefromthesocialangle.Itisthemeans by which the ultimate consumer literally becomes king of the market place, with his desires/ prejudicesandeverywhimtransmittedtotheproduceranddistributor.Inbrief,MRhaswidersocial significance.Itisusefultoallpartiesinvolvedintheprocessofmarketing. Marketing research need not be treated as a fad. It is one of those fundamental tools that todays marketingmanagerneedstokeepsharpenedallthetimesothathemightbemapositiontominimize thebusinessormarketingrisk. Limitationsofmarketingresearchareasexplainedbelow: (1) Marketingresearchofferssuggestionsandnotdecisions:Marketingresearchisnotasubstitutefor decisionmaking process. It only offers possible suggestions/solutions to marketing problems. It actually acts as a tool that facilitates decisionmaking process. It guides marketing managers in taking balanced, resultoriented and rational decisions. The suggestions offered by marketing researchersareusuallypossible/probablesolutionsbutnottheexactsolutions. MRofferspredictionsbuttheyarenotnecessarilyaccurateorperfect.Suchpredictionsshouldbe taken in the right spirit by the management. It offers information and guidance to marketing managersbutnotthefinaldecisions,whicharetobetakenbymanagersthemselves. MRdoesnotprovidereadymadesolutionstomarketingproblems.Itonlyprovidesindicators.Itmay not provide conclusive information on marketing problems. The marketing managers have to use availableinformationproperlyandtakeappropriatemarketingdecisions. The effectiveness of MR depends on the skill of the decisionmaker. For this/ various marketing forces need careful consideration. However all such forces are not covered by research project undertaken.MRaidsmanagerialdecisionmakingbutitcannotreplacejudgmentandexperienceof marketingexecutives/managers. (2) Marketingresearchcannotpredictaccurately:InMR,effortsarebeingmadetoestimateorpredict the possible future situation. For this/ certain research studies are undertaken. However, the

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results/ conclusions arrived at may not be complete, perfect or accurate. They predict possible tendenciesbutnotcertainties.Futureisalwaysuncertainandexactpredictionaboutthefutureis justnotpossiblethroughmarketingresearch.Thisisbecausemarketenvironmentiseverchanging consumerbehaviorisdifficulttoestimatecorrectlyandreliabledataforresearchpurposemaynot be available. As a result, the decisions taken and policies framed on the basis of such research studiesmaynotbeaccurateandusefulforsolvingcurrentmarketingproblems. Marketing research gives guidance to marketing managers through information and conclusions drawn but such guidance may not be accurate as it is based on the predictions about future situation.Theguidanceofferedthroughresearchactivitiesmayprovetobeoutdatedatthetimeof takingcurrentmarketingdecisions. MRconclusionsarenotalwaysdependable:TherearemanywhoareskepticsofMR.Theircriticism isthatMRconclusionsarenotdependable.Thereareexampleswheretheresearchfailedtodeliver desired results or a product failed even when the research had shown promising market demand andconsumersupport.TheclassicalexampleisthatofCoke.ItsMRshowedthat68%customersin USlikedthetasteofthenewformuladevelopedbytheCocaColaCorporation.However,theNew Coke failed and in less than six months of its launch, the Coke management had to relaunch old Coke under the brand name Coke Classic. However, this failure of MR was mainly due to conventionalapproachofresearchers. Not an exact science: Since marketing research plates to consumers, it cannot be accepted as an exactscience.Bothquantifiableandnonquantifiablefactorshavetobeassessedwiththehelpof various techniques available to formulate marketing policies that will help to achieve maximum sales. The technical part of marketing research comes into operation particularly while collecting, analyzing, interpreting facts and figures. No amount of sophistication makes the subject an exact science. Because, as stated earlier, it concerns primarily the consumer as a human being Study of human behavior precludes absolute mathematical accuracy Probable trends, at the most can be indicated within predetermined limits. This sets a basic limitation to marketing research. At the sametime,itnecessitatesacreativeandskilledapproachtotheconductofresearch.Inthisway, marketingresearchcancontributeimmenselytodecisionmakinginadynamicmarket.Foraccurate judgment,themarketermustbefullyawareofthenatureoflimitationsofmarketingresearch. Time lag in presentation and implementation: There are other constraints as well that make for qualified utility of marketing research in decisionmaking. For example, there is the limitation of time.Collectionofdata,theircheckingastoaccuracyandanalysisandpresentationofteninvolve considerable time. The formulation of policies and their implementation as also their subsequent evaluation, which are a necessary followup, also take time. People's tastes and preferences are subject to frequent changes. It is, therefore necessary, keeping in mind the scope and nature of marketing research, that the projects should be completed in time to ensure their utility. In this process,attimes,asacompromisesomeaccuracymayhavetobesacrificed,butthedegreeofit canbedecidedinrelationtothespecificcircumstances. Limitations of personnel: Another constraint that is experienced pertains to personnel and its quality. Trained, wellequipped and welldirected research personnel can improve the quality and utility of marketing research. In the absence of this, research is likely to be costly and unreliable. Correct and complete information has to be collected from the respondents tactfully. The interviewerhastobereasonablyawareofthepsychologicalmakeupofthepersonsthatarebeing interviewed and should be able to analyze their thoughts and reactions. Apart from this, interviewers may have their own failings and weaknesses. Hence the training interviewers and

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investigatorsisamust.Theselimitationsandconstraintscanbeovercomeoratleasttheirimpact can be minimized. To the extent a market researcher is successful in his task, the value of the findings can beimproved.What ismostimportantisthatreliabledatashouldbeavailableonthe basis of which production and marketing plans and programmers can be formulated with a fair degree of accuracy. It is better to be certain about 50 percent reliable information than do a guesswork,whichhasmorechancesofgoingwrong. (7) Difficult to ascribe results: It is also difficult to ascribe results as a direct consequence of market research. The rupee value received by a firm from marketing research, therefore, cannot be measuredaccuratelyandcompletely.Thishascontributedtoanelementofhesitationonthepartof organizations to undertake marketing research in many cases, especially in the developing countries. (8) Acostgeneratingoperation:Marketingresearchisexpensive.Theexistenceofsellersmarketora sheltered market in many developing countries in particular has also been responsible for an apathetic approach to marketing research. However, with the growth and development of their economies,themarketingconditionsarechanginginfavorofbuyersandtheneedforandthevalue ofmarketingresearcharebeingincreasinglyrecognizedbytheenterprisesinthesecountriesalso. Withthecommunicationbetweenthepurchaserandthemanufacturerbecomingindirect,meagre and unsatisfactory and as a result of competition, the manufacturer is increasingly becoming anxioustoknowthemagnitudeofhissalestoconsumers,wheretheyarebeingeffected,thekinds ofpeoplebuyinghisgoodsandtheirreactionsandresponses.Allthisinformationisessentialtothe manufacturer, as this decides ultimately whether he will survive in the market or not. He can improve his product and marketing strategy to secure consumer satisfaction and logically profit fromthesechanges. (9) Marketingresearchcannotstudyallmarketingproblems:Marketingresearchisratherverywidein scope. However, it cannot study all marketing problems particularly where it is difficult to collect relevantdata.Similarly,researchstudyisnotpossiblewherevaluejudgmentsareinvolved.Evenitis notusefulfordealingwithurgentmarketingproblemswherequickdecisionsandfollowupactions arenecessary.Thus,allmarketingproblemsarenotresearchableandallresearchproblemsarenot answerable. MR cannot provide answer to each and every marketing problem. A problem like Profitability Vs. Consumersatisfactionisdifficulttoanswerwithcompleteaccuracy.Thepresentmarketingresearch techniques have certain limitations. MR fails to offer guidance to managers while dealing with specificproblems.Thus,marketingresearchcannotstudyallmarketingproblemsanddonotoffer readymadesolutionstoallmarketingproblemsfacedbyabusinessunit.Itisalsoarguedthatvery many times, marketing research tends to be fragmentary in its approach. As a result, it becomes difficulttohaveanoverallperspectiveinwhichamarketingproblemistobeviewedandstudied.

(10) Resistancebymarketingexecutives:Researchersstudymarketingproblemsandofferinformation
andguidancetomarketingexecutivesintheirdecisionmakingprocess.However,someexecutives arereluctanttousethesolutionssuggestedbythe researchers. Theyfeel thatsuchextensiveuse will act as a threat to their personal status. Findings of the research work may bring them in difficultiesifthepolicydecisionstakenaccordinglyprovetobewrong. Marketing executives may also feel that researchers suggest solutions that are academic in characterandlackpracticalutility.Theyuseguidanceandsuggestionsgivenbytheresearchedonly whentheyarecompelledtodoso.Thereisabsenceofmeaningfuldialoguebetweenthemarketing managersandthemarketingresearch team.Asaresult/marketingresearchersgetdivorcedfrom

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the main stream of marketing. Such attitude of indifference on the part of researchers and marketingexecutivesmakesmarketingresearchmeaningless. It is necessary to have effective communication between researchers and marketing executives. Secondly, researchers should try to act as friend and guide of marketing executives. Marketing executivesshouldalsoconsiderthefindingsofresearchersinanimpartialmanner.Suchattitudeof mutualconfidenceandunderstandingisusefulforcooperationbetweenresearchersandmarketing executives.Conflictbetweenresearchersandexecutivesisalwaysundesirablebutdoexistinmany companies.ItistreatedasonelimitationofMRactivity.

(11) Lengthy and timeconsuming activity: MR is a lengthy and timeconsuming activity. It involves
various stages/steps, which need to be completed in an orderly manner. It is not desirable to conductresearchworkinahaphazardmanner.Naturally,theresearchworktakeslongerperiodfor completionandthefindingswhenavailablemayprovetobeoldandoutdated.Evendatacollected verysoonbecomeoldorhistoricalduetofastchangingmarketenvironment.Asaresult,research findingsbasedonthembecomeirrelevantinthechangedsituation. MRisnotusefulfordealingwithurgentmarketingproblems.Moreover,researchworkcannotbe conducted overnight and marketing decisions cannot be postponed till the research work is completed. Thus, urgent/pressing marketing decisions arc usually taken without the support of research work. In brief, lengthy and time consuming aspect of marketing research reduces its practicalutilityandisrightlytreatedasonelimitationofmarketingresearchtechnique. (12) Nonavailabilityofqualifiedstaff:ForscientificMR,professionalmarketingresearcherswithproper qualifications, training and experience are necessary. Research work is likely to be incomplete/ unreliableintheabsenceofsuchexpertstaff.Companiesfinditdifficulttohavetheservicesofsuch expertstaff.Theyfinditdifficulttopayhighsalarytoprofessionalconsultants.Researchactivities areconductedinlimitedareasduetononavailabilityofproperlyqualifiedstaff.Suchstaffincludes statisticians,psychologists,sociologists,economistsandcomputerexperts. (13) Complexity of the subject: Marketing research fails to give complete and full proof solutions to management.Thisisbecausemarketingresearchitselfisnotanexactscience.Itisconcernedwith the study of human beings and human behavior is always difficult to predict, errors in drawing conclusions are possible due to this human element in marketing research activities. Errors in the researchstudiesarealsopossibleduetouncertaintyofhumanbehaviorandalsobecauseofnon availabilityofreliabledata. (14) Changingbehaviorofconsumers:Consumeristhefocalpointinmarketingresearch.However,his buyingmotivesaredifficulttojudgepreciselyandaccurately.Thisbringssomesortofuncertaintyin theconclusionsdrawnfromtheresearchactivity.Thefindingsoftheresearchwork(particularlyin thecaseofconsumerresearch)maynotprovetobeaccurate.

(15) Limitedpracticalutility:MRisregardedasanacademicexercise.Itisoftenbeendelinkedfromthe
business strategy. As a result many research reports become "academic" in nature and are 'filed'. Researchers take more interest in conducting research work rather than in supplying information and guidance to marketing managers in the decisionmaking process. Many research reports are rather bulky and unintelligible due to the use of technical language and unnecessary details. Such reports are rejected or are not used meaningfully b) marketing managers. This brings down the practicalutilityofMR.

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(16) Passive nature: MR is passive by its nature. Sometimes, it becomes too superficial and faulty in
business management. Man) conclusions drawn from the marketing research activities may be imaginary or not based on realities. Its use and effectiveness largely depend on the ability of marketingexecutivestogetthemostpromisingresultsoutofit.Marketingresearchbyitselfmay notgiveanybenefit.Itonlyshowsthewaytoexecutivesinthedecisionmakingprocess. (17) Fragmentary approach: On many occasions, marketing research tends to be fragmentary in its approach. It suggests solutions that may be difficult to put into operation. This is because overall marketing environment is not given adequate attention while suggesting the solution. Such fragmentaryapproachisnotusefulforsolvingmarketingproblemsinanintegratedmanner. (18) Absence of effective communication: The research activity will be useful and resultoriented only when there is meaningful dialogue between the marketing management and marketing research team. However, such dialogue is ineffective in many organizations. This make' research activity ineffective. Inspiteofthelimitationsnotedabove,MRisnecessaryandusefulinmarketingmanagement SCOPEOFMARKETINGRESEARCH/BRANCHESOFMR: Marketingresearchisasubjectwithwidescope.Broadlyspeaking,itisconcernedwiththemarketing activitiesofanenterprise.Allactivitiesofasellertomarkethisproductstoconsumersarecoveredby such research. Marketing research is primarily concerned with "4 Ps" of marketing mix. These are: Product,Price,PlaceandPromotion.Thescopeofmarketingresearchiscomprehensiveandisactually widening in recent years. Products research, sales research, pricing research, brand and package research, promotion research and customer research arc the usual areas covered by MR. In addition, specializedresearchactivitiessuchasmotivationresearch,consumersatisfactionresearch,etc.arealso undertaken to meet the specific needs of a business unit. Additional areas and new methods of conductingresearchactivitiesareregularlyaddedwithinthescopeofMR. In1973,theAmericanMarketingAssociationnotedthatmarketingresearchactivitieswereundertaken on36differenttopicsof1322companiesinterviewed.EveninIndia,largecompaniesconductresearch activities on many marketing problems. Finally, it may be pointed out that marketing research is essentially for solving the marketing problems of a business unit. Naturally, research activities will be adjusted accordingly. This suggests that there is no limit to the areas covered by marketing research. Everything connected with marketing comes within the scope of MR.. The branches of MR are as explainedbelow: 1. ProductResearch: Product research relates to products that are to be marketed to consumers. It is useful for introducing new product that will be agreeable to consumers. Product research relates to various aspectssuchasdesign,developmentandintroductionofnewproducts,testingofexistingproducts, productmodificationstudiesandsoon. 2. PackagingResearch: Packagingresearchisapartofproductresearchandisimportantformakingtheproductsattractive andagreeabletoconsumers.Packagingisnowtreatedasatoolforsalespromotion.Itattractsthe

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attentionof consumersandinduces them topurchaseproducts.Constant changesinthepackage designarerequiredforsalespromotion.Forinnovationinthepackagedesign/packagingresearchis necessary.Packagingresearchisnowtreatedasanindependentbranchofmarketingresearch.Such researchisconductedinordertoknowtheimpactofpackaging.Brandingandpackagingnormally gotogetherandhencebrandresearchistreatedasapartandparcelofpackagingresearch. 3. PricingResearch: Pricing research relates to pricing of the product It relates to analysis of pricing policies and strategies,studiesmarketpricetrends,fixationofmarketprices,studiesrelatingtopricescharged by competitors, studies relating to future price trends, price incentives for sales promotion and provisionofpricediscountandotherpriceconcessionstodealersandconsumers. 4. MarketResearch: Market research proper relates to analysis of consumer markets, assessment of market trends, forecasting of business conditions, setting of sales territories and sales quota, sale potentials studies, studies of wholesale marketing, demography descriptions of customers, market competition studies, saleforecasting, estimating demand for new products, analyzing relative profitabilityofsalesterritoriesandmonitoringcompetitivemarketingactivities. 5. SalesResearch: Salesresearchrelatestostudiesofsalesoutlets,salesterritoriesandtheirrevision,trendsinsales, salesforecasting,effectivenessofsalesforce,salespoliciesandsalesperformanceandsoon. 6. PromotionandDistributionResearch: Promotionresearchrelatedtoassessingeffectivenessofthesalesforceandsellingefforts,testing ofmediaselected,advertisingcopyandassessingeffectivenessofadvertisingcampaigns.Thescope of this area of marketing research also includes the study of channels of distribution for modification, distribution cost analysis of the physical distribution, problems relating to warehousing,inventorycontrolandhandlingofgoods. 7. ConsumerResearch: It relates to finding out consumers' needs and preference, consumers' purchasing intentions, consumers'choiceofbrands,trendsinconsumerpreferencesandpurchasingpatterns 8. PolicyResearch: Policyresearchactivityisconnectedwiththeevaluationofeffectivenessofmarketingpolicies,sales policies, distribution policies, pricing policies, inventory policies and so on. Necessary changes in suchpoliciesarepossiblethroughintensivepolicyresearchstudies. 9. AdvertisingResearch: Itrelatestoevaluationofadvertisingeffectiveness,analyzingcompetitiveadvertisingandselection ofappropriateadvertisingmedia. 10. MediaResearch: Different media are used for communicating message about the products to prospective buyers. Mediaareusedforadvertisingandpublicitypurpose.Newspapers,radio,TVmagazines,transport vehicles, etc. are the media used for advertising. Media research relates to detailed study of differentmediaforselectionanduse. 11. MotivationalResearch: Motivational research is one aspect of consumer research as it deals with consumer behavior. It studies "Why" aspect of consumer behavior. Consumer research is useful for finding out the

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sentiments, buying motives, priorities and inner feelings of consumers. It is a type qualitative research. 12. InternationalMarketingResearch: International marketing research deals with foreign markets that are attractive and profitable provided products and marketing activities are adjusted as per the need of foreign markets and buyers.Suchresearchisusefulforexploringprofitableforeignmarkets,forexportpromotionand for making suitable modifications in the exportable items. Data collection about foreign markets, market surveys, etc. are undertaken under international MR. Such research is costly and time consuming as compared to internal research. However, it is a must in the case of exporting companies.InternationalMRisalsoundertakenbyexportpromotionorganizationssuchasExport PromotionCouncilsandCommodityBoards. APPLICATIONOFMARKETINGRESEARCH A.TRADITIOMALAPPLICATIONOFMARKETIMGRESEARCH Traditionally, marketing decisions have been divided into 4P's product, price, promotion and place decisions. I.NEWPRODUCTRESEARCH New product development is critical to the life of most organizations as they adapt to their changing environment.Since,bydefinition,new products containunfamiliaraspectsfortheorganization,there willbeuncertaintyassociatedwithnewproducts.Newproductcanbedividedintofourstages Concept Generation Need Identification Concept Identification Concept Evaluation and Development Product Evaluation and Development Testing the Marketing Program

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a.Conceptgeneration Therearetwotypesofconceptgenerationresearch.Theyare: 1. Need identification. The emphasis In need research is on identifying unfilled needs in the market. Marketing research can identify needs in various ways. Some are qualitative and others, such as segmentationstudiescanbequantitative.Followingaresomeexamples: Perceptual maps, in which products are positioned along the dimensions by which users perceive and evaluate, can suggest gaps into which new products might fit. Multidimensional scalingisusedtogeneratetheseperceptiongaps. Socialandenvironmenttrendscanbeanalyzed. An approach termed benefit structure analysis has product users identify the benefits desired andtheextenttowhichtheproductdeliversthosebenefits,forspecificapplications.Theresult isanidentificationofbenefitssoughtthatcurrentproductdonotdeliver. Leaduseranalysistheapproachinwhichinsteadofjustaskinguserswhattheyhavedone,their solutions are collected more formally. Lead users are positioned to benefit significantly by solvingproblemsassociatedwiththeseneeds.Oncealeaduserisidentified,theconceptsthat companyorpersongeneratesaretested. 2.Conceptidentification.Duringthenewproductdevelopmentprocessthereisusuallyapointwherea concept is formed but there is no tangible usable product that can be tested. The concept should be definedwellenoughsothatitiscommunicable.Theremaybesimplyaverbaldescription,ortheremay beroughideasforaname,apackage,oranadvertisementapproach.Theroleofmarketingresearchat thisstageistodetermineiftheconceptwarrantsfurtherdevelopmentandtoprovideguidanceonhow itmightbeimprovedandrefined b.ProductEvaluationandDevelopment Productevaluationanddevelopment,orproducttesting,isverysimilartoconcepttesting,intermsof both the objectives and the techniques. The aim is still to predict market response to determine whetherornottheproductshouldbecarriedforward. 1UsetestingThesimplestformofusetestinggivesuserstheproductandafterareasonableamount oftimeaskstheirreactionstheirintentionstobuyit. 2.PredictingtrialTriallevels(thepercentageofasampleofconsumerswhohadpurchasedtheproduct atleastoncewithin12monthsafterlaunch)werepredictedonthebasisofthreevariables: Productclasspenetration(PCP) Promotionalexpenditure Distributionoftheproduct 3.PretestmarketingTwoapproachesareusedtopredictthenewbrand'smarketshare. The first one is based on preference judgments. The preference data are used to predict the proportionofpurchasesofthenewbrandthatrespondentswillmakegiventhatthenewbrandisin theirresponseset.

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Thesecondapproachinvolvesestimatingtrialandrepeatpurchaselevelsbasedontherespondent's purchasedecisionsandintentionstobuyjudgments. c.Testmarketing Test marketing allows the researcher to test the impact of the total marketing program, with all its Interdependencies,inamarketcontextasopposedtotheartificial,contextassociatedwiththeconcept andproductteststhathavebeendiscussed.Testmarketinghastwoprimaryfunctions. The first is to gain information and experience with the marketing program before making a total commitmenttoit. Thesecondistopredicttheprogram'soutcomewhenitisappliedtothetotal marketTherearereallytwotypesoftestmarkets: 1.Sellintestmarketsarecitiesinwhichtheproductissoldjustasitwouldbeinanationallaunch.In particulartheproducthastogaindistributionspace. 2. Controlled distribution scanner markets are cities for which distribution is prearranged and the purchaseofapanelofcustomersaremonitoredusingscannerdata. Early stages of the product life cycle are sacrificed in the expectation that higher volumes in later periodswillgeneratesufficientlygreaterpromptstoresultinoverallprofitfortheproductoveritslife III.DISTRIBUTIONRESEARCH Traditionally,thedistributiondecisionsinmarketingstrategyinvolvethenumberandlocationofsales persons,retailoutlets,warehousesandthesizeofdiscounttobeofferedThediscounttobeofferedto themembersinthechannelofdistributionusuallyisdeterminedbywhatisbeingofferedbyexistingor similar products and also whether the firm wants to follow; a "push1 or a "pull strategy Marketing research,however,playsanimportantroleinthenumberandlocationindecisionsaboutnumbersand locations a.WarehouseandRetailLocationResearch Theessentialquestionstobeansweredbeforealocationdecisionismadeare"Whatcostsanddelivery timeswouldresultifwechooseonelocationoveranother?" Simulationofscenariosisusedtoanswerthesequestions.Thesimulationcanberelativelysimplepaper andpencil exercise for the location of 3 single warehouse in a limited geographic area. or it can be a complex,computerizedsimulationofawarehousingsystemforaregionalornationalmarket i. CenterofgravitysimulationThecenterforgravitymethodofsimulationisusedtolocateasingle warehouseorretailsiteInthismethod,theapproximatelocationthatwillminimizethedistanceto customers, weighted by the quantities purchased is determined The more symmetry there is in customer locations and weights the more nearly the initial calculation approximates the optimal locationThelocationindicatedbythefirstcalculationcanbecheckedtobedetermineifitisoptimal (ornearoptimal)byusinga"confirmingprocedure.Ifitisnotoptimal,successivecalculationscan bemadeasnecessarytohomein"onthebestlocation ii. Computerized simulation models The concept involved m simulations for this purpose is quite simpleDatathatdescribesthecustomercharacteristics(locationofplants,potentialwarehouseand retail sites) and distribution costs (costs per mile by volume shipped, fixed and variable costs of operating each warehouse the effect of shipping delays on and variable costs of operating each warehouse, the effect of shipping delays on customer demand) are generated and input into the

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computerThecomputerisprogrammedtosimulatevariouscombinationsofnumbersandlocations of warehouses and to indicate which one(s) gives the lowest total operating cost Effective results havebeenachievedbyusingcomputersimulationstodesigndistributionsystems iii. TradeareaanalysisFormalmodelshavebeendevelopedthatcanbeusedtopredictthetrading areaofagivenshoppingcenterorretailoutletbasedonrelativesizetraveltimeandimageAvariety ofothertechniquescanbeusedtoestablishtradingareas.Ananalysisoftheaddressesofthecredit card customers or license plates of the cars (by plotting the addresses of the car owners) can provideausefulestimateofthetradingarea.Checkclearancedatacanbeusedtosupplementthis information.Thebest,butalsothemostexpensivewayofestablishingtradingareaboundAriesisto conductsurveystodeterminethem iv. Outletlocationresearch.Individualcompaniesand,morecommonly,chains,financialinstitutions with multiple outlets, and franchise operations must decide on the physical location of their outlets).Threegeneralmethodsinvolvesplottingtheareasurroundingthepotentialsiteintermsof residentialneighborhood,incomelevels,andcompetitivestores.Regressionmodelshavebeenused forlocationstudiesforavarietyofretailoutlets,includingbanks,grocerystores,liquorstores,chain stores and hotels. Data for building the model and for evaluating new potential locations are obtainedthroughsecondarydataanalysisandsurveys. b.NumberandlocationofSalesRepresentatives How many sales representatives should be in a given territory? There are three general research methodsforansweringthisquestion. Thefirst,thesaleseffortapproach,isapplicablewhentheproductlineisfirstintroducedandthereis nooperatinghistorytoprovidesalesdata. Thesecondinvolvesthestatisticalanalysisofsalesdataandcanbeusedafterthesalesprogramis underway. Thethirdinvolvesafieldexperimentandisalsoapplicableonlyafterthesalesprogramhasbegun. IV.PROMOTIONRESEARCH Itfocusesonthedecisionthatiscommonlymadewhendesigningapromotionstrategy.Thedecisionfor thepromotionpartofamarketingstrategycanbedividedinto(1)Advertisingand(2)Salespromotion. Salespromotionaffectsthecompanyintheshortterm,whereasadvertisingdecisionshavelongterm effects. Companies spend more time and resources on advertising research than on sales promotion researchbecauseofthegreaterriskanduncertaintyInadvertisingresearch. 1.Advertisingresearch Mostcompaniesconcentrateonadvertisingbecauseadvertisingdecisionsarcmorecostlyandriskythan sales promotion decisions. Advertising research typically, involves generating information for making decisionsIntheawareness,recognition,preferenceandpurchasingstages. Whatseparatesaneffectiveadvertisementfromadud?Thecriteriawilldepend,onthebrandinvolved and its advertising objective. However, following basic categories of responses are used in advertising researchingeneralandcopytestinginparticular a) Advertisementrecognition b) Recallofthecommercialanditscontents

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c) Themeasureofcommercialpersuasionandtheimpactonpurchasebehavior. Purchasebehavior Couponstimulatingpurchasing Splitcables tests. Information Resources Inc's (IRI) Behavior Scan is one of several splitcable testing operations. Behavior Scan monitors the purchases of panel members as well as instore information suchsspecialprices,featuresanddisplays. Trackingstudies Whenacampaignisrunning,itsimpactoftenismonitoredviaatrackingstudyPeriodicsamplingofthe targetaudienceprovideatimetrendofmeasuresofinterest.Thepurposeistoevaluateandreassess the advertising campaign, and perhaps also to understand why it is or is networking. Among the measures that often are traced are advertisement awareness, awareness of elements of the advertisement, brand awareness, beliefs about brand attributes, brand image, occasions of use, and brandpreference.Ofparticularinterestis,knowinghowthecampaignisaffectingthebrand,asopposed tohowtheadvertisementiscommunicatingthemessage. Diagnosticstesting Awholecategoryofadvertisingresearchmethodsisdesignedprimarilynottotesttheimpactofatotal adbutrathertohelpcreativepeopleunderstandhowthepartsoftheadcontributetoitsimpact.Which areweakandhowdotheyinteract?Mostoftheseapproachescanbeappliedtomockupsofproposed adsaswellasfinishedads. Copytestvalidity Thistestreferstotheabilitytopredictadvertisingresponse. *Budgetdecision Arriving at analytical researchbased judgments as to the optima! advertising budget Is surprisingly difficult.However,thereareresearchinputsthatcanbehelpful.Trackingstudiesthatshowadvertising iseithersurpassingorfailingtoreachcommunicationobjectivescansuggestthatthebudgetshouldbe eitherreducedorincreased. Mediaresearch Inevaluatingaparticularmediaalternative,itisnecessarytoknowhowmanyadvertisingexposuresit willdeliverandwhatwillbethecharacteristicsoftheaudience.Afirstcutofthevehicle'svalueisthe costperthousand(circulation),theadvertisementinsertioncostdividedbythesizeoftheaudience. 2.SalesPromotionResearch There are three major types of sales promotion: consumer promotion, retailer promotion and trade promotions. In consumer promotion, manufacturers offer promotions directly to consumers, whereas retail promotions involve promotions by retailers to consumers. Trade promotions involve manufacturers offeringpromotionstoretailersorothertradeentities.Tradeentitiescanalsopromotetoeachother. For ex ample, a distributor can offer a steep temporary price cut to retailers in order to sell excess inventory. It is called trade promotions, since the recipient of the promotion is a marketing intermediary. Sometimes several manufacturers or several retailers combine in one promotion. These are called cooperativepromotionsorpromotionpartnerships.

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B.CONTEMPORARYAPPLICATIONSOFMARKETINGRESEARCH 1.CompetitiveAdvantage. Thenotionthatachievingsuperiorperformancerequiresabusinesstogainandholdanadvantageover competitorsiscentraltocontemporarystrategicthinking.Businessesseekingadvantageareexhortedto develop distinctive competencies at the lowest delivered cost or to achieve differentiation through superiorvalue.Theassessingcompetitiveadvantagecanbedoneinnumberofways.Themethodscan bebroadlyclassifiedasmarketbasedandprocessbasedassessmentMarketbasedassessmentisdirect comparison with a few target competitors, whereas processbased assessment is a comparison of the methodsemployed. 2.BrandEquity. Brandequityisdefinedasasetofassetsandliabilitieslinkedtoabrandthataddtoorsubtractfromthe valueofaproductorservicetoacompanyand/oritscustomers.Theassetsorliabilitiesthatunderlie brandequitymustbelinkedtothenameand/orsymbolofthebrand.Theassetsandliabilitiesonwhich brand equity is based will differ from context to context. However, they can be usefully grouped into fivecategories: a) Brandloyalty b) Nameawareness c) Perceivedquality d) Brandassociation e) Otherproprietarybrandassets:patents,trademarks,channelrelationshipsetc. 3.Customersatisfaction. The measurement of customer satisfaction and its link to product/service attributes is the vehicle for developingamarketdrivenqualityapproachThisapproachrequiresasequentialresearchdesignthat usestheresultsfromeachresearchphasetobuildandenhancethevalueofsubsequentefforts.During this process, it is imperative to study customers who were lost, to determine why they left This issue mustbeaddressedearlyinthesystemdesignThestepsinvolvedincustomersatisfactionis a) Definegoalsandhowinformationwillbeused b) Discoverwhatisreallyimportanttocustomersandemployees c) Measurecriticalneeds d) Actontheinformation e) Measureperformanceovertime f) Issuesinquestionnairedesignandscalinginsatisfactionresearch 4.Totalqualitymanagement TQMIsaprocessofmanagingcomplexchangesIntheorganizationwiththeaimofimprovingquality. The power of measurements is clearly visible in applications of quality function deployment (QFD), a Japanese import used to make product design better reflect customer requirements. In QFD. a multifunctional team measures and analyzes in great detail boih customers attitudes and product attributes.Marketingresearchplaysacrucialroleatthisstageoftheprocess.Thentheteamcreatesa visual mtrix in order to find ways to modify product attributes (engineering characteristics) so as to

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improve the product on the customerbased measures of product performance. Along the way, the teammustdevelopaseriesofmeasuresofseveraldifferenttypes. C.EMERGINGAPPLICATIONOFMARKETINGRESEARCH 1.Databasemarketing A database is a customer list to which has been added information about the characteristics and the transactionsofthesecustomers.Businessesuseittocultivatecustomersastheyseeknewcustomers. Need Adatabaseprovidesthemeansforresearchtosupportdecisions.Itenablesprofilingofcustomersby searchingforprospectswhoaresimilartoexistingcustomers.Itprovidesthemeansforimplementation of profitable programs of repeat business and crossselling. It assists in marketing planning and forecasting.Furtheradatabasecan: Matchproductsorservicestocustomers'wantsandneeds Helpselectnewlistsorusenewmediathatfttheprofileofexistingcustomers. Maximizepersonalizationofallofferstoeachcustomer. Provideforongoinginteractionwithcustomersandprospects. Pinpointidealtimingandfrequentlyforpromotions Measureresponseandbeaccountableforresults Helpcreatetheoffersmostlikelytoelicitresponsesfromcustomers Helpachieveauniquesellingproposition(USP),targetedtoappealtoyourcustomers Integratedirectresponsecommunicationwithotherformsofadvertising Demonstratethatcustomersarevaluableassets. Typesofdatabase 1.Activecustomers 2.Inactivecustomers 3.Inquiries Benefitsofdatabasemarketing a)Customersareeasiertoretainthanacquire.Thefirstreasonisthatittakesfivetimestheenergyand budget to get new customer a sit does to keep an existing one. Also, a disproportionately small numberofyourcustomersgenerateaverylargeproportionofyourincome. b) Determine their "Lifetime Value. Building a lasting relationship becomes the obvious way to a prosperousandprofitablefuture. c) Developing relationships with customers. Understanding your customers' tastes and preferences on an individual basis is the foundation for relationship marketing. Relationship marketing combines elements of general advertising. sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing to create more effective and more effective ways of reaching consumers. It centers on developing a continuousrelationshipwithconsumersacrossafamilyofrelatedproductsandservices. 2.Relationshipmarketing Therelationshipmarketingprocessincorporatesthreekeyelements. 1. Identifying and building a database of current and potential consumers, which records and cross referencesawiderangeofdemographic,lifestyleandpurchaseinformation,

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2.Deliveringdifferentialmessagestothesepeoplethroughestablishedandnewmediachannelsbased ontheconsumers'characteristicsandpreferences 3.Trackingeachrelationshiptomonitorthecostofacquiringtheconsumerandthelifetimevalueofhis otherpurchases. NEEDOFMARKETINGRESEARCH ThefollowingfactorssuggestincreasingneedofMR: 1.Growthandcomplexityofmarkets:Marketsarenomorelocalincharacter.Theyarenownational andevenglobalincharacter.Themarketingactivityisbecomingincreasinglycomplexandbroaderin scope as more firms operate in domestic and global markets Manufacturers find it difficult to establishclosecontactwithallmarkandconsumersdirectly.Similarly,theyhavenocontrolonthe marketing system once the goods are sold out to middlemen. The marketing procedures are now, complicated.Themarketcompetitionisalsosevere This situation creates new problems before the manufacturers, which can be faced effectively throughMRasitactsasafeedbackmechanismtoascertainfirsthandinformation,reactions,etc.of consumersandmiddlemen.Marketingactivitiescanbeadjustedaccordingly. 2. Wide gap between producers and consumers: Market research is needed as there is a wide gap betweenproducersandconsumersinthepresentmarketingsystem.Duetomassscproductionand distribution,direct(personal)contactbetweenproductandconsumersispracticallylost.Thiscreates information gap between producers and consumers. The middlemen dominate the market] scene. Producers do not get dependable information as regards nee expectations and reactions of consumers. They are unable to adjust the products, packaging, prices, etc. as per the needs and requirementsconsumers. The problems created due to information gap can be solved Q] through MR as it is possible to establish contact with consumers a collect first hand information about their needs, expectations, likes&dislikes,preferencesandspecialfeaturesoftheirbehavior.Thusmarketingresearchenablesa manufacturer to make his marketing policies proconsumers. Effective communication with consumersisapossiblethroughMRactivities.Thus,MRisneededforremovingwidecommunication gapbetweenproducersandconsumers. 3. Changes in the composition of population and consumption pattern: In India, many changes are takingplaceincompositionofpopulation.Thereisashiftofpopulationfromruralurbanareas.There havebeenconsiderablechangesintheconsumptionandexpenditurepatternsofconsumersinIndia. The incomes of people, in general, are rising. This brings corresponding increase in the purchasing capacity and buying needs and habits. The rising prices affecting the lower and middle class consumers and their purchasing power and purchasing priorities. Similarly, there are considerable changesinthepurchasingpatternofclothingandotherconsumeritems.Thedemandforconsumer durablesisfastincreasing.ThemarketsnowfloodedwithconsumerdurableslikeTVsetsandsoon. Manufacturers are expected to know such qualitative & quantitative changes in the consumer preferencesandtheirconsumptionpattern.Forachievingthisobjective,MRactivitiesarenecessary and useful. It is possible to adjust production and marketing operations as per the information suppliedfromconsumersurveysandmarketsurveysconductedundervariousMRprojects.Inbrief, MRisneededforthestudyofchangesinthepatternofconsumptionandcorrespondingadjustment inthemarketingplanning,policiesandstrategies.

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4. Growing importance of consumers in marketing: Consumers occupy key position in modern marketing system. They are now well informed about market trends, goods available, consumer rights and protection available to them through consumer protection acts. The growth of consumerismhascreatednewchallengesbeforemanufacturersandtraders.Evengrowingcustomer expectationscreatesituationwhenmanufacturershavetounderstandsuchexpectationsandadjust theproductionandmarketingpoliciesaccordingly.Indifferencetowardsconsumerexpectationsmay lead to loss of business. In the present marketing system, consumers cannot be taken for granted. Their expectations need special consideration in all marketing activities. Production needs to be adjustedaspertheexpectationsofconsumers. Marketing research particularly consumer research gives valuable data relating to consumers. It is possibletousesuchdatafruitfullywhileframingmarketingpolicies.Thus,marketingdecisionscanbe madeproconsumerthroughmarketingresearchactivities .5.Shiftofcompetitionfrompricetononpricefactors:Cutthroatcompetitionisunavoidableinthe present marketing field. Such competition may be due to various factors such as price, quality, packaging, advertising and sales promotion techniques. Entry of new competitors creates new problems in the marketing of goods and services. In addition, market competition is no more restrictedtopricefactoralone.Thereareothernonpricefactorssuchaspackaging,branding,after saleserviceandadvertisingwhichcreateseveremarketcompetition.Everyproducerhastofindout theextentofsuchnonpricecompetitionandthemannerinwhichhecanfaceitwithconfidence. MRisneededasitoffersguidanceinthisregard.Amanufacturercanfacemarketcompetitioneven by using certain nonprice factors. The shifting of competition from price to nonprice factors has mademarketingofconsumergoodsmorecomplicatedandchallenging.Thischallengecanbefaced withconfidencebyusingcertainmeasuressuggestedthroughmarketingresearch. 6.Needofpromptdecisionmaking:Incompetitivemarketing,marketingexecutiveshavetotakequick andcorrectdecisions.Companieshavetodevelopandmarketnewproductsmorequicklythanever before.However,suchdecisionsarealwaysdifficult.Moreover,wrongdecisionsmaybringlosstothe organization. For correct decisionmaking, marketing executives need reliable data and uptodate market information. Here, MR comes to the rescue of marketing managers. Problems in marketing are located, defined analyzed and solved through MR technique. This suggests its need as tool for decisionmaking. MR is needed as a tool for reasonably accurate decisionmaking in the present highlycompetitivemarketingsystem. 7. Problems in the distribution system: Modern distribution system is complex and costly. How to marketgoodsefficientlyandeconomicallyisabasicissueinthepresentmarketingsystem.Modern production is now possible because of the use of advanced technology. However efficient distributionisratherdifficult.Forthis,itisnecessarytoidentifynewmarkets,newconsumers,new channelsofdistributeandnewsalespromotiontechniques.Forsuchidentification,MRneeded. Thecostofmarketingisfastincreasinginmodernmarketing.Theburdenofrisingmarketingcostis normally passed on to consumers. This creates adverse effects on marketing activities. In brief, obstacles large scale distribution and rising distribution costs are two problems in the present marketing system. These problems can be studied & solved through MR activities relating to products,distributionchannelconsumersandsoon.ThissuggeststhegrowingneedofMR. 8.Recentdevelopmentsinscienceandtechnology:Scienceandtechnologyaremakingrapidprogress. Infact,theimpactofsuchprogresstouchesallaspectsofcommercialandindustrialactivities.Me productsaremanufacturedandbroughtinthemarket.Articleswithgooddemandbecomeoldand

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outdatedwithinashortperiodConsumersprefernew/novelarticlesinplaceofoldones.Produce anddistributorsfinditdifficulttotakedecisionsduetolackknowledgeaboutfuturemarkettrends. Here,marketingresearchusefulasitprovidesinformationaboutfuturetrendsinthemarketsfield andenablesmarketingmanagerstotakequickandcornmarketingdecisions.Thissuggeststheneed ofmarketingresearch. 9. Existence of large size enterprises: Modern manufacturing enterprises are large in size. Such enterprisescanworkasviableunitsandmakeprogressonlywhentheirproductsaremadepopular withtheconsumers.Largescaleenterprisesneeddistributionoftheirproductsonamassivescale. Here, MR is useful. It helps the enterprises explore, identify and locate new consumer markets. It suggests the ways and means for largescale distribution of goods at the national/global level. In brief,MRisneededasanessentialelementoflargescalemanufacturingandmarketing. ThefactorsnotedaboveclearlysuggestthegrowingneedofMRin|thepresentconsumeroriented marketing system. It is needed in order to reduce the risks and uncertainties in the marketing activity. It supports 1 marketing managers while dealing with the marketing problems. Marketing researchisneededasitactsasakeyfactorinsuccessfulmarketingofgoodsandservices. CHARACTERISTICSOFGOODMARKETINGRESEARCH The duty of marketing research is to solve the problems of the organization relating to its sales and relatedmarketingissues.Assuchitisconsideredtobeaprimarytoolbyseveralmanagementsandasa secondarytoolbymanymanagements.Inspiteofitsdrawbackofarrivingatexactresultswithcomplete accuracy, corporate world has accepted its relevance. One such drawback posed against marketing research is its costeffectiveness. If the tools used are crisp and less costlier its service could be welcomed by all. For such recognition marketing research must possess certain characteristics, which arementionedbyPhilipKotlerasfollows: 1. Scientific method: Competent marketing research is characterized by an attempt to follow the scientificmethod,carefulobservation,formulationofhypotheses,predictionandtesting. 2.Researchcreativity:Atitsbest,marketingresearchdevelopsinnovativewaystosolveaproblem. 3. Multiple methods: Competent marketing researchers keep away from over reliance on any one method,preferringtoadoptthemethodtotheproblemratherthantheotherwayround.Theyalso recognize the desirability of the simultaneous gathering of information in different ways to give greaterconfidencethananyonemethodwouldprovide. 4.Interdependenceofmodelsanddata:Competentmarketingresearchersrecognizethatthefactsdo notspeakforthemselvesbutratherderivetheirmeaningfrommodelsoftheproblem.Theyattempt toguidetheirsearchforinformationonthebasisofcausaldecisionmodeltohelptheexecutive. 5. Value and cost of information: Competent marketing researchers show concern for measuring the value of information against its cost. Value/cost is a consideration when the Marketing Research Departmentchooseswhichresearchprojectstoconduct,whichresearchdesignstouseandwhether togathermoreinformation. BASICVS.APPLIEDMARKETINGRESEARCH:

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Researchcanbedividedintotwoclassesviz.,basicresearchandappliedresearch. (1) BasicResearch Oftenbasicresearchiscalled'theoretical'pure'or'fundamental'research.Itisnotdirectlyconcerned withsolvingmarketingproblems.Primarilyitaimsatimprovingacademicknowledgeaboutthesubject matter.Basicresearchdoesnotdealwithcommercialproblemsbutitrelatestofundamentalquestions concerning the business and allied subjects. Basic research may address itself to issues like economic andpoliticalchangesinacountryorreasonsforchangesinlifestylesinyouth. (2) AppliedResearch Applied research directly deals with commercial problems. It tackles the business problems and attemptstofindalternativesolutionstotheproblems.Appliedresearchmayrelatetolocatingreasons forfallinsalesortointroduceanewbrandofproduct. Appliedresearchcanbeoftwotypes(a)problemsolvingresearchand(b)problemorientedresearch. As the name indicates problemsolving research relates to a specific problem. This research can be conductedeitherbythemarketingresearchdepartmentofthefirmorbyanoutsideresearchagency. Bycontrastproblemorientedresearchdealswithproblemsthatmaybeofinteresttomanyfirms.This typeofresearchputsintopracticetheknowledgeobtainedthroughbasicresearch.

RESEARCHPROCESS
STEPSINTHEPROCESSOFRESEARCH

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Marketing planning and information system Planning system Strategic plans Tactical plans Information system Database DSS

1. Agree on Research Purpose


Problems or opportunities Decision alternatives Research users

2. Establish Research Objectives Research questions Hypotheses Boundaries of study

ESTIMATE THE VALUE OF INFORMATION Is benefit > cost?

DO NOT CONDUCT MR

4. Design the research


Choose among alternative research approaches Specify the sampling plan Design the experiment Design the questionnaire

5. Collect the data

6. Prepare and analyze the data

7. Report the research results and provide strategic recommendations

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1. PROBLEMDISCOVERY Itinvolvesasearchforcausationamongsymptoms,problems,anddecisions.Asymptomisacondition thatindicatestheexistenceofaproblem,andwe,mustbecarefulnottoconfusethiswithaproblem. Symptoms occupy an essential place in the problemsolving process, for the underlying problem. A problemexistswheneveronefacesaquestionwhoseansweroraneedwhosefulfillmentinvolves doubt and uncertainty. If there is no answer or solution, there is no problem (although the consequences might be terrible); and if there is only a single possible answer or solution, there is no problem.Adecisionisadeterminationorresolutionofaquestion.Inthetermsofabusinessexecutive, adecisionisthedeterminationofacourseofactiontobetaken.Manyroutinesorrepetitivedecisions to which marketing research is applied often invoke a complex of problems, and considerable work is entailedinthechoiceofthebestavailablecourseofaction. Business problems are not found by surprise or accidental circumstances. The persons who find problemsaresensitizedtobeonthealertandarepreparedtofindthem.Alwaysthereisevidencethat the searching mind penetrates with insight. Our abilities can go beyond intuition or a sixth sense. Fortunately, there are means available to sharpen our capacities in problem discovery. First, an understandingofthedifferenttypesofdifficultiesorsymptomswhichmaycallfordecisionsisuseful. Second,provisionofamarketinginformationsystemmayoftensignifytheexistenceoftheproblemtoa decisionmaker. 2. PROBLEMDEFINITION Thefirststepinanymarketingresearchprojectistodefinetheproblem.Indefiningtheproblem,the researcher should take into account the purpose of the study, the relevant background information, what information is needed, and how it will be used in decision making. Problem definition involves discussionwiththedecisionmakers,interviewswithindustryexperts,analysisofsecondarydata,and, perhaps,somequalitativeresearch,suchasfocusgroups.Oncetheproblemhasbeenpreciselydefined, theresearchcanbedesignedandconductedproperly. 3. RESEARCHOBJECTIVES The research objective is a statement, in as precise terminology as possible, of what information is needed.Theresearchobjectiveshouldbeframedsothatobtainingtheinformationwillensurethatthe researchpurposeissatisfied. Researchobjectiveshavethreecomponents: 1. Research question: It specifies the information the decision maker needs. The research question asks what specific information is required to achieve the research. If the research question is answeredbytheresearch,thentheinformationshouldaidthedecisionmaker. 2. Developmentofhypotheses:Ahypothesesisapossibleanswertoaresearchquestion.Theresearch determines which of these alternative answers is correct. There are three steps to develop the hypotheses a. The researcher can draw on previous research to generate hypotheses for future largescale research efforts. The research purpose might be deciding whether to conduct the largescale studies. b. Second source is theory from such disciplines as psychology, sociology, marketing or economics. Thus,theeconomictheorymightsuggesttheimportanceofpriceinexplainingalossofretailsales. c. The most important source of developing hypotheses is the managers experience with related problems,coupledwithknowledgeoftheproblemsituationandtheuseofjudgment.

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3. Research boundaries: Hypotheses development helps make the research question more precise. Anotherapproachistoindicatethescopeoftheresearchortheresearchboundaries.Forexample, istheinterestincurrentcustomersonlyorinallpotentialcustomers? 4. Hypothesesdevelopmentmodel Source Theory Management experience Exploratory research Research Hypothesis Research Research Question Purpose design Research Objective Development of an approach to the problem includes formulating an objective or theoretical framework,analyticalmodels,researchquestions,hypotheses,andidentifyingcharacteristicsorfactors that can influence the research design. This process is guided by discussions with management and industry experts, case studies and simulations, analysis of secondary data, qualitative research, and pragmaticconsiderations. 4. RESEARCHDESIGN Theresearchproblemhavingbeenformulatedinclearterms,theresearcherwillberequiredtoprepare a research design, i.e. he will have to state the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted. The preparation of such a design facilitates research to be as efficient as possible yielding maximal information. But how all these can be achieved depends mainly on the research purpose. Researchpurposesmaybegroupedintofourcategories,viz., (i) Exploration (ii) Description (iii) Diagnosis (iv) Experimentation

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A flexible research design, which provides opportunity for considering many different aspects of a problem,isconsideredappropriateifthepurposeoftheresearchstudyisthatofexploration.Butwhen thepurposehappenstobeanaccuratedescriptionofasituationorofanassociationbetweenvariables, the suitable design will be one that minimizes bias and maximizes the reliability of the data collected and analyzed. There are several research designs, such as, experimental and nonexperimental hypothesis testing. Experimental designs can be either informal designs (such as beforeandafter without control, afteronly with control beforeandafter with control) or formal designs (such as completely randomized design, randomized block design, Latin square design, simple and complex factorialdesigns),outofwhichtheresearchersmustselectoneforhisownproject. Thepreparationoftheresearchdesign,appropriateforaparticularresearchproblem,involvesusually theconsiderationofthefollowing: (i) themeansofobtainingtheinformation (ii) theavailabilityandskillsoftheresearcherandhisstaff(ifany) (iii) explanationofthewayinwhichselectedmeansofobtaininginformationwillbeorganizedand thereasoningleadingtotheselection (iv) thetimeavailabilityforresearchand (v) thecostfactorrelatingtoresearch,i.e.thefinanceavailableforthepurpose. 5. RESEARCHMETHOD Indealingwithanyreallifeproblemitisoftenfoundthatdata athandareinadequate,andhence,it becomesnecessarytocollectdatawhichdifferconsiderablyincontextofmoneycosts,timeandother resourcesatthedisposaloftheresearcher. Primarydatacanbecollectedeitherthroughexperimentorthroughsurvey.Iftheresearcherconducts an experiment, he observes some quantitative measurements, or the data, with the help of which he examinesthetruthcontainedinhishypothesis.Butinthecaseofasurvey,datacanbecollectedbyany oneormoreofthefollowingways: (i) Byobservation:Thismethodimpliesthecollectionofinformationbywayofinvestigatorsown observation,withoutinterviewingtherespondents.Theinformationobtainedrelatestowhatis currentlyhappeningandisnotcomplicatedbyeitherthepastbehaviororfutureintentionsor attitudes of respondents. This method is no doubt an expensive method and the information provided by this method is also very limited. As such this method is not suitable in inquiries wherelargesamplesareconcerned. (ii) Throughpersonalinterviews:Theinvestigatorfollowsarigidprocedureandseeksanswerstoa set of preconceived questions through personal interviews. This method of collecting data is usuallycarriedoutinastructuredwaywhereoutputdependsupontheabilityoftheinterviewer toalargeextent. (iii) Through telephone interviews: This method of collecting information involves contacting the respondentsontelephoneitself.Thisisnotaverywidelyusedmethodbutitplaysanimportant role in industrial surveys in developed regions, particularly, when the survey has to be accomplishedinaverylimitedtime. (iv) Bymailingofquestionnaires:Theresearcherandtherespondentsdonotcomeincontactwith eachotherifthis methodofsurveyis adopted.Questionnaires aremailedtotherespondents witharequesttoreturnaftercompletingthesame.Itisthemostextensivelyusedmethodin various economic and business surveys. Before applying this method, usually a Pilot Study for testingthequestionnaireisconductedwhichrevealstheweakness,ifany,ofthequestionnaire.

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Questionnairetobeusedmustbepreparedverycarefullysothatitmayprovetobeeffectivein collectingtherelevantinformation. (v) Throughschedules:Underthismethodtheenumeratorsareappointedandgiventraining.They areprovidedwithschedulescontainingrelevantquestions.Dataarecollectedbyfillingupthe schedulesbyenumeratorsonthebasisofrepliesgivenbyrespondents.Muchdependsuponthe capabilityofenumeratorssofarasthismethodisconcerned.Someoccasionalfieldcheckson theworkoftheenumeratorsmayensuresincerework. Theresearchershouldselectone ofthesemethods ofcollecting the datatakingintoconsiderationthe nature of investigation, objective and scope of the inquiry, financial resources, available time and the desireddegreeofaccuracy.Thoughheshouldputattentiontoallthesefactorsbutmuchdependsupon theabilityandexperienceoftheresearcher. 6. DATACOLLECTION Theresearchdesignhasawidevarietyofmethodstoconsidereithersinglyorincombination.Theycan begroupedfirstaccordingtowhethertheyusesecondaryorprimarysourcesofdata. Secondary data are already available, because they were collected for some purpose other than solvingthepresentproblem. Primarydataarecollectedespeciallytoaddressaspecificresearchobjective.Avarietyofmethods, rangingfromqualitativeresearchtosurveystoexperiments,maybeemployed. 7. SAMPLINGMETHODS Therearedifferenttypesofsamplingdesignsbasedontwofactorsviz.,therepresentationbasisandthe elementselectiontechnique.Ontherepresentationbasisthesamplemaybeprobabilitysamplingorit may be nonprobability sampling. Probability sampling is based on the concept of random selection, whereasnonprobabilitysamplingisnonrandomsampling.Onelementselectionbasis,thesamplingis nonrandomsampling.Onelementselectionbasis,thesamplemaybeeitherunrestrictedorrestricted. When each sample element is drawn individually from the population at large, then the sample so drawn is known as unrestricted sample, whereas all other forms of sampling are covered under the termrestrictedsampling. 8. USESOFSCALESINRESEARCH Inresearchwhentheconceptstobemeasuredarecomplexandabstractandwedonnotpossessthe standardize measured tools.Alternatively,wecan saythatwhilemeasuring attitudeand opinions,we face the problem of their valid measurement. A researcher may face similar problem. To avoid this problemthescalingtechniqueisused. 9. DATAPROCESSING Data processings total task in carrying out the analytical program is to convert crude fragments of observationandresponsesintoorderlystatisticsforinterpretation.Thesevenstagesofdataprocessing aregivenbelow: 1. Data preparation. There are three preparation stages necessary in either manual or computer processing:editing,classifyingandcoding.Anadditionalstagewithcomputersiscardpunching.

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2. Programming. Every dataprocessing job, whatever the method used, needs preplanning that specificallylaysoutdirectionstothepersonsdoingtabulating(manually)ortothemachinery(with computers).Thisdescribesspecificallytheparticularoperationstotakeplace,withwhatequipment, bywhom,andsoforth. 3. Sorting.Allthebitsofdatahavetobeclassifiedtogetherwiththeotherbitsthatareofthesame nature,bybeingsortedintogroups. 4. Counting.Whenthepreparatoryworkhasbeendone,theindividualobservationscanbecounted andaccumulatedinsubtotalsoftheprescribedclassifications. 5. Summarizing.Thevarioussubtotalsandtotalsarebroughttogetherandsummarizedintablesthat willexhibitthedatainaninformativemanner. 6. Computations. When computers are employed, various calculations May be performed with the data during the tabulation operations. When other methods are utilized, the computations are performedasseparatestagessubsequenttothepreparationoftables. 7. Control. Means for making proper checks of the accuracy of the data processing are practically essential.Thisincludesexaminationofthecodingand,ifmachinesareused,thecardpunchingand programs. Also, a base total of the number of questionnaire or other data forms being processed shouldbedeterminedbeforetheprocessingbegins,therebyprovidingatotalwithwhichtoverify whethereachdatabreakdown,oranalysis,totalstoexactlythisbasefigure. 10. DATAANALYSIS Afterthedatahavebeencollected,theresearcherturnstothetaskofanalyzingthem.Theanalysisof data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and then drawing statistical inferences. The unwieldy data should necessarily be condensed into as few manageable groups and tables for further analysis. Thus, researcher should classify the raw data into some purposeful and usablecategories.Codingoperationisusuallydoneatthisstagethroughwhichthecategoriesofdata are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted. Editing is the procedure that improvesthequalityofthedataforcoding.Withcodingthestageisreadyfortabulation.Tabulationisa partofthetechnicalprocedurewhereintheclassifieddataareputintheformoftables.Themechanical devicescanbemadeuseofatthisjuncture.Computerstabulateagreatdealofdata,especiallyinlarge inquiries. Computers not only save time but also make it possible to study large number of variables affectingaproblemsimultaneously. Analysisworkaftertabulationisgenerallybasedonthecomputationofvariouspercentages,coefficients etc., by applying various welldefined statistical formulae. In the process of analysis, relationships or differences supporting or conflicting with original or new hypothesis should be subjected to tests of significancetodetermine withwhatvaliditydata canbesaidindicateanyconclusions.Forinstance,if therearetwosamplesofweeklywages,eachsamplebeingdrawnfromfactoriesindifferentpartsofthe same city, giving two different values, then our problem may be whether the two mean values are significantlydifferentorthedifferenceisjustamatterofchance.Throughtheuseofstatisticaltestswe can establish whether such a difference is a real one or is the result of random fluctuations. If the differencehappenstobereal,theinferencewillbethatthetwosamplescomefromdifferentuniverses andifthedifferenceisduetochance,theconclusionwouldbethatthetwosamplesbelongtothesame universe.Similarly,thetechniqueofanalysisofvariancecanhelpusinanalyzingwhetherthreeormore

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varieties of seeds grown on certain fields yield significantly different results or not. In brief, the researchercananalyzethecollecteddatawiththehelpofvariousstatisticalmeasures. 11. RESEARCHREPORT Finally,theresearcherhastopreparethereportofwhathasbeendonebyhim.Writingofreportmust donewithgreatcarekeepinginviewthefollowing: (1) Thelayoutofthereportshouldbeasfollows: (i)thepreliminarypages. (ii)themaintextand (iii)theendmatter In its preliminary pages the report should carry title and date followed by acknowledgments and foreword. Then there should be a table of contents followed by a list of tables and list of graphs and charts,ifany,giveninthereport. Themaintextofthereportshouldhavethefollowingparts: (a) Introduction:Itshouldcontainaclearstatementoftheobjectiveoftheresearchandanexplanation of the methodology adopted in accomplishing the research. The scope of the study along with variouslimitationsshouldaswellasstatedinthispart. (b) Summary of findings: After introduction there would appear a statement of findings and recommendations in nontechnical language. If the findings are extensive, they should be summarized. (c) Mainreport:Themainbodyofthereportshouldbepresentedinlogicalsequenceandbrokendown intoreadilyidentifiablesections. (d) Conclusions:Towardstheendofthemaintext,researchershouldagainputdowntheresultsofhis researchclearlyandprecisely.Infact,itisthefinalsummingup. Attheendofthereport,appendicesshouldbeenlistedinrespectofalltechnicaldata.Bibliography,i.e., listofbooks,journals,reportsetc.,consulted,shouldalsobegivenintheend.Indexshouldalsobegiven speciallyinapublishedresearchreport. (2) Report should be written in a concise and objective style in simple language avoiding vague expressionssuchasitseems,theremaybe,andthelike. (3) Chartsandillustrationsinthemainreportshouldbeusedonlyiftheypresenttheinformationmore clearlyandforcibly. (4) Calculated confidence limits must be mentioned and the various constrains experienced in conductingresearchoperationsmayaswellbestated.

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METHODSOFCONDUCTINGMARKETINGRESEARCH
Themethodsofconductingmarketingresearcharebroadlyclassifiedintothefollowingfourcategories: (1) Desk Research: In desk research, the required information for research work is collected from published and other written sources of information available. Desk research is useful for the collectionofsecondarydata.Secondarydataarealreadycollectedforsomeotherpurposebutcan beusedconvenientlybyborrowingthesame.Deskresearchisatypeofinhouseresearch. (2) Field Research/Investigation: In field investigation/survey method, the required information is collected from the consumers, dealers and others connected with marketing. In addition, consumers surveys are also conducted for this purpose. The data collected from such field investigationarecalledprimarydata. (3) Observation Method: In observation method, the required information iscollected through actual physical observation of one or more phenomena under study. This method is also useful for the collectionofprimarydata.

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(4) Experimentation Method: In experimentation method/ the required information is collected throughasmallscaleexperimentundercontrolledconditions.Thismethodisusedforprimarydata collection. Themethodsofdatacollectionnotedabovehavetheirspecialfeatures,advantagesandlimitations.The researcherhastoselectanymethodconvenienttohim.Collectionofreliableandauthenticdataismore importantthanthespecificmethodusedfordatacollection. DESKRESEARCH MEANINGANDFEATURESOFDESKRESEARCH: Desk research means research activity conducted with the help of established information (data) by differentagenciesandalsobyusingtheinformationavailablefromtheinternalsourcesofthecompany. The information published in trade journals, commercial press and data internally generated by the companyareusedforthedeskresearch.Thusitisacriticalstudyofpublishedinformation(data).Such research is usually conducted within the marketing research department of the company by the researchstaffappointed. Desk research is simple and economical in nature. It saves time and money on research work to a considerableextentasfieldinvestigationfordatacollectionisavoided.However,companiesgenerally donotdependfullyondeskresearch.Theyprefertosupplementdeskresearchwithfieldinvestigation. Desk research does not involve field work/survey work of any type. Naturally, desk research is rather easyandquick.Itisactuallyfindingouttherequiredinformationfrompublishedjournals,etc.andusing itforthestudyofmarketingresearchproblem. ADVANTAGES/MERITSOFDESKRESEARCH: (1)Easyandquick:Deskresearchiseasyandquickasrequiredinformationisavailablefromdifferent agenciesandsourcesinternalandexternal.Timeindatacollectionisreducedindeskresearchas availabledataareusedforresearchpurpose. (2)Economical:Deskresearchiseconomicalasinformationcanbecollectedeasilythroughlibrariesor bypayingsubscriptions.Thisreducestheexpenditureonresearchactivity. (3) Reliable data available: The data available in published form are generally reliable as they are collected by responsible agencies and institutions. This brings accuracy to the conclusions drawn throughdeskresearch. (4) Absence of interviewees bias: The published data are factual and away from interviewee's bias. Naturally,theinformationavailableismorereliable/dependable. (5)Convenience:Deskresearchisconvenientasitrelievesfromthebotherationoffieldinvestigation, tabulation,analysisandsoon. (6) Suitable to small firms: Desk research is convenient in the case of small firms and nonprofit organisations. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONSOFDESKRESEARCH: (1)Maynotbeexactlyasperneeds:Thepublisheddatamaynotbealwaysreliableandexactlyasper the needs of survey work undertaken. The researcher has to make proper scrutiny before using publisheddata.

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(2) Needs modification: Secondary data need suitable modification before actual use for research purpose.Thisisnecessaryinordertoadjustdataaspertheneedoftheresearchworkundertaken. (3) Testing required: Published data need proper testing through field investigation for verification of validityandreliability. (4) Too much dependence undesirable: Too much dependence on published data is undesirable and even dangerous. The conclusions drawn from such data may not be dependable. Desk research is notalwaysdependable. (5)Secondarymethod:DeskresearchisasecondarymethodofMR.Thedatausedinthedeskresearch aresecondaryandmaynotbeexactlyaspertheneedofresearchstudy. (6) Lacks practicalorientation: Desk research is like library research work and lacks practical orientation. SOURCESOFPUBLISHEDINFORMATION(SECONDARYDATA): In the desk research, published information is used extensively. Such information is available from internal and external sources. Normally, information (secondary data) for desk research is available fromthefollowingsources: (A) ExternalSources: External sources are the reports and publications of various agencies including commercial press. External sources are used when internal records are not adequate or do not provide the required informationreadily. (1) TradeJournals:Tradejournalsarepublishedregularlyfortheinformationandguidanceofbusiness community.Theycollectandpublishcommercialinformationregularly.Somejournalsevenconduct surveysandpublish the datacollected.Companiescansubscribetosuitablejournalsandusethe information published therein. A researcher can even refer to back issues of known journals for reference purpose. In India, large number of trade journals arepublished. They include, "Business Today","BusinessIndia"andsoon.Evenbusinessnewspapers(e.g..EconomicTimes)publishvaried information on industrial, financial and economic matters. Such information can be used for researchpurpose. (2) Directories: Trade directories are published by different agencies like chambers of commerce and tradeassociations.Theysupplyinformationinacompactformtoresearchersfordifferentpurposes. (3) Subscription Services / Syndicated Services: Some commercial organisations collect and supply information on specific subject/subjects regularly to its subscribers. Interested companies should paythesubscriptionfeesperiodicallyandinreturntheygetrequiredinformationinacompactform whichcanbeusedforresearchpurpose. (4) Publications of Trade Associations and Chambers of Commerce: These associations collect and supply trade information to their members through journals, special reports, annual reports, booklets and other publications. Sometimes, surveys and special studies are conducted and the reports are given wide publicity through such publications. These associations maintain reference librariesforthebenefitoftheirmembersandresearcherswhereIndianaswellasforeignjournals aremadeavailableforreferencepurpose. (5) Publications of Management and Economic Consultants: Management consultancy companies collectinformationonbusinessmattersandgivepublicitytothesame.Thisinformationisusefulfor researchpurposes.EventheresearchreportspreparedbyMRorganisationscanbeusedinthedesk research

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(6) PublicationsofBanksandFinancialInstitutions:Banks,financialinstitutions,investmenttrustsand stock exchanges publish information on financial matters through their annual reports and other publications. In India, RBI publishes information on all aspects of Indian economy regularly. Such publicationsprovidereliablestatisticalinformationtoresearchers. (7) Company Reports: Public limited companies publish their annual reports and financial statements which contain information about their activities and also about general economic situation in the country.Suchreportscanbeusedfordeskresearchpurpose (8) SpecialisedLibraries:IncitieslikeMumbaiandDelhi,specialisedlibrariesareavailable.Theyprovide whateverinformationisrequiredbyresearchers.Eventhelibrariesofforeignembassiesareuseful fordatacollectiononcommercialmatters (9) Government Publications and Publications of International Organisations: Government departments, public corporations and other government agencies publish information of varied nature through their publications. Census reports are also published by the government. Such reportsprovidevaluableinformationtoresearchers.Alongwiththis,internationalagencieslikeIMF, WTO, FAO and other agencies of United Nations publish useful information on trade, finance and othereconomicmatters.Suchinformationcanbeusedfordeskresearch. (B) InternalSources: Along with external sources of secondary data, internal sources also supply sufficient information for research purpose. Internal sources are the documents, registers, and records (accounting and sales force)availablewithindifferentdepartmentsoftheorganisationitself.Hugeinternaldataareavailable within the organisation but in an unorganised manner. Such data need to be collected and arranged properlybeforeactualuseintheresearchproject.Researchers gotoexternalsourceswhentheyare unable to get required data within the organisation itself. Various departments of the company can provideinformationintheformof (1) periodicalstatements,reportsandstatisticaldata. (2) Past research reports, files, documents and correspondence of the company are also useful for referencepurpose. (3) sales orders, customer's complaints and sales reports of different areas are useful for marketing research. (4) salesmensreportsareusefulforsecuringinformationaboutmarketsituation. INTERNALV/SEXTERNALSOURCESOFDATACOLLECTION InternalSources ExternalSources Meaning Internal sources of data External sources

of

data

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Useofinformation

collection means data collected from the documents available withthecompany Information available from internal sources can be used directly for research purpose. Modificationsarenotrequired Purchase records, sales records, periodical sales reports and annualreportsaretheexamples of internal sources of data collection Limited coverage as they relate tocompanyonly. Internal sources are more reliable as they supply accurate data. Verification of data is not required Internal sources are easily available and that too without anyextracost.

Examples

Coverage Reliability

Availability

collection means the use of data published by external agencies. Information available from external sources cannot be used directly as it is. Modificationsasperthenature ofresearchworkarerequired. Tradejournals,annualreports of companies, surveys conducted by press, census reports etc. are examples of external sources of data collection. Wide coverage as they are variedincharacter External sources may not supplyaccuratedata.Naturally, a verification of data before actualuseisnecessary External sources are not easily availableMoneyisrequiredto bespentonthem.

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EvaluationofSecondaryData

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ADVANTAGES/MERITSOFPUBLISHEDDATA: (1) Easyandeconomicalavailability:Publisheddataareavailableeasily,quicklyandeconomically. (2) Extensiveavailability:Publisheddataareavailableextensivelyonallaspectsofmarketingandcan be used by referring to different sources This enables the researcher to make his primary data collectionmorespecificandrelevanttohisstudy. (3) Supplementary role: Published data can be used as a good supplement to data collected through fieldinvestigationItsupportsandfillinthegapsintheprimarydatausedMoreover,theresearcher gets additional information about the problem under study His understanding of the marketing problemimproves. (4) Facilitates completion of research work: Completion of research project without using published data is difficult as such data are needed when adequate primary data are not available Published databringcompletenesstotheresearchproject. (5) Facilitatescomparison:Secondarydatacanbeusedasabasisforcomparisonwiththeprimarydata collectedbytheresearcher DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONSOFPUBLISHEDDATA: (1) Oldandoutdatednature:Publisheddataavailablemaybeoldandoutdated.Theuseofsuchdatais irrelevant for research purpose. In fact, the utility of secondary data declines progressively as the periodgoes. (2) Maynotbecompleteandreliable:Suchdatamayormaynotbecomplete,accurateandreliable.It isratherdifficulttofindoutthereliabilityofpublisheddata.Moreover,useofunreliablepublished dataisdangerousforresearchpurpose. (3) Toomuchdependenceundesirable:Itisnotdesirabletodependtoomuchonthepublisheddata forresearchpurposeasthereisalwaysatimegapinbetweenthecollectionandpublicationofsuch data. Moreover, the deficiencies of published data will be carried forward in the research project undertaken. (4) Maybeofbiasnature:Thebiasofthecollectingagenciesmaybereflectedintheresearchworkor researchreportwhenpublisheddataareusedextensively. (5) Maynotbedirectlyadjustable(relevant)toresearchprojectundertaken:Secondarydatararelyfit perfectlyintotheframeworkofmarketingresearchproblemunderinvestigation.Suchdataarenot exactly as per the need of research project undertaken. The data may not fit info the needs of investigation. PRECAUTIONSTOBETAKENWHILEUSINGPUBLISHEDDATA: (1)Publisheddatahascertainlimitationsandshouldbeusedintheresearchworkonlywhenabsolutely essentialorwhenavailableaspertherequirementoftheresearchproject. (2)Datapublishedbyareputedandreliableagencyshouldbeusedforresearchpurpose. (3)Toomuchdependenceonpublisheddataforresearchpurposeshouldbeavoided. (4)Oldandoutdatedpublisheddatashouldnotbeused. (5) To the extent possible verification of published data should be made before actual use in the researchproject.Suchevaluationavoidstheuseofunsuitable/unreliabledataintheresearchwork.

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FIELDINVESTIGATION/SURVEYMETHOD MEANINGOFFIELDINVESTIGATION/FIELDSURVEY: Inadditiontodeskresearch,marketingresearchcanbeconductedthroughfieldinvestigation. For this, field surveys are conducted. They are used for primary data collection in MR. Survey meansaplannedattempttocollectrequiredinformationfromarepresentativesampleofthe relevant population. Field investigation means collecting first hand information by actually visiting markets or meeting consumers and dealers who are directly connected with the marketing activities. Data collected for the first time through field survey are called primary data. Here, the data are collected through suitable questionnaire and interviewing a limited numberofpeople(asample)selectedfroma/largegroup.Customers,tradersandsuppliersare themajorsourcessupplyingprimarydata. Theprimarydatacollectedaresuperiortosecondarydata.Researchersturntotheprimarydata in order to overcome the limitations of secondary data which include incompatibility, obsolescence and bias. Primary data are also necessary when the secondary data are incomplete.Researchersprefertousebothprimaryandsecondarydataforresearchpurposeas dependingfullyonsecondarydataisnotfair.Primarydataneedtobecollectedfromdifferent sourcessuchassurveys,observationandexperimentation. Theprimarydataarereliable.However,theprobleminprimarydataisitscost,bothintermsof moneyandtimerequiredforcollection.Inaddition,researcher'sbiasalsocreepsin.Evenwith suchlimitations,theprimarydataareimportantandusefulinMR. Primary data are of two types: (a) Census, and (b) Sample, Census refers to collection of data fromtheentirepopulation.InIndia,populationcensusistakenaftereverytenyears,(thelatest censuswastakenin2001).Itisalengthyandcostlymethod.Asasubstitutetocensus,sampling methodofdatacollectionisused. Samplereferstoapietakenfromthepopulation.Sampleisasmallrepresentativeofthewhole universe.Ifthesamplesizeisfair,theconclusionsdrawnareapplicabletotheentireuniverse. Randomsamplingisapopularmethodusedfordatacollection. Sampling is an integral part of data collected through surveys. Sampling is used to collect primary data when the sources of data are too many to be exhaustively handled. A sample is only a representative portion of the universe/population. The sample needs to be decided clearlybeforestartingthesurveywork. Field surveys are conducted extensively for the collection of primary data. Personal interview andtelephoneinterviewsarearrangedforfieldsurveys.Asurveyconsistsofgatheringdataby interviewinglimitedpeople.Suchsurveyrelatestoconsumersandothermarketingactivities. Insurveymethod,directcommunicationwithconsumers/dealersisestablishedandinformation iscollectedfromthemthroughquestionnaire.Surveymethodismoreeffectiveandreliableas comparedtodeskresearch.AccordingtoTullandHawkins,"Surveyisthesystematicgathering of information from respondents for the purpose of understanding and for predicating some aspectofthebehaviourofthepopulationofinterest."

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DESKRESEARCHV/SFIELDRESEARCH: Meaning DeskResearch Desk research is the research conductedwithinthemarketing research department of a company. It is like library researchwork FieldResearch/Investigation Field research is the research conducted outside the research department. The information is collected straight from the consumers, dealers or markets The sources include personal interviews, telephone surveys and consumer panels. In addition, observational and experimentation methods are alsoused Field research is a time consumingandcostlymethod ofconductingmarketingwork Thedatacollectedareprimary data and conclusions drawn are based on actual field investigationandareaccurate and reliable. Testing is also possible The data collected and conclusions drawn may have interviewer'sbias Field research is the oldest and primary method of marketing research and is used extensively even at present Field research uses primary dataforresearchwork

Sourcesused

The sources of desk research are like trade journals, government reports, census reportsandsubscriptionservice

TimeandCostinvolved

Desk research is an easy, quick andlessexpensive.

Type of data that is Thedatacollectedarebasedon collected/used publisheddata(secondarydata) available. The testing by field investigationisabsent.

Position of investigators The data collected are free bias frominvestigator'sbias Natureofmethod SecondarymethodofMR.Used to supplement field investigation and other methodsofdatacollection Desk research uses secondary dataforresearch

Dataused

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METHODSOFFIELDINVESTIGATION/MARKETSURVEY: Therearefourimportantmethodsusedinfieldinvestigation/survey.Thesesurveymethodsare: (a) Mailsurveys (b) Telephonesurveys (c) Personalinterviews (d) PanelResearch. (a)MAILSURVEY MEANINGANDFEATURESOFMAILSURVEY: Mail survey (also called mail interview) is one method of data collection through field investigation.Here,questionnaireispreparedforthecollectionofspecificinformationrequired forresearchpurpose.Thequestionnaireissentbypost(mail)topotentialrespondentswitha requesttocompletethesameandreturnbyposttothemailingcompany/researchagency.The completed questionnaires received are checked and arranged properly. The information given therein is tabulated and analysed in an impartial manner. Finally, conclusions are drawn for framingpoliciesanddecisionmaking. Inmailsurvey,interviewerisnotavailableforaskingquestions,forguidingrespondentandfor noting the information. On some occasions, the questionnaire is published in the newspapers andreadersareaskedtosupplyinformation.Inaddition,copiesofquestionnairearesuppliedto retailers with a request to collect completed questionnaires from the customers. Even the questionnaire may be supplied to consumers along with product's package with a request to supply information. These methods are not used extensively due to poor response from the consumers. Normally, the questionnaire is posted to the address of the consumer and he is requestedtosupplyinformationbyansweringthequestionsasked. Mail/postofficeisusedasamediumfortheconductofsurveyandhenceitisrightlycalledmail survey. This method of survey is a complete antithesis of the personal interview. Here, the interviewers are not involved and naturally away from interviewer's bias. Wide area can be coveredaspostalfacilityexistsinthewholecountry. National surveys can be conducted through mail survey as contact with large number of respondents is possible with the medium of post office. Mail survey needs to be planned properlyforpositiveresponsefromtherespondents.Similarly,questionnairepreparedforthe collectionofinformationshouldbeideal/promising. Mail survey is economical as compared to personal interview. The respondents are given full explanation of the purpose of the survey with a request to give necessary cooperation by supplying required information in the space provided in the questionnaire itself. Stamped envelopes(replypaidenvelopes)arealsosentalongwiththequestionnaireforquickresponse fromtherespondents.Careisalsotakentoseethattherespondentremainsanonymous.Inthe questionnaire, alternate replies are suggested and the respondent has to make tick marks on thequestionnaireitself.Thisgivesconvenienceinthetabulationworkastheuseofcomputers fortabulationispossible. Sometimes, small gift is also offered to respondents in order to have positive response from them. The respondent can study the questionnaire leisurely and give replies independently as per his desire. Naturally, the replies are given carefully and without pressure/tension. It is

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possible to contact respondents from different parts of the country by preparing a comprehensivemailinglist.Mailsurveymethodisnowextensivelyusedformarketingresearch. MERITSOFMAILSURVEY: (1)Economical:Mailsurveyiseconomicalasonlypostageandprintedquestionnairearerequired.The costofsurveyislimitedasinterviewers,supervisors,etc.arenotrequiredinmailsurveys. (2)Widecoverage:Inmailsurvey,widegeographicalareacanbecoveredbysurveyaspostalfacilities areavailablealloverthecountry.Informationcanbecollectedfromlargenumberofrespondents spreadoverthewholecountrybypreparingacomprehensivemailinglist.Informationcanalsobe collectedfromthosewithwhomfacetofaceinterviewisnotpossible. (3) Speed in data collection: Mail survey method has a speed. Large number of respondents can be contacted within a short period and information can be collected from them within a reasonable time. It is possible to send hundreds of questionnaire within a week and information will be availablefrommanyofthem. (4) Avoids interviewees bias: In mail survey method, interviewees bias and errors are eliminated. Guidance/hints are not given to the respondents. As a result, first hand reliable information is availableforsurveypurpose.Thisimprovesthequalityofresearchworkandtheconclusionsdrawn. (5)Conveniencetorespondents:Respondentscananswerthequestionnaireattheirownconvenience. Theycansupplyinformationevenwhileremaininganonymous.Respondentsarelikelytobemore thoughtful as they have not to give answers on the spur of the moment. Thus convenience to respondentsisonemajoradvantageofmailsurveytechnique. (6)Moreinformationavailable:Itispossibletocollectmoreinformationbyusingbothopenendedand closeendedquestionsinthemailsurveyquestionnaire. (7)Investigatorsnotrequired:Theservicesofinvestigatorscanbedispensedwithaspersonalcontact withtherespondentsisnotrequiredinthecaseofmailsurveys.Expenditureonstafftrainingand supervisiononsurveyworkisalsoeliminated. (8) Simple and direct method: Mail survey method of data collection is extremely simple, clear and directasonlyquestionnairesaretobesentasperthemailinglistprepared.Ifnecessary,reminder maybesenttotherespondentsbutthisexpenditurewillbelimited. (9)Centralizedcontrol:Mailsurveysareoftenconductedfromasingleofficeandthisbringscentralized controlonthewholesurveywork. (10) Convenient to medium/small companies: Mail survey method is convenient to small and medium sizedcompanies.Itcanbeusedconvenientlyforcollectinginformationfromconsumersspreadover awidegeographicalarea. (11) Views of family members available: In mail survey, views of respondents as well asof their family members are collected as they participate while giving replies. Moreover, as respondents remain anonymous,theyarelikelytogivehonestreplies. LIMITATIONSOFMAILSURVEY: (1)Problemof"Noreplies":"Noreplies"isonemajordisadvantageofmailsurvey.Respondentsdonot takeinterestinthesurveyworkanddonotsendthereplies.Veryfewgivepositiveresponsetothe questionnaire.Otherssendrepliesonlywhenreminderissent.Manyothersdonotsendrepliesat all. Some others give incomplete response by not answering all questions asked. Thus, poor

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response to mail questionnaire (High nonresponse rate) is one important disadvantage of mail survey. (2)Updatedmailinglistrequired:Formailsurvey,uptodateandcomprehensivemailinglistcovering cross section of the society is necessary. The researcher may not have such accurate list of respondentsatthestateornationallevel.Thisaffectstheareacoveredbythesurvey. (3) Poor response, if questionnaire is defective: Questionnaire acts as a base of mail survey. The response will be limited if the questionnaire is too lengthy or if it contains difficult and confusing questions. Sometimes, busy persons ask their assistants to give replies. This affects the quality of mailsurveyconducted. (4)Lacksaccuracyofinformation:Inmailsurveymethodtheresearchercannotverifytheaccuracyof theinformationgivenbytherespondentsashehasnocontrolontherespondents.Theremaybe inconsistency/ambiguity in the answers given. The researcher has to accept or reject the informationsupplied. (5)Limiteduse:Mailsurveymethodisoflimiteduseinqualitativestudyorincausativeresearch..For probingpsychologicalmotivation,mailsurveymethodisnotsuitable. (6)Effectsofambiguousquestions:Thereisapossibilitythatsomequestionsmaynotbeunderstandby largemajorityofrespondents.Thismaybeduetoambiguityinthequestionsasked.Asaresult,the respondents may not give answer or may give answer which may not be correct or relevant. This affectsthefinaloutcomeofthesurvey. (7) Changes in questions not possible: It is rather impossible to amend the approach or questions or theirwordingsoncethequestionnaireisissuedtotherespondents.Thisbringsrigidityinthesurvey work. Required information about certain aspects of the survey may not be available if the questionsaskedareconfusing. (8)Notsuitablewhenquickinformationisrequired:Mailsurveyisnotconvenientwhentheresearcher needsinformationquickly i.e.withintwoorthreedays.Mailsurveyisnormallyatimeconsuming activity.Inaddition,postaldelaysarequitecommon. (9)Nonverbalresponsesarenotnoted:Itisnotpossibletogathernonverbalresponsesinthecaseof mailsurvey.Thebenefitofpersonalobservationbytheinterviewerisalsonotavailable. (10)Notsuitableforspontaneousanswers:Mailsurveyisnotsuitablewhentheresearcherisinterested inthespontaneousanswersfromtherespondents. (b)TELEPHONESURVEY MEANINGANDFEATURESOFTELEPHONESURVEY: Telephonesurvey/Telephoneinterviewisanothermethodoffieldinvestigation.Itisapopular alternative to personal interview. Here telephone is used as a medium of communication as there is only vocal interface between the interviewer and respondent. In telephone survey method, telephone is used as an instrument for the collection of information from the respondents.Here/abriefinterviewoftherespondentistakenontelephone.Therespondentis contacted on phone, questions are asked on the subject matter of survey and information is collectedfromhimforfurtherprocessing.Itisatypeoforalinterviewwiththerespondentwho isnecessarilyatelephonesubscriber. Telephone survey is a quick and economical method of survey as response is immediate and wide area can be covered without actual travelling to different places and parties. Telephone

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surveyissimilartopersonalinterviewbutpersonalcontactwiththerespondentsisabsent.Itis used as a substitute for personal interview. Originally the use of telephone was restricted to monitoring audiences for radio and TV programmes. Now, telephone is used for collecting informationonmarketingproblems.Industrialsurveysandtradesurveysarealsoconductedby using this method. ComputerAssisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) and Direct Computer Interviewing(DCI)arenewdevelopmentsinthefieldoftelephonesurveys. MERITSOFTELEPHONESURVEY: (1) Economical: Telephone survey is economical as compared to personal interview. Moreover, busy personslikedoctorsandprofessionalsareavailableasrespondentsinthecaseoftelephonesurvey. (2) Quick response: It can be conducted quickly and rapidly. The information is available quickly. No timeisneededfortravelling,etc.Promptanswersisonespecialbenefitoftelephonesurvey. (3)Highspeed:Thereishighspeedintelephonesurveyaslargenumberofinterviewscanbecompleted withinoneday.Itisalsopossibletousetaperecordsfordatarecording. (4) Information available from VIPs: People who are difficult to contact personally are available for telephoneinterview.Manybusypeoplearenotpreparedtograntpersonalinterviewbuttheyare willingforbriefconversationontelephone.Forsuchrespondents,telephonesurveyisconvenient. (5)Simplicity:ItisasimplemethodofconductingMRasinformationcanbecollectedfromasmalloffice withtelephonefacility. (6) Frank response: Experience proves that respondents are more frank (free response) on telephone interviews and give quick response. They are willing to answer delicate/personal questions over telephonethanpersonally. (7)Orderliness:Thereisorderlinessintelephonesurvey.Thequestionsarearrangedlogicallyandare askedinaplannedmanner. (8) Sample selection easy: A list of telephone subscribers can be prepared easily for the purpose of telephonesurvey.Thismeansthesampleselectioniseasy. (9) Secrecy of respondents: Anonymity and confidentially as regards the name of respondent and informationsuppliedarepossible. LIMITATIONSOFTELEPHONESURVEY: (1) Brief questionnaire required: In telephone interview, the questionnaire must be brief because lengthyinterviewwiththerespondentisnotpossible.Asaresult,telephoneinterviewisusefulfor collectinglimitedinformationonspecificpointsasthelengthoftelephoneinterviewisalwaysvery short.Arespondentcanclosetheconversationquicklyasperhisdesire. (2)Limited/Briefinformationavailable:Intelephoneinterview,therepliesgivenbyrespondentsare always brief and limited information is given. The communication with the respondents is oral/verbal.Detailed discussion is notpossible. Interview length is limited. This narrows down the scope of survey. There is time limit for telephone interview. Even visual aids cannot be used in telephonesurvey. (3) Difficult to contact large number of respondents: It is difficult to contact large number of respondents,asmanypersonsdonothavetelephonefacility.Asaresult,thecoverageofsurveyis

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limited.Similarly,manypeoplemaynotbewillingtotalkovertelephone.Thisrestrictsthescopeof telephonesurvey. (4)Nonverbalresponsesarenotavailable:Inthismethod,observationofrespondentsisnotpossible. Asaresult,nonverbalresponsescannotbeseenandnoted. (5)Nonavailabilityofpropersample:Intelephonesurvey,itisdifficulttogetarepresentativesample. Itisonlythelistoftelephonesubscriberswhichcanusedforselectingsamples. (6)Limitedcoverageofsample:Respondentsfromremoteplacescannotbecontactedbythismethod. Evenpoorersectionsofthesocietyarenotcoveredbytelephonesurvey. (7)Limitedquestions:Questionsofverypersonalnatureorquestionsrequiringlengthyanswerscannot be asked in telephone interview. This makes the interview incomplete. Bias on the part of respondentisalsopossible. (8)Interviewersbias:Thereisapossibilityofinterviewer'sbiasinthissurveymethod. . (c)PERSONALINTERVIEW MEANINGANDFEATURESOFPERSONALINTERVIEW: Personal/facetoface interview is one popular and extensively used method of primary data collection for MR. It is probably the oldest method/technique of MR. It consists of a twoway conversation initiated by the interviewer for obtaining information on specific issues. Interviewing,infact,isasocialprocess;itinvolvesaninteractionbetweenthetwoforspecific purpose. It is a purposeful conversation between the interviewer and respondent for specific purpose. According to C. William Emory, "Personal interviewing is a twoway purpose conversationinitiatedbyaninterviewertoobtaininformationthatisrelevanttosomeresearch purpose". The backbone of personal interview is the questionnaire prepared for specific survey. The interviewer uses this questionnaire as a base and collects the required information from the respondents. For effective and purposeful personal interview, the interviewer needs proper education and training.Hemustaskthequestionsproperlyandencouragetherespondenttosupplymaximum possible information. He should also note the additional information, if any, supplied by the respondent. The interviewer should be aware of the purpose for which the survey is being conducted. Theoutcomeofpersonalinterviewlargelydependsontheability,maturityandsincerityofthe interviewer.Theresponsefromtherespondentlargelydependsontheinterestandinitiativeof theinterviewerandthemannerinwhichtheinterviewisbeingconductedbytheinterviewer. Theinterviewersgeneralresponsibilitiesareasnotedbelow: (a)Tolocateinformants. (b)Totranslatethesecontactsintopurposefulinterviews. (c)Tocollectvalidandreliableresponses. (d)Torecordallsuchresponsesaccurately. Personal interview method is certainly superior as compared to mail / telephone survey methods of data collection. There is direct communication in personal interview and the interviewerisinapositiontocollectadditionalinformationaboutthesubjectmatterofresearch projectandalsoabouttherespondent.Thismethodiscostlyandtimeconsumingbutistreated as an ideal method as it provides maximum possible information from the respondents. As a

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result,personalinterviewingretainsitslonghelddominanceacrossawidespectrumofsurveys market,social,political. TYPESOFPERSONALINTERVIEW: (A) Individualinterviewinginvolvestalkingwithindividualpersonsintheirhomesorofficesorevenon thestreet. (1) Structured Interview: In the structured interview, detailed questionnaire is prepared for the purposeofinterviewThisquestionnaireissimilartothequestionnairepreparedformailsurveyThe interview is taken as per the questionnaire prepared This method brings uniformity in the survey work Limited choice/freedom is given to respondents while answering questions Possible answers aregivenandtheyhavetoselectoneofthem (2)SemistructuredInterview:Inthesemistructuredinterview,theinterviewernotesdownthekey questions which are to be asked to each respondent He uses these questions supported by other supplementaryquestionswhichheputsforwardwhileinterviewingtherespondentTheinterviewer hastousehisskillandknowledgewhileconductingsemistructuredinterview Semistructured interview is useful for collecting additional information from the respondents FreedomisgiventotheinterviewerandintervieweeRespondentsareencouragedtoexpressfreely (3) Unstructured Interview: In an unstructured interview, detailed questionnaire is not used for referenceTheinterviewerbelievesthattherespondenthasadequateusefulinformationanditishis duty to collect that information through conversation This interview is useful only when the interviewerisproperlytrainedwithfullknowledge ofthenatureandpurposeofsurveyworkand hasadequateknowledgeofhumanpsychologyHere,theinterviewerandtherespondentsaregiven adequate freedom The interviewer can ask additional questions or can change the order of questionsgivenforreference (4) Depth Interview: Depth interview uses techniques of psycho analysis to study in depth the behaviourofrespondent.Thismethodallowstheinterviewertocollectdifferentviewsandopinions of respondent through personal interview. Such interviews are useful for the study of human behaviour. Thedepthinterviewmethodrelatestobehaviouralsciencessuchassociologyandpsychology.Itisa clinical psychology method wherein the investigator attempts to get the respondent talk freely about certain topics in an informal manner. The term depth interview is used as the interviewer desires to discover underlying motives/desires of the respondents. Such interviews are usually undirectedandrequirematurity,skillandexperienceonthepartoftheinterviewer.Inaddition,itis a time consuming interview. Depth interviews are costly and are used for the group interviews ratherthanforindividualinterviews. Indepthinterview,therespondentisallowedtosaywhatheknowsorfeelsabouttheproductor subjectmatterofdiscussion.Therespondentisassessed(hisbehaviourorthinkingprocess)through supplementary questions. Prepared questionnaire is not used by the interviewer but he is given a listofissuestobecoveredintheinterview. Thequestionsaskedinthedepthinterviewarenotidentical.Here/thedatacollectedisqualitative and not the quantitative one. In depth interview, the respondent is encouraged to talk freely and theinterviewertakesthepositionofagoodlistener.Hehastofindoutinnermotivesandfeelingsof therespondents.

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(B) Group interviewing consists of inviting a group people together for interview purpose. Group interview is also called group discussion. Information is collected jointly from them by a trained moderator. Group interview is a faster technique of interviewing as compared to individual interviewIngroupinterview,agroupof8to12respondentsisformedandinformationiscollected collectivelyfromthewholegroupItisanonstructuredandinformaltypeofgroupinterviewingand isusefulfordatacollectiononhumanbehaviourandmotivationHere,theassumptionisthatpeople talkmorefreely/openlywheningroups FocusedGroupInterview/Discussion:Inthefocusgroupinterviewtheattentionofgroupmembers is focused/concentrated on some particular problem/ product/topic and the group discussion is directlyandcloselyrelatedtothetopic/product/problemThegroupleader(moderator)hastouse his skills etc and see that the discussion do not move away from the main problem and that necessaryinformationisavailablefromthegroupThegroupdiscussionistaperecorded orvideo taped The required information is collected from the tapes and conclusions are drawn The group selectedforinterview/discussioniscalledfocusgroupandinformationiscollectedfromthegroup asawhole.Thoughthetermfocusgroupinterviewisusedhere,theinterviewsofgroupmembers are not taken as per the usual style. The whole group is treated as one unit and a specific problem/topicisdiscussedbythegroupasawhole.Inthissense,thetermsfocusgroupinterview andfocusgroupdiscussionneedtobetreatedasidentical. Focused interview (discussion) is a type of free interview in which a greater degree of control is appliedtothecourseoftheinterview.Here,theinterviewerputsanumberofrelatedquestionsto the respondents and tries to get information on all points at one time. The attention of the respondent is focused on limited number of interrelated questions. The respondent is given an opportunitytoexpresshisviewsfreelybutonlimitednumberofquestions/points.Unnecessaryand unwanteddiscussionduringtheinterviewisavoided.Theinformationandviewsexpressedbythe respondent are noted clearly and correctly by the interviewer. Focused interview is more precise, clearcutandtothepoint.Itreducesthetimeofinterviewbuttheinformationonimportantpoints iscollectedfromtherespondent. Focused interview is superior to free interview as unnecessary questions, conversation and irrelevant information are avoided. Along with this, adequate scope is provided for discussion on importantmattersonwhichtheattentionoftherespondentistobediverted. ADVANTAGES/MERITSOFPERSONALINTERVIEW: (1)Flexibility:Inpersonalinterview,theinterviewercanbringflexibilityinhis datacollectionprocess. Thereiscloserinteractionbetweentherespondentandtheinterviewer.Questionscanbeadjusted asperhisneedandmaximumpossibleinformationcanbecollected.Thismakesthesurveywork purposeful. (2) Better cooperation from respondents: In personal interview, the interviewer gets better co operation from the respondent due to facetoface communication. Additional questions can be askedforsecuringmoreinformation.Therespondentalsospeaksfreelyabouthisopinions/views. (3)Benefitoflongerdurationinterview:Personalinterviewisusuallyofalongerduration.Thepurpose ofsurveycanbeexplainedanddetailedquestionsareaskedthereafter.Inthecaseofverypositive response,supplementaryquestionscanbeasked.Theinformationcollectedisalsoreliableasitis first hand information. Even the interviewer can note the family information such as home

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atmosphere,educationandageoftherespondent,throughpersonalobservationduringthecourse ofpersonalinterview. (4)Availabilityofreliableanddetailedinformation:Inpersonalinterview,theinformationcollectedis usuallydetailedandreliable.Detailedinformationisalsocollectedthroughpersonalinterviewas the respondent has enough time to supply the necessary information. It is possible to seek clarificationsonanypointonthespot. (5)Betterqualityresponse:Inpersonalinterview,thequalityofresponseisalwayshighascomparedto mailsurvey.Meetingwiththerespondentispossibleonaholidayorwithpreviousappointment. Once the interview starts, the respondent takes interest and gives answers to questions placed beforehim. (6)Personalquestionscanbeasked:Inpersonalinterview,personalquestionscanbeaskedtactfully. Similarly, questions of lengthy answers can also be asked during the interview. This facilitates collectionofadequateinformation. (7)Productscanbeshown/demonstratedbeforerecordingresponse:Inpersonalinterview,products, advertisements,etc.canbeshownordemonstratedtotherespondentsinordertocollectrequired information.Evenvisualsaidscanbeusedduringtheinterview. (8)Suitablewheninformationfromlimitedrespondentsistobecollected:Personalinterviewmethod is convenient when detailed data need to be collected from a relatively small number of people. Therespondentscanbeselectedproperly. (9) Improves quality of research work: The conclusions drawn from the1 data collected through personalinterviewaremoreaccurate.Thedeltacollectedcanbecheckedproperly.Moreover,the reactionsandattitudeoftherespondentscanalsobenotedcorrectly. (10) Nonverbal responses are observed: Personal interview serves as an opportunity available to the interviewer to observe respondents nonverbal responses. Facial expressions, body movements, gestures and voice modulation are clearly visible in personal interview and can be noted on the interviewsheets.Eventhespontaneousreactionsofrespondentscanbenoted. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONSOFPERSONALINTERVIEW: (1) Costly: Personal interview is a costly method of survey as the interviewer is required to be paid travellinganddailyallowances.Inaddition,limitednumberofinterviewsarepossiblewithinoneday by an interviewer. Supervisors are required to be appointed on the interviewers for effective control.Thus,itisacostlymethod. (2) Time consuming: Personal interview method of data collection is timeconsuming. The interview timemaybeof15to30minutesbuttheinterviewerhastospendtimeontravelling,etc.Naturally thesurveyworktakesalongerduration. (3)Informationsupplied maynotbeaccurate:Theinformationsuppliedbytherespondentsmaynot necessarilybeaccurateastheyhavetosupplyinformationonthespot.The answersgivenbythe respondentsmaynotbefullysupportedbyfacts.Therespondentmaygiveinadequateinformation duetopersonalreasons.Thisislikelytoaffectthefinaloutcomeofthesurvey. (4) Longterm planning required: Personal interview needs long term planning and fixing of prior appointmentswiththerespondents.Thecomplicatedschedulingmustbefollowedstrictly. (5) Effective supervision on interviewers required: Effective supervision on large number of interviewers appointed maynotbepossibleduetolargegeographicalareacoveredbythesurvey work. The investigators may not work sincerely if supervision on them is inadequate/ineffective. Insincereinterviewerscanproducehighlevelofspoiledwork.

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(6) Danger of personal bias: There is a danger of personal bias when the interview is conducted personally.Thismaybeduetowrongselectionofsamples.Itmayalsoariseiftheinvestigatorsare dishonestandtrytosuggestpossibleanswerstotherespondents.Inbrief,thereisapossibilityof interviewerbiasorrespondentbiasinthepersonalinterviewmethod. (7) Possibility of rush interviews: There is a possibility of rush interviews by the interviewers. This is possiblewhentheyaregivenheavyinterviewtargetperday.Thisisalsopossibleiftheinterviewers arepaidinproportiontotheinterviewscompletedperday.Finally,rushinterviewsarepossibleif thequestionnaireistoolengthy.However,thisaffectsthequalityofsurveywork. (8)Respondentsfromcrosssectionofthesocietymaynotbeavailable:Forpersonalinterview/people fromallsectionsmaynotbeavailable.Busyexecutives,industrialistsandprofessionalsarenoteasily availableassamplesforthesurveywork. (9) Information supplied may not be recorded properly: Sometimes, information supplied by the respondentsisnotrecordedproperly.Theinterviewersmayrecordtheinformationaftercompleting theinterview.Mistakesinrecordingactualrepliesispossible.Thisleadstowrongconclusionsinthe finalresearchreport. ADVANTAGES/MERITSOFDEPTHINTERVIEW: (1) Depth interview is useful for finding out consumer motivations, attitudes, feelings and desires relatingtoproductetc. (2)Therespondentsgetanopportunitytoexpressfreelytheirdesires,motivesandfeelings. (3)Theinterviewergetsdeeperinsightintotheproblemunderinvestigation. (4) Depth interview method do not give factual data but data which relates to human (consumer) behaviourandhumanpsychology. (5)Depthinterviewisconvenientwhentherespondentstobeinterviewedarefewbuttheinformation tobecollectedisdetailed. DISADVANTAGES/DEMERITSOFDEPTHINTERVIEW: (1)Depthinterviewmethodiscostlyandtimeconsuming. (2)Depthinterviewscanbeconductedproperlyonlybyskilled,experiencedandmaturedinterviewers. (3)Findingsofdepthinterviewscannotbequantified. (4)Theattitudes,motivesanddesiresexpressedunderresearchconditionsmaychangeinactualbuying situations.Thus,depthinterviewsmaynotgivecorrectanswerstoallMRproblems. (5) The art of depth interviewing is difficult/complicated and needs proper background of knowledge andtraining. ADVANTAGESOFFOCUSGROUPINTERVIEW/DISCUSSION: (1)Thereissavingoftimeandmoneyas8to12personsareinterviewedatonetime. (2)Focusedgroupinterviewprovidesdetailedandaccurateinformationfromasmallgroupeasilyand quickly. (3) Each member of the group is given an opportunity to participate in the discussion. This gives differentviewsononesubjecttotheresearcher.

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(4) There is stimulation to participants in group interview/discussion. Participants are free to express theirviewwithoutfear/pressure. (5) New ideas are generated in the group discussion and the researcher can use them in his report/recommendations. (6)Theinformationavailablethroughfocusgroupinterview/discussionrelatestoonespecificsubject andisusefultoresearcherinhisresearchworkundertaken. (7)FocusgroupsarenowusedextensivelyinMRastheygiveadirectfeelofindividualconsumers. DISADVANTAGESOFFOCUSGROUPINTERVIEW/DISCUSSION: (1) How to encourage participants for free discussion and how to secure their cooperation in the researchworkisabigprobleminfocusgroupinterviewtechniqueofdatacollection. (2)Theviews/informationavailablemaynotbeofrepresentativecharacterduetononparticipationof somemembers. (3)Thebenefitofthistechniquewillbeavailableonlyifthegroupleaderismatured,experiencedand effectivecommunicator. (4)Membersmayexpressviewsonirrelevantmattersorunrelatedtopics.Thisleadstowastageoftime andmoney. (5)Theremaybeonesideddiscussioninthegroup.Thebenefitofsuchdiscussionislimitedforresearch purpose. QUALITIESANDQUALIFICATIONSOFAGOODFIELDINVESTIGATOR(INTERVIEWER): (1)Soundgeneraleducation:Aninterviewerneedssoundeducationalbackground.Heshouldpossess better than average education. He also needs working knowledge of some important language spokenintheareainwhichresearchworkistobeconducted.Educationmakeshimimpressivein hiswork,approachandoutlook. (2)Pleasingappearanceandmanners:Aninterviewerneedsimpressivepersonality,pleasingmanners and decent behaviour. He should be well dressed and also needs impressive appearance. Respondents are strangers. Their cooperation is possible only if an interviewer creates good impressiononthem. (3)Socialoutlook:Aninterviewershouldbesocialbynaturei.e.,adjustableandaccommodativeinhis approachandoutlook.Heshouldbeateasewithalltypesofrespondents.Aninvestigatorshould not be hot tempered and indecent in his manners and behaviour as respondents will not be co operative to such interviewers. He is supposed to show interest in the attitudes, problems and opinionsofrespondents.Aninvestigatorshouldbeanextrovert. (4)Soundhealthandstamina:Thejobofaninterviewerishard.Hehastomovefromplacetoplaceand speak with different types of respondents. Naturally, he needs sound health and stamina. He shouldbeabletoworkhardformanyhoursandalsoshouldbeabletodoextensivetravellingfor surveyworkInaddition,heneedscapacitytoacceptuncertaintiesofinterviewinglife (5) Inquiring mind: An interviewer needs inquiring mind He needs desire to collect whatever information required for the survey He should not be satisfied with mere facts or minimum information He has to probe behind the facts and try to collect maximum possible information fromhisrespondentsForthis,heneedsinquiringmind (6) Sharp memory: An interviewer needs sharp memory for recording the information and facts accuratelyandcompletelyHehastopreparevariousstatementsandreportsandforthisheneeds sharpmemoryThisbringsspeedandaccuracyinhiswork

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(7) Integrity: An interviewer should be absolutely honest and reliable He should complete his work regularly as per the schedule decided His integrity plays an important role in the data collection workHeissupposedtocollectinformationbymeetingrespondentsandnotonthebasisofguess workHeshouldrecordtheresponsescorrectlyandalsoimmediatelyHeshouldnotdocheatingin hisfieldworkasthisaffectsthequalityofresearchwork (8) Minute observation: An interviewer should observe even minor points, events and remarks of his respondentsHehastocollectdataevenbyaccurateobservationandforthisheneedsthefaculty ofaccurateobservationandaconscientiousregardfordetails (9) Ability to record: An interviewer has to record the information supplied by respondents precisely, correctly, fully, promptly and without colour or bias Thus, he needs ability to record information suppliedwithprecision (10) Ability to communicate: An interviewer should be a good communicator He needs oral communication skills so that the respondent can easily understand what he (interviewer) wants AbilitytocommunicateproperlybringspositiveresponsefromtherespondentThissuggeststhat aninterviewerneedstheabilitytocommunicatetherightinformationintherightmannerHealso needsknowledgeoflocal/regionallanguageforeasycommunicationwiththerespondents (11)Knowledgeofbusinessworld:Aninterviewerneedsatleastworkingknowledgeofbusiness,sales, advertising,marketcompetitionandsoonHeshouldbeclearinhismindasregardsthenatureand purpose of his survey Marketing research relates to marketing and allied problems and an interviewercertainlyneedsadequateknowledgeofsuchproblems. (d)PANELRESEARCH Panelresearchisatechniquesimilartothesurvey,butwithonemajordifference.Insurveymethoda freshsampleisselectedforeverysurveywork,whileinthepanelresearchthesamepanelisusedagain andagainforthecollectionofinformation.Thepanelactsasapermanentsampleofrespondentsand informationiscollectedfromthematappropriateintervalsthroughinterviews. Apanelmeansasampleofrespondentswhomaybeindividuals,consumers,housewives,householdsor firmsfromwhominformationaboutpurchasing,buyingbehaviour,etc.iscollectedatregularintervals. Thepanelmembersaregivendiaries.Theynotedetailsofpurchases,shoppingpatterns,etc.inwhich the researcher is interested. Panel members provide feedback to the researcher for detailed study of themarketingproblemunderconsideration. Panelresearchofferscertainbenefits.Forexamplethebuyingbehaviourofselectedconsumerscanbe studiedthroughpanel.Thechangesinthebehaviourcanbeanalysedthroughpanelresearch.However, panel research will be effective only when the panel members are cooperative and provide reliable information when requested. Members of the panel may not find it convenient to give information againandagain.Theymaytreatthisasbotherationandmaynotsupplytimelyandreliablefeedback.In spiteorsuchlimitations,panelresearchmethodisusedinmanymarketingresearchprojects MEANINGANDFEATURESOFCONSUMERPANELS: Consumerpanel/profileisonemoremethodofconsumerresearch,atechniqueofprimarydata collectionwhichissimilartosurveywork.Here,agroupofconsumers(apermanentsampleof

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respondents collectively called panel) is selected and their opinions/views/reactions collected. Forthis,personalinterviewortelephoneinquiryismade,orthepanelmembersmaybeasked torecordregularlyinthediariesprovidedtheirpurchasesorlisteningorviewinghabitsinthe caseofradioorTV.TheinformationiscollectedoftenandagainforthepurposeofscrutinyIn duecourse,itistabulatedfordrawingconclusions Theselectionofpanelmembersisusuallymadeonthebasisofage/economicstatus,likesand dislikes, etc, of consumers and is used for data collection regularly over a long period. It is a permanentsampleofrespondentsforresearchworkandmayincludeindividuals,housewives, households, dealers or firms from whom information is collected periodically. The panel membersalsoagreetocooperatebyprovidingtheirviewsondifferenttopicsfromtimetotime The other term used for consumer panel is Omnibus Panel It means a fixed sample of respondents who are interviewed (for information collection) on different variables over a period of time The information is collected from the respondents on certain matters such as purchases made, price paid, reactions on the products purchased, shopping behaviour, etc Suitableconclusionsaredrawnonthebasisofinformationcollected According to Ronald M. Weiers, "Panels consist of persons, households or business firms who report their purchasing activities at periodic intervals over time and who are typically selected basedonacombinationoftheirwillingnessandrepresentativeness".Aconsumerpanelmaybe definedas"agroupofconsumerswhovoluntarilyagreedtobeinterviewedonthesametopicor ondifferenttopicsfromtimetotimefordatacollectionregularlyandcontinuously". Panel method can be used effectively in order to study consumer behaviour under different situations.Italsofacilitatescontinuousstudyofbehaviourofconsumersoveraparticularperiod Thereactionsofconsumerstotheproduct,itsquality,packaging,advertising,pricing,etccanbe studied continuously through consumer panel method Consumer expectations can be studied withreasonableaccuracythroughsuchpanels Consumer panel method gives reliable information for policy decisions on marketing There is closecommunicationwiththerespondentsThisfacilitatesacontinuouscheckontherecordof consumer behaviour over a specific period The reactions of consumers are regularly recorded forpolicydecisionsSomemanufacturerssupplysamplesofnewproductstopanelmembersfor testing. The reactions of members are collected through personal interviews Sometimes, cash prizes/giftsaregiventopanelmembersasincentiveandtherebytheyareinducedtogivebetter cooperationinthesurveyworkForbetterresults,thepanelmembersshouldbeselectedwith propercare.

TYPESOFCONSUMERPANELS Theclassificationofconsumerpanelsismadeonthebasisofthetypeofresearchbeingcarriedout.The followingchartshowsthetypesofconsumerpanels. TypesofConsumerPanels

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Purchase AudienceAttitudeDealerProductTestingRetail Panel PanelPanelPanelPanelPanelPanel (1)PurchasePanel: PurchasepanelisusefultostudythepurchasinghabitsandtrendsofconsumersSuchpane]isa groupofselectedconsumerswhoareaskedtorecordpurchasesmadebythemregularlyinthe diaries provided to them Information is collected from the panel members continuously for detailedanalysis Panel members are expected to keep correct record of their purchases in the diaries specially providedtothemThediariesofconsumersarecollectedperiodicallyforreviewandforstudying informationregardingtheitemspurchasedwithdetailslikeprices,quantities,preferencesand soonThisprovidesinformationregardingthepatternofpurchasesandexpenditureincurredon differentitemsInadditiontothestudyofdiaries,personalcontactisalsokeptwiththepanel membersforthecollectionofadditionalinformationfromthem Theconsumersselectedforpurchasepanelareusuallyhousewivesandtheyareaskedtowrite downeverydaywhattheyactuallybuyandtosendthediariesperiodicallyforreviewpurpose Thediariesprovidedarecarefullydesignedfortheconvenienceofpanelmembers Purchase panels are used by manufacturers, marketing research firms and government departments Such panels may be formed in the case of consumer items which consumers purchasefrequentlyandalsoinlargequantities (2)AudiencePanel: Audience panels are panels designed to provide information regarding media audiences Audience panels are of listeners/viewers of programmes on radio and TV The panel members areaskedtolistentheprogrammesonTVandradioregularlyTheiropinionsontheprogrammes arecollectedforresearchpurpose Thepopularityofprogrammesorthereactionsofviewerscanbejudgedwiththehelpofsuch panelsEventheeffectivenessofradioandTVadvertisingcanbejudgedthroughsuchaudience panels The most famous media audience panel is one which is operated by the A. C. Nielson Company(USA).InEuropeancountries,suchaudiencepanelsareusedextensivelytostudythe expectationsofradioandTVaudiences InIndia,advertisingagenciesareusingthetechniqueofaudiencepanelsforthebenefitoftheir clientsSuchpanelsareusedinthecaseofradioandTVadvertising (3)AttitudePanel: Attitude panel is useful for the study of attitude of consumers towards a product/marketing practice Attitudes are usually studied along with the purchase behaviour of consumers Panel membersareinterviewedafteraperiodofthreeorsixmonthsandtheirattitudesarestudied Findingsofsuchstudiesaregivenwidepublicityforthebenefitofallmanufacturers (4)DealerPanel: Dealer panels are useful for collecting information from the dealers in a continuous manner. They give data on dealer activities including total sales, prices charged, promotional efforts made, services offered and so on. Data are collected from selected dealers of important commoditieswithdifferentbrands.Informationregardingthepopularityofdifferentproducts,

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markettends,saleofgoodsofspecificbrand,etc.iseasilyavailablefromsuchresearchstudy. The relative sales made by dealers over a period of time indicate the strategic outlets to promotesales. Dealer panels are also useful for collecting data regarding retail sales, inventories and prices. Thetotalsalesofproductsandtheshareofaparticularbrand,etc.,arealsoavailablefromsuch dealer panels. Dealer panels offer valuable guidelines for the selection of suitable outlets for efficientmarketingofproducts.Dealerpanelsareformedbymanufacturersandinformationis collected from the dealers through diaries and also through personal interview. Dealer panels areusefulforframingmarketingpoliciesforlargescaledistributionofgoods/services.

(5)ProductTestingPanel: Product testing panel is useful for testing the utility and other features of the product before bringing it in the market for largescale marketing. The panel includes consumers from cross sectionofthesociety.Theyaregivennewproducttotestitsuseandotherfeatures.Theirviews arecollectedthroughpersonalinterviewsafterregularintervals.Thisenablesamanufacturerto judge the extent to which his product is agreeable to consumers. If necessary, certain modifications are introduced in the product before it is brought in the market on commercial basis. Producttestingpanelsareusedparticularlyforpretestingconsumerdurableswhicharecostly andneedtobemanufacturedasperthecurrentneedsandexpectationsofconsumers. (6)RetailPanel: Retailpanelisapanelofretailtraderswhoarewillingtogiveinformationabouttheirstocksat regularintervalspurelyforresearchpurposePanelmembersarerequiredtonoteinformation aboutthesalesandstockpositionandprovidetherecordforstudypurpose.Thisenablesthe researcher to draw useful conclusions about marketing activities Information is also collected from panel members through personal interview, In India, the Operations Research Group (ORG),Barodaconductsretailauditonanextensivescale.Itisusefultoproducersoffooditems, drugs,pharmaceuticalsandconfectionery. ADVANTAGESOFCONSUMERPANELS: (1) Supply useful information: Consumer panel gives valuable information to researchers about the research activity undertaken. The information is supplied regularly and continuously. Periodical changes in buyer behaviour can be monitored through such panels. The information collected enablesresearcherstoforecastfuturebehaviourofconsumerswithreasonableaccuracy. (2) Longer interviews are possible: Longer interviews can be held with panel members and more detailedinformationcanbecollectedfromthem. (3) Reliable data available: The data collected through diaries is more accurate and reliable. It is recorded by the respondents and the possibility of errors of lapses of memory are reduced considerably.Panelresearchisusefulfornotingbehaviouralchangesofconsumers. (4)Economicalmethod:Consumerpanelisaneconomicalmethodforcollectingcontinuousinformation anddata.Dataonthesamesubjectarecollectedperiodically.Thisfacilitatessuitablechangesinthe marketingpoliciesofthefirm. (5)Positiveresponsefrompanelmembers:Theresponsefromthepanelmembersisalwaysbetteras theyvoluntarilyagreetoparticipateinthesurveyworkandoffernecessarycooperation.

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(6) Facilitates introduction of remedial measures: Consumer panels are useful for product development, product modification, selection of best channel of distribution and introduction of suitablepackagingwhichwillbeattractiveandagreeabletoconsumers. (7) Continuous supply of information: Consumer panel provides information in a continuous manner. Theinformationiscollectedfromthesamegroupofpersons.Thisgivesideaaboutgradualchanges inthebehaviourofconsumersTheconclusionsdrawnthroughconsumerpanelsarealsoaccurate anddependable. (8)Realmotivesarevisible:Consumerpanelisusefulforfindingouttherealmotivesbehindtheactions ofconsumers.Consumerbehaviourcanbestudiedmoreaccuratelythroughconsumerpanels. (9) Facilitates product testing: Consumer panels are used to judge different products at one time. Membersareaskedtostatewhichproductstheylikemostandwhy.Thisfacilitatesproducttesting. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONSOFCONSUMERPANELS: (1) Biased outlook of panel members: Panel members show biased outlook after they become membersoveralongperiod.Thisdefeatstheverypurposeofresearchworkasthedatasupplied maynotbeaccurate,reliableandfactual. (2) Limitedcooperationfrompanelmembers:Panelmembersarecooperativeandtakeinterestinthe initial period of survey. Thereafter, their interest goes on reducing and they supply data indifferently. This is because they do not want to be bothered again and again. As a result the degreeofcooperationbetweenthepanelmembersreduces. (3) Absence of representative character: A small panel is always unrepresentative in character. The conclusions drawn with the help of such panel may not be applicable to the whole class of consumers.Thus,thepanelasasamplemaynotrepresentthetruepictureofthewholepopulation. (4) Panelmembersdropgradually:Panelmembersdropoutfromtimetotime.Everypanelissubject toacertainamountofmortality.However,selectingnewmemberswiththesamecharacteristicsis noteasy.Thenewmembersselectedmaybedifferentandthisaffectsthequalityandaccuracyof thewholeproject. (5) Panel members behave like experts: The members of the panel become sophisticated and also considerthemselvesasexpertsorprofessionaltesters.Thisharmsthequalityofresearchwork. (6) Costly/expensive: Consumer panel research is rather expensive. It requires continuous efforts to buildupandmaintainthepanel.Givingproductfortestingorasmallgifttolargenumberofpanel members is costly. In India, only large companies like Hindustan Lever Limited do have consumer panels. (f)AUDITS Audits involve the physical inspection of inventories, sales receipts, shelf facings, prices, and other aspects of the marketing mix to determine sales market share, relative price, distribution, or other relevantinformation 1. StoreAudits Thesimpleaccountingarithmeticof

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Opening Inventory + Net Purchases (receipts transfers out / returned inventory) Closing Inventory____________________________________________________ Sales is the basis for the audit of retail store sales. The most widely used store audit service is the NielsenRetailIndex,itisbasedonauditsevery30or60daysofalargenationalsampleoffood, drug, and mass merchandise stores. The index provides sales data on all the major packaged goods product lines carried by these storesfoods, pharmaceuticals, drug sundries, tobacco, beverages, and the like (but not soft goods or durables). Nielsen contracts with the stores to allowtheirauditorstoconducttheauditsandpaysforthatrightbyprovidingthemwiththeir owndatapluscash The clients receive reports on the sales of their own brand and of competitors' brands, the resulting market shares, prices, shelf facings, instore promotional activity, stock outs, retailer inventory and stock turnaround, and local advertising These data are provided for the entire nation by region, by size classes of stores, and by chainsversus independents. The data are availabletosubscribersonlineviacomputeraswellasinprintedreports

2. ProductAudits Product audits, such as Audits and Surveys' National Total Market Index, are similar to store audits but focus on products rather than store samples. Whereas product audits provide information similar to that provided by store audits, product audits attempt to cover all the typesofretailoutletsthathandleaproductcategory.Thus,aproductauditforautomotivewax wouldincludegrocerystores,massmerchandisers,anddrugstores(inthiswayitissimilartothe Nielsen store audits) In addition, it would include automotive supply houses, filling stations, hardwarestores,andotherpotentialoutletsforautomotivewax. 3. RetailDistributionAudits Similar to store audits are retail distribution audits or surveys. These surveys do not measure inventoryorsales;instead,theyareobservationalstudiesattheretaillevel.Fieldagentsenter stores unannounced and without permission They observe and record the brands present, price, shelf facings, and other relevant data for selected product categories. NRTI (Erhandt Babic)andBOS(BurgoyneInc.)arethesuppliersofthistypeofdata. OBSERVATIONMETHOD MEANINGOFOBSERVATIONMETHOD: Observation method (observational research) is one extensively used method of primary data collection.Observationresearchmeansgatheringofprimarydatabyobservingrelevantpeople, actions and situations. According to Oxford Dictionary, observation means "accurate watching and noting of phenomena as they occur in nature with regard to cause and effect or mutual relation". It is the classical method of investigation widely practiced by scientists and social investigators. Here, consumer behaviour is observed directly and conclusions are drawn. As a result,thedefectsinherentindirectquestioningareavoided.

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Observationmethodismoreobjectiveasitisbasedonaccuratewatchingandnotingthedetails of behaviour of consumers. It eliminates subjective element encountered with questionnaire method. Observation means "an act of recognizing and noting/acts a/occurrences." Personal behaviourofrespondentscanbeobservedwiththehelpofobservation.Aconsumerpackaged goods marketer for example, may send his representative to supermarkets and observe shoppersastheylookattheproduct,examinethepackagesandmakeactualbuyingdecisions. Observationinvolvesrecordingofevents/actionsastheytakeplaceintheenvironment.Here, dataarecollectedbyobservingconsumersinvolvedinanactivityintheirnaturalenvironment. Consumersarenotawarethattheyarebeingobserved/watchedbytheobserverstationedin the shop for this purpose. He records his observations about the behaviour of customers without their knowledge. Naturally, the data collected are accurate and dependable. A consumermaybeobservedwhilepurchasingsoaportoothpasteataretailshop. Observationisalsopossiblewhileselectingaspecificproductorbrand.Here,thebehaviourof theconsumeratamarketplaceisstudiedindetail.Naturally,cooperationofrespondentsisnot necessary.Itistheobserverwhotakesthenotesofthingsastheyhappen.Intheobservation method,theresearcherrecords"whatishappeningratherthanwhathashappenedorwhatis goingtohappen." Observation method can be used to study customer movement, customer responses in retail shops, stock audit in retail stores and sales technique. However, interview may be used as a followuptogetadditionalinformation.Infact,observationactsasagoodsupplementtoother methods used for data collection. For instance, customers are observed buying toothpaste or soap in small packets instead of large packages. They may be asked why they prefer small packagesratherthanlargepackages. Observationisaprocessofnotingpeople,objectsandoccurrencesrather thandirectlyasking forinformation.Forexample,insteadofaskingconsumerswhatbrandtheybuy,theresearcher arranges to observe their behaviour at the sales counter and the way in which they select a particularbrand.Inaddition,hiddenvideocameras,onewaymirrors,assessmentofwearand tearofflooringindisplayareasaresomemoremethodsusedinmechanicalobservation.Closed video monitoring is a common technique used in the observation method of primary data collection. Scientificobservationisalwayspurposeful,economicalandimmenselyusefultoresearcher.The observers appointed should be skilled, properly trained and instructed. Such observation of consumers is possible in the retail shops, cooperative stores and also in the departmental storeswherelargenumberofconsumerscomefrequently. In the observation method, more stress is on noting, watching and understanding and not on asking questions. Observation is possible through individual observers (live observation) or throughmechanicaldeviceslikeaudiometer.Inpersonalobservation,theresearcherposesasa customerandobservesothers.Inmechanicalobservation,eyecamerasorscannersareused.

METHODSOFOBSERVATION: Methods/Typesofobservation(aspertechniquesused,placeandpurpose)areasexplainedbelow: (1) Simple Direct Observation: Here, the observer looks and acts like a shopper. The other regular shoppers do not realise that they are being observed. Thus, the observer studies the purchase

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procedureandthebehaviourofthecustomerswhiletheypurchasegoods.Itisasimple,easyand directmethodofobservation.Thebehaviourofaperson/customerisobservedasitoccurs. (2)IndirectObservation:Indirectobservationismeanttostudythepastbehaviour.Thisispossiblewith thehelpofpastrecords,films,photographs,etc.Filmsarefrequentlyusedtostudypastbehaviour of shoppers, etc. In indirect observation, some record of past behaviour is observed. Here, the behaviouritselfisnotobserved,butitseffectsareobserved.Inindirectobservation,theobserver looksforphysicaltracesofbehaviouroroccurrenceofanevent.Forexample,inordertofindout liquor consumption in a household, an observer would like study the empty liquor bottles in the garbage.Thesuccessofindirectobservationdependsonhowbesttheobserverisabletoidentify physical traces of the problem under study. Direct observation is very common than indirect observation. (3)StructuredObservation:Here,thepurposeofobservationisclearlydefinedandtheobserverknows whattoobserveasregardstheconsumerswhoarebusyintheirshoppingwork.Theobservations tobemadearecleartotheobserverandtheobservationswillbecompletedaccordingly. (4)UnstructuredObservation:Here,theobserverobserveswhateverhethinkspertinentItissimilarto unstructured questioning The observer is clear about his objectives and he conducts observation activityaccordingly (5)MechanicalObservation:Here,observationismadewiththeaidofelectromechanicaldevices.Such observationmayberecordedorliveAnumberofmechanicaldevicesformakingobservationhave been developed Audiometer, eye camera, pupilometric camera, taperecorder, VCR, psycho galvanometer are some such devices used in mechanical observation Mechanical observation is economicalandmoreaccurateascomparedtohumanobservation (6) Manual / Human Observation: Human observation is done manually Here, human beings are appointedtoobserveandrecordthedataItisasimpletypeofobservationbyaspeciallyappointed observer He does observation without the use of electromechanical devices The human observations are carried out as per the guidelines provided to the investigator Mechanical observationprovidesmoreaccuracyHowever,somespecial/extrainformationcanbeprovidedonly byahumanobserverandnotbyamechanicaldevice (7) Disguised Observation (also called Covert Observation): In disguised observation, the subjects do not know that they are being observed by some specially appointed observer For example, disguisedobservationmaybemadebytheobserverbyposinghimselfasoneoftheshopperswho are being observed This type of observation is preferred as people (shoppers) may behave differentlywhentheyknowthattheyarebeingobservedHere,thepurposeofobservationisnot disclosedtotherespondentsTheyarealsonotawareofthefactthattheyarebeingobservedfor somespecificpurposeDisguisedobservationmethodmaybeusedbytheresearcherwhenhefeels thathispresencemayaffectconsumerbehaviourormayspoilthewholedatacollectionprocessAn observer, for example, may enter the shop as a regular customer and may interact with fellow consumers without disclosing ins identity and purpose of interaction In undisguised observation, thepurposeofobservationisbroughttothenoticeofrespondentsbeforethecommencementof observation ADVANTAGES/MERITSOFOBSERVATIONALTECHNIQUE: (1) Accuracy: Observational techniques are highly accurate They reduce interviewer's bias. A trained fieldworkerisnotlikelytoexertabiasinanydirectionofresearchTheinformationavailablefrom observationismoreobjectiveandreliablethanavailablethroughsurveymethod.

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(2)Factualinformationavailable:Itprovidesfactualinformationintonewareasofresearch. (3)Recordseventsastheyoccur:Inobservationalmethod,theeventsarerecordedastheyoccur.The researcherisnotdependentontherespondentforthesupplyofcorrectinformation. (4) Economical: Observational method is economical as preparation of a questionnaire, etc., are not required. (5) Objective data available: The data collected by observation method are more objective and accurate.Here,anattemptismadetoavoidbiasesthroughmemory,lapses,haloeffectsorother sourcesbyobservingrespondentsbehaviour. (6) More accuracy in mechanical devices: Mechanical devices can be used to collect facts which will reducethecostofdatacollectionandtheinformationcollectedisalsoaccurate. (7) Effective method: Observational method is found to be quite effective and useful in researches relatedtomarketingproblems. LIMITATIONSOFOBSERVATIONALTECHNIQUE: (1) Certain elements are missed: Observational method has no capacity to observe attitudes, motivations and intentions of customers. These elements can be observed only when they are convertedintoaction.Itisalsodifficulttopinpointthemashumanbehaviouristhenetresultof manydrivesandurges. (2) Human errors possible: Observational methods are used by observers who are human beings and aresubjecttoerrorsandmistakes.Evenhighlyexperiencedobserversarelikelytomakemistakes whileobservingtheirrespondents. (3) Purpose is defeated, if secrecy is not maintained: In some observational studies, the respondent getstheideathatheisparticipatinginatest.Heknowsthatheisbeingobserved.Suchsituation willdefeattheeverypurposeofobservation. (4) Costly method under certain situations: Observational method is economical when used for observingeventsoccurringrapidly.It provestobecostlywhentheeventstobeobserveddonot occuratrapidintervals.Inaddition,properlytrainedobserversarerequiredtobeappointed.This makessurveyworkexpensive. (5)Observer'sbias:Fieldobserversbiasmaycreepinandtherebymakingtheobservationsfaulty.Even faultyobservationbytheobservermayprovetobedangerous. (6) Limited application: Observation method has limited application. It tells about what actually happenedbutitcannottellastowhyitsohappened (7)Needssupportofpersonalinterview:Observationmethodneedsthesupportofpersonalinterview inordertounderstandthemotives,attitudesandopinionsofindividuals/consumersItisusefulasa supplementofpersonalinterviewmethod EXPERIMENTATIONMETHOD MEANINGANDFEATURESOFEXPERIMENTATIONMETHOD: Inscientificinquiry,researchisprimarilycenteredoncontrolledexperiments.Experimentsareaspecial form of survey and/or observation method where respondents are asked questions about some controlledconditionsortheirreactionstosomecontrolledconditionsareobservedInexperiments,the researcher alters the environment and measures the effect of these alterations/manipulations Experimentationmaybedefinedas"aprocesswhereeventsoccurinasettingatthediscretion/optionof

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the researcher and controls are used to identify the sources of variation in respondent's response " ExperimentalresearchisbestsuitedforgatheringcasualinformationIttriestoexplaincauseandeffect relationships Experimentation method is used extensively in scientific research and also used in marketingresearchItisnowusedinordertoremoveoneprimaryweaknessofobservationalmethod which relates to the influence of uncontrolled factors Experimentation method is useful for the collection of data which cannot be collected by survey method or observation method The scope for experimentationislimitedinMRastheidealexperimentalconditionsoflaboratorytestingarevirtually impossibleinthefieldofmarketing.Marketingrelatestohumanbehaviourwhichisdifficulttopredict precisely Experimentationcanbeundertakenundertwotypesofsetting (a) Fieldsetting Fieldexperimentsareconductedatthemarketplacebutthepurposesarenotknowntotheparticipants intheexperimentTheinvestigatorsetsuptheexperimentbeforethesubjectsbegintoparticipateThere is more realism in this type of experimental method Field experiments are used rarely due to higher costsandlongertimeinvolvedFieldexperimentsarcusuallyconductedintestmarketinginordertofind out the acceptability of the new product by consumers For example, a company may test its new product in the local market before it is produced on a largescale for the national market Similarly, a company canfindout colourofitsnewproduct(egsoap)whichislikely tobemostpopularafterits introduction.Inaddition,experimentationisextensivelyusedinthefollowingareasofmarketing i. Productdesign ii. Packagedesign iii. Pricingpolicies iv. Distributionpolicies v. Promotionpolicies. (b) Laboratorysetting Experimentation is also possible under laboratory setting. The laboratory experimentation method is accuratebutlaboratoryexperimentsaremoreartificialduetocontrolledconditions.Suchexperiments maybeintheformofcallinglimitedpersons,offeringthemanarticle(e.g.softdrink)andaskingthem about their reactions. The purpose of experiment is made known to the participants and this makes them conscious. Such laboratory experiments are less costly and shorter in duration. They also give reasonablyaccurateresults. ADVANTAGESOFEXPERIMENTATIONMETHOD: (1)Experimentationmethodofdatacollectionisusefulwhentheproblemtobesolvedisclearlydefined andthedependentorindependentvariablesareclearlymarked. (2)Experimentationmethodenablesthemarketerstotakequickdecisioninthemarketingfieldasthe marketingproblemsarebetterunderstoodandaninsightisavailableduetoexperimentation. (3) One major benefit of experimentation method is its realism. It enables actual market test and simulatesactualmarketsituation.Itsuggestsremedieswhichareextremelyusefulandeffective.

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(4) Experimentation method provides unbiased feedback on how the product and marketing strategy willhelpthefirmpenetratethemarket. Experimentation method of MR can be applied most suitably to certain problems like training and remuneration of salesmen, shelf display arrangements, package designs and advertising copy. Experimental marketing (test marketing) can be used to study the effect of certain sales promotion techniques such as premium, brand, package design and colour combination. The use of lengthy experimentalmethodsislimitedinIndia.Thisisduetoheavycostinvolvedinthem.Manycompanies nowselectsmallertownslikePuneorIndorefortestmarketing.Certaintechniques,suchassplitrunfor evaluatingalternativeadvertisingcopyarealsousedtoaconsiderableextentinIndia. LIMITATIONSOFEXPERIMENTATIONMETHOD: (1)Experimentationmethodiscostlyandtimeconsuming. (2)Itrequirestheservicesoftrainedstafffortheconductofexperiments. (3)Experimentalmethodssufferfrommanyadministrationproblems. (4)Controllingthevariablesinthemarketselectedforexperiments(astheymayupsettheresult)isone majordifficulty (5)Thecompetitorsmayweakenthetestmarketresultsthroughtheirmarketingactivities (6)Thereislackoftheoreticalbasetoexperimentationmethods EXPERIMENTATIONANDEXPERIMENTALDESIGN: Experimentation As regards experimentation there is an attempt to measure the effect of one or more variables by changing the level of some variables and measuring the effects e g / posttesting effectiveness of an advertising campaign In order to know how well brand of the product is recorded in the mind of consumers,itispossibletomeasurebrandawarenessamongasampleoftargetrespondentsThiseffort wouldbecalledexperimentation ExperimentalDesign Experimental design involves obtaining the proper information within an acceptable accuracy range for a cost that does not exceed the value of the information. It ensures that each experimentaltreatmentisusedwithineachclassificationoftestunitsandeachclassificationof extraneousforcesisappliedequallytoalltestunits ExperimentaldesignoriginatedinthefieldofagriculturalresearchR.A.Fishermadesignificant contributionbystatingthatthepracticesprevalentforthemeasurementofoutputfromplotsof landcouldnotprovideunbiasedandunambiguousfindingsNowexperimentaldesignisusedin allareasofbusiness

FACTORSAFFECTINGEXPERIMENTALDESIGN: (1) Elementoftime:ExperimentaldesignistimeconsumingPlanningexperimentaldesigntakeslotof timebecausetheresearcherhastoconsiderprosandconsofvariousdesignavailabletohim (2) Commitmentofmanagement:Experimentaldesignneedshighlevelofmanagementcommitment If management becomes disheartened with any experiment and it is allowed to lapse without runningitsfullcourseorishandledhalfheartedly,alleffortswillbewasted

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(3) Rangeofvariation:Underpropercondition,experimentaldesigncanindicatetheeffectsofspecific variationsinoneormoreelementsofthemarketingmixTheexperimentcanbedonewithonlyone variable like price or with multiple variables like colour of packaging, channel of distribution and salespromotion (4) Cost and accuracy: Experimental design must balance cost constraints with accuracy. Accuracy is relatedtotheamountoferrorWeshouldnotassumethatthepossibilityofanexperimentalerror meansthattheerrorwilloccurThecostofrunningexperimentaldesignshouldbelessandbenefits obtainedshouldbemore (5) Identificationofvariables:Experimentaldesignusesoneormorevariablesinsuchawaythatits effect on one or more variables can be measured Hence it becomes necessary to identify the variablescorrectly REQUIREMENTSFORAGOODEXPERIMENT 1.AbsenceofSystematicError A good experiment should be free from any systematic error. This is possible if experimental units receiving one treatment do not differ in a systematic manner from other experimental units given anothertreatment.Thisisachievedbyrandomization. 2.Precision A good experiment should have maximum precision. The indicator of precision is the magnitude of standarderror,whichshouldbesufficientlysmall. 3.RangeofValidity To the extent possible, an experiment should be valid in a wide range of conditions so that the researcher can have a high degree of confidence in its results. An experimental technique that gives encouragingresultsinacertainsettingmaynotgivefavourableresultswhenconditionsaredifferent. 4.Simplicity If an experiment is a complicated one, it will be difficult to carry it out properly without the help of trainedand qualifiedpersonnel.Itis,therefore,desirablefortheexperimenttohaveasimpledesign, particularlywhenitistobeperformedbyrelativelyunskilledpeople.Also.itisdesirabletouserelatively simplemethodsintheanalysisofdata. 5.TheCalculationofUncertainty A good experiment should enable the researcher to calculate the uncertainty in the estimates of treatmentdifferences.Thiswouldmeanthatheshouldbeabletoascertainthestatisticalsignificanceof thedifferencesbetweenthetreatments. FACTORSAFFECTINGTHESELECTIONOFSUITABLEMETHODFORMARKETINGRESEARCH: Thefactorstobeconsideredwhileselectingthemethodformarketingresearch(datacollection)areas explainedbelow: (1)Natureandobjectivesofresearchproject:Theresearchprojectmaybelocalornationalincharacter Itmayberelatedtoproduct,packageorconsumerbehaviourAlocalsurveycoversasmallarealike one town or one district while a national survey covers wide area and population Similarly/ the objective of the study and the degree of accuracy required need special consideration while selecting one or the other method For example, mail survey is convenient for collecting

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information from large number of people while personal interview will be convenient when informationistobecollectedfromlimitednumberofrespondents (2)Typeofprimarydatarequired:Oneimportantfactorinfluencingtheselectionofmethodisthetype ofprimarydatarequiredforexample,qualitativeinterviewisveryconvenientmethodforcollecting information on personal motives while telephone survey is convenient for collecting facts about radioorTVlisteningbypeople.Publisheddatacanbeusedifpopulationdataatthenationallevel arerequiredforresearchpurpose. (3) Cost consideration of research project: MR is always subject to financial support available to the project. The method which is suitable to the funds available needs to be selected. For example, deskresearchisleastexpensive,butfieldinvestigationisexpensive.Similarly,observationmethods are more expensive then the experimental methods. In short, the budget provision need special considerationwhileselectingthemethodofresearchwork. (4)Timeconsiderationoftheproject: SomemethodsofMRordatacollectionarequick whileothers are timeconsuming. This factor needs attention while selecting a research method. Field investigation is timeconsuming and should be used when sufficient time is available for the completion of research project. Thus time available for research work is one major factor which needscarefulconsiderationwhileselectingthemethodfordatacollection. (5) Physical resources available: Such resources include personnel and administrative machinery available with the researcher. For example, if there is shortage of skilled interviewers, the postal survey method is preferable. Similarly, field investigation method should be used when a researcherwithknowledgeofstatisticsisavailable.Observationandexperimentalmethodscanbe usedonlywhenskilledandtechnicallyqualifiedpersonsareavailable. (6)Approachofthecompany:Theapproachofthecompanybehindconductingresearchworkisone important factor which needs consideration while selecting the research method. For example, a company conducting consumeroriented marketing research should try to go as near to the consumersaspossible.Forthis,personalinterviewsaresuitable.Forcollectinggeneralinformation fromtheconsumers,mailordersurveyisadequate. (7) Availability of machinery for processing information: The data collected need to be processed properly.Anorganisationwithsuitablefacilitiesforprocessingtheinformationcollectedshoulduse fieldinvestigationmethods.Intheabsenceofsuchfacilities,deskresearchisconvenient. (8) Type of sponsoring organisation: A big organisation with independent marketing research departmentandwelltrainedstaffcanselectanydirectmethodforresearchwork.Intheabsence ofsuchdepartment,theresearchworkshouldbegiventoanoutsideexpertagencylikeadvertising agency. (9) Coverage of research project: Some research projects have wide coverage. In other cases/ the samples to be examined may be less but detailed information is required to be collected. The methodneedstobeselectedaccordingly.Forexample^ifthesampleislargeandtheinformation tobeobtainedissimple/apostalquestionnaireisconvenient.Personalinterviewissuitablewhen detailedinformationisrequiredtobecollectedfromlimitedrespondents. (10) Research facilities available: The marketing research department can conduct research work independently only when it has a competent machinery to analyse and interpret the data for drawing conclusions. In the absence of such machinery, the research project should be handed overtoacompetentprofessionalagency.

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RESEARCHDESIGNS
DEFINITIONSOFRESEARCHDESIGN: (1) According to David J. Luck and Ronald S. Rubin, "A research design is the determination and statement of the general research approach or strategy adopted/or the particular project. It is the heartofplanning.Ifthedesignadherestotheresearchobjective,itwillensurethattheclient'sneeds willbeserved." (2)AccordingtoKerlinger"Researchdesignintheplan,structureandstrategyofinvestigationconceived soastoobtainanswerstoresearchquestionsandtocontrolvariance." (3)AccordingtoGreenandTull"Aresearchdesignisthe specificationofmethodsandproceduresfor acquiringtheinformationneeded.Itistheoveralloperationalpatternorframeworkoftheproject thatstipulateswhatinformationistobecollectedfromwhichsourcebywhatprocedures."

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The second definition includes three important terms plan, structure and strategy. The plan is the outlineoftheresearchschemeonwhichtheresearcheristowork.Thestructureoftheresearchworkis amorespecificschemeandthestrategysuggestshowtheresearchwillbecarriedouti.e.methodsto beusedforthecollectionandanalysisofdata.Inbrief,researchdesignistheblueprintofresearch.Itis the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed for solving the problem. Questionnaires, forms and samples for investigation are decided while framing research design.Finally,theresearchdesignenablestheresearchertoarriveatcertainmeaningfulconclusionsat theendofproposedstudy. STEPSINPLANNINGTHERESEARCHDESIGN: Therearefourbroadstepsinvolvedinplanningtheresearchdesignasexplainedbelow: (1) Determiningworkinvolvedintheproject: The first step in planning research design is determining the work involved in the projectand designing a workable plan to carry out the research work within specific time limit. The work involvedincludesthefollowing: o Toformulatethemarketingproblem o Todetermineinformationrequirement o Toidentifyinformationsources o Topreparedetailedplanfortheexecutionofresearchproject. This preliminary step indicates the nature and volume of work involved in the research work. Variousformsrequireforresearchworkwillbedecidedandfinalised.Thesampletobeselected forthesurveyworkwillalsobedecided.Staffrequirementwillalsobeestimated.Detailswillbe workedoutabouttheirtrainingandsupervisiononfieldinvestigators,etc. In addition, the questionnaire will be prepared and tested. This is how the researcher will prepare a blueprint of the research project. According to this blueprint the whole research projectwillbeimplemented.Theresearchergetsclearideaoftheworkinvolvedintheproject through such initial planning of the project. Such planning avoids confusion, misdirection and wastageoftime,moneyandeffortsatlaterstagesofresearchwork.Thewholeresearchproject movessmoothlyduetoinitialplanningoftheresearchproject. (2) Estimatingcostsinvolved: The second step in planning research design is estimating the costs involved in the research project.MRprojectsarecostlyasthequestionnaireistobepreparedinlargenumberofcopies, interviewersaretobeappointedfordatacollectionandstaffwillberequiredfortabulationand analysis of data collected. Finally, experts will be required for drawing conclusions and for writing the research report. The researcher has to estimate the expenditure required for the execution of the project. The sponsoring organisation will approve the research project and makesuitablebudgetprovisionaccordingly. The cost calculation is a complicated job as expenditure on different heads will have to be estimatedaccurately.Thecostoftheprojectalsoneedstobeviewedfromtheviewpointofits utility in solving the marketing problem. A comprehensive research study for solving comparativelyminormarketingproblemwillbeuneconomical. (3) Preparingtimeschedule: Timefactorisimportantintheexecutionoftheresearchproject.Planningoftimescheduleis essentialattheinitialstage.Timecalculationrelatestothepreparationofquestionnaireandits pretesting, training of interviewers, actual survey work, tabulation and analysis of data and

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finallyreportswriting.Timerequirementofeachstageneedstobeworkedoutsystematically. Such study will indicate the time requirement of the whole project. Too long period for the completion of research work is undesirable as the conclusions and recommendations may becomeoutdatedwhenactuallyavailable.Similarly,timeconsumingresearchprojectsarenot usefulforsolvingurgentmarketingproblemsfacedbyacompany. Preparingtimescheduleisnotadequateinresearchdesign.Inaddition,alloperationsinvolved in the research work should be carried out strictly as per time schedule already prepared. If necessary remedial measures should be adopted in order to avoid any deviation in the time schedule.Thisbringscertaintyasregardsthecompletionofthewholeresearchprojectintime. (4) Verifyingresults: MRfindingsneedtobedependabletothesponsoringorganisation.Researchermaycreatenew problems before the sponsoring organisation if the research work is conducted in a faulty manner. Such unreliable study is dangerous as it may create new problems. It is therefore, necessarytokeepeffectivecheckonthewholeresearchworkduringtheimplementingstage. Forthissuitableprovisionsneedtobemadeintheresearchdesign. Afterdecidingthedetailsofthestepsnotedabove,thebackgroundforresearchdesignwillbe ready.Thereafter,theresearcherhastopreparetheresearchdesignofthewholeproject.He has to present the project design to the sponsoring agency or higher authorities for detailed considerationandapproval.Theresearchercanstarttheresearchproject(asperdesign)after securingthenecessaryapprovaltotheresearchdesignprepared. TYPESOFRESEARCHDESIGNS Aresearchdesignislikearoadmapyoucanseewhereyoucurrentlyare,whereyouwanttobeatthe completionofyourjourney,andcandeterminethebest(mostefficientandeffective)routetotaketo get to your destination. We may have to take unforeseen detours along the way, but by keeping our ultimateobjectiveconstantlyinmindandusingourmapwecanarriveatourdestination.Ourresearch purposeandobjectivessuggestwhichroute(design)mightbebesttogetuswherewewanttogo.but there is more than one way to "get there from here." Choice of research design is not like solving a problem in algebra where there is only one correct answer and an infinite number of wrong ones. Choiceofresearchdesignismorelikeselectingacheesecakerecipesomearebetterthanothersbut there is no one which is universally accepted as "best." Successfully completing a research project consistsofmakingthosechoicesthatwillfulfilltheresearchpurposeandobtainanswerstotheresearch questionsinanefficientandeffectivemanner. Choiceofdesigntype isnotdeterminedbythenatureofthestrategic decisionfacedby themanager suchthatwewoulduseresearchdesignAwheneverweneedtoevaluatetheextentofanewproduct opportunity,ordesignBwhendecidingonwhichoftwoadvertisingprogramstorun.Rather,choiceof researchdesignisinfluencedbyanumberofvariablessuchasthedecisionmaker'sattitudetowardrisk, thetypesofdecisionsbeingfaced,thesizeoftheresearchbudget,thedecisionmakingtimeframe,the nature of the research objectives, and other subtle and notsosubtle factors. Much of the choice, however,willdependuponthefundamentalobjectiveimpliedbytheresearchquestion: To conduct a general exploration of the issue, gain some broad insights into the phenomenon, and achieve a better "feel" for the subject under investigation (e.g.. What do customers mean by "good value"?).

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Todescribeapopulation,event,orphenomenoninaprecisemannerwherewecanattachnumbersto representtheextenttowhichsomethingoccursordeterminethedegreetwoormorevariablescovary (e.g.,determinetherelationshipbetweenageandconsumptionrate). To attribute cause and effect relationships among two or more variables so that we can better understand and predict the outcome of one variable (e.g., sales) when varying another (e.g., advertising). RESEARCH DESIGN CONCLUSIVE EXPLORATORY RESEARCH DESIGN RESEARCH DESIGN DESCRIPTIVE CAUSAL RESEARCH RESEARCH LONGITUDINAL CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN DESIGN MULTIPLE CROSS-SECTIONAL SINGLE CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN DESIGN 1. ExploratoryResearch: A marketing research study may be either exploratory or full scale. Exploratory research is conductedwhentheresearcherdoesnotknowhowandwhycertainphenomenonoccurs.Here, the hypothetical solutions or actions are explored and evaluated by the decisionmaker, e.g.

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evaluation of quality of service of a bank/hotel/airline. Here, the quality cannot be assessed directlyastangiblefeaturesarenotavailable. Thepurposeofexploratoryresearchistoknowtheunknown.Exploratoryresearchdetermines fruitful alternatives that the executive would not have perceived. This also narrows down the scopeoftheinvestigation.Exploratoryresearchisundertakentogettheanswertothefollowing question. "What alternative courses of action might solve the problem and thereby reach the final objective?" This research is unstructured in character. Exploratory studies are important. They may provide adequate information on a decision situation or may greatly facilitate the designofformalresearchstudies. Toexploremeanstofindoutordiscover.Exploratoryresearchisconductedinordertofindout causes/reasons behind a specific marketing problem. It is the starting point in all types of research projects. The purpose of exploratory research is to define the marketing problem precisely, collect required information/data relating to the problem and identify alternative courses of action in order to deal with the marketing problem. For example, advertising campaignofacompanymaynotgivepositiveresultsintermsofsales.Thefailureofcampaign may be due to many possible causes relating to advertising copy, media selected, faulty pre testing, faulty illustration give, wrong timing of ad. campaign or finally inadequate followup measures to the ad. campaign. In the exploratory research, the possible causes will be identified, the most appropriate causes will be selected, hypothesis will be developed and researchactivitywillbeconductedaccordingly.Surveyofconsumers,retailers,salesexecutives and salesforce will be useful for exploratory research. On some occasions, small scale sales surveymayprovideusefuldataforexploratoryresearch. Inexploratoryresearch,thestress/focusisonthediscoveryofideas/causes.Forexample,sales may be declining for the last six months. Quick study may be conducted to find out the causes/factorsresponsible.Suchcauseswillbelisted.Here,anexploratorystudy/researchmay be conducted in order to find out the most likely cause so as to introduce suitable remedial measures. The objective of exploratory research is to generate/discover new ideas. The secondary/publisheddatacanbeusedforexploratoryresearchassuchdataareeasilyavailable. Iftheservicesofrespondentsareused(forsurveypurpose),theyshouldbegivenfullfreedom to express themselves. The same ruleshould be made applicable to focus groups. Exploratory research is useful for the study of marketing problems about which sufficient information/detailsarenotavailable.Exploratorystudyneedstobeflexibleinitsapproach.

ExploratoryResearchisused: Todefinetheproblemmoreprecisely. To identify relevant courses of action i.e. find the most likely alternatives, which are then turned intohypotheses. Isolatekeyvariablesandrelationshipsforfurtherexaminations. Gaininsightsfordevelopinganapproachtoaproblem. Establishprioritiesforfurtherresearch.

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2.ConclusiveResearchDesign ConclusiveResearchDesignistypicallymoreformalandstructuredthanexploratoryresearch.Itisbased on large representative samples, and the data obtained are subjected to quantitative analysis. ConclusiveResearchisdesignedtoassist(hedecisionmakerindetermining,evaluatingandselectingthe bestcourseofactiontotakeinagivensituation.Asshowninthefigureconclusiveresearchdesignsmay beeitherdescriptiveorcausalanddescriptivedesignsmaybeeithercrosssectionalorlongitudinal. (A)DescriptiveResearch: Descriptiveresearchis undertakenwhentheresearcher desirestoknowthecharacteristicsof certaingroupssuchasage,sex,occupation,income oreducation.Theobjectiveofdescriptive research is to answer the "who, what, when, where and how" of the subject under study/investigation. Descriptive studies are normally factual and simple. However, such studies can be complex, demandingscientificskillonthepartofresearcher. Descriptivestudiesarewellstructured.Ittendstoberigidanditsapproachcannotbechanged oftenandagain.Indescriptivestudies,theresearcherhastogiveadequatethoughttoframing researchquestionsanddecidingthedatatobecollectedandtheproceduretobeusedforthis purpose.Datacollectedmayprovetobeinadequateiftheresearcherisnotcarefulintheinitial stagesofdatacollection. Descriptive research designs are used for some definite purpose. Descriptive research cannot identifycauseandeffectrelationship. Descriptiveresearchisdesignedtodescribethepresentsituationorthefeaturesofagroupor users of a product. In marketing, such research is undertaken to know the characteristics of certain groups or users of a product such as age, sex education, income etc. Such research studies are based on secondary data or survey research. The major objective or descriptive research is to describe something usually market characteristics or functions A major difference between exploratory and descriptive research is that descriptive research is characterized by the prior formulation of the hypotheses. Thus, the information needed is clearly defined. As a result, descriptive research is preplanned and structured. It is typically based on large representative samples A formal research design specifies the methods for selectingthesesourcesofinformationandforcollectingdatafromthosesources.

UsesofDescriptiveResearch: Descriptiveresearchisconductedforthefollowingreasons 1.Todescribethecharacteristicsofrelevantgroups,suchasconsumers,salespeople,ororganizations, or market areas. For e.g. we could develop a profile of inc "heavy users" (frequent shoppers) of prestigiousdepartmentstoressuchasShoppersStop. 2. To estimate the percentage of units in a specified population exhibiting a certain behavior e.g. the percentage of heavy users of prestigious department stores who also patronize discount departmentstores.

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3.Todeterminethe"perceptionsofproductcharacteristics.Fore.g.howdohouseholdsperceivethe variousdepartmentstoresintermsofsalientfactorsofthechoicecriteria? 4. To determine the degree to which marketing variables are associated. For e.g.: to what extent is shoppingatdepartmentstoresrelatedtoeatingout? 5. To make specific predictions. For e.g. what will be retail sales of Shoppers stop (specific store) for fashionclothing(specificproductcategory)intheMumbaiarea(specificregion)? 6.Tocollectdemographicinformationofconsumers/usersofaproductunderstudy. 7.Forfindingoutviewsandattitudesofcustomers,e.g.howmanycustomerspreferbrandedgoodsor ISImarkedgoods. 8. Make predictions about future marketing trends, consumer needs or expectations or possible sales afternyears. 9.Todiscovertherelationshipbetweencertainvariables,e.g.saleoftoothpasteamongruralpopulation andurbanpopulationorrateofsavingsamonglow,middleandhigherincomegroups. Descriptiveresearchcanbedividedintothefollowingtwocategories: (a) Crosssectionalstudies Crosssectionalstudyisastudyinvolvingasampleofelementsfromthepopulationofinterest at a single point of time. It is a study concerned with a sample of elements from a given population. Such sample may deal with households, dealers, retail stores and other entities. Information/dataonanumberofcharacteristicsarecollectedfromthesampleelements.Such data are analysed for drawing conclusions. Cross sectional studies include field studies and surveys. Fieldstudiesareconductedisthelifesituationssuchasschools,factories,institutions,etc.Here, the interrelations among variables are studied under real setting. The crosssectional analysis involves counting the simultaneous occurrence of the variables of interest. Field studies have certainmeritsandlimitations.Theimportantmeritisthatsuchstudiesareclosetoreallifeand cannotbe criticisedon thegroundthattheyareawayfromrealsettingsorareartificial.Filed studiesarealsosociallysignificant.Howeversuchstudiesarescientificallyinferiortolaboratory andfieldexperiments.Thereisalsolackofprecisioninthemeasurementofvariables. Crosssectional study is possible through survey. Survey research is wide in scope. Detailed informationcanbecollectedfromasampleoflargepopulation.Thismethodisalsoeconomical as more information can be collected per unit of cost. The time required for sample survey is also less than a censusinquiry. However, in survey research, more importance is given to informationcollectionandnottoindepthanalysis.Secondly,surveyresearchneedsmoretime andmoneywhenconductedonalargescale. (b) Longitudinalstudies Longitudinal studies are based on panel methods and panel data. A panel is a sample of respondentswhoareinterviewednotonlyoncebutthereafterfromtimetotime.Heredatato becollectedrelatetosamevariablesbutthemeasurementsaretakenrepeatedly.Forexample, purchase of grocery products by families/ households at regular intervals. Such data will reflect/indicatechangeinthebuyingbehaviouroffamilies/households. There are many advantages and limitations of panel data. Panel data are suitable when the researcher undertake detailed analysis. Similarly, panel data are more comprehensive as compared to data collected from individual families. Finally, panel data collected is more

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accurateascomparedtodatacollectedthroughsurvey.Theseadvantagesofpan>dataimprove thequalityofresearchfindingsandconclusions. Therearecertainlimitationsofpaneldata.Forexample/panelsusedfordatacollectionmaynot be representative samples. Panel members may not be cooperative or may leave the panel membership.Asaresult,therepresentativecharacteroftheoriginalsamplemaybeadversely affected.Secondly,panelmembersmayreportwrongdata.Theirinterestmayreducegradually andtheymaysupplyinformationinacasualmanner.Theirsenseofparticipation/responsibility mayreduce.Thiswillaffectthequalityofdataandalsooffindings.

(B)CasualResearch: Casualresearchdesignisthethirdtypeofresearchdesign.Asthenameindicates,casualdesign investigates the cause and effect relationship between two or more variables. This design measurestheextentofrelationshipbetweenthevariables.Casualresearchdesignsattemptto specifythenatureoffunctionalrelationshipbetweentwoormorevariables. Casual research is useful to show the impact of one variable on the other. For example, price and market demand relationship or relationship between market competition and sales performance. Even the positive/negative effect of advertising on sales can be studied through casual research. The relationship between the casual factors can be studied through casual research. In addition, the variables which create effect on other variables can be studied in depththroughcasualresearch. Dataforcasualresearchcanbecollectedthroughfieldsurveywiththehelpofaquestionnaire orbyconductinglaboratoryexperiments/controlledexperiments.Laboratoryexperimentsare possibleinthecaseoftestingofnewproductsorpackagedesign. Thecasualresearchdesignisbasedonreasoning.Thedesignsforcasualresearchcanbedivided intothreecategories: Historical Survey Experimental. RESEARCH Typesofstudy DESIGN Exploratoryofformulative Descriptive/DIAGNOSTIC Overalldesign Flexible design (design must provide opportunity for consideringdifferentaspectsofthe problem) Rigid design (design must make enough provision for protection against and must maximize reliability) design

(i)samplingdesign

Non probability sampling design Probability sampling (purposiveorjudgementsampling) (randomsampling)

(ii)statisticaldesign Nopreplanneddesignforanalysis

Preplanneddesignforanalysis

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(iii) observational Unstructured instruments design collectionofdata

for Structured or well thought out instrumentsforcollectionofdata

(iv) operational No fixed design about design operationalprocedure

the Advanced decisions operationalprocedures

about

SAMPLING
SOMEBASICTERMS 1. PopulationInstatisticalusagethetermpopulationisappliedtoanyfiniteorinfinitecollectionof individuals.Ithasdisplacedtheoldertermuniverse,whichisderivedfromtheuniverseofdiscourse oflogic.Itispracticallysynonymouswithaggregateanddoesnotnecessarilyrefertoacollectionof livingorganisms. 2. CensusThecompleteenumerationofapopulationorgroupsatapointintimewithrespecttowell definedcharacteristicssuchaspopulation,production,trafficonparticularroads.Insomeconnection the term is associated with the data collected rather than the extent of the collection so that the termSampleCensushasadistinctmeaning.Thepartialenumerationresultingfromafailuretocover the whole population, as distinct from a designed sample enquiry, may be referred to as an 'incompletecensus. 3. SampleApartofapopulation,orasubsetfromasetofunits,whichisprovidedbysomeprocessor other, usually by deliberate selection with the object of investigating the properties of the parent populationorset. 4. SamplesurveyAsurvey,whichiscarriedoutusingasamplingmethodi.e.inwhichaportiononly, andnotthewholepopulation,issurveyed. 5. Sampling unit One of the units into which an aggregate is divided or regarded as divided for the purposes of sampling, each unit being regarded as individual and indivisible when the selection is made.Thedefinitionofunitmaybemadeonsomenaturalbasis,forexample,households,persons, unitsofproduct,tickets,etc.01onsomearbitrarybasis,e.g.areasdefinedbygridcoordinatesona map.Inthecaseofmultistagesamplingtheunitsaredifferentatdifferentstagesofsampling,being 'large'atthefirststageandgrowingprogressivelysmallerwitheachstageintheprocessofselection. Thetermsampleunitissometimesusedinasynonymoussense. 6. Sampling Frame A list, map or other specification of the units, which constitute the available informationrelatingtothepopulationdesignatedforaparticularsamplingscheme.Thereisaframe corresponding to each state of sampling in a multistage sampling scheme. The frame may or may notcontaininformationaboutthesizeorothersupplementaryinformationoftheunits,butitshould haveenoughdetailssothataunit,ifincludedinthesample,maybelocatedandtakenupforinquiry.

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7.

8.

9.

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11.

12.

Thenatureoftheframeexertsaconsiderableinfluenceoverthestructureofasamplesurvey.Itis rarelyperfect,andmaybeinaccurate,incomplete,inadequatelydescribed,outofdateorsubjectto some degree of duplication. Reasonable reliability in the frame is a desirable condition for the reliabilityofasamplesurveybasedonit.Inmultistagesamplingitissometimespossibletoconstruct theframeathigherstagesduringtheprogressofthesamplesurveyitselfForexample,certainfirst stageunitsmaybeselectedinthefirstinstance,andthenmoredetailedlistsormapsbeconstructed bycompilationofavailableinformationorbydirectobservationonlyofthefirststageunitsactually selected SamplingdesignA.sampledesignisadefiniteplanforobtainingasamplefromthesamplingframe. Itreferstothetechniqueortheproceduretheresearcherwouldadoptinselectingsomesampling units from which inferences about the population is drawn. Sampling design is determined before anydataarecollected. Statistic(s) and parameter(s) A statistic is a characteristic of a sample, whereas a parameter is a characteristic of a population. Thus, when we work out certain measures such as mean, median, mode etc from samples, then they are called statistic(s) for they describe the characteristics of a sample. But when such measures describe the characteristics of a population, they are known as parameter(s).Forinstance,thepopulationmean()isaparameter,whereasthesamplemean(X)is astatistic.Toobtaintheestimateofaparameterfromastatisticconstitutestheprimeobjectiveof samplinganalysis. Sampling error That part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derivedfromarandomsample,whichisduetothefactthatonlyasampleofvaluesisobserved,as distinctfromerrorsduetoimperfectselection,biasinresponseorestimation,errorsofobservation andrecording,etcThetotalityofsamplingerrorsinallpossiblesamplesofthesamesizegenerates thesamplingdistributionofthestatisticwhichisbeingusedtoestimatetheparentvalue PrecisionPrecisionistherangewithinwhichthepopulationaverage(orotherparameter)willliein accordancewiththereliabilityspecifiedintheconfidencelevelasapercentageoftheestimateor asanumericalquantity.Forinstance,iftheestimateisRs.4000andtheprecisiondesiredis4%, then the true value will be no less than Rs. 3840 and no more than Rs. 4160. This is the range (Rs 3840toRs.4160)withinwhichthetrueanswershouldlie.Butifwedesirethattheestimateshould not deviate from the actual value by more than Rs. 200 in either direction, in that case the range wouldbeRs.3800toRs.4200. Confidence level and Significance level The confidence level or reliability is the expected percentageoftimesthattheactualvaluewillfallwithinthestatedprecisionlimits.Thus,ifwetakea confidencelevelof95%,thenwemeanthattherearc95chancesin100(or.95in1)thatthesample results represent the true condition of the population within a specified precision range against 5 chancesin100(or.05in1)thatitdoesnot.Precisionistherangewithinwhichtheanswermayvary andstillbeacceptable;confidencelevelindicatesthelikelihoodthattheanswerwillfallwithinthat range,andthesignificancelevelindicatesthelikelihoodthattheanswerwillfalloutsidethatrange. Wecanalwaysrememberthatiftheconfidencelevelis95%,thenthesignificancelevelwillbe(100 95)i.e.,5%:,iftheconfidencelevelis99%,thesignificancelevelis(10099)i.e.,1%,andsoon. We should also remember that the area of normal curve within precision limits for the specified confidencelevelconstitutestheacceptanceregionandtheareaofthecurveoutsidetheselimitsin eitherdirectionconstitutestherejectionregions. SamplingdistributionWeareoftenconcernedwithsamplingdistributioninsamplinganalysis.Ifwe take certain number of samples and for each sample compute various statistical measures such as

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mean, standard deviation, etc., then we can find that each sample may give its own value for the statistic under consideration. All such values of a particular statistic, say mean, together with their relative frequencies will constitute the sampling distribution of the particular statistic, say mean. Accordingly, we can have sampling distribution of mean, or the sampling distribution of standard deviation or the sampling distribution of any other statistical measure. It may be noted that each item in a sampling distribution is a particular statistic of a sample. The sampling distribution tends quiteclosertothenormaldistributionifthenumberofsamplesislarge.Thesignificanceofsampling distributionfollowsfromthefactthatthemeanofasamplingdistributionisthesameasthemeanof theuniverse.Thus,themeanofthesamplingdistributioncanbetakenasthemeanoftheuniverse. 13. BiasGenerally,aneffectwhichdeprivesastatisticalresultofrepresentativenessbysystematically distortingit,asdistinctfromarandomerrorwhichmaydistortonanyoneoccasionbutbalancesout ontheaverage 14. Biased sample A sample obtained by a biased sampling process, that is to say, a process which incorporatesasystematiccomponentoferror,asdistinctfromrandomerrorwhichbalancesouton theaverageNonrandomsamplingisoften,thoughnotinevitably,subjecttobias,particularlywhen entrustedtosubjectivejudgmentonthepartofhumanbeings CENSUSVERSUSSAMPLE Censusinsimpletermsmeanstomeasureeachelementinthegrouporpopulationofinterest. Apartofapopulation,orasubsetfromasetofunits,whichisprovidedbysomeprocessorother, usually by deliberate selection with the object of investigating the properties of the parent populationorset. Surveysofindustrialconsumersorofdistributorsofconsumerproductsarefrequentlyintheform ofacensus. However there are certain reasons, which make census impractical or even impossible. The reasonsareasfollows: 1. Cost:Costisanobviousconstraintonthedeterminationofwhetheracensusshouldbetaken.If information is desired on grocery purchase and use behaviour (frequencies and amounts of purchase of each product category, average amount kept at home and the like) and the populationofinterestisallhouseholdsinacountry,thecostwillprecludeacensusbeingtaken. Thusasampleistheonlylogicalwayofobtainingnewdatafromapopulationofthissize. 2. Time:Thekindofcostwehavejustconsideredisanoutlaycost.Thetimeinvolvedinobtaining information from either a census or a sample involves the possibility of also incurring an opportunitycost.Thatis,thedecisionuntilinformationisobtainedmayresultinasmallergain or a larger loss than would have been the case from making the same decision earlier. The opportunitytomakemore(orsavemore,asthecasemaybe)is,therefore,foregone. 3. Accuracy: A study using a census, by definition, contains no sampling error. A study using a samplemayinvolvesamplingerrorinadditiontoothertypesoferror.Otherthingsbeingequal, acensuswillprovidemoreaccuratedatathanasample. Howeverithasbeenarguedthatamoreaccurateestimateofthepopulationofacountrycould bemadefromasamplethanfromacensus.Takingacensusofapopulationonamailout mailbackbasisrequiresthatthenamesandaddressesofalmostallhouseholdsbeobtained, census questionnaires mailed, and interviews conducted of those not responding. The questionnairesaresenttoapopulationofwhichonlyabouthalfhave completedhighschool. Thepotentialforerrorsinareturnedquestionnaireisthereforehigh.

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4. Destructive nature of the measurement: Measurements are sometimes destructive in nature. When they are, it is apparent that taking a census would usually defeat the purpose of a measurement. If one were producing firecrackers, electrical fuses, or gas seed, performing a functionalusetestonallproductsforqualitycontrolpurposeswouldnotbeconsideredfroman economicstandpoint.Asampleisthentheonlypracticalchoice.Ontheotherhand,ifthelight bulbs,bicycles,orelectricalappliancesaretobetested,a100%sample(census)maybeentirely reasonable. AdvantagesofSampling 1. Samplingischeaperthanacensussurvey.Itisobviouslymoreeconomical,forinstance,tocovera sampleofhouseholdsthanallhouseholdsinaterritoryalthoughthecostperunitofstudymaybe higherinasamplesurveythaninacensus. 2. Since magnitude of operations involved in a sample survey is small, both the execution of the fieldworkandtheanalysisoftheresultscanbecarriedoutspeedily. 3. Samplingresultsingreatereconomyofeffortasrelativelysmallstaffsisrequiredtocarryoutthe surveyandtotabulateandprocessthesurveydata. 4. A sample survey enables the researcher to collect more detailed information than would otherwise be possible in a census survey. Also, information of a more specialised type can be collected, which would not be possible in a census survey on account of availability of a small numberofspecialists. 5. Since the scale of operations involved in a sample survey is small, the quality of interviewing, supervisionandotherrelatedactivitiescanbebetterthanthequalityinacensussurvey. LimitationsofSampling 1. Whentheinformationisneededoneveryunitinthepopulationsuchasindividuals,dwellingunits or business establishments, a sample survey cannot be of much help for it fails to provide informationonindividualcount. 2. Samplinggivesrisetocertainerrors.Iftheseerrorsaretoolarge,theresultsofthesamplesurvey willbeofextremelylimiteduse. 3. Whileinacensussurveyitmaybeeasytochecktheomissionsofcertainunitsinviewofcomplete coverage,thisisnotsointhecaseofsamplesurvey. TheSamplingProcess Step 1.Definethepopulation 2.Specifysamplingframe Description Thepopulationisdefinedintermsofa)element,b)units,c) extentandd)time. Themeansofrepresentingtheelementsofthepopulation for example telephone book, map, or city directory are described. Theunitforsamplingforexample,cityblock,company,or householdisselected.Thesamplingunitmaycontainone orseveralpopulationelements. The method by which sampling units are to be selected is described.

3.Specifysamplingunit

4.Specifysamplingmethod

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5.Determinesamplesize 6.Specifysamplingplan 7.Selectthesample

Thenumberofelementsofthepopulationtobesampledis chosen. The operational procedures for selection of the sampling unitsareselected. The office and fieldwork necessary for the selection of the samplearecarriedout.

Step1:Definethepopulation Itistheaggregateofallelementsdefinedpriortoselectionofsample.Apopulationmustbedefinedin termsof elements, samplingunits, extentand time. Eliminatinganyoneofthesespecificationsleavesanincompletedefinitionofthepopulationthatisto besampled. Step2:SpecifytheSamplingframe Ifaprobabilitysampleistobetaken,asamplingframeisrequired.Asamplingframeisameans ofrepresentingtheelementsofthepopulation.Asamplingframemaybeatelephonebook,city directory,anemployeeroster,alistingofallstudentsattendingauniversity,oralistofpossible phonenumbers. Maps also serve frequently as sampling frames. A sample of areas within a city may be taken and another sample of household then be taken within each area. City blocks are sometimes sampled and all households on each sample block are included. A sampling of street intersections may be taken and interviewers given instructions as to how to take Random walks.Fromtheintersectionandselectthehouseholdstobeinterviewed. A perfect sampling frame is one in which every element of the population is represented once butonlyonce.Onedoesnotneedasamplingframetotakeanonprobabilitysample. Step3:SpecifythesamplingUnit Thesamplingunitisthebasicunitcontainingtheelementsofthepopulationtobesampled.Itmaybe theelementitselforaunitinwhichtheelementiscontained.Forexample,ifonewantedasampleof malesover13yearsofage,itmightbepossibletosamplethemdirectly.Inthiscase,thesamplingunit wouldbeidenticalwiththeelement.However,itmightbeeasiertoselecthouseholdsasthesampling unit and interview all males over 13 years of age in each household. Here the sampling unit and the populationelementarenotthesame. Step4:SpecifytheSamplingMethods Itindicateshowthesampleunitsareselected.Oneofthemostimportantdecisionsinthisregardisto determine which of the two probability and nonprobability sample is to be chosen. Probability samplesarealsoknownasrandomsamplesandnonprobabilitysamplesasnonrandomsamples. Therearevarioustypesofsampledesigns,whichcanbecoveredundertwobroadgroupsrandomor probabilitysamplesandnonrandom,ornonprobabilitysamples.

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Step5:DeterminationoftheSamplesize Traditionalsamplingtheorygenerallyignorestheconceptofthecostversusthevalueoftheinformation tobeprovidedbyvarioussizedsamples.Theproblemofdeterminationofsamplesizeisdealtlateronin depth. Step6:SpecifytheSamplingPlan The sampling plan involves the specification of how each of the decisions made thus far is to be implemented. It may have been decided that the household will be the element and the block the sampling unit. How is a household defined operationally? How is the interviewer to be instructed to distinguishbetweenfamiliesandhouseholdsininstanceswheretwofamiliesandsomedistantrelatives of one of them are sharing the same apartment? How is the interviewer to be instructed to take a systematic sample of households on the block? What should the interviewer do when a housing unit selectedisvacant?Whatisthecallbackprocedureforhouseholdsatwhichnooneisathome?Whatage respondentspeakingforthehouseholdisacceptable? Step7:SelecttheSample The final step in the sampling process is the actual selection of the sample elements. This requires a substantialamountofofficeandfieldworkparticularlyifpersonalinterviewareinvolved. CharacteristicsofagoodSampleDesign A good sample design requires the judicious balancing of four broad criteria goal orientation, measurability,practicalityandeconomy. 1. Goal orientation: This suggests that a sample design should be oriented to the research objectives, tailored to the survey design, and fitted to the survey conditions. If this is done, it shouldinfluencethechoiceofthepopulation,themeasurementasalsotheprocedureofchoosing asample. 2. Measurability:Asampledesignshouldenablethecomputationofvalidestimatesofitssampling variability. Normally, this variability is expressed in the form of standard errors in surveys. However,thisispossibleonlyinthecaseofprobabilitysampling.Innonprobabilitysamples,such aquotasample,itisnotpossibletoknowthedegreeofprecisionofthesurveyresults. 3. Practicality: This implies that the sample design can be followed properly in the survey, as envisagedearlier.Itisnecessarythatcomplete,correct,practical,andclearinstructionsshouldbe giventotheinterviewersothatnomistakesaremadeintheselectionofsamplingunitsandthe finalselectioninthefieldisnotdifferentfromtheoriginalsampledesign.Practicalityalsorefersto simplicity of the design, i.e. it should be capable of being understood and followed in actual operationofthefieldwork. 4. Economy: Finally, economy implies that the objectives of the survey should be achieved with minimumcostandeffort.Surveyobjectivesaregenerallyspeltoutintermsofprecision,i.e.the inverse of the variance of survey estimates. For a given degree of precision, the sample design shouldgivetheminimum cost.Alternatively,foragivenperunit cost,thesample design should achievemaximumprecision(minimumvariance). Itmaybepointedoutthatthesefourcriteriacomeintoconflictwitheachotherinmostofthecases, andtheresearchershouldcarefullybalancetheconflictingcriteriasothatheisabletoselectareally goodsampledesign.

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SamplingTechniques Samplingtechniquesmaybebroadlyclassifiedasnonprobabilityandprobabilitysamplingtechniques. Nonprobabilitysamplingtechniques: 1. It relies on the personal judgment of the researcher rather than t he chance to select sample elements. 2. Theresearchercanarbitrarilyorconsciouslydecidewhichelementtoincludeinthesample. 3. Nonprobability may yield good estimates of the population characteristic. However they do not allowforobjectiveevaluationoftheprecisionofthesampleresults. 4. Since there is no way of determining the probability of selecting any particular element for inclusioninthesample,theestimatesobtainedarenotstatisticallyprojectabletothepopulation. Probabilitysamplingtechniques: 1. Samplingunitsareselectedbychance. 2. It is possible to prespecify every potential sample of a given size that could be drawn from the population,aswellastheprobabilityofselectingeachsample. 3. Everypotentialsampleneednothavethesameprobabilityofselection,butitispossibletospecify theprobabilityofselectinganyparticularsampleofagivensize. 4. Thisrequiresnotonlyaprecisedefinitionofthetargetpopulation,butalsoageneralspecification ofthesamplingframe.Becausesampleelementsareselectedbychance. 5. Itispossibletodeterminetheprecisionofthesampleestimatedofthecharacteristicsofinterest. Confidenceintervals,whichcontainthetruepopulationvaluewithagivenlevelofcertainty,can be calculated. This permits the researcher to make inferences of projections about the target populationfromwhichthesamplewasdrawn.Probabilitysamplingtechniquesareclassifiedbased on: Elementversusclustersampling Equalunitprobabilityversusunequalprobabilities Unstratifiedversusstratifiedselection Randomversussystematicselection Singlestageversusmultistagetechniques Diagrammaticrepresentationofthesamplingtechniques. Samplingtechniques Nonprobability Probabilitysampling samplingtechniques techniques

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Systematic Simple Sampling Random NONPROBABILITYTECHNIQUES: 1. ConvenienceSampling

Stratified Sampling

Cluster Sampling

Multistage Sampling

Definition A nonprobability sampling technique that attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements. The selectionofsamplingunitsisleftprimarilytotheinterviewer. Explanation 1. ItisaformofNonProbabilitysampling. 2. ItismainlyusedforDipstickstudies.Thistypeofsamplingisnormallyusedtogetbasicinformation totakeelementarydecisions. 3. Conveniencesamplesareoftenusedinexploratorysituationswhenthereisaneedtogetonlyan approximationoftheactualvaluequicklyandinexpensively. 4. CommonlyusedConveniencesamplesareassociatesandthemanonthestreet.Suchsamplesare oftenusedinthepretestphaseofthestudy,suchaspretestingofaquestionnaire. Examples: Useofstudents,churchgroups,andmembersofsocialorganizations, Mallinterceptinterviewswithoutqualifyingtherespondents, Departmentstoresusingchargeaccountlists Tearoutquestionnaireincludedinamagazines,and Peopleonthestreetinterviews Advantages Conveniencesamplingistheleastexpensiveandleasttimeconsumingofallsamplingtechniques. Thesamplingunitsareaccessible,easytomeasureandcooperative. Thistechniqueisusedinexploratoryresearchforgeneratingideas,insightorhypothesis. Disadvantages Conveniencesamplescontainunknownamountsofbothvariablesandsystematicselectionerrors. Theseerrorscanbeverylargewhencomparedtothevariableerrorinasimplerandomsampling ofthesamesize. Convenience samples are not representatives of any definable population. So they are not recommendedfordescriptiveorcasualresearch. 2. Judgmentalsampling

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Definition Aformofconveniencesamplinginwhichthepopulationelementsarepurposivelyselectedbasedonthe judgmentoftheresearcher. Explanation A judgment sample is one in which there is an attempt to draw a representative sample of the populationusingjudgmentalselectionprocedures.Judgmentsamplesarecommoninindustrialmarket research. Example Asampleofaddressestakenbythemunicipalagencytowhichquestionnairesonbicycleridinghabits weresent.Ajudgmentsamplewastakenafterresearcherslookedattrafficmapsofthecity,considered thetaxassessmentonhousesandapartmentbuildings(perunit),andkeptlocationofschoolsandparks inmind. Advantages Judgmentalsamplingislowcost,convenientandquick. Judgmental sampling is subjective and its value depends entirely on the researchers judgment, expertiseandcreativity. Itisusefulifbroadpopulationinferencesarenotrequired. Disadvantage 3. QuotaSampling Definition Anonprobabilitysamplingtechniquesthatisatwostagerestrictedjudgmentalsampling.Thefirststage consistsofdevelopingcontrolcategoriesorquotasofpopulationelements.Inthesecondstag,sample elementsareselectedbasedonconvenienceorjudgment. Explanation ItisaformofNonProbabilitysampling. In Quota Sampling, the samples are selected in such a way that the interest parameters representedinthesampleareinthesameproportionastheyareintheuniverse/population. QuotaSamplingiswidelyusedinconsumerpanels. Thefollowingaspectsmustbekeptinmindwhilechoosingthecontrolvariables: Thevariablesmustbeavailableandshouldberecent. Theyshouldbeeasyfortheinterviewertoclassify. Theyshouldbecloselyrelatedtothevariablebeingmeasuredinthestudy. The number of variable must be kept to a reasonable number so as to avoid confusion while analyzingthedata Thecostofsampleperunitisdirectlyproportionaltothenumberofcontrolvariables. Inordertohaveacheck mechanismaboutthequalityofsamplestakensoastoreduce theselection errors,QuotaSamplesarevalidatedaftertheyaretaken. Itdoesnotallowdirectgeneralizationtoaspecificpopulation,usuallybecausethepopulationis notdefinedexplicitly.

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The process of validation involves a comparison of the sample and the population with respect to characteristicsnotusedascontrolvariables.Fore.g.inaquotasampletakenfromaconsumerpanelfor whichincome,education,andagegroupareusedascontrolvariables.Ifthecomparisonofthispanel andthepopulationmightbemadewithrespecttosuchcharacteristicsasaveragenumberofchildren, occupationofthechiefwageearnerandhomeownership.Thenifthepaneldifferedsignificantlyfrom the population with respect to any of these characteristics, it would be an indication of the potential bias in the selection procedures. It should be noted that the similarity does not necessarily mean the absenceofbias. Example IfonewantstoselectaQuotasampleofpersonsforatestofflavoredteaandwantstocontrol(control variables are the parameters based on which he would like to classify the universe) it by ethnic background,incomebracket,agegroupandgeographicalarea.Thenthesampletakenwouldhavethe sameproportionofpeopleineachethnicbackground,incomebracket,agegroupandgeographicalarea asthepopulation. Disadvantages Scopeforhighvariances Scopeforsizableselectionerrors. Selection errors arise from the way interviewers select the persons/ variables to fill the quota. Incorrectinformationoftheproportionsofthepopulationineachofthecontrolvariables,biases in the relationship of the control variables to the variables being measured, and from other sources. ProbabilityTechniques: Probability sampling techniques vary in terms of sampling efficiency. Sampling efficiency is a concept that reflects a tradeoffs between sampling cost and precision. Precision refers to the level of uncertaintyaboutthecharacteristicbeingmeasured.Thegreatertheprecision,thegreaterthecostand moststudiesrequiretradeoff. 1. SimpleRandomSampling Definition A probability sampling technique in which each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection is known as simple random sampling (SRS). Every element is selected independentlyofeveryotherelementandthesampleisdrawnbyarandomprocedurefromasampling frame. Explanation In random sampling, each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection. Furthermore, each possible sample ofa given size (n) has a known and equal probability of being the sampleactuallyselected.Thisimpliesthateveryotherelementisselectedindependentlyofeveryother element.Thesampleisdrawnbyarandomprocedurefromasamplingframe.Thismethodisequivalent toalotterysysteminwhichnamesareplacedinacontainer,thecontainerisshaken,andthenamesof thewinnersarethendrawnoutinanunbiasedmanner.

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Todrawasimplerandomsample,theresearcherfirstcompilesasamplingframeinwhicheachelement is assigned a unique identification number. Then random numbers are generated to determine which elementtoincludeinthesample.Therandomnumbersmaybegeneratedwithacomputerroutineora table. Advantages Itiseasytounderstand Thesampleresultmaybeprojectedtothetargetpopulation. Disadvantages It is often difficult to construct a sampling frame that will permit a simple random sample to be drawn. SRScanresultinsamplesthatareverylargeorspreadoverlargegeographicareas,thusincreasing thetimeandcostofdatacollection. SRS often results in lower precision with larger standard errors than other probability sampling techniques. SRSmayormaynotresultinarepresentativesample.Althoughsamplesdrawnwillrepresentthe population well on average, a given simple random sample may grossly misrepresent the target population.Thismorelikelyifthesizeofthesampleissmall. 2. Systematicsampling Definition Aprobabilitysamplingtechniqueinwhichthesampleischosenbyselectingarandomstartingpointand thenpickingeveryithelementinsuccessionfromthesamplingframe. Explanation Insystematicsampling,thesampleischosenbyselectingarandomstartingpointandthenpickingevery ithelementinsuccessionfromthesamplingframe.Thesamplinginterval,i,isdeterminedbydividingthe populationsizeNbythesamplesizenandroundingtothenearestinteger. Example Supposethereare100,000elementsinthepopulationandasampleof1000desired.In thiscasethe samplinginterval,i,is100.Arandomnumberbetween1to100isselected.Ifsaynumber23isselected, thesamplewillthenconsistsofelements23,123,223,323,423,523,andsoon. SystematicsamplingissimilartoSRSinthateachpopulationelementhasaknownandequalprobability ofselection.However,itisdifferentfromSRSinthatonlythepermissiblesamplesofsizenthatcanbe drawn have a known and equal probability of selection. The remaining samples of size n have a zero probabilityofbeingselected. For systematic sampling, the researcher assumes that the population elements are ordered in some respect. In some cases the ordering (alphabetic listing in a telephone book) is unrelated to the characteristicofinterest.Inotherinstances,theorderingisdirectlyrelatedtothecharacteristicunder investigation.(Creditcardcustomersmaybelistedinorderofoutstandingbalances.Ifthepopulation elementsarearrangedinamannerunrelatedtothecharacteristicofinterest,systematicsamplingwill yieldresultquitesimilartoSRS.

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On the other hand, when the ordering of the element is related to the characteristic of interest, systematicsamplingincreasestherepresentativesofthesample. Advantages SystematicsamplingislesscostlyandeasierthatSRS,becauserandomselectionisdoneonlyonce. The random numbers do not have to be matched with individual element as in SRS. Since some listscontainsmillionsofelements,considerabletimecanbesaved.Thisinturnagainreducesthe cost. If the information related to the characteristic of interest is available for the population, systematicsamplingcanbeusedtoobtainamorerepresentativeandreliablesamplethanSRS. Systematic sampling can even be used without knowledge of the composition (elements) of the samplingframe. 3. StratifiedRandomSampling Definition A probability sampling technique that uses a twostep process to partition the population into subpopulations, or strata is known as stratified random sampling. Elements are selected from each stratumbyarandomprocedure. Explanation StratifiedRandomSamplingemergesfromthewordStratum.AStratuminapopulationisasegmentof thatpopulationhavingoneormorecharacteristics.E.g.peopleintheagestrataof3540,peopleinthe incomestratatoRs.20000p.m.etc StratifiedSamplinginvolvestreatingeachstratum asaseparatesubpopulationforsamplingpurposes, andfromeachstratumsamplingunitswouldbedrawnrandomly. ThereasonsforconductingStratifiedRandomSamplingare: Toreducesamplingerrorbyensuringrepresentationfromthepopulation. Therequiredsamplesizeforthesamelevelofsamplingerrorwillusuallybesmaller. As compared to other methods of sampling, in Stratified Random Sampling representativeness to a certaindegreeisforced. The greater degree to which there is similarity within stratum, smaller is the sample size required to provideinformationaboutthatstratum. Thusthemorehomogeneouseachstratumiswithrespecttothevariableofinterestthesmalleristhe samplerequired. Example If the head of the household age strata (1834, 3549, 50+) are of interest in a study on household spending habits on household furnishings, then each of these groups would be taken separately for samplingpurposes.Thatis,thetotalpopulationcouldbedividedintoagegroupsandaseparatesample isdrawnfromeachgroup. 4. ClusterSampling

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Definition Thetargetpopulationisdividedintomutuallyexclusiveandcollectivelyexhaustivesubpopulationcalled clusters.Thenarandomsampleofclustersisselectedbasedonprobabilitysamplingtechniquessuchas simplerandomsampling.Foreachselectedclusters,eitheralltheelementsareincludedinthesample orasampleofelementsisdrawnprobabilistically. Explanation Ifalltheelementsineachselectedclusterareincludedinthesample,theprocedureiscalledone stageclustersampling. If a sample of elements is drawn probabilistically from each selected cluster, the procedure is calledtwostageclustersampling. The key distinction between cluster sampling and stratified sampling is that in cluster sampling only a sample of subpopulations (clusters) is chosen, whereas in stratified sampling all the subpopulationsareselected. Theobjectiveoftheclustersamplingistoincreasethesamplingefficiencybydecreasingcosts. Example Ifthestudyrequiresstudyingthehouseholdsinthecitytheninclustersamplingthewholecityisdivided intoBlocksandtotakeeachhouseholdoneachblockselected.Thustogetarepresentativewholeof theuniverse. Advantages Lowpopulationheterogeneity/highpopulationhomogeneity Lowexpectedcostoferrors. The main advantage of cluster sampling is the low cost per sampling unit as compared to other samplingmethods. Disadvantage Highpotentialofsamplingerrorascomparedtoothermethods. Foreg:Thelowercostperunitandhighersamplingerrorpotentialofaclustersampleisillustrated byconsideringasampleof100householdstobeselectedforpersonalinterviewsfromaparticular city.Inthismethodthecitywouldbedividedinblocksand10householdsfrom10selectedblocks would be selected and interviewed. Thus the cost of personal interview per unit will be low because of the close proximity of the units in the cluster. This sample may not be the exact representationoftheentirecity.Thusthereisapossibilityofsamplingerror. 5. SingleStageV/sMultistageSampling Explanation Thenumberofstagesinvolvedinthesamplingmethodispartiallyafunctionofthenumberofsampling frameavailable.Ifaperfectframewerealwaysavailablecompletewithalltheassociatedinformation one might want for purposes of clustering and / or stratifying, there would be far fewer multiple samplestakenthantherearenow.Inpractice,itisnotuncommontohaveafirststageareasampleof, say, census tracts, followed by a second stage sample of blocks, and completed with a systematic

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sample of households within each block. These stages would not be necessary if a complete listing of householdswereavailable. Example ACNielsensMultistageSamplingProceduretoselectitsPeopleMeterPanel Thefirststageinvolvestheselectionofcountiesusingastratifiedrandomsamplebasedonpopulation. Nextwithintheselectedcountiesthereisarandomselectionofblocksorenumerationdistricts.These blocks then go through a process called prelisting. A trained field representative visits the selected blocksandcreatesalistofalltheindividualhosingunits.Thislististhenreturnedtothehomeoffice whereitischeckedforinternalconsistencyandexternalagreementwithotherdata.Finally,individual householdunitsarerandomlyselectedfromeachblock. Strengthsandweaknessofbasicsamplingtechniques Techniques Strengths Weaknesses Nonprobabilitysampling Conveniencesampling Least expensive, least time Selection bias; sample not consuming,mostconvenient representative; not recommended fordescriptiveorcasualresearch.

Judgmentalsampling Quotasampling Snowballsampling ProbabilitySampling SimpleRandomSampling(SRS)

Low cost, convenient, not time consuming Sample can be controlled for certaincharacteristics Can estimate rare characteristics

Does not allow generalization subjective Selection bias, no assurance of representativeness. Timeconsuming

Easilyunderstood Resultprojectable

SystematicSampling

Stratifiedsampling

Canincreaserepresenta tiveness. Easier to implement than SRS sampling frame not necessary Includes all important Difficult to select relevant subpopulations;precision stratification variables; not feasible to stratify on many variable; expensive

Difficult to construct sampling frame;expensivelowerprecison;no assuranceofrepresentativeness Candecreaserepresentativeness

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Clustersampling

Easy to effective

implement,

cost Imprecise; difficult to compute and interpretresults

ChoosingNonprobabilityversusProbabilitySampling Thechoicebetweennonprobabilityandprobabilitysamplesshouldbebasedonconsiderationssuchas thenatureoftheresearch,relativemagnitudeofnonsamplingversussamplingerrors,variabilityinthe population,aswellasstatisticalandoperationalconsiderations.Forexample, Conditionsfavoringtheuseof Nonprobability Probability Factors Sampling Sampling Natureofresearch Exploratory Conclusive Relative magnitude of sampling Non sampling errors are Samplingerrorsarelarger. andnonsamplingerrors larger Variabilityinthepopulation Homogenous(low) Heterogeneous(high) Statisticalconsideration Unfavorable Favorable Operationalconsideration Favorable Unfavorable In exploratory research the findings are treated as preliminary and the use of probability sampling may not be warranted. On the other hand, in conclusive research in which the researcher wishes to use the results to estimate overall market shares or the size of the total market, probability sampling is favored. Probability samples allow statistical projection of the resultstoatargetpopulation. Forsomeresearchproblems,highlyestimatesofpopulationcharacteristicarerequired.Inthese situations, the elimination of selection bias and the ability to calculate sampling error make probability sampling desirable. However probability sampling will not always result in more accurateresults.Ifnonsamplingerrorsarelikelytobeanimportantfactor,thennonprobability sampling may be preferable, as the use of judgment may allow greater control over the samplingprocess. Another consideration is the homogeneity of the population with respect to the variables of interest.Amoreheterogeneouspopulationwouldfavorprobabilitysampling,becauseitwould

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be important to secure a representative sample. Probability sampling is preferable from a statisticalviewpoint,asitisthebasisofmostcommonstatisticaltechniques. However, probability sampling is sophisticated and requires statistically trained researcher. It generally costs more and takes longer than does nonprobability sampling. In many marketing researchprojects,itisdifficulttojustifytheadditionaltimeandexpense.Therefore,inpractice, theobjectivesofthestudydictatewhichsamplingmethodwillbeused.

METHODSOFDETERMININGSAMPLESIZE Therearesixmethodsofdeterminingsamplesizeinmarketresearch.Theyare 1. UnaidedJudgement: When no specific method is used to determine sample size, it is called Unaided Judgement. Such approach when used to arrive at sample size gives no explicit considerations to either the likely precision of the sample results or the cost of obtaining them (characteristics in which client should haveinterest).Itisanapproachtobeavoided. 2. AllYouCanAfford: Inthismethod,abudgetfortheprojectissetbysome(generallyunspecified)processand,afterthe estimated fixed costs of designing the project, preparing a questionnaire (if required), analysing the data, and preparing the report are deducted, the remainder of the budget is allocated to sampling. Dividingthisremainingamountbytheestimatedcostpersamplingunitgivesthesamplesize. This method concentrates on the cost of the information and is not concerned about its value. Althoughcostalwayshastobeconsideredinanysystematicapproachtosamplesizedetermination, onealsoneedstogiveconsiderationtohowmuchtheinformationtobeprovidedbythesamplewill beworth.Thisapproachproducessamplesizesthatarelargerthanrequiredaswellassizesthatare smallerthanoptimal. 3. RequiredSizePerCell: Thismethodofdeterminingsamplesizecanbeusedonsimplerandom,stratifiedrandom,purposive andquotasamples.Forexample,inastudyofattitudeswithrespecttofastfoodestablishmentsina localmarketingareaitwasdecidedthatinformationwasdesiredfortwooccupationalgroupsandfor eachofthefouragegroups.Thisresultedin2x4=8samplecells.Asamplesizeof30wasneededper cell for the types of statistical analyses that were to be conducted. The overall sample size was therefore8x30=240. 4. UseofTraditionalStatisticalModel: The formula for traditional statistical model depends upon the type of sample to be taken and it alwaysincorporatesthreecommonvariables anestimateofthevarianceinthepopulationfromwhichthesampleistobedrawn, theerrorfromsamplingthattheresearcherwillallow,and thedesiredlevelofconfidencethattheactualsamplingerrorwillbewithintheallowablelimits. The statistical models for simple random sampling include estimation of means and estimation of proportion. 5. UseofBayesianStatisticalModel: TheBayesianmodelinvolvesfindingthedifferencebetweentheexpectedvalueoftheinformationto beprovidedbythesamplesize.Thisdifferenceisknownasexpectednetgainfromsampling(ENGS). ThesamplesizewiththelargestpositiveENGSischosen.

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TheBayesianmodelisnotaswidelyusedasthetraditionalstatisticalmodelsfordeterminingsample size,eventhoughitincorporatesthecostofsamplingandthetraditionalmodelsdonot.Thereasons for the relative infrequent use of Bayesian model are related to greater complexity and perceived difficultyofmakingtheestimatesrequiredforBayesianmodelascomparedtothetraditionalmodels.

ATTITUDEMEASUREMENTTECHNIQUES
Definitionofattitude:AttitudehasbeendefinedbyGeneF.Summersasapredispositiontorespondto anideaoranobject. Inmarketing,thisreferstotheconsumerspredispositionabouttheproductorservice.Ifitisfavorable, thentheconsumerislikelytopurchasetheproductorservice. Attitudesaboutproductsorservicesarecomposedofthreeelements: Beliefssuchastheproductsstrengthortheeconomyoftheproductorservice Emotionalfeelingssuchaslikesordislikes Readinesstorespondtotheproductorservice,i.e.tobuyit. Thesethreeelementscombinetogethertoformanimageoftheproductorserviceinthemindofthe consumer. When the car manufacturer, the movie producer or the insurance company refers to the companys image, they are referring to some general averages of many individuals attitudes towards thecompany. Attitudemeasurementiscommonlyreferredtoasscaling. Themeasurementtechniquesaredividedthus:

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NonDisguised, Non-Structured techniques F.G.Ds Depth interviews

Disguised, Non-Structured techniques

NonDisguised, Structured techniques

Disguised, Structured techniques

Word association

Ordinal Scale

Story Completion

Interval Scale

Sentence Completions

Ratio Scale

Pictorial Techniques

Graphic Rating Scale


Semantic Differential

Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)

Cartoon Method Likert Scale

Multiple Scale

Item

Thurston Scale

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NONDISGUISED,NONSTRUCTUREDTECHNIQUES Theessenceofthesemethodsisthatthepurposeoftheinterviewisnotasecretandthatthereisno fixedstructureforconductingtheinterview. QualitativeResearch The most common method of obtaining information about the behavior, attitudes and other characteristicsofpeopleistoaskthem.However itisnotalwayspossible,ordesirabletouse direct questioning to obtain information. People may be either unwilling or unable to give answerstoquestionstheyconsidertobeaninvasionoftheirprivacy,thatadverselyaffecttheir selfperception or prestige, that are embarrassing that concern motivations that they do not fullyunderstandorcannotverbalize,orforotherreasons.Thereforeadditionalapproachesto obtainingsuchinformationmaybenecessary. DepthinterviewsandProjectivetechniquesarefrequentlyusedbymarketingresearcherswhendirect questioning is impractical, more costly, or less accurate. These techniques generally referred to as Qualitativeresearch. Depthinterviews Individualdepthinterviewstypicallyrequire3045minutes.Theinterviewerdoesnothaveaspecificset of prespecified questions that must be asked according to the order imposed by a questionnaire. Instead, there is freedom to create questions, to probe those responses that appear relevant, and generally to try to develop the best set of data in any way practical. However the interviewer must follow one rule; one must not consciously try to affect the content of the answers given by the respondents.Therespondent.Therespondentmustfeelfreetoreplytothevariousquestions,probes, andother,subtler,waysofencouragingresponsesinthemannerdeemedmostappropriate. Subjectofinterestisdiscussedindetail. Thereisnofixedpatternforelicitinginformationfromtherespondents. Generally conducted by highly trained interviewers. They must be thorough in probing the respondents. Theintervieweeisaskedaboutthesubjectofhischoice,coffee,forexample,andanattemptis madetoexploretherespondentsattitudesindepthbyprobingextensivelyintoanyotherareas whichmaycomeup. Interviewers have a general series of topics that they will introduce perhaps such topics as coffee, or sleep, and will introduce them from time to time if the respondent does not bring themup. Toneoftheinterviewispermissiveandtherespondentisallowedtotalkasmuchashelikes. Theinterviewermustnotinfluencetheanswersoftherespondent. The interpretation of the answers is very subjective and knowledge of human behavior is requiredtoanalyzetheinformationreceived. Individualdepthinterviewsusesthreequestioningtechniquesnamely:

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1. Laddering involves having respondents identify attributes that distinguish brands by asking questions. Each distinguishing attribute is then probed to determine why it is important or meaningful.Thesereasonsarethenprobedtodeterminewhyitisimportant,andsoforth.The purpose is to uncover the network of meanings associated with the product, brand, or concept. 2. Hiddenissue questioning focuses on individual respondents feelings about sensitive issues. Analysisonfocusoncommonunderlyingthemesacrossrespondents.Thesethemescanthenbe usedtoguideadvertisingdevelopment 3. Symbolicquestioningrequiresrespondentstodescribetheoppositesoftheproduct/activityof interestoraspecificattributeoftheproduct/activity. Individual depth interviews have been found to generate more and higher quality ideas on a per respondentbasisthaneitherfocusorminigroups.Theyareparticularlyappropriatewhen: 1. Detailedprobingofanindividualsbehavior,attitudeorneedsisrequired; 2. Thesubjectmatterunderdiscussionislikelytobeofahighlyconfidentialnature(e.g.personal investment) 3. Thesubjectmatterisofanemotionallychargedorembarrassingnature; 4. Certainstrong,sociallyacceptablenormsexist(e.g.babyfeeding)andtheneedtoconformina groupdiscussionmayinfluenceresponses; 5. Wherehighlydetailedunderstandingofcomplicatedbehaviorordecisionmakingpattern(e.g. planningthefamilyholiday)arerequired;or The interviews are with professional people or with people on the subject of their jobs 9 e.g. finance directors) Focusgroupdiscussions(F.G.Ds): ThestandardfocusgroupinterviewintheUnitedStatesinvolves8and12individualsandlasts about 2 hours. Normally each group is designed to reflect the characteristics of a particular market segment. The respondents are selected according to the relevant sampling plan and meetatacentrallocationthatgenerallyhasfacilityfortapingand/orfilmingtheinterviews.In Europe,focustendtoconsistof6to8respondents,varyinlengthfrom1.5to4hoursandare oftenconductedinthehomeoftherecruiter.Otherwisetheinterviewersaresimilar. Thediscussionitselfisledbyamoderator.Themoderatorattemptstoprogressthroughthree stagesduringtheinterviewer:(1)establishrapportwiththegroup,structuretherulesofgroup interaction, and set objectives; (2) provoke intense discussion in the relevant areas; and (3) summarizethegroupsresponsestodeterminetheextentofagreement.Thegeneraleitherthe moderatororasecondpersonpreparesasummaryofeachsessionafteranalyzingthesessions transcript. FocusGroupInterviewscanbeappliedto: 1. Basicneedstudiesforproductideacreation, 2. Newproductideaorconceptexploration, 3. Productpositioningstudies, 4. Advertisingandcommunicationsresearch,

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5. Backgroundstudiesonconsumersframesorreference, 6. Establishmentofconsumervocabularyasapreliminarystepinquestionnairedevelopmentand, 7. Determinationofattitudesandbehavior. Advantages 1. Each individual is able to expand and refine their opinions in the interaction with the other members.Thisprocessprovidesmoredetailedandaccurateinformationthancouldbederived fromeachseparately. 2. A group interview situation is generally more exciting and offers more stimulation to the participantsthanthestandarddepthinterviews. 3. Thesecurityofbeinginacrowdencouragessomememberstospeakoutwhentheyotherwise wouldnot. 4. As the questions raised by the moderator are addressed to the entire group rather than an individual the answer contains a degree of spontaneity that is not produced by other techniques. 5. Focus groups can be used successfully with children over five. They are also very useful with adultsindevelopingcountrieswhereliteracyratesarelowandsurveyresearchisdifficult.88 6. A final major advantage of focus groups is that executives often observe the interview (from behindmirrors)orwatchfilmsoftheinterview. Disadvantages 1. Since focus group interviews last 1.5 to 3 hours and take place at a central location, securing cooperationfromarandomsampleisdifficult. 2. Thosewhoattendgroupinterviewsandactivelyparticipateinthemarelikelytobedifferentin manyrespectsfromthosewhodonot. 3. Therearechancesthatparticipantsmaygoalongwiththepopularopinioninsteadofexpressing theirownwhichmaybecontrarytothepopularopinions. 4. Thepresenceofaonewaymirrorand/oranobserver(s)hasbeenfoundtodistortparticipants responses. 5. The moderator can introduce serious biases in the interview by shifting topics too rapidly verballyornonverballyencouragingcertainanswers,failingtocoverspecificareas,andsoforth. 6. Focusgroupsareexpensiveonaperrespondentbasis. Minigroups Minigroupsconsistofamoderatorand4and5respondentsratherthanthe8to12usedinmost focusgroups.Theyareusedwhentheissuebeinginvestigatedrequiresmoreextensiveprobing thanispossibleinalargergroup. Minigroups do not allow the collection of a confidential or highly sensitive data as might be possible in an individual depth interview. However, they do allow the researcher to obtain substantiallydepthofresponseonthetopicsthatarecovered.Furthertheintimacyofthesmall groupoftenallowsdiscussionofquitesensitiveissues. Theadvantagesanddisadvantagesofminigroupsaresimilartothoseofstandardfocusgroups,butona smallerscale. In principle, these interviews are the same as the previous ones, excepting that they are conductedingroupsratherthanforindividuals.

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Thismethodisthereforelessexpensiveandlesstimeconsumingthanthedepthinterviews. This method is advantageous because it gives excellent leads to consumer attitudes that no othermethodcangive. Anotheradvantageofthismethodisthateachrespondentreceivesstimulationforresponding fromhisgroupmembersandsotheinterviewerneednotprompttheintervieweetoanswer. The disadvantage here is that one or two members could dominate in the group and others mightnotgetachancetoanswer.Thiswouldagainmakeitanindividualeffort.

DISGUISED,NONSTRUCTUREDTECHNIQUES Theessenceofthesemethodsisthattheintervieweeeitherdoesnotknowthathisattitudeis beingstudied,ordoesnotknowforwhichcompanythesurveyisbeingdone,orsometimeshe doesnotknowboth.Itinvolvesusingvariousvaguestimulitowhichtherespondentisaskedto respond. In doing so, it is believed that the respondent reveals several elements of his/ her attitudethathewouldnothaverevealedinthefaceofdirectquestions. These tests are not difficult to administer because they are like games played with the respondents.Generally,respondentsseemtoenjoytheexercise. ProjectiveTechniques Projective Techniques are based on the theory that the description of vague objects requires interpretationandthisinterpretationcanonlybebasedontheindividualsownbackground,attitudes, and values. The more vague or ambiguous the object to be described the move one must reveal of oneselfinordertocompletethedescription. The following general categories of projective techniques are described: association, completion, constructionandexpression. AssociationTechniques Associationtechniquesrequirethesubjecttorespondtothepresentationofastimuluswiththe firstthingsthatcometomind.Thewordassociationtechniquerequirestherespondenttogive thefirstwordorthoughtthatcomestomindafterresearcherpresentsawordorphrase.Infree association only the first word or thought is required. In successive word association, the respondentisaskedtogiveaseriesofwordsorthoughtsthatoccurafterhearingagivenword. The respondent is generally read a number of relatively neutral terms to establish the technique. Then the words of interest to the researcher are presented, each separated by severalneutralterms.Theorderofpresentationofthekeywordsisrandomizedtopreventany positionororderbiasfromaffectingtheresults.Themostcommonapproachtoanalyzingthe resultingdataistoanalyzethefrequencywithaparticularwordorcategoryorwordisgivenin responsetothewordofinteresttotheresearcher. Word association techniques are used in testing potential brand names and occasionally for measuring attitudes about particular products, product attributes, brands, packages or advertisements.

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CompletionTechniques This technique requires the respondent to complete an incomplete stimulus. Two types of completionareofinteresttomarketingresearcherssentencecompletionandstorycompletion. Sentence completion, as the name implies, involves requiring the respondent to complete a sentence. In most sentence completion tests the respondents are asked to complete the sentencewithaphrase.Generallytheyaretoldtousethefirstthoughtthatcomestotheirmind or anything that makes sense. Because the individual is not required directly to associate himself or herself with the answer conscious or subconscious defenses are more likely to be relaxedandallowamorerevealinganswer. Storycompletionisanexpandedversionofsentencecompletion.Asthenamesuggestspartofa storyistoldandtherespondentisaskedtocompleteit. ConstructionTechniques

This technique requires the respondent to produce or construct something generally a story, dialogue, or description. They are similar to completion techniques except that less initial structureisprovided. Cartoon techniques present cartoontype drawings of one or more people in a particular situation.Oneormoreoftheindividualsareshownwithasentenceinbubbleformabovetheir heads and one of the others is shown with a blank bubble that the respondent is to fill in. Instead of having the bubble show replies or comments, it can be drawn to indicate the unspokenthoughtsofoneormoreofthecharacters.Thisdeviceallowstherespondenttoavoid any restraints that might be felt against having even a carton character speak as opposed to thinkcertainthoughts. Third person techniques allow the respondent to project attitudes onto some vague third person.Thisthirdpersonisgenerallyanaveragewoman,yourneighbors,theguyswhere youwork,mostdoctorsorthelike.Thusinsteadofaskingtherespondentwhyheorshedid something or what he or she thinks about something the researcher asks what friends, neighborsortheaveragepersonthinksabouttheissue. Pictureresponse,anotherusefulconstructiontechnique,involvesusingpicturestoelicitstories. These pictures are usually relatively vague, so that the respondent must use his or her imaginationtodescribewhatisoccurring. Fantasyscenariorequirestherespondenttomakeupafantasyabouttheproductorbrand. Personificationaskstherespondenttocreateapersonallyfortheproductsorbrands. ExpressiveTechniques Roleplayingistheonlyexpressivetechniqueutilizedtoanyextentbymarketingresearchers.In role playing the consumer is asked to assume the role or behavior of an object or another person, such as a sales representative for a particular department store. The roleplaying customercanthenbeaskedtotrytosellagivenproducttoanumberofdifferentconsumers whoraisevaryingobjections.Themeansbywhichtheroleplayerattemptstoovercomethese objectionscanrevealagreatdealabouthisorherattitudes.Anotherversionofthetechnique

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involvesstudyingtheroleplayersattitudesonwhattypeofpeopleshouldshopatthestore inquestion. Problems Asprojectivetechniquesgenerallyrequirepersonalinterviewswithhighlytrainedinterviewers andinterpreterstoevaluatetheresponses,theytendtobeveryexpensive. Small sample sizes can increase the probability of substantial sampling error. The reliance on smallsamplesoftenhasbeenaccompaniedbynonprofitabilityselectionprocedures. Someoftheprojectivetechniquesrequiretherespondentstoengageinbehaviorthatmaywell bestrangetothem;thisisparticulartruefortechniquessuchasroleplays.Thusthereisreason enoughtobelievethattheremightbeanerrorinthefindings. Measurementerrorisalsoaseriousissuewithrespecttoprojectivetechniques.Thepossibility ofinterpreterbiasisobvious. Promises Theycanuncoverinformationnotavailablethroughdirectquestioningorobservation. Theyareparticularlyusefulintheexploratorystagesofresearch Theycangeneratehypothesesforfurthertestingandprovideattributeslistsandtermsformore structurestechniquessuchasthesemanticdifferential. Theresultsofprojectivetechniquescanbeuseddirectlyfordecisionmaking. WordAssociation Oneoftheoldestandsimplestprojectiontechniques. Respondentsarepresentedwithanumberofdifferentwords,oneatatime.Aftereachword, theyareaskedtogivethefirstwordthatcomestomind. The assumption here is that through free words, the respondents will indicate their inner feelingsaboutthesubject. Responsesaretimedsothatthoseresponsesthatrespondentsreasonoutareidentifiedand takenintoaccountintheanalysis.Thetimelimitisusually5seconds. The usual way of constructing such a test is to choose many stimulating and neutral words. Thewordsarereadouttotherespondentoneatatime,andtheintervieweressentiallyrecords thefirstwordassociationbytherespondent. Respondentsshouldnotbeaskedtowritetheirresponsesbecausethentheinterviewerwillnot knowiftheresponseswerespontaneousorwhethertherespondenttooktimetothinkoutthe responses. Anexampleofsuchatestis:whowouldeatalotofoatmeal?Thefirstresponseisathletes. Thismeansthattherespondentfeelsthattheproductismoresuitedforsportspersons.More wordsonthesametopicwillrevealmoreabouttherespondentsattitudeabouttheproduct. Whileanalyzingtheresultsofwordassociationtests,responsesarearrangedalongsuchlinesas favorableunfavorableandpleasantunpleasant. SentenceCompletion Therespondentisgivenanumberofincompletesentencesandaskedtocompletethem.

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Theruleheretoo,isthatrespondentmustfillinthefirstthoughtthatcomestomind. Responsesaretimed. Heretheinterviewergetsmoreinformationthanthewordassociationtechnique. However,itisdifficulttodisguisethemotiveofthestudyfromtherespondent,whoisusually abletodiagnosetheinvestigatorspurposeofstudy. Forexample,amanwhoreadsSportstaris. Thesentencescanbewordedineitherfirstorthirdperson.Noevidencesuggeststhatoneof theseapproachescouldbebetterthantheother.

StoryCompletion Respondents are given a halfcompleted story. This is enough to draw their attention to a particularissue,buttheendingisleftvague,sothatresponsescanbevaried. Thistechniqueisveryversatileandhasnumerousapplicationstomarketingproblems. The findings about products/ services give companies inputs to determine advertising and promotionalthemesandproductcharacteristics. PictorialTechniques Thesearesimilartostorycompletionmethod,exceptthatherepicturesareusedasthestimuli. Thetwomainmethodsusedhereare a) ThematicApperceptionTests(TAT) b) Cartoonmethod TAT Clinicalpsychologistshavelongusedthismethod. Heretherespondentisshownmanyambiguouspicturesandheisaskedtospinstoriesabout them. The interviewer may ask questions to help the respondent to think. For example what is happening here? makes the answer focused towards an action. Or which one is the aggressor?makestherespondentthinkaboutthepictureasoneofaggression.Thereasonthat respondentsmustbeaskedsuchpromptingquestionsisthatthepicturesareveryabstractand generalandassuchareopentoverybroadandirreverentinterpretations.Sosomeamountof focusisneededtochanneltherespondentsthinking. Each subject in the pictures is a medium through which the respondent projects his feelings, ideas, emotions and attitudes. The respondent attributes these feelings to the characters becauseheseesinthepicturesomethingrelatedtohimself. Responsesdifferwidelyandanalysisdependsupontheambiguityofthepicture,theextentto which the respondent is able to guess the conclusions and the vagueness of the support questionsaskedbytheinterviewer.

CartoonTests TheyareaversionormodificationoftheTAT,buttheyaresimplertoadministerandanalyze. Cartoon Characters are shown in a specific situation pertinent to a problem. One or more

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balloonsindicatingtheconversationofthecharactersisleftopen.Therespondenthastothen filltheseballoonsandthenanalyzed. NONDISGUISED,STRUCTUREDTECHNIQUES Thenonstructuredtechniquesforattitudemeasurementareprimarilyofvalueinexploratorystudies, where the researcher is looking for the salient attributes of given products and the important factors surrounding purchase decisions as seen by the consumer. Structured techniques can provide a more objectivemeasurementsystem,onethatismorecomparabletoascaleoryardstick.Thetermscaling has been applied to the efforts to measure attitudes objectively, and a number of useful scales have beendeveloped. NominalData Asetofdataissaidtobenominalifthevalues/observationsbelongingtoitcanbeassignedacodein theformof anumberwherethe numbersaresimplylabels. Youcancountbut notorderormeasure nominaldata.Forexample,inadatasetmalescouldbecodedas0,femalesas1;maritalstatusofan individualcouldbecodedasYifmarried,Nifsingle. OrdinalScales Theyarethesimplestattitudemeasuringscalesusedinmarketingresearch. Theyservetorankrespondentsaccordingtosomecharacteristicssuchasfavorabiliytoacertain brand,ortorankitemssuchasbrandsinorderofconsumerpreference. Theydonotmeasurethedegreeoffavorabilityofthedifferentrankings.Allthescaletellsisthat theindividualoritemhasmore,less,orthesameamountofthecharacteristicbeingmeasured assomeothertime. Theyarethemostwidelyusedtypeofscalesinmarketingresearch.

Asetofdataissaidtobeordinalifthevalues/observationsbelongingtoitcanberanked(putinorder) orhavearatingscaleattached.Youcancountandorder,butnotmeasure,ordinaldata.Thecategories foranordinalsetofdatahaveanaturalorder,forexample,supposeagroupofpeoplewereaskedto tastevarietiesofbiscuitandclassifyeachbiscuitonaratingscaleof1to5,representingstronglydislike, dislike,neutral,like,stronglylike.Aratingof5indicatesmoreenjoymentthanaratingof4,forexample, so such data are ordinal. However, the distinction between neighboring points on the scale is not necessarilyalwaysthesame.Forinstance,thedifferenceinenjoymentexpressedbygivingaratingof2 rather than 1 might be much less than the difference in enjoyment expressed by giving a rating of 4 ratherthan3. IntervalScales They separate individuals or items by rank order but measure the distance between rank positionsinequalunits. Suchascalepermitstheresearchertosaythattheposition4isaboveposition3onthescale, andalsothedistancefromposition5to4issameasfrom4to3.

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Suchascalehoweverdoesnotpermitconclusionsthatposition6istwiceasstrongasposition 3becausenozeropositionhasbeenestablished.

An interval scale is a scale of measurement where the distance between any two adjacent units of measurement(or'intervals')isthesamebutthezeropointisarbitrary.Scoresonanintervalscalecan be added and subtracted but cannot be meaningfully multiplied or divided. For example, the time intervalbetweenthestartsofyears1981and1982isthesameasthatbetween1983and1984,namely 365 days. The zero point, year 1 AD, is arbitrary; time did not begin then. Other examples of interval scalesincludetheheightsoftides,andthemeasurementoflongitude. RatioScales Ifonemeasuresthedistancebetweentwopointsasfourfeetandbetweentwootherpointsas twofeet,itispossiblesaythatonedistanceistwicethatoftheotherbecauseeachdistanceis measuredfromanabsolutezero.Ascalethatpermitssuchmeasurementsiscalledratioscale. Whileratioscalesarecommoninphysicalscience,themeasurementofattitudesisstillsocrude thattheyareoflittlesignificanceinmarketingresearch. Fore.g.: 1. Perceptionofnationalbrandsandprivatebrands: Highquality3210123Lowquality Lowerprice3210123Highprice SemanticDifferentialScale Itisaspecialtypeofgraphicscale,whichisincreasinglybeingused,inmarketingresearch. Itestablishesaconnectionbetweenthebrandandcompanyimagestudiesandalsopermitsthe developmentofdescriptiveprofilesthatfacilitatescomparisonofcompetitiveitems. The unique characteristics of semantic differential is the use of bipolar scales to rate any product,companyorconceptofinterest. Respondents are given a group of these scales and asked to check on each one point that indicatestheiropinionofthesubjectinquestion. Each scales consist of two opposing adjectives such as good/bad, clean/dirty, most popular/ leastpopular,etc.whichareseparatedbyacontinuumdividedintosevensegments. Respondentsareaskedtocheckthesegmentthatrepresentsthedegreeofthecharacteristics involvedthatmostcloselycoincidedwiththeiropinionoftheproductoritembeingrated. It is best when used for image descriptive purposes and is not recommended for overall attitudemeasurement. The advantage of using semantic differential is its simplicity, while producing results comparablewiththoseofthemorecomplexscalingmethods The method is easy and fast to administer, but it is also sensitive to small differences in attitude,highlyversatile,reliableandgenerallyvalid.

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Highervalue3210123Lowvalue Attractive3210123Unattractive PackagingPackaging TheConstantSumScale Theconstantsumscalerequirestherespondenttodivideaconstantsum,generally10or100, among two or more objects or attributes on order to reflect the respondents relative preferenceforeachobject,theimportanceoftheattribute,orthedegreetowhichanobject containseachattribute. Theconstantsumscalecanbeusedintwocases: 1. Fortwoobjectsatatime(pairedcomparison)or 2. Morethantwoobjectsatatime(quadriccomparison) Advantages Whenrankorderdataisusedtheresearcherhasnowayofknowingthecharacteristicwhichis ofoverwhelmingimportanceorofknowingacharacteristicwhichisnotmuchmoreimportant thanothercharacteristics. Thiscanbeexplainedwiththefollowingexample: Supposeasampleofrespondentsfromthetargetmarketisrequestedtorankorderseveralautomobile characteristics with 1 being more important. Assume the individual ranks are similar and produce the followingmedianranksforeachattribute: Price 1 Economy 2 Dependability 3 Safety 4 Comfort 5 Style 6 Aconstantsummeasureoftheimportanceofthesameattributescouldbeobtainedfromthefollowing procedure: Divide100pointsamong thecharacteristicslistedsothatthe divisionwillreflecthowimportanteach characteristicistoyourselectionofanewautomobile. Price ____ Economy ____ Dependability ____ Safety ____ Comfort ____ Style ____ Total 100 Allthreeofthefollowinggroupsaverageresponsestotheconstantsumscalewouldbeconsistentwith therankorderresultsjustdescribed:

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GroupA GroupB GroupC Price 35 20 65 Economy 30 18 9 Dependability 20 17 8 Safety 10 16 7 Comfort 3 15 6 Style 2 14 5 100 100 100 Withrankorderscaletheresearcherhasnowayofknowingifpriceisofimportance(GROUPC);partof ageneral,strongconcernforoverallcost(GROUPA);ornotmuchimportantthantheotherattributes (GROUPB). ConstantSumScaleprovidessuchevidence. Disadvantage Adisadvantagecouldbethatindividualscouldoccasionallymisassignpointssuchthatthetotal ismorethan,orlessthan100.Thiscanbeadjustedforbydividingeachpointallocationbythe actualtotalandmultiplyingtheresultby100. ThurstoneScale It is one of the Multi Item Scales developed by L.L. Thurstones method of Equal Appearing Intervals on the concept that, even though people could not assign quantitative measures to their own attitudes, they could tell the difference between the attitude represented by two different statements and could identify items that were approximately halfway between the two.Theprocedureisasfollows Collect a large number of statements (perhaps as may as several hundred) related to the attitudeinquestion Haveanumberofjudges(perhaps20ormore)sortthestatementsindependentlyinto11piles that vary from the most favorable statement to neutral statements to most unfavorable statements. Studythefrequencydistributionofratingsforeachstatementandeliminatethosestatements thatthedifferentjudgeshavegivenwidelyscatteredratingsthatareinanumberofdifferent piles Determinethescalevalueofeachoftheremainingstatementsthatis,thenumberofthepile inpileinwhichthemedianofthedistributionfalls Selectoneofthetwostatementsfromeachofthe11pilesforthefinalscale.Thosestatements withthenarrowestrangeofratingarepreferredasthemostreliable.

1. 2.

3.

4. 5.

Advantages It is important to note that there are 11 attitude positions because in a scale with odd number of parameters,itiseasiertoidentifyaneutralposition.

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Disadvantages 1. ThurstonescalesarenotwidelyusedforMarketingResearchbecausethearetimeconsuming duringpreparation 2. TheratingsmaybeinfluencedbytheJudgespersonalattitude 3. Differentindividualscanobtainexactlythesamescorefromagreeingwithquitedifferentitems. 4. Itdoesnotobtaininformationabouttheintensityofagreementwiththeratings LikertScale Thesescalesaresometimesreferredtoassummatedscales.Itrequiresarespondenttoindicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements related to the attitudeobject.

ForExample: Theserviceataretailstoreisveryimportanttome: ____StronglyAgree____Agree____NeitherAgreenorDisagree____Disagree____StronglyDisagree ToanalyzeaLikertScale,eachresponsecategoryisassignedanumericalvalue.Theseexamples couldbeassignedvaluessuchasStronglyAgree=1,throughStronglyDisagree=5orthescoring couldbereversed.,ora2through+2systemcouldbeused.Theycanbeanalyzedonanitem byitembasis,ortheycanbesummedtoformasinglescoreforeachindividual. Advantages 1. Itisrelativelyeasytoconstructandadminister. 2. Instructionsthataccompanythescaleareeasilyunderstood;henceitcanbeusedformailsurveys andinterviewswithchildren. Disadvantages 1. IttakesalongertimetocompleteascomparedtoSemanticDifferentialScales,etc. 2. CareneedstobetakenwhenusingLikertScalesincrossculturalresearch,astheremaybecultural variationsinwillingnesstoexpressdisagreement. ComparisonofThurstoneandLikertScale Itisobviousthatthesetwoscaleshavealotincommon.Theyhavebeenwidelyusedinthepast.Dueto the ordinal nature of the Likert scales, many individuals feel they it may be more reliable that the ThurstoneScale. DISGUISED,STRUCTUREDTECHNIQUES Thebasispremiseunderlyingsuchtestsisthattherespondentswillrevealtheirattitudesbytheextent towhichtheiranswerstotheobjectivequestionsvaryfromthecorrectanswerstoobjectivequestions thatvaryfromthecorrectanswers.Respondentsareprovidedwithquestionsthattheyarenoableto answer correctly. Thus, they are forced to guess at the answers. The direction and extent of these guessing errors is assumed to reveal their attitudes on the subject. For example, individuals tend to gather information that supports their attitudes and, therefore, the extent and kind of information individualspossessonagivensubjectindicatesomethingoftheirattitude.

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Forexample: Howmuchdouthinkitcostforthehotcerealaloneinaaveragebowlofcerealsuchasyoudserve atthebreakfast? Docornflakescostlessormoreperbowlthancereal? CONCEPTTESTING AttitudeScale:Setsofratingscalesusedtomeasureoneormoredimensionsofanindividualsattitude towardsomeobject.Attitudescalesareconstructedusinglikert,semanticdifferentialorStapelscales. Concurrent Validity: A measure of how accurate a measure of an object, state or event is now as opposedtohowaccurateitwillbeinthefuture(predictivevalidity),onemeasureofconcurrentvalidity ishowcomparabletheresultsofInstrumentAandInstrumentBarewhenbothareusedtomeasurethe samecharacteristicsinthesameobjectatthesamepointoftime. Constant Sum Scale: The constant sum scale requires the respondent to divide a constant sum, generally 10 or 100, among two or more objects or attributes on order to reflect the respondents relativepreferenceforeachobject,theimportance oftheattribute,orthedegreetowhichanobject containseachattribute. Construct Validity: Understanding the factors that underlie the obtained measurement. It involves knowing how well and why a given measure works by having a sound theory of the nature of the conceptbeingmeasuredandhoeitrelatestootherconcepts. Depthinterview:Aninterviewingprocedureinwhichtheinterviewerdoesnothaveaprespecifiedlistof questions. The interviewer is free to create questions and probe responses that appear relevant. Respondents are free to respond to questions in any way they think appropriate. Types of depth interviewsincludeindividual,minigroupandfocusgroup. External Validity: The ability of the results from an experiment to predict the results in the actual situation. Face Validity: A form of content validity that exists when non experts such as respondents or executivesjudgethemeasuringinstrumentasappropriateforthetaskathand. Free Word Association: A projective technique that requires the respondent to give the first word or thoughtthatcomestomindaftertheresearcherpresentsawordorphrase. InternalValidity:Thedegreeofreplicabilityofanexperimentorassurancethatexperimentalresultsare duetothevariablesmanipulatedintheexperimentinthatspecificenvironment. Interval Scale: Numbers are used to rank items such that numerically equal distances on the scale representequaldistancesinthepropertybeingmeasured.Thelocationofthezeropointandtheunitof measurement is determined by the researcher; consequently, ratios calculated on data from interval scalesarenotmeaningful.

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Ordinal Scale: A rating scale in which numbers, letters, or other symbols are used to assign ranks to items. An ordinal scale requires the respondent to indicate if one item has more or less of a characteristicthananotheritem.Themagnitudeofdifferencebetweentheitemsisnotestimated. PredictiveValidity:Theextenttowhichthefuturelevelofsomevariablecanbepredictedbyacurrent measurementofthesameoradifferentvariable. Projective Technique: The technique of inferring a subjects attitudes or values based on his or her description of vague objects requiring interpretation. Common types used in market research include cartoon,pictureresponse,thirdpersonandsentencecompletion. RatioScale:Aratingscaleinwhichitemsarerankedsothatnumericallyequalscaledistancesrepresent equaldistancesinthepropertybeingmeasured.Thesescaleshaveanaturalandknownzeropoint. Reliability:Theextentofvariableerrorinameasurement.Reliabilityexistswhenrepeatedmeasuresof thesamestablecharacteristicsinthesameobjectsorpersonsshowlimitedvariation. ScorerReliability:Theextentofagreementamongjudges(scorers)workingindependentlytocategorize aseriesofobjects.Thehigherthedegreeofagreementbetweenthejudges,thegreaterthereliabilityof thecategorization. SemanticDifferentialScale:Anattitudescalingdevice,itrequirestherespondenttoratetheattitude objectonanumberofitemized,sevenpointratingscalesboundedateachendbyoneoftwobipolar adjectivesorphrases. SentenceCompletionTechnique:Aprojectivetechniquerequiringthesubjecttocompleteasentence usingthefirstphrasethatcomestomind.Thesubjectisnotrequiredtoassociatehimselforherselfwith theresponse. Split Half Reliability: A measure of reliability in which the results form half the items on a multiitem measure are compared with the results for the remaining items. If there is a substantial variation betweenthegroups,thereliabilityoftheinstrumentisindoubt.

MARKETINGINFORMATIONSYSTEM(MIS)
MEANINGOFMARKETINGINFORMATIONSYSTEM(MIS) Marketinginformationsystem(MIS)isofrecentoriginandsupportsmarketingdecisionmaking and marketing planning. It facilitates quick marketing decisionmaking and thereby raises marketing excellence. However, MIS is not a substitute for, but an aid to rational decision

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making. Even after collecting all required information, the decisions are to be made by marketing executives. Information is those cues that make managerial decisions scientific. In brief, MIS is an essential support system for developing marketing decisions, plans and strategies. Marketinginformationincludesallfacts,estimates,opinionsandotherdatausedinmarketing decisionmaking. A lot of information is generated regularly from within the organization and alsofromexternalsources.Suchinformationcanbecollectedpurposefullyforplanningbusiness activitiesandfordecisionmaking.Informationisusefultotopandmiddlelevelmanagementfor planningandcontrolofmarketingactivities.Themarketingmanagertakesmarketingdecisions in the light of the information supplied through MIS. He is like a pilot on the flight desk controllingaircraftaspertheinformationavailablethroughinstrumentpanels.Suchinformation system provides updated and varied type of information in an uninterrupted manner to a business organization. In fact, information is the glue that holds organization together. Every organization needs efficient MIS to effectively manage the information collected. In business organizations,marketinginformationmanagersareappointedandareresponsibleforcreation anddisseminationofmarketinginformationthroughouttheorganization. ThemeaningofMIScanbemadeclearwiththehelpofasimpleexampleofapilotofanaircraft. When a pilot is at the controls of his aircraft, he is constantly monitoring its (aircraft's) performanceinrelationtoairspeed/lightandaltitude,enginerevolutionssothatthe,flightcan continue safely towards a destination. The task of piloting the plane centers on his receiving informationthroughtheinstrumentpanelsonhisflightdeck.Hetakesdecisionsandseesthat theplanemovestowardsthedestinationquicklyandsafely.Inmanywaysmanagingbusinessor marketing activity is like piloting an aircraft. In order to achieve marketing objective, correct decisionsmustbetakenandcorrectdecisionmakingispossibleonlywhenreliable,uptodate andadequateinformationismadeavailableregularlyandpromptly.Thissuggeststhemeaning andsignificance(importance)ofMIS. Itmayalsobenotedthatinformationhasnovalueuntilmanagersusetheinformationcollected tomakebettermarketingdecisions.ForthistheinformationgatheredthroughMIS/marketing intelligence/ marketing research should be distributed promptly to the right marketing managersattherighttime.Developmentsininformationtechnologyhavebroughtarevolution ininformationdistribution.Inmanycompanies,marketingmanagershavedirectaccesstothe information network at any time and from virtually any location. This is due to advances in computers,softwareandtelecommunication.

Forthepurposeofdecisionmaking,marketersgenerallyrequirethreetypesofinformation InformationforthePurposeofControl:Inordertoensureeffectivecontrol,marketersareinterested inhavingaccesstoweeklysalesreports(onsalesterritories,productwiseetc.),salesexpenseratios, warehouse inventory reports, etc. Such information will enable the marketer to know what is happening,whathashappenedinthepastorwhatchangesmayberequiredtobetakeninthefuture. Information for Planning Purpose: This will include economic and sales forecasts, understanding demographicprofiles,estimatingsocialandpoliticalshifts

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Information for an adhoc Study: This could be information being sought for onetime decisions or study like whether a proposed new product is to be introduced? What sort of an advertisement shouldforusedforanationalcampaignandsoon. FUNCTIONSOFMARKETINGINFORMATIONSYSTEM: (1) Assembling of information or relevant marketing data through internal and external sources SuchdataactasrawmaterialofMIS (2) Processing of information viz. editing, tabulating and summarizing the data collected for the purposeofreadyreferenceandcriticalanalysisInshort/MISdecidestheinformationneedsof theorganizationandgenerateandprocesssuchinformationonacontinuingbasis (3) Analyzingthedatacollectedwhichisessentialfordrawingconclusionsfordecisionmaking (4) Storingofdatacollectedviz.filingandindexingofinformationcollectedsothatitcanbemade availableforusewhenrequired (5) Evaluatingthedataviz.findingoutaccuracyandreliabilityofthedatacollected (6) DisseminatingrelevantinformationtodecisionmakersMarketingManagers (7) Updatingtheinformationcollectedperiodicallybydiscardingoutdateddataandincorporating newdataavailable (8) Introducingupdatedinformationtechnologyinthecollection/processingandstoringofthe informationcollected CHARACTERISTICSOFMIS: (1) Continuouslyoperatedprocess:InformationisaskilledhumanaccomplishmentMISisaconsciously developedtechniquefortheflowofinformationtothecompany.Itoperatescontinuously.Regular inflow of information acts as a feedback in decisionmaking. It is an ongoing process as new informationisaddedtotheoldoneinacontinuousmanner.TheinformationsuppliedbytheMIS shouldberelevantandpertinent. (2) Operateswithspeedandaccuracy.Electronicallyoperateddataprocessingtechniquecanbeused tocollectandprocessnewinformation.ComputersarenowusedforraisingtheefficiencyofMIS. ThisbringsspeedandaccuracyintheMISandindirectlyinthedecisionmakingprocess. (3) Needs cooperation of departments and executives: Close cooperation and understanding among functional departments, executives and specialists (computer expert programmer and system analyst) are essential for purposeful collection and utilization of the market information. Information collection is important but its actual use in the decisionmaking process is more important.Forthis,cooperationofdepartmentsandexecutivesisessential. (4) Facilitates prompt and correct decisionmaking: MIS provides updated information on various aspects of marketing to managers/ executives. As a result, managers are aware of new marketing developmentstakingplace.Theyarealsoinapositiontotakepromptdecisionsfromtimetotime duetothefeedbackprovidedbyMIS.Itactsasadatabankforthebenefitofmarketingmanagers. MIS stands between the marketing environment and marketing decision maker. Marketing data flow from the environment to the MIS. The data is processed and converted into marketing informationflow,whichgoestothemarketerfordecisionmaking. (5) Futureoriented: MIS provides information about possible future problems and their solutions through appropriate marketing decisions. It acts as a preventive mechanism in marketing managementandoffersguidancetomarketingexecutives.

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(6) Provides continuous information on marketing developments: MIS collects and provides informationonmarketingtoconcernedexecutives.Itgoestorightpeopleattherighttime.Inother words,itprovidesrightinformationattherighttimetorightpeoplefordecisionmaking.Asaresult, decisionmakingprocessbecomesreasonablyaccurateandquick.MISusuallyprovidesthreetypes ofinformationtomarketingmanagers.Theinformationcouldberecurrent(informationsuppliedon a periodic basis), monitoring (information obtained from regular scanning of certain sources) and requested(informationsoughtbyamarketingmanager (7) Acts as a link between external environment and internal resources: It provides updated information about external marketing situation and facilitates suitable adjustment in the internal resourcestofacetheoverallsituationeffectively. (8) Operates in a systematic manner: MIS operates in a rational and systematic manner. This is necessaryforquickreferencetorequiredinformation.Propersysteminthecollectionandstoringof information is necessary as varied type of information is now easily available. Such information needstobestoredafterdueclassification,etc.Inbrief,MISneedswellpreparedoperationalsystem forraisingitsutilityandefficiency. (9) Usesmoderntechnologies:Revolutionarychangesaretakingplaceininformationtechnology.New techniques and machines are available for collection, processing and storage of information. Required information is made available to marketing executives promptly. MIS is now becoming costlyandalsoneedstheservicesoftechnicallyqualifiedstaff(softwareexperts).MISisnowbased onadvancedtechnology.Itisacomputerbasedmethodofdatacollection,processingandstorage. Duetotheuseofcomputersupdatedinformationisprovidedtoexecutiveseasilyandquickly. DESIGNINGMARKETINGINFORMATIONSYSTEM MISinvolvescollection,processing,storing,evaluatingandsupplyinginformationtomarketingmangers for decisionmaking. A firm needs suitable organizational structure for managing MIS. Every business unithastodesignitsownMISasperitsneedspresentandfuture.Attentionshouldbegiventothe followingaspects/pointswhiledesigningMIS:

(1) Identifypreciselytheinformationneeds:Thefirmhastofindoutitsinformationneedsi.e.thetype
ofinformationthatitrequiresfortakingmarketingdecisions.Thereisinformationrevolutioninthe businessworld.However, allinformationisnotusefultoallenterprises.Itis necessaryto identify theinformationneedssoastocollect,arrangeandstoretherequiredinformationproperly.

(2) Identify the sources of required information: The required information for the enterprise can be
collected from different internal and external sources. The sources that can supply required informationeasilyandeconomicallyaretobeidentifiedforactualuseintheinformationcollection process.

(3) Estimate the expenditure required on MIS: In this stage, the firm has to estimate the cost of
collectingandprocessingtherequiredinformation.ThereshouldbecostbenefitanalysisofMIS.Itis a nonproductive service activity. Expenditure is required in order to collect, arrange, process and storetherequiredinformation.Suchexpenditureshouldbeminimumasfaraspossible.Atthesame time,requiredinformationshouldbecollectedandmadeavailablefordecisionmaking.

(4) Collectionofinformation:Afterdecidingtheinformationrequiredanditssources,thenextstepis
tocollecttheinformationfromthesourcesselected.Forthis,suitabledepartmentwithnecessary

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facilities, infrastructure and expert staff should be established. The department has to collect and storetheinformationsystematicallyincomputers,files,etc.ThiswillenabletheMISdepartmentto supplyinformationtootherdepartmentswhenrequired.

(5) Processingofinformation:Thenextstepisdataprocessinginwhichdataarearrangedproperlyfor
quick analysis by departments. The updating of data is also necessary in order to supply latest information to concerned departments. This facilitates reasonably accurate decisionmaking by departments. Creation of information/data bank: With the completion of the steps noted above, there will be an information bank within the organization. It will have information required by all departments. The informationwillbeproperlyprocessed,arrangedandstoredforreadyreference.MISdepartmentwill maintain effective communication with all other departments so that information will be supplied to themquicklyaspertheirneedfordecisionmaking ASIMPLEMODELOFMIS Person needing Information Statistical Models MIS Facilitator Analytic Database System Marketing Mix Models External Data Computerized Internal Data Adhoc Government data Search Invoice data Research Commercial data Sales data Capabilities Industry data Inventory data Miscellaneous data Payroll data The model is inclusive of a facilitator, a database along with analytic software and the capability to incorporate both continuous (internal and external) as well as one time or adhoc data apart from providingcomputerizedinformationsearches.

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"MIS facilitator" is the person(s) or the equipment through which the desired information can be obtained. This could be a microcomputer or personal computer or a librarian located in the decision makersoffice. The "database" refers to the actual database accessible through the MIS. This will be inclusive of the usualorroutineinternaldataofthefirmaswellastheexternaldataregularlyflowingintothefirm.The database is also able to provide computerized searches through both government agencies as well as commercialfirms. The"analyticsystem"referstothegeneralsoftwarepackagesthatcanbeusedtoadjustorsupplement to the basic data. These may comprise of statistical tools like the regression and analysis of variance models and also marketing mix models. The latter could involve procedures for separating sales data into different criteria based on the requirement of different decision makers such as sales customerwise/territorywise/productwiseetc.TheMISshouldbeabletoacknowledgetheexistenceas wellaslocatewhereorinwhichdepartments/unitsofthefirmhavemadeuseofadhocstudies. A very important element in a MIS is that the system must allow for the timely disbursement of the desiredinformationtothedecisionmakers. The "database" refers to the actual database accessible through the MIS. This will be inclusive of the usualorroutineinternaldataofthefirmaswellastheexternaldataregularlyflowingintothefirm.The database is also able to provide computerized searches through both government agencies as well as commercialfirms. The"analyticsystem"referstothegeneralsoftwarepackagesthatcanbeusedtoadjustorsupplement to the basic data. These may comprise of statistical tools like the regression and analysis of variance models and also marketing mix models. The latter could involve procedures for separating sales data into different criteria based on the requirement of different decision makers such as sales customerwise/territorywise/productwiseetc.TheMISshouldbeabletoacknowledgetheexistenceas wellaslocatewhereorinwhichdepartments/unitsofthefirmhavemadeuseofadhocstudies. A very important element in a MIS is that the system must allow for the timely disbursement of the desiredinformationtothedecisionmakers. RELATIONSHIPBETWEENMISANDMR: Marketinginformationsystemiscloselyconnectedwithmarketingresearch.Infact,itisoneof thesubsystemsincludedwithinthescopeofMIS.Thus,marketingresearchisonecomponent of MIS. MR conducts studies on specific marketing problems and reports its findings to marketingmanagement.Suchstudiesareundertakenbyqualifiedpersonswithinthecompany or by an outside agency. Marketing ' research offers information and guidance to marketing managerswhiledealingwithspecificmarketingproblemsanddifficulties. Marketing research needs detailed information from different internal sources, which can be usedeasilyandconvenientlythroughtheMIS.Problemsrelatingtoconsumerbehavior,product orbrandpreferences,advertisingawareness,salespromotion,etc.canbestudiedwiththehelp of information available through MIS. In brief, MIS provides data required for different marketingresearchprojects.

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ThebasicobjectivesofMISandMRareidentical.Bothofferinformationtomarketingexecutives and enable them to take quick and correct marketing decisions. Both are interrelated. Large scale manufacturing/marketing companies maintain uptodate MIS and also maintain independent marketing research department. In addition, both supply ready reference regardingmarketingactivitiesandfacilitatecorrectdecisionmakinginthemarketingfield. MR and MIS are closely related functions. The basic purpose of both is to collect relevant information in order to facilitate marketing ^decisions quickly and correctly. Both these functions offer guidance to marketing managers in the conduct of their marketing activities. However, MR generates information but MIS concentrates on the storage and flow of informationtomarketingmanagersfordecisionmaking.Boththefunctionsareinterrelatedas boththefunctionsaimatmakingmarketingdecisionsmoreeffective.Inthissense,itissaidthat MISisacomputerbasedextensionofMR. MR is one vital component of MIS. It provides properly processed information on a specific marketing problem and guides the marketing manager in finalizing plan to deal with such problem.TheinformationsuppliedbytheMISisofageneralnatureandneedstobeanalyzed properly for drawing conclusions and for using the information for taking decisions regarding marketingactivities.ThispurposeisachievedthroughMR.Similarly,bothfunctionsaretreated asimportantfunctionsforpromotingsales,forpromotingconsumersatisfactionandfinallyfor effectiveplanninganddecisionmakinginthefieldofmarketing.ThusMISandMRareclosely interrelated and complementary concepts. MR is some sort of marketing information system withoutanyresponsibilityofdecisionmaking. MR and MIS are supporting functions as both deal with the management of information. In addition,theyofferguidancetomarketingmanagersintheconductoftheirmarketingactivities. Along with this, there are some basic points, which indicate the difference between MR and MIS.Forexample,thejobofMISistosupplymarketinginformationwhereasMRisconcerned with problem analysis. MR uses marketing information but its purpose is problem solving throughappropriatemarketingdecisions.ThesepointsofdifferencebetweenMRandMISare asnotedbelow: MarketingResearch(MR) MR is "the systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data relating to the marketing of goods andservices". MR is a narrow concept as MR is oneofthecomponentsofMIS MR provides precise and properly analyzed information regarding a specific marketing problem with a viewtosolvingthatproblem The purpose of M.R. is to study a specific marketing problem in Marketing Information System (MIS) MIS is "a set of procedures and methods used for the regular and planned analysis and presentation of information for marketing decisionmaking" MISisabroadconcept.Itspurpose is to collect information on all aspectsofbusiness MIS provides information on various aspects of marketing in order to frame marketing policies andmarketingdecisions. The purpose of MIS is to provide relevant and reliable information

Dimension Meaning

Natureofconcept

Information provided

Purpose

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depth and to solve it quickly and to all departments and facilitate alsoinasatisfactorymanner quick and reasonably correct decisionmaking Coverage MRcollectsinformationrelatingto MIScollectsinformationonvarious specific marketing problem aspects of marketing such as underinvestigation products,consumerneeds,market competitionandsales Operational MR is conducted on problem by MIS is a continuous system and method problemorprojectbyprojectbasis information is collected, analyzed witheachprojecthavingastarting used and also stored in a regular andcontinuousmanner. andendingpoint Useofcomputer Itisanoncomputerbasedsystem. MISisacomputerbasedprocessas However, computers may be used computertechnologyisextensively while tabulating data or while used while collecting, analyzing analyzing the information and storing the information collected collected. Typeoforientation MRismorepastoriented MISismorefutureoriented Organizational Every company may or may not Companies must always make structure maintainMRdepartment arrangements for the collection andstorageofinformationthrough MIS Frequencyofdata In M.R. data collection is not In MIS data are collected regularly collection continuous but only as per the on different marketing aspects in researchprojectsundertaken. whichthefirminterested. Sources of data In MR external sources such as In MIS external as well as internal used surveys and census reports are sources (past records, documents, etc.)areusedfordatacollection. usedfordatacollection MARKETINGDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEM The introduction of computers has facilitated the setting up of MDSS (Marketing Decision Support System). Such system comprises of collection, storage, analysis and reporting of marketing data. The differencebetweenMISandMDSSisthatwhereastheformeriscentralized,thelatterisdecentralized and allows marketing managers to interact directly with the database. The systems are generally computerizedwithoneormoremodelsbuiltin. CHARACTERISTICSOFAGOODMDSS AgoodMDSSshouldhavethefollowingcharacteristics 1.Interactive. The process of interaction with the MDSS should be simple and direct. With just a few commandstheusershouldbeabletoobtaintheresultsimmediately.Thereshouldbenoneedfora programmerinbetween. 2. Flexible. A good MDSS should be flexible. It should be able to present the available data in either discrete or aggregate form. It should satisfy the information needs of the managers in different hierarchicallevelsandfunctions.

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3.Discoveryoriented,TheMDSSshouldnotonlyassistmanagersinsolvingtheexistingproblemsbut shouldalsohelpthemtoprobefortrendsandasknewquestions.Themanagersshouldbeableto discovernewpatternsandbeabletoactonthemusingtheMDSS. 4.Userfriendly.TheMDSSshouldbeuserfriendly.Itshouldbeeasyforthemanagerstolearnanduse the system. It should not take hours just to figure out what is going on. Most MDSS packages ere menudrivenandareeasytooperate. MDSShasthefollowingcomponents: (a) Database(datasources,datamanagement) (b) Display (c) Statisticalanalysis (d) Modeling. Manager Modeling Display Analysis Database Manager

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QUESTIONNAIREDESIGN
Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents.Oftentheyaretheonlyfeasiblewaytoreachanumberofreviewerslargeenough toallowstatisticallyanalysisoftheresults.Awelldesignedquestionnairethatisusedeffectively can gather information on both the overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. If the questionnaire includes demographic questionsontheparticipants,theycanbeusedtocorrelateperformanceandsatisfactionwith thetestsystemamongdifferentgroupsofusers. It is important to remember that a questionnaire should be viewed as a multistage process beginningwithdefinitionoftheaspectstobeexaminedandendingwithinterpretationofthe results.Everystepneedstobedesignedcarefullybecausethefinalresultsareonlyasgoodas the weakest link in the questionnaire process. Although questionnaires may be cheap to administercomparedtootherdatacollectionmethods,theyareeverybitasexpensiveinterms ofdesigntimeandinterpretation.

Thestepsrequiredtodesignandadministeraquestionnaireinclude: 1. DefiningtheObjectivesofthesurvey 2. DeterminingtheSamplingGroup 3. WritingtheQuestionnaire 4. AdministeringtheQuestionnaire 5. InterpretationoftheResults Before these steps are examined in detail, it is good to consider what questionnaires are good at measuringandwhenitisappropriatetousequestionnaires.

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Whatcanquestionnairesmeasure? Questionnairesarequiteflexibleinwhattheycanmeasure,howevertheyarenotequallysuited to measuring all types of data. We can classify data in two ways, Subjective vs. Objective and Quantitativevs.Qualitative. When a questionnaire is administered, the researchers control over the environment will be somewhatlimited.Thisiswhyquestionnairesareinexpensivetoadminister.Thislossofcontrol means the validity of the results are more reliant on the honesty of the respondent. Consequently,itismoredifficulttoclaimcompleteobjectivitywithquestionnairedatathenwith results of a tightly controlled lab test. For example, if a group of participants are asked on a questionnairehowlongittookthemtolearnaparticularfunctiononapieceofsoftware,itis likely that they will be biased towards themselves and answer, on average, with a lower than actual time. A more objective usability test of the same function with a similar group of participants may return a significantly higher learning time. More elaborate questionnaire design or administration may provide slightly better objective data, but the cost of such a questionnaire can be much higher and offset their economic advantage. In general, questionnaires are better suited to gathering reliable subjective measures, such as user satisfaction,ofthesystemorinterfaceinquestion. Questions may be designed to gather either qualitative or quantitative data. By their very nature, quantitative questions are more exact then qualitative. For example, the word "easy" and "difficult" can mean radically different things to different people. Any question must be carefullycrafted,butinparticularquestionsthatassessaqualitativemeasuremustbephrased to avoid ambiguity. Qualitative questions may also require more thought on the part of the participantandmaycausethemtobecomeboredwiththequestionnairesooner.Ingeneral,we can say that questionnaires can measure both qualitative and quantitative data well, but that qualitativequestionsrequiremorecareindesign,administration,andinterpretation. Whentouseaquestionnaire? There is no all encompassing rule for when to use a questionnaire. The choice will be made basedonavarietyoffactorsincludingthetypeofinformationtobegatheredandtheavailable resources for the experiment. A questionnaire should be considered in the following circumstances. When resources and money are limited. A Questionnaire can be quite inexpensive to administer. Although preparation may be costly, any data collection scheme will have similar preparation expenses. Theadministrationcostper personofaquestionnairecanbeaslowas postage and a few photocopies. Time is also an important resource that questionnaires can maximize. If a questionnaire is selfadministering, such as a email questionnaire, potentially several thousand people could respond in a few days. It would be impossible to get a similar numberofusabilitytestscompletedinthesameshorttime. When it is necessary to protect the privacy of the participants. Questionnaires are easy to administer confidentially. Often confidentiality is the necessary to ensure participants will respond honestly if at all. Examples of such cases would include studies that need to ask embarrassingquestionsaboutprivateorpersonalbehavior. When corroborating other findings. In studies that have resources to pursue other data collection strategies, questionnaires can be a useful confirmation tools. More costly schemes mayturnupinterestingtrends,butoccasionallytherewillnotberesourcestoruntheseother

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testsonlargeenoughparticipantgroupstomaketheresultsstatisticallysignificant.Afollowup largescalequestionnairemaybenecessarytocorroboratetheseearlierresults. I.DefiningtheObjectivesoftheSurvey Theimportanceofwelldefinedobjectivescannotbeoveremphasized.Aquestionnairethatis written without a clear goal and purpose is inevitably going to overlook important issues and wasteparticipants'timebyaskinguselessquestions.Thequestionnairemaylackalogicalflow and thereby cause the participant to lose interest. Consequential, what useful data you may havecollectedcouldbefurthercompromised.Theproblemsofapoorlydefinedquestionnaire do not end here, but continue on to the analysis stage. It is difficult to imagine identifying a problem and its cause, let alone its solution, from responses to broad and generalizing questions.Inotherwords,howwoulditbepossibletoreachinsightfulconclusionsifonedidn't actuallyknowwhattheyhadbeenlookingfororplanningtoobserve. Aobjectivesuchas"toidentifypointsofuserdissatisfactionwiththeinterfaceandhowthese negatively affect the software's performance" may sound clear and to the point, but it is not. The questionnaire designer must clarify what is meant by user dissatisfaction. Is this dissatisfaction with the learning of the software, the power of the software, of the ease of learningthesoftware?Isitimportantfortheuserstolearnthesoftwarequicklyiftheylearnit well?Whatismeantbythesoftware'sperformance?Howaccuratemustthemeasurementsbe? Alloftheseissuesmustbenarrowedandfocusedbeforeasinglequestionisformulated.Agood ruleofthumbisthatifyouarefindingitdifficulttowritethequestions,thenyouhaven'tspent enoughtimedefiningtheobjectivesofthequestionnaire.Gobackanddothisstepagain.The questionsshouldfollowquitenaturallyfromtheobjectives. II.WritingtheQuestionnaire Atthis point,weassume thatwehavealreadydecidedwhatkindofdatawearetomeasure, formulated the objectives of the investigation, and decided on a participant group. Now we mustcomposeourquestions. Iftheprecedingstepshavebeenfaithfullyexecuted,mostofthequestionswillbeonobvious topics.Mostquestionnaires,however,alsogatherdemographicdataontheparticipants.Thisis used to correlate response sets between different groups of people. It is important to see whether responses are consistent across groups. For example, if one group of participants is noticeably less satisfied with the test interface, it is likely that the interface was designed without fair consideration of this group's specific needs. This may signify the need for fundamental redesign of the interface. In addition, certain questions simply may only be applicabletocertainkindsofusers.Forexample,ifoneisaskingtheparticipantswhetherthey find the new tutorial helpful, we do not want to include in our final tally the responses of experienceduserswholearnedthesystemwithanoldertutorial.Thereisnoaccuratewayto filterouttheseresponseswithoutsimplyaskingtheuserswhentheylearnedtheinterface. Typically, demographic data is collected at the beginning of the questionnaire, but such questions could be located anywhere or even scattered throughout the questionnaire. One obvious argument in favor of the beginning of the questionnaire is that normally background questionsareeasiertoanswerandcaneasetherespondentintothequestionnaire.Onedoes not want to put off the participant by jumping in to the most difficult questions. We are all familiarwithsuchkindsofquestions.

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Itisimportanttoaskonlythosebackgroundquestionsthatarenecessary.Donotaskincomeof the respondent unless there is at least some rational for suspecting a variance across income levels.Thereisoftenonlyafinelinebetweenbackgroundandpersonalinformation.Youdonot want to cross over in to the personal realm unless absolutely necessary. If you need to solicit personalinformation,phraseyourquestionsasunobtrusivelyaspossibletoavoidrufflingyour participantsandcausingthemtoanswerlessthantruthfully.

Whatkindofquestionsdoweask? Ingeneral,therearetwotypesofquestionsonewillask,openformatorclosedformat. Openformatquestionsarethosethataskforunpromptedopinions.Inotherwords,thereare nopredeterminedsetofresponses,andtheparticipantisfreetoanswerhoweverhechooses. Openformatquestionsaregoodforsolicitingsubjectivedataorwhentherangeofresponsesis nottightlydefined.Anobviousadvantageisthatthevarietyofresponsesshouldbewiderand moretrulyreflecttheopinionsoftherespondents.Thisincreasesthelikelihoodofyoureceiving unexpectedandinsightfulsuggestions,foritisimpossibletopredictthefullrangeofopinion.It iscommonforaquestionnairetoendwithandopenformatquestionaskingtherespondentfor herunabashedideasforchangesorimprovements. Openformatquestionshaveseveraldisadvantages.First,theirverynaturerequiresthemtobe read individually. There is no way to automatically tabulate or perform statistical analysis on them.Thisisobviouslymorecostlyinbothtimeandmoney,andmaynotbepracticalforlower budgetortimesensitiveevaluations.Theyarealsoopentotheinfluenceofthereader,forno twopeoplewillinterpretananswerinpreciselythesameway.Thisconflictcanbeeliminatedby usingasinglereader,butalargenumberofresponsescanmakethisimpossible.Finally,open format questions require more thought and time on the part of the respondent. Whenever moreisaskedoftherespondent,thechanceoftiringorboringtherespondentincreases. Closedformatquestionsusuallytaketheformofamultiplechoicequestion.Theyareeasyfor therespondent,give Thereisnoclearconsensusonthenumberofoptionsthatshouldbegiveninanclosedformat question.Obviously,thereneedstobesufficientchoicestofullycovertherangeofanswersbut notsomanythatthedistinctionbetweenthembecomesblurred.Usuallythistranslatesintofive totenpossibleanswersperquestions.Forquestionsthatmeasureasinglevariableoropinion, such as ease of use or liability, over a complete range (easy to difficult, like to dislike), conventional wisdom says that there should be an odd number of alternatives. This allows a neutral or no opinion response. Other schools of thought contend that an even number of choicesisbestbecauseitforcestherespondenttogetoffthefence.Thismayinducethesome inaccuracies for often the respondent may actually have no opinion. However, it is equally arguablethattheneutralanswerisoverutilized,especiallybyboredquestionnairetakers.For largerquestionnairesthattestopinionsonaverylargenumberofitems,suchasamusictest,it maybebesttouseanevennumberofchoicestopreventlargenumbersofnothoughtneutral answers. Closed format questions offer many advantages in time and money. By restricting the answer set,itiseasytocalculatepercentagesandotherhardstatisticaldataoverthewholegroupor over any subgroup of participants. Modern scanners and computers make it possible to administer, tabulate, and perform preliminary analysis in a matter of days. Closed format

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questions also make it easier to track opinion over time by administering the same questionnaire to different but similar participant groups at regular intervals. Finally closed formatquestionsallowtheresearchertofilteroutuselessorextremeanswersthatmightoccur inanopenformatquestion. Whether your questions are open or closed format, there are several points that must by consideredwhenwritingandinterpretingquestionnaires:

Clarity: This is probably the area that causes the greatest source of mistakes in questionnaires. Questions must be clear, succinct, and unambiguous. The goal is to eliminate the chance that the questionwillmeandifferentthingstodifferentpeople.Ifthedesignersfailstodothis,thenessentially participantswillbeansweringdifferentquestions. Tothisend,itisbesttophraseyourquestionsempiricallyifpossibleandtoavoidtheuseofnecessary adjectives. For example, it asking a question about frequency, rather than supplying choices that are opentointerpretationsuchas: 1. VeryOften 2. Often 3. Sometimes 4. Rarely 5. Never Itisbettertoquantifythechoices,suchas: 1. EveryDayorMore 2. 26TimesaWeek 3. AboutOnceaWeek 4. AboutOnceaMonth 5. Never There are other more subtle aspects to consider such as language and culture. Avoid the use of colloquialorethnicexpressionsthatmightnotbeequallyusedbyallparticipants.Technicaltermsthat assumeacertainbackgroundshouldalsobeavoided. LeadingQuestions:Aleadingquestionisonethatforcesorimpliesacertaintypeofanswer.Itiseasyto make this mistake not in the question, but in the choice of answers. A closed format question must supplyanswersthatnotonlycoverthewholerangeofresponses,butthatarealsoequallydistributed throughouttherange.Allanswersshouldbeequallylikely.Anobvious,nearlycomical,examplewould beaquestionthatsuppliedtheseanswerchoices: 1. Superb 2. Excellent 3. Great 4. Good 5. Fair 6. NotsoGreat

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AlessblatantexamplewouldbeaYes/Noquestionthatasked: a. IsthisthebestCADinterfaceyouhaveeveryused? In this case, even if the participant loved the interface, but had an favorite that was preferred, she would be forced to answer No. Clearly, the negative response covers too wide a range of opinions. A betterwaywouldbetoaskthesamequestionbutsupplythefollowingchoices: 1. TotallyAgree 2. PartiallyAgree 3. NeitherAgreeorDisagree 4. PartiallyDisagree 5. TotallyAgree Thisexampleisalsopoorinthewayitasksthequestion.It'schoiceofwordsmakesitaleadingquestion andagoodexampleforthenextsectiononphrasing. Phrasing: Mostadjectives,verbs,and nounsin Englishhaveeitherapositive ornegativeconnotation. Two words may have equivalent meaning, yet one may be a compliment and the other an insult. Considerthetwowords"childlike"and"childish",whichhavevirtuallyidenticalmeaning.Childlikeis anaffectionatetermthatcanbeappliedtobothmenandwomen,andyoungandold,yetnoonewishes tobethoughtofaschildish. Intheaboveexampleof"IsthisthebestCADinterfaceyouhaveeveryused?"clearly"best"hasstrong overtonesthatdenytheparticipantanobjectiveenvironmenttoconsidertheinterface.Thesignalsent thereaderisthatthedesignerssurelythinkitisthebestinterface,andsoshouldeveryoneelse.Though thismayseemlikeanextremeexample,thiskindofsuperlativequestioniscommonpractice. A more subtle, but no less troublesome, example can be made with verbs that have neither strong negativeorpositiveovertones.Considerthefollowingtwoquestions: 1. DoyouagreewiththeGovernor'splantoopposeincreaseddevelopmentofwetlands? 2. DoyouagreewiththeGovernor'splantosupportcurtaileddevelopmentofwetlands? Theybothaskthesamething,butwilllikelyproducedifferentdata.Oneasksinapositiveway,andthe otherinanegative.Itisimpossibletopredicthowtheoutcomeswillvary,soonemethodtocounterthis is to be aware of different ways to word questions and provide a mix in your questionnaire. If the participant pool is very large, several versions may be prepared and distributed to cancel out these effects. Embarrassing Questions: Embarrassing questions dealing with personal or private matters should be avoided. Your data is only as good as the trust and care that your respondents give you. If you make themfeeluncomfortable,youwilllosetheirtrust.Donotaskembarrassingquestions. Hypothetical Questions Hypothetical are based, at best, on conjecture and, at worst, on fantasy. I simplequestionsuchas: I. Ifyouweregovernor,whatwouldyoudotostopcrime?

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Thisforcestherespondenttogivethoughttosomethinghemayhaveneverconsidered.Thisdoesnot produceclearandconsistentdatarepresentingrealopinion.Donotaskhypotheticalquestions. Prestige Bias: Prestige bias is the tendency for respondents to answer in a way that make them feel better.Peoplemaynotliedirectly,butmaytrytoputabetterlightonthemselves.Forexample,itisnot uncommon for people to respond to a political opinion poll by saying they support Samaritan social programs,suchasfoodstamps,butthengoontovoteforcandidateswhoopposethoseveryprograms. Data from other questions, such as those that ask how long it takes to learn an interface, must be viewedwithalittleskepticism.Peopletendtosaytheyarefasterlearnersthantheyare. There is little that can be done to prevent prestige bias. Sometimes there just is no way to phrase a question so that all the answers are noble. The best means to deal with prestige bias is to make the questionnaireasprivateaspossible.Telephoneinterviewsarebetterthanpersontopersoninterviews, andwrittenquestionnairesmailedtoparticipantsareevenbetterstill.Thefartherawaythecriticaleye oftheresearcheris,themorehonesttheanswers. NowWhat? Nowthatyou'vecompletedyouquestionnaire,youarestillnotreadytosenditout.Justlikeany manufactured product, your questionnaire needs to go through quality testing. The major hurdle in questionnaire design is making it clear and understandable to all. Though you have takengreatcaretobeclearandconcise,itisstillunreasonabletothinkthatanyonepersoncan anticipateallthepotentialproblems.Justasausabilitytestobservesatestuserwiththeactual interface, you must observe a few test questionnaire takers. You will then review the questionnaire with the test takers and discuss all points that were in any way confusing and worktogethertosolvetheproblems.Youwillthenproduceanewquestionnaire.Itispossible thatthisstepmayneedtoberepeatedmorethanoncedependingonresourcesandtheneed foraccuracy. Conclusions Questionnaire design is a long process that demands careful attention. A questionnaire is a powerfulevaluationtoolandshouldnotbetakenlightly.Designbeginswithanunderstanding ofthecapabilitiesofaquestionnaireandhowtheycanhelpyourresearch.Ifitisdetermined that a questionnaire is to be used, the greatest care goes into the planning of the objectives. Questionnairesarelikeanyscientificexperiment.Onedoesnotcollectdataandthenseeifthey foundsomethinginteresting.Oneformsahypothesisandanexperimentthatwillhelpproveor disprovethehypothesis. Questionnaires are versatile, allowing the collection of both subjective and objective data through the use of open or closed format questions. Modern computers have only made the task of collecting and extracting valuable material more efficient. However, a questionnaire is onlyasgoodasthequestionsitcontains.Therearemanyguidelinesthatmustbemetbefore youquestionnairecanbeconsideredasoundresearchtool.Themajoritydealwithmakingthe questionnaireunderstandableandfreeofbias.Mindfulreviewandtestingisnecessarytoweed out minor mistakes that can cause great changes in meaning and interpretation. When these guidelinesarefollowed,thequestionnairebecomesapowerfulandeconomicevaluationtool.

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1. TYPESOFQUESTIONS Contingency questions A question that is answered only if the respondent gives a particular response to a previous question. This avoids asking questions of people that do not apply to them(forexample,askingmeniftheyhaveeverbeenpregnant). Matrix questions Identical response categories are assigned to multiple questions. The questionsareplacedoneundertheother,formingamatrixwithresponsecategoriesalongthe topandalistofquestionsdowntheside.Thisisanefficientuseofpagespaceandrespondents time. ScaledquestionsResponsesaregradedonacontinuum(example:ratetheappearanceofthe product on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the most preferred appearance). Examples of types of scales include the Likert scale, semantic differential scale, and rankorder scale (See scaleforacompletelistofscalingtechniques.). Closed ended questions Respondents answers are limited to a fixed set of responses. Most scalesareclosedended.Othertypesofclosedendedquestionsinclude: DichotomousquestionsTherespondentanswerswithayesorano. MultiplechoiceTherespondenthasseveraloptionfromwhichtochoose. Open ended questions No options or predefined categories are suggested. The respondent supplies their own answer without being constrained by a fixed set of possible responses. Examplesoftypesofopenendedquestionsinclude: CompletelyunstructuredForexample,Whatisyouropinionofquestionnaires? WordassociationWordsarepresentedandtherespondentmentionsthefirstwordthatcomes tomind. SentencecompletionRespondentscompleteanincompletesentence.Forexample,Themost importantconsiderationinmydecisiontobuyanewhouseis... StorycompletionRespondentscompleteanincompletestory. PicturecompletionRespondentsfillinanemptyconversationballoon. ThematicapperceptiontestRespondentsexplainapictureormakeupastoryaboutwhatthey thinkishappeninginthepicture.

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