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Figure 1.1 view of NFL NANGAL

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO NFL NANGAL My training was at NFl Nangal. Nangal is a beautiful town situated in Distt. Ropar (PB). This is the first key industry set up by Govt. Of INDIA with coming up of Bhakhra Dam & surplus power available from the project at the time. It was derived by Govt. Of India To set a fertilizer plant at Nangal, which went to production in 1961.The plant at that time produce Ammonium Nitrate( 25% Nitrogen) and heavy water.

Subsequently In 1978 went an Ammonia Plant based on fuel oil gasification which added Urea (46% Nitrogen) to its main product in 1990. In 1978, In urea formation the hydrogen was available from electrolysis of the water which on electrolysis treatment produce hydrogen and oxygen & from this hydrogen further ammonia is formed, but after short time of gap Electrolysis plant was replaced with Front End Plant(NMP-I) based on reforming of Naptha production of hydrogen and reducing the electrical power consumption.

1.2 NFL PLANTS NFL has several plant in all over India and the location of various fertilizer plant In India as :1. National Fertilizer Limited Vijaipur (MP) 2. National Fertilizer Limited Panipat(HR) 3. National Fertilizer Limited Bathinda (PB) 4. National Fertilizer Limited Naya Nangal (PB)

1.3 PRODUCTS OF NFL NFL Nangal mainly dals with production of Urea but there are sevarel by products which get produce Prodcts Urea Methanol Sulphur Ammonium Nitrate Liquid Carbon Dioxide Sodiam Nitrite Sodiam Nitrate Nitric Acid Ammoonia Table 1.1 products of nangal Capacity( in MTPD) 1450 67 24 As per Reqd. 24 9 6 554 900

There is also the formation of poisonous gases such as CO, CO2, CH4, H2, & H2S etc. The plant I catagarized into two parts:A)




The input and output data of company is as in which its inform about the name of the product and the consumption of raw material Raw material Fuel oil Coal Fuel oil Fuel oil Table 1.2 raw materials Raw material Fuel oil for ammonia Fuel oil for methanol Consumption Ammonia Steam Steam Methanol Output 832.04 191.25 13.17 878.30

Total Raw material consumption is given as:-

Total consumption(MT/annum) 240603.5 8764.5

Caustic Soda for NOx

Table 1.3 raw material consumption


1.4 COMPANY OUTPUT Overall Turnover of NFL is 3800 crores. The employee strength is as:

Total Employee Officers Workers

1542 232 1310

Main Product & its Objective:-

Kisan Urea SpecificationsMoisture Less than 1% Nitrogen on Dry Basis- More than 46% Biuret by weight 1% Objective 1. Kisan Urea For Food grains


Cash Crops

3. Horticulture & for vegetable and Oil Seed.

2.0 Sections of NFL, Nangal NFL, Nangal unit is generally divided into three major sections (Section A, B, C), these sections are:

Section A STEAM GENERATION PLANT (SGP) Section B Ammonia-II Plant Section C

Nitric Acid Plant (NAP)


2.1 Introduction to SGP 2.1.1 Objective of SGP:In NFL ,Nangal Unit Plant ,all the basic unit operations need steam for their work and must of the industrial equipment are driven by steam such as Turbo Compressors ,Steam jet ejectors, preheater etc. In unit operations 1) For evaporation supply the steam to evaporate 2) For crystallizations supply the steam to crystallizer 3) To create the negative suction pressure mostly supply in the steam jet ejector 4) For combustions purpose such as gasification process 5) To exchange the heat of desire product by use of steam . SGP starts from1) Handling &Storage of Coal ,Fuel Oil ,LHSH , LDO & Methanol 2) Boilersa) Coal Fired Foiler b) Fil Fired Boiler 3) Pollutions Control Sections 4) Steam Network Section

a)- CO A L U N LO A D IN G
Co al fro m

Tip p le r V ib ratoET n d e rgro u n rs, -1(U

Figure 2. unloading of coal

(Cap . =550 M T/ h r) -600


2.2 UNLOADING, HANDLING & STORAGE OF COAL FUEL OIL,LSHS,LDO & METHANOL 2.2.1 PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING AND STORAGE OF FUEL OIL / LSHS:FO/LSHS is used as raw material (feed stock) in the Steam Generation & Ammonia & Methanol plant as a fuel .Daily consumption of oil in Ammonia & Methanol is 860t & in SGP is 60t The oil unloading system is designed to unload 90 wagons at a time .The oil from oil wagons is transfer to the storage tanks where it is heated to 75-80 by providing steam .For heating saturated steam is used at maximum temperature of 150 and pressure 5kg/cm2 at the rate of 15t/Hr One stream of oil is given to NH3-II plant & other two streams are given to Day tank for oil fired boiler-4 & day tank for coal fired boiler -1,2,3 each of capacity 104kl .Then oil is transferred to two separate preheaters from both the tanks where temperature is increased to 125 & finally is given to their respective boilers. Procedure for handling and Storage of light diesel oil :Light diesel oil is unloaded from tankers transfer to L.D.O. storage tank of capacity 14kl & then given to the boilers Procedure of Handling and storage of methanol:Methanol from methanol plant transferred to Methanol storage tank of capacity 500m .One stream is given to NH3-II plant and other stream is given for loading of railway wagons. Methanol is produced in NH3-II plant at the rate of 67MT/day. It is widely used in plastic as well as in pharmaceuticals. Procedure for Coal Unloading, Handling and Storage:Coal is used in SGP for burning purposes. Daily consumption of coal in SGP is about 1000T/Day &daily production of steam is about 182t/day. Coals from coal wagons are unloaded in the tippler where vibrators is used which draw the coal on belt conveyer &through belt conveyer it is drawn in coal yasd From coal yard it is drawn to the underground hooper with the help of bulldozer & from the hopper it is drawn to the belt conveyer. Here we use magnets for removing iron particles of coal & Hammer Crusher for reducing the size of coal .

Then by using Belt Conveyer coal after crushing is transferred to coal pulverizing yard 30000t. Angle of repose of unloading belts

I m p S tr e a6m5 :T ,/ h r0a5t a ,4 o t 1

3 1C 1 Sat. Ste am D e su p e rh e a te r 7 4C 0


F lu
Figure 2.2 fuel based boiler

P la tS un p e r H e a t e r e

M ud D

2.3 COAL FIRED BOILER 2.3.1 INTRODUCTION:The integrated service boilers for the Nangal Expansion Fertilizer Project are different from conventional boilers. These boilers are radiant, outdoor, bidrum, high head, non-reheated type & pulverized coal is used as principal fuel These boilers are designed to heat up external high pressure saturated steam from heat boilers, along with generated steam coal is used as principal fuel These boilers are designed to heat up external high pressure saturated steam from waste heat boilers ,along with generated steam in the boiler to the same final superheated steam These boilers generated 117t/hr of steam and 65t/hr external import steam . The final superheated steam generated 182t/hr will have a pressure of 91kg/cm2 & temperature of 510 2.3.2 MAIN BOILER STRUCTURE:The boiler designed of the top supported type & allowed to expand downwards. The main boiler is supported four rows of column on either side of the boiler (S1,S2,S3 &S4) Boiler feed water which is coming from NH3-II plant which is preheated to 145 & then passing through the economizer where its temperature is rises to 182-188 then it is transferred to the steam drum. In the steam drum it is converted to the saturated steam & remaining water is not converted to steam is transferred to mud drum through bank tubes In the mud drum temperature of the condensed water is raises by the flow of the flue gases from the mud drum through bank tubes. In the mud drum temperature of the condensed water is rises by the flow of the flue gases. From the mud drum preheated water is then transfer through the tubes along the sides of furnace and recirculated to the steam drum and the above processes continuously running. The purpose of recirculation is that, we cant leave the steam drum empty. The temperature of the saturated steam leaving the steam drum is around 310 to 315C. The saturated steam is then given to platin super heater where its temperature is rises to about 405 to 410C. The temperature of the platen super heater is 905C 2.3.3 COAL PULVERSIZING SECTION;In this section ball mill is used to pulverize the coal. Firstly coal which is crushed in the hammer crusher to the size about size 25 mm is then transferred to the coal bunkers & from coal bunkers & from coal bunkers through feeder to the centre of revolving ball of the ball mill. Hot air is given to the Ball which is coming by passing through the air heater for the following two purpose:1. For the drying of the pulverized coal

2. For the movement of the pulverized coal to the furnace Hot air enters the mill housing below the ball and is directed upward passes through the classifier vanes . The rising hot air around the ball picks up the pulverized coal, the lighter particles carried by the air passes through the classifier & heavier particles are returned from the classifier to the ball for additional grinding. Finally the pulverized coal having particle size 200 meshes & air leaves the Ball Mill through classifier 2.3.4 COAL COMPOSITION MOISTURE VOLATILE MATTER FIXED CARBON ASH Table 2.1 coal composition 2.3.5 COMBUSTION CHAMBER OR BIOLER FURNANCE At the four corner of the combustion chamber or boiler furnace one wind box is installed . At each corner one burner is located. Each burner will comprise of four streams which are given to the furnace , these are coal +Air ,Tail Gas, LDO+ steam & hot air nozzles arranged vertically in an insulated wind box Air is sucked from the atmosphere by the forced draft fans & supplied to the air heater. After passing through the heater temperature of the air is increased and then it is passed through the heater temperature of the air is increased and then it is transferred to the wind box. For the burning of the coal oil gun is used & all the other streams are given for the complete combustion of the coal & unburned coal particles are dropped to the bottom wher screen is used to transfer them to bottom ash hopper The flue gases which is produced after the combustion of the fuel is moving upward to the furnace is centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is developed when all the streams from the four corners will meet at a single where the burning is taking place The temperature of the combustion chamber, where burning of the coal is done is 1070C . During the upward movement of the flue gas temperature difference between lower and upper part of the of boiler which is going to be in between 100C to 150C 6-10% 16-20 % 39-45% 30-35%

2.3.6 TAIL GAS COMPOSITION H2 Ar N2 CO CH4 H2O Table 2.2 tail gas composition 7.00% 3.80% 16.10% 27.90% 3.30% 41.90%

Tail gas which is coming out from ammonia II plant contains an appreciable amount of CO which is not directly disposed to the atmosphere because of its harmful effects. So this gas is ignite in the furnace and convert the CO to CO2 and reduced the content of the gas Due to the large content of non-combustion of gases i.e. N2 & H2O, the ignition of the CO gas is difficult& is not self sustaining. After ignition is converted to the flue gases and are disposed to the atmosphere 2.3.7 PROCEDURE FOR DISPOSAL OF ASH:We used coal as a fuel for the running of the boiler, approximate 1000MT/day of coal is used and huge amount of ash is generated. For efficient running of the boiler continuous removal of ash contents is essential .Heavier particles of burned coal are retained in the bottom ash hopper of the boiler and the light particles are collected in the Electrostatic Precipitator Finally the mixture of ash & water is discharged through feed gate & clinker , grinder, which reduces the size of the clinker to about 50 mm to the ash slurry pit. Then ash slurry is disposed to ash pond area 2.3.8 BOILER FEED WATER SPECIFICATIONS:TEMPERATURE TOTAL HARDNESS AS CaCo3 SILCA O2 IRON COPPER pH Table 2.3 B.F.W. specifications 145C 0.3ppm 0.1 ppm 0.02ppm 0.02ppm 0.005ppm 7.5-9.0

Import steam which is coming from the NH3-II plant at a temperature 313C and pressure105ata is given to the import steam super heater where we get superheated steam whose temperature is around 510-520C. The temperature of the final super heater is 872C For controlling the temperature of the superheated steam, one desuperheater is used whose temperature is ling in between 370-400C. So after desuperheater finally we get superheated steam whose temperature is 500C and pressure is 91 ata, which is then given to different sections in the plant. It produces 182 Tonne/hr of superheated steam. The flue gas which leaves from the furnace is leaving at the temperature of 530-540C, So arrangement is made for the waste heat recovery. Firstly the flue gases pass through import steam super heater where some amount of heat is recovered and temperature of the flue gas reduces to 430C. Then it passes to economizer where the temperature is reduced to 338C and then it is passed through air heaters which are used for preheating the air sucked by forced draft fan the temperature of the flue gases are sucked by force draft fans and are given to the ESP for the removal of fly ash or dust.

0 Import Steam, 427a C,


Figure 2.3 oil based boiler 2.4 OIL FIRED BOILER 2.4.1INTRODUCTION:Oil fired boiler used as an alternative source of steam&is used in rare cases herewhen there is maintenance problem in coal fired boiler . It work similer to the coal fired boiler but difference in that in place of using coal fuel oil is used as principle fuel 2.4.2 Combustion Chamber or Boiler Furnace :-

Platen Heater

Bare Tube

At the four corner of combustion chamber or boiler furnace one wind box is each corner one burner is located . Each Burner will comprise of four stream which are of steam +fuel oil. Steam is used for atomization of oil &hot air which is sucked by Forced Draft Fan & preheated by SCAPH & Rotary heater is supplied at a temperature of 233C to the air wind box.

Final Super heater

0 728

The flue gas which is produced after burning of fuel oil moving upward to the furnace by centrifugal force .Centrifugal force developed when all the stream from the four corner will meet at single point where burning is taking place. The temperature of the combustion chamber ,where burning of the fuel oil is done is 1170c. During the upward movement of the flue gas temperature is going to be decrease &there is around 100c -150c temperature difference between lower and upper part of the boiler furnace. 2.4.3 Main Boiler Structures The boiler design of top supported type &allowed to expand downwards. The main boiler supported four rows of the column on either side of the boiler (S1.S2,S3AND S4) Boiler feed water which is coming from NH3-2 Plant which is preheated to 125c &then passing through the gilled tube economizer where temperature is rise to 182-188c then it is given to steam drum & in the steam drum it is converted to saturated steam. The temperature of the saturated steam leaving the steam drum is around 320-325c the water which is remaining in steam drum is transfer through the tube along the side of the furnace and recirculated to the steam drum & the above process continuously running .the purpose of recirculation is that ,we cant leave the steam drum empty .the saturated steam is then given to the platen super heater where its temperature rises to about 405-410c. the temperature of platen super heater is 920c. Import steam which is coming from the NH3-2 plant at a temperature 313c and pressure 105 ata is given to the import steam super heater where its temperature is rises around 405 -410c.then finally mix both stream i.e. saturated steam & import steam &given to the final super heater from where we get superheated steam whose temperature is around 510-520c. the temperature of final super heater is 872c. For controlling the temperature of the superheated steam ,one desuperheater is used to whose temperature is lies in between 370-400c so after desuperheater finally we get superheated steam whose temperature is 510&pressure 91ata ,which is then given then to different section in the plant .it produces 140T/hr of superheated steam The flue gas which leaves from the furnace is leaves from the furnace is leaves at a temperature of 660-670c ,so arrange is made for waste heat recovery .firstly the flue gases pass through bare tube economizer and then from import steam superheater where some amount of heat is recovered &temperature of flue gas reduced to 360c Then it is passes through gilled tube economizer where temperature is reduced to 299c 7 then it is passed through rotary air heater is 121c The flue gas after passing through rotary air heater is going to the chimney & from the chimney it is disposed to atmosphere the height of the chimney is 80m &flue gas from other source of the plant are also disposed from the same chimney the flue gas which is disposed to atmosphere with following compositions(SO2=500-600mg/Nm3,SPM=110mg/Nm3)

2.5 POLLUTION CONTROLL SECTION 2.5.1 Electrostatic Precipitator:Flue gas are sucked by the Forced Draft Fan and supplied toESP .Fly ash or dust is collection is done in the Electrostatic Precipitator by imparting the negative charge to the dust particles & attracting them towards positive plate disposal of the collected dust is done by rapping the electrode . The ash or dust which is collected in ESP is coming to hydrovecter then this ash is transfer red along with water which is coming from NH3-2 plant to the ash slurry pit . then ash slurry is disposed to ash pond area . 2.5.2 Stack:The flue gas after removal of dust id thrown to the outside the chimney to atmosphere by the use of induced draft fan .the height of the chimney is 80m &flue gas from the other source of the plant is also disposed to same chimney the flue gas which is disposed to atmosphere with following composition (SO2=500-600mg/Nm3, suspended particles=110mg/Nm3)


3.0 INTRODUCTION TO AMMONIA-II PLANT This plant is the nerve center of the NATIONAL FERTILIZER NANGAL. This plants main objective is to produce NH3, AMMONIUM NITRAT , SULPHUR The ammonia gas required for the production of urea is being produced over here There are several unit in AMMONIA-II plant these are as follows 1) AIR SEPERATION UNIT 2) GASIFICATION UNIT & GAS PURIFICATION 3) CARBON RECOVERY 4) RECTISOL-I 5) CO-SHOFT CONVERSION 6) METHANOL 7) RECTISOL-II 8) NITROGEN WAS 9) REFRIGERATION 10) SULPHUR RECOVERY PLANT 11) AMMONIA STORAGE These are arteries of the AMMONIA II plant


The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic.


The catalyst is actually slightly more complicated than pure iron. It has potassium hydroxide added to it as a promoter - a substance that increases its efficiency.


The pressure varies from one manufacturing plant to another, but is always high. You can't go far wrong in an exam quoting 200 atmospheres.

RECYCLING At each pass of the gases through the reactor, only about 15% of the nitrogen and hydrogen converts to ammonia. (This figure also varies from plant to plant.) By continual recycling of the unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen, the overall conversion is about 98%. EXPLAINING THE CONDITIONS The proportions of nitrogen and hydrogen The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen going into the reactor is in the ratio of 1 volume of nitrogen to 3 volumes of hydrogen. Avogadro's Law says that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. That means that the gases are going into the reactor in the ratio of 1 molecule of nitrogen to 3 of hydrogen. That is the proportion demanded by the equation.

In some reactions you might choose to use an excess of one of the reactants. You would do this if it is particularly important to use up as much as possible of the other reactant - if, for example, it was much more expensive. That doesn't apply in this case.

There is always a down-side to using anything other than the equation proportions. If you have an excess of one reactant there will be molecules passing through the reactor which can't possibly react because there isn't anything for them to react with. This wastes reactor space particularly space on the surface of the catalyst.

THE TEMPERATURE EQUILIBRIUM CONSIDERATIONS You need to shift the position of the equilibrium as far as possible to the right in order to produce the maximum possible amount of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture. The forward reaction (the production of ammonia) is exothermic. According to Le Chatelier's Principle, this will be favoured if you lower the temperature. The system will respond by moving the position of equilibrium to counteract this - in other words by producing more heat. In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium mixture, you need as low a temperature as possible. However, 400 - 450C isn't a low temperature! RATE CONSIDERATIONS The lower the temperature you use, the slower the reaction becomes. A manufacturer is trying to produce as much ammonia as possible per day. It makes no sense to try to achieve an equilibrium mixture which contains a very high proportion of ammonia if it takes several years for the reaction to reach that equilibrium. You need the gases to reach equilibrium within the very short time that they will be in contact with the catalyst in the reactor. THE COMPROMISE 400 - 450C is a compromise temperature producing a reasonably high proportion of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture (even if it is only 15%), but in a very short time. THE PRESSURE Equilibrium considerations Notice that there are 4 molecules on the left-hand side of the equation, but only 2 on the right. According to Le Chatelier's Principle, if you increase the pressure the system will respond by favouring the reaction which produces fewer molecules. That will cause the pressure to fall again. In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium mixture, you need as high a pressure as possible. 200 atmospheres is a high pressure, but not amazingly high.

RATE CONSIDERATIONS Increasing the pressure brings the molecules closer together. In this particular instance, it will increase their chances of hitting and sticking to the surface of the catalyst where they can react. The higher the pressure the better in terms of the rate of a gas reaction. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS Very high pressures are very expensive to produce on two counts. You have to build extremely strong pipes and containment vessels to withstand the very high pressure. That increases your capital costs when the plant is built. High pressures cost a lot to produce and maintain. That means that the running costs of your plant are very high. THE CATALYST EQUILIBRIUM CONSIDERATIONS The catalyst has no effect whatsoever on the position of the equilibrium. Adding a catalyst doesn't produce any greater percentage of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture. Its only function is to speed up the reaction. RATE CONSIDERATIONS In the absence of a catalyst the reaction is so slow that virtually no reaction happens in any sensible time. The catalyst ensures that the reaction is fast enough for a dynamic equilibrium to be set up within the very short time that the gases are actually in the reactor. SEPARATING THE AMMONIA When the gases leave the reactor they are hot and at a very high pressure. Ammonia is easily liquefied under pressure as long as it isn't too hot, and so the temperature of the mixture is lowered enough for the ammonia to turn to a liquid. The nitrogen and hydrogen remain as gases even under these high pressures, and can be recycled.


Figure 3.1 process description of Ammonia-II

3.2 AIR SEPARATION UNIT (SECTION-10) Objective- To separate O2 and N2 from atmospheric air. Principle- Phase Transformation (Conversion of gaseous air into liquefied air) 3.2.1 Process DescriptionAir compositionsAir Constituents Vol. % Triple Point, K 63.156 54.363 83.78 13.96 24.55 Nil 115.95 116.3 216.6 Boiling Point, K 77.35 90.19 87.27 20.27 27.09 4.215 119.81 165.04 194.68 Critical Point, K 128.2 154.58 150.8 33.19 33.19 5.20 209.4 289.8 304.2 Critical pressure, MPa 3.39 5.04 4.81 1.29 2.68 0.22 5.4 5.74 7.25

N2 78.084 O2 20.946 Ar 0.934 H2 0.00005 Ne 0.001921 He 0.0005239 Kr 0.0001139 Xe 0.0000087 CO2 0.02-0.04 Table 3.1 air composition

The air separation plant for Nangal unit has been supplied by M/s Cryoplants Ltd, U.K. Compressed air {at 7.08 ata (5.9kgf/cm2gauge) & 450C} comes from section -17(air compressor) passes to the direct cooler i.e.D-1 where humidity increases up to 80% and compressed air has cooled from 450C to 340C in D-1 cooler, cold water is used as a cooling medium whose temperature 320C. (It means exit air cooled around 20C above the temperature of water) this cooling takes place by the counter current flow arrangement. After cooling, cooled air is passed from a set of butterfly valves to the two alternative working reversing type heat exchanger i.e.E-1A &E-1B, where air is cooled up to its liquefaction temperature from which it can be separated into desired components. CO2 and H2O both are frozen out inside the Reverse Heat Exchanger (RHE).Therefore, remove theses impurities from RHE Waste Nitrogen and Air are used as cleaning streams. Further liquefied air is sent to the fractionation distillation column and finally liquefied air is separated into O2 and N2 fraction products according to their relative volatility.

3.2.2 Functional Detail of Involved Unit Operations1) - Direct Cooler Pumps (P-1A & P-1B)Two single stages, centrifugal pumps are provided to supply water to the direct cooler. One pump supplies the necessary cooling water, the other being on standby. 2) - Direct Cooler (D-1)-

Main objective of ASU is the liquefaction of air for which two RHEs are implies and 35 0C & 7.08 ata is the operating design data for RHE. Compressed air is cooled from 45 0C to 350 C because compressed air comes at this temperature & pressure of 7.08 ata and 45 0C which is insufficient value for RHE. For this reason D-1 cooler implies where temperature decreases from 450C to 350C and humidity increases up to 80%. In this cooling process, cold water is used as cooling medium at 320C and outlet temperature of cold air is about 35 0C. In which air is cooled by direct counter current contact with water. 3.2.3 ConstructionD-1 cooler Consist of mild steel tower and fitted with stainless steel sieve trays. 3) - RHE (Reverse Heat Exchanger) RHE has played main role in ASU because air approaches to its liquefaction temperature by RHE. RHE works in two fold. Firstly, to cool the air almost to its liquefaction temperature (1710C) and secondly to remove those constituents (water and carbon dioxide) which becomes solids at the operating temperature of column. RHE has complicated function, for RHE function total six streams enters at cold end and two streams of air( at 350C & 7.08 ata) enters into the E-1A(RHE) and E-1B (RHE )i.e. warm end of RHE. All six streams play major role in to make the air till the liquefaction temperature (-1710C). These six streams are mentioned below1) LP Gaseous N2 Product from top of distillation column via E-36(Sub cooler) & E35(heater consists of plate fin HE) at -1700C.

2) Air or Waste N2. 3) Waste N2 or Air. 4) O2 Gaseous Product from Reboiler of distillation column via E-5(heater consists of plate fin HE) at -1710C. 5) Gaseous N2 (Rectisol) from Expansion Turbine via E-11 (heater consists of plate fin HE). 6) MP N2 Product from top section of lower distillation column (Trumpler N2) at -1750C.

Gaseous N2 (Rectisol) from Expansion Turbine via E-11 (heater consists of plate fin HE) O2 Gaseous Product from reboiler of distillation column via E-5(heater consists of plate fin HE)

Waste N2 to atm. Reverse Heat Exchan ger E-IB 4 Reverse Heat Exchan ger E-IA 4

Waste N2 from upper distillation column via E-4(Sub cooler) & E6(heater consists of plate fin HE) LP N2 Gaseous Product from top of distillation column via E36(Sub cooler) & E-35(heater consists of plate MP N2 Product from top of lower column of distillation column (Trumpler N2) Expansion turbine where Gaseous N2 (Rectisol) formed

Waste N2 Silenc er

Air from Direct Cooler at 350C & 7.08 ata LP N2 Product go to O2Compressor at 28500 Nm3/hr,210 C,500 mmWG ata

Figure 3.2 air separation unit

O2 Product go to O2Compressor at 24000 Nm3/hr,210 C, 0.2 ata

Go to the Blower(C-1A & C-1B) where MP N2 Product at 19000Nm3/hr, 750C,

And exit streams 1) - LP N2 at 28500 Nm3/hr, 210C, 500 mm WG 2) Air or Waste N2 to vent 3) - Waste N2 or Air to vent 4) - O2 Gaseous Product (at 24000Nm3/hr, 210C, 0.2 kg/cm2, gauge) to O2 5) - MP N2 Product to N2 Compressor i.e.C-11A &C-11B (at kg/cm2). Compressor

19000 Nm3/hr, 750C, 1.5

6) - Trumpler N2 goes to the Expansion turbine (X-1A & X-1B) at 1.1kg/cm2 gauge,-1750C and then passed to the heater E-11 where it becomes gaseous N2 (Rectisol).

3.2.4 Importance of Trumpler N2 In order to obtain the most efficient cold recovery of the returning products, it is necessary to have close temperature difference at the warm end of heat exchanger. There is also requirement that the cold end temperature differences should be close. With fixed terminal temperature differences there is still a thermal imbalance between the air and the returning streams, mainly due to the change in specific heat with differences in pressure, the air being required to lose more heat than the product streams can pick up in order to establish a thermal balance a method is known as Trumpler balancing is implies. This involves passing a stream of N2 through the exchanger in the same direction as the returning products, and taking this stream out of the exchanger at a temperature of -1080C. 3.2.5 How H2O and CO2 Remove from RHE As the air stream enters the exchanger saturated with the water in D-1 cooler, as the air is cool below the 00C then water will come out as ice and will be deposited on the passage of RHE. As the exchangers are mounted warm end downwards water initially separating out will either fall back towards the manifold, are be entrained upwards until it comes to a point sufficiently cold for it to freeze and adhere to the Walls. When the air has been cooled to about -730C it is for practical purposes, dry, and will be further cooled until CO2 began to deposit. With a normal industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration of about 350 vpm the onset of deposition are approx. -1330C and the CO2 content of the air will gradually diminish until at the exit temperature of -1710C. The concentration will be of the order of 1 vpm. As to RHEs batteries are in operation a solid state timer is incorporated into the changeover system to avoid simultaneous changeover of the two batteries after a certain period of time approx. &720 Sec. a timer will automatically induce a series of changeover valve operation that will reverse the air and waste N2 stream and the waste N2 stream will now enter the passage containing the deposited CO2 and Water. 3.2.6 Distillation of AirAfter RHE, air becomes liquefied (-1710C) and it is sent to the double distillation column where air is separated into N2 & O2. We can use also single distillation column but due to some limitation of single column cannot use. Single ColumnLinde used single column in a air separation plant. Compressed air after drying and removal of CO2 is introduced through the heat exchanger, in which it is cooled by returning cold products move in a coil in the sump, at the bottom of the rectifying column, and is expanded

to the atmospheric pressure in the valve. It is then delivered, mainly liquid to the top of the column. The liquid descending from plate to plate becomes enriched with O2 as a result of interaction with the rising vapors, and is partially are wholly evaporated in the sump by thermal contact with the compressed air passing through the coil . Limitations1) - Only about 70% O2 in the air can be recovered, thus large quantities of O2 are wasted. 2) - Pure N2 cannot be made by single column because the vapors leaving the top plate will be in phase equilibrium with liquid and will contain 7% O2. So for this reason, NFL, Nangal unit implies double distillation column. 3.2.7 Double Distillation Column3.2.7.1 PrincipleThe double column process is based on the fact that the pressure in the lower column is higher than upper column by an amount at least equal to the difference in vapor pressure between O2 & N2. Description It contains three parts1) Lower Column (T-1). 2) Upper Column (T-2). 3) Condenser/ Reboiler (E-3). Lower Column (T-1)It consist of a tower containing 44 sieve trays and one bubble cap tray, operating at a pressure of 5.4kg/cm2 ,gauge and a temperature of between -172 to -1760C.Liq. Air enters the base of the column at passes up through the bubble cap tray in which it is reduced to its saturation temperature. Some fraction of the air is then taken out of the column and used for the product heating stream in E-11,E-6,E-35,E-5(heater consists of plate fin HE) and it is return back to the 14 sieve tray .The balance of the air then raises up the column as it does so is enriched in the more volatile component (N2) until at the top it has reached a concentration of 10 ppm O2.Part is then drawn off for turbine expansion(X-1A & X-1B) and rest of the vapor is condensed by heat exchanger against boiling O2 in the condenser cum reboiler. Part of this liquefied stream (Condensed N2 in condenser cum reboiler) is removed to form the poor liquid N2 (PL) stream [pure PL(in which 10ppm O2) is removed from below the condenser], while the remainder act as a reflux for the lower column, becoming enriched in the less volatile (O2) component until it has attained a concentration of 39% O2, at which

point it is termed as rich liquid (RL) which is removed from the sump of lower column and third outlet (Impure PL in which 10% O2) is taken out from 17th tray of lower column. Reflux is necessary during rectification due to that reason three streams taken out from the lower column that is act as a reflux stream for upper column (Main objective is to improve rectification process). These three streams are sub cooled in sub cooler in which two streams are passed out in E-36(Pure N2 & pure PL N2) similarly E-4 (Waste N2, Impure PL& Rich liquid) where heat exchange process taking place. Before passing into the E-4 RL is scrubbed in RL adsorber to remove to hydrocarbon and CO2. Upper Column (T-2)It consists of tower containing 73 sieve trays and is mounted on the top of lower column. Condenser reboiler is at the base of the column. The feed streams to the upper column are the pure PL, Impure (third Outlet) PL and RL Stream. The products leaving the upper column are gaseous O2 (99.5% which comes out from the base of upper column) and the pure gaseous N2 (0 to 10 ppm O2) from the top. A stream of liquid O2 is removed from the sump pumped through the absorber and returned to the column this is done by D-3(LO Adsorber). 3.2.8 Condenser cum Reboiler (E-3)The condenser cum reboiler consists of five plate pin blocks. The function of the exchanger is to condense the N2 rising from the top of the lower column against the O2 reboiling (because condenser is act for lower column and reboiler is act for upper column) in the sump of upper column. To provide refrigeration to the liquid N2 wash plant the sump accommodates a separate block E-43 whose duty is to liquefy the 40kg/cm2 of N2. 3.2.9 Expansion Turbine (X-1A & X-1B)Two turbine of Linde manufacture is installed in the plant. These are fitted with compressor brake. Main function of this machine is to produce cold by isentropic expansion of N2 between 5.2kg/cm2 and 1.1 kg/cm2. This N2 is the N2 product of the lower column as mentioned in the preceding section. It comes from the lower column (via Trumpler pass of the RHE and from the Trumpler bypass HCV-005) and is expanded into the N 2 E-11(Rectisol N2) and into purge N2 heater E-55(L.P. N2). The machine throughput control is by variable is inlet nozzle which are remotely operated. 3.2.10 RL Adsorbers (D-2A & D-2B)This system consists of a pair of stainless steel vessels, each containing of Mobile Bead Packed adsorber and a filter composed of layers of glass twill/staple wrapped round a stainless steel perforated mandrel. The function of these vessels is to remove any traces of

CO2, acetylene or other HCs in the adsorber section and any particles of Mobile Bead dust in the filter section. Pressure gauges are fitted downstream vessel. Under normal operations each adsorber is taken off stream every 8 days for reactivation purposes. 3.2.11 LO Adsorber System (D-3)This system comprises two circulating pumps (P-2A & P-2B) to other with one Mobile Bead Packed stainless steel adsorber also equipped with dust filter. The function of the system is to prevent an accumulation of HCs (mainly acetylene) in the sump of the upper column. Any one pump is on stream at a given time. Under normal operation the adsorber is taken off streams every 8 days for reactivation purposes. A suitable time for this operation following the putting on stream of a reactivated RL adsorber. 3.2.12 Heaters (E-11, E-6, E-35&E-5)These consists of plate fin HE in which the product O2 stream the low pressure product N2 stream, the rectisol product N2 stream and the waste N2 stream, are heated up to a correct temperature at which to enter the RHE, the heating medium is condensing air from the lower column. These are four blocks, one block per heater. These O2 leaving the upper column goes straight through, heater E-5.The waste N2 leaving the PL/PR subcooler goes straight through to heater, E-6. Heater E-11 receives the rectisol N2flow. Heater E-35 receives pure N2 from the PL subcooler. It also receives a partial flow of expanded N2 from the turbine. However, during cooling down a letdown facility is provided to divert turbine exhaust to the WN line downstream heater E-6 during the cooling down of the RHE via V-400, and upstream the heaters via V-413when operating turbine temperatures are established. The use of bypass V400 is compulsory during cooling down as it eliminates the risk of blocking th WN heater with solid CO2 the expansion turbines. 3.2.13 Sub coolers (E-36 & E-4)The function of subcoolers is to cool further the reflux to the upper column in order that the rectification is improved by heat exchanger with the N2 streams (pure and waste) leaving the upper column. The subcoolers are arranged in to pure N2 is exchanged against the pure PL stream in exchanger and waste N2 against PL and RL in another. The PL/RL subcooler is in fact made up of two heat exchangers but welded to each other with the waste N2 stream flowing straight through. In the first part of the exchanger the WN is heat exchanged against PL of the third outlet, and the second part against RL. 3.2.14 Reactivation System (H-2)The reactivation N2 is admitted to the heater H-2. The reactivation heater consists of an electric heater fitted with a thermostat to give the required outlet temperature. Main function of the heater is to heat up the N2 in order that the LO and RL adsorbers may be reactivated. 3.2.15 Thawing System (E-13)-

The thawing heater is system heated, the steam input being controlled by the controller TIC003. The function of the heater is to warm up thawing air in order to carry out general or partial thaw of the plant. The outlet of the heater connected to a thawing air supply header. All the inlet thawing valves are manifold to this header. 3.2.16 N2 Compressors (C-11A & C-11B) These units are parts of the turbines systems where there function is to provide braking facility for the turbine; simultaneously each compressor is capable of delivering the rectisol N2 product at the suitable pressure, hence recovering part of the energy of the expansion turbine. On normal operation the rectisol N2 is delivered at a temperature of 750C. For recycle purpose a water cooler E-99 cools the recycle N2 to ambient temperature when valve FCV410 operates under the action of FIC-410. The anti-surge system comprises the above controller and value (FIC-410).In additions a low signal selector permits to have FIC-410 open when a low flow indicates on any of the machines. The recycle N2 is brought back at the compressor suction. Plant Products-


Total O/P,Nm3/hr


Gaseous O2 24000 99.5% Gaseous N2 19000 10ppm of O2 product (Rectisol) LP Gaseous N2 28500 <10ppm of O2 Table 3.2 products of air separation unit Plant Design Data-

Pressure (kg/cm2,gauge) 0.2 1.5 500 mm WG

Temp. 0 C 21 75 21

Sr.No. Total Output Purity 1 Gaseous O2 99.5% 2 Gaseous N2 <10 ppm O2 3 Gaseous N2(L.P) <10 ppm O2 4 Process Air Supply 1,42,600 Nm3/hr 5 Design Temperature 350C 6 Air Temp. to Plant 450C 7 Air Pressure to Plant 5.9 Kg / cm2 Table 3.3Plant design data of air separation unit

Pressure 1.22 Kg / cm2 2.5 Kg / cm2 500mmWG -

3.3 GASIFICATION (SECTION-11) Main objective of NH3-II plant has to produce NH3 for this N2 is obtained from N2 Compressor that nitrogen comes from ASU section-10 and H2 is obtained by raw gas from Gasification section -11. 3.3.1 Objective- To produce H2 gas for NH3 preparation by using fuel oil. 3.3.2 Principle- Partial Oxidation and Cracking of fuel oil. 3.3.3 Involved Process- The raw gas is produced by gasification of the fuel oil/carbon oil for this to use the three parallel oil gasification reactors (D-1101ABC) where shell partial oxidation Process takes place. The process consists essentially of partial oxidation of HCs under pressure in the presence of O2 and steam. This reaction proceeds as a flame. The gaseous products of combustion contain mainly H2 and CO along with minor quantities of CO2, H2S, CH4, C etc. 3.3.4 Major ReactionsCnHm + n/2 O2 CnHm + n H2O n CO + m/2 H2 - (1) n CO + (m/2 + n) H2 - (2)

For a better understating of the process the three phases into which it can be divided are as follows1)-Heating Up and Cracking Phase 2) -Reaction Phase 3)-Soaking Phase Heating Up and Cracking PhaseIn the top of the reactor (D-1101ABC) head, the HCs leaving the atomizer at preheat temperature are intimately mixed with O2 and steam. Prior to combustion they are heated up and vaporized by back radiation from the flame and not reactor walls. Some cracking of HCs to carbon, methane and HC radical may take place during this brief interval. Reaction PhaseAs soon as the ignition temperature is reached, part of the HCs will react with O 2, according to the highly exothermic reaction.

CnHm + (m/4 + n) O2

n CO2 + m/2 H2 O (3)


Steam drum drdrum




Fuel Oil/Carbon Oil

D1101 A

F-1105A Steam


D- H2O FROM 1102 THROUGH G-1104


To Carbon Recovery Section

Raw Gas to Sec.-13

RW/CW E1107A,B RW/CW E1106A,B

F-1105 A/B/C From Return Water Receiver Figure 3.3 gasification unit


Practically all the available O2 is consumed in this phase. The rest of the HCs which have not been oxidized react with the combustion products and steam according to the endothermic reactionsCnHm + n CO2 CnHm + n H2O 2n CO + m/2 H2 (4) n CO + (m/2+n) H2 (5)

In order to prevent excessive local temperatures, it is essential that all reactants of (3) and (5) are intimately mixed so that the endothermic reaction balanced the exothermic reaction, in this way the complex of reactions is brought to a thermal equilibrium resulting in a measured temperature of about 1300-14000C. Soaking PhaseThis takes place in the rest of reactor where a gas is still at a high temperature. The gas composition change only slightly due to secondary reaction of the methane and carbon and water gas shift reaction. If sufficient residence time were provided the carbon formed should theoretically disappear. C + O2 C + H2O 2 CO (6) CO +H2 (7)

However when liq. HCs are gasified, some carbon is always present in the product about 3% wt. of the oil feed. The above mentioned reaction takes place in the refractory lined reactors preheated to about 11000 C with LPG at 56 ata and about 1350 0C. This allow good control of high temperature developing in the reactors the upper section of the reactors as well as the burners , in which feed stock and O2/steam mixer are mixed are cooled by water. Each reactor provided with an annexed waste heat boiler E-1101 and economizer E-1102, in which the hot gases are cooled to around 1700C. The heat recovery in the waste heat boiler provides for the generation of steam at 105 ata In the economizer and BFW preheater E-1108, BFW for the waste heat boiler is preheated. A two stage water wash is applied for effective carbon removal from the gaseous produced, consisting of three parallel quench pipes F-1105 and a carbon scrubber D-1102 serving as common final scrubbing stage for the three gasification streams , During the wash process the gases are cooled down to about 450C. Carbon removed in the form of carbon water slurry is sent to carbon recovery unit for further processing into pellets/carbon oil. 3.3.4 Process Description- Gasification OilMainly fuel oil is used for gasification process which comes from main oil storage to the F.O. day tanks (F-1203AB) at about 70-800C and at 10 T/hr. This temperature is mainly maintained by the11 ata steam that steam comes from steam coil which is provided in the F.O day tanks as well as carbon oil tanks and also maintain the quite viscosity of oil in oil lines , fuel oil pump G1205 & R delivers the fuel oil to carbon recovery and a part of this oil is sent to the gasification section after boosting the pressure to about 120-135 ata with the help of reciprocating triplex plunger HP (High Pressure) feed stock pumps (G-1101ABC & 2R). Pressure adjustment is based on the gun capacity. High and low pressure feed stock buffers (F-1108ABC and 2R & F-1207) are also provided at the suction and discharge of HP feed stock pumps .These buffers act as pulsation dampeners, so that the fluctuations in the oil pressure to reactor are eliminated. Two recycle oil lines have been provided which is small and other is big recycle line. Small recycle line has been taken from the main discharge line of HP feed stock pump before the discharge valve which is recycle back to the respective oil tanks (F-1203AB) and the big recycle line has been branched off after the oil to preheater (E-1103 ) but before the isolation valve (which isolates the oil to reactor) and then this oil has preheated with steam when oil is passed through the oil preheater (E-1103ABC) before entering the gasifier (D-1101ABC) and finally temperature increases about 1800C .Flow of oil to the reactor is controlled by the speed of H.P.F.S pumps and is measured by the orifice FRAHL-11001 and the pressure is monitored by PIAHL-11002(electrical) and PRAHL-11003(pneumatic)provided at the downstream Note- Additional oil line has been provided from day tanks which will supply oil by gravitational force to the suction line of HP feed stock pumps in case of G-1205 or G-1206 fails. Oxygen (O2) The 99.5% O2 (comes from ASU) is compressed to 62ata by turbo- compressor in the compressor house (section-17) and supplied to the gasification unit at 1100C. Orifice plate FRCAHL-11003 measures the oxygen flow rate to each gasifier. Downstream of the orifice plate there is first strainer then O2 comes out from quick opening which is located between O2 control valve and quick closing valves (bleed valve) XV-11002 and XV-11001. and finally it goes to the O2 preheater (E-1104ABC) where O2 preheats about 2640C and at 7400 Nm3/hr by using 65ata saturated steam (saturated steam inside the shell side and O2 is inside the three coils of preheater).Now this O2 is added to the gasification steam (64ata, 4600C, 48 T/hr) in a feed nozzle, this mixture (O2 and steam) is known as gasifying agent or medium. This agent passes through the changeover valve either to atmosphere for this blow- off pipe is used for venting which is fitted with silencer (F-1207ABC) or to gasifier. A check valve has been provided in the gasification agent line which prevents the back -flow of gaseous products from the reactor during start-up or shut-down. Note-If necessary, then H.P N2 can be supplied to the reactor through the gasification agent line which has main purpose for purging or pressure testing. The purge connections is provided with double block and bleed valves as well as check valve so that O2 cannot flow backwards into the N2 system. And for supply the secondary air to the reactors. For this,

provide a connection in gasifying agent line. Another H.P.N2 connection has been provided in the raw gas line downstream of carbon scrubber (D-1101) after the pressure controller (PRC11014) .L.P.N2 connections have been provided in the beginning of flare line of each stream. This connection must be open for to keep the line from free of air.
Gasifier or Reactor (D-1101ABC)-

In this gasifier, Heating up & cracking phase, reaction phase and soaking phase are takes place. This is a heart of gasification section .Gasifier consists of oil gun which is fixed in the middle of gasifier at the most top where the feed (F.O) sprays in the reactor .After this, gasifying agent enters from the combustor dome (which is placed on the top of gasifier but below from oil gun) where flow is in tangentially through swirl body and enters in the nose of combustor where gasifying agent and F.O (fuel oil) intimately mixed. Due to high heat load on the nose of combustor they are cooled by BFW, after cooling BFW goes to the burner water tank F-1102 through a level control valve LXV-11008 and then burner cooling water flows by gravity from F-1102 to the burner cooling chamber. Then outlet water from the burner enters in the stand pipe F-1109 and then passes through burner water pump (G-1102 & R) and cooler (E-1105 AB) to F-1102(burner water tank). This water runs in close circuit. Whereas the lower part of reactor is not water cooled. The outside wall temperature is measured by six magnetic thermocouples (i.e.1500C to 2000C ) and inside temperature of reactor is measured by the use of eight Pt/Rh thermocougles. The raw gas leaves the reactor at 1250 to 13000C and at 56ata pressure which is cooled to about 3180C in the waste heat boiler (E-1101 ABC) which is directly flanged with the secondary reactor (steam drum) which generates high pressure saturated steam at 105ata pressure, 3130C, 28.3 T/hr.In this discharge line steam is further added from gasifier B & C from which incoming data change i.e. 105 ata pressure, 3130C, 85 T/hr. This HP saturated steam is sent to the SGP for its superheating where temperature rises up to around 500-5500C.After this Cooled gas (3180C) is sent to the economizer (E-1102ABC) for further cooling and cool gas has reached the temperature of 1750C some portion of gas is used for preheating purpose of incoming boiler water (after preheating 3100C) from steam drum and this preheated boiler water sent to the waste heat boiler (E-1101A) through pump (G-1103A). Note-Gasifier is not directly started by carbon oil because during the recycling/depressurizing of oil will foam in carbon oil tank so this reason reactors is always started on fuel oil and later on switched over by carbon oil which is supplied by carbon oil tank (F-1204). Due to the presence of carbon in raw gas because when cracking take place in the gasifier then F.O breaks into small HCs as well as C,H2S etc. in minor quantity basically that carbon is unconverted carbon in gasifier this is necessary to wash out from the raw gas for the removal of carbon, for this raw gas is sent to the quench pipe (F-1105 ABC) for washing where quench water is injected by the 10 nozzles that quench water comes from carbon scrubber(D-1102) at 21 T/hr through pump (G-1104).After washing , carbon becomes in the form of slurry with water which goes to the carbon slurry separator(F-1106 ABC) which is

designed as a cyclone where gas and carbon slurry are separated and gas is sent to the carbon scrubber(D-1102) via the BFW(at 1030C) preheater (E-1108ABC) after passing this stage raw gas reaches the temp of 1200C. In this line also raw gas is added from gasifier B&C. A sample scrubber (D-1103 ABC) is also installed between the lines of raw gas which is downstream line of carbon slurry separator. Main objective of this sample scrubber is only for monitoring of methane in raw gas.D-1102(carbon scrubber) has main three objective or functions1) Cooling the raw gas up to 450C from 1200C and condense the steam. 2) To remove the carbon traces and separating carbon slurry entrained from the carbon slurry separator. 3) Removing HCN from the gas using return water of carbon recovery section. 3.3.5 Function Involve in D-1102 (Carbon Scrubber)The raw gas is scrubbed with return water of carbon recovery section and circulation of return water in two packed layer (packed by rasching ring 50 X 50 mm) in scrubber. In top packed layer ,return water comes at 430C and at 51.6 T/hr after coming from E-1107 AB whereas in bottom packed layer, return water(at 430C and at 113 T/hr) comes from E-1106 AB.After processing , return water drawn off from bottom of scrubber at 640C and passes through the G-1104 (pump) into the F-1105 ABC(quenching pipes) and scrubbed raw gas comes out at 450C ,49 ata,85750 Nm3/hr which is sent to the rectisol or flare section-13. Carbon slurry (comes from carbon slurry separator) collects in the carbon slurry tank (F1201) on level control and carbon slurry of gasifier A & B is also added in this collecting line. All these slurries go to the Carbon recovery section-12.

3.4 CARBON RECOVERY (SECTION-12) 3.4.1 Objectivepellets/carbon oil. To recover the carbon from carbon slurry in the form of carbon

3.4.2 Process DescriptionThe unconverted carbon in the raw gas produced in gasification unit is removed from the gas by injecting water through 5 sets of nozzles (10 nozzles) in quench vessel (F-1106ABC) where carbon comes in form of slurry comes from carbon scrubber (D-1102) at 21 T/hr through pump (G-1104) which goes to the carbon slurry separator (F-1106ABC) where carbon slurry (1.5 % wt. carbon) is separated from raw gas and raw gas is sent to the carbon scrubber (D-1102) and carbon slurry is transferred under pressure to the top section of carbon slurry tank(F-1201). This tank has two sections, one is carbon slurry tank and other is back wash water tank. After this carbon slurry is pumped by carbon slurry pump (G-1207 & R) to the bottom of carbon pelletizers (G-1201ABCD) where it is contacted with fuel oil which is being supplied by fuel oil pump (G-1205). As fuel oil is contacted with carbon slurry (carbon suspended in water) just formation takes place of carbon fuel oil and pellets (because carbon particles have high affinity towards fuel oil than water.) carbon fuel oil pellets are ball of 3-10 mm dia. which are separated from water over a sieve (G-1202ABCD) and carbon oil leaves from the bottom of sieves. And then carbon oil is sent to the homogenizer (G-1204 ABR) where carbon oil is remixed with fuel oil and prepared remixed oil is sent to the gasifier (D-1101ABC) for gasification. The carbon pellets is removed from vibrating screen (G-1202ABCD) from top and divided into three streams. One stream goes to the storage bunker (F-1212) and second stream is fed to the mixing through (G-1203AB) along with fuel oil from G-1205. The third stream is negative charge. The carbon and oil mixture formed in G-1203 is transferred to Homogenizer (G-1204ABR) where homogeneous mixture of carbon oil is formed. Carbon oil from homogenize is pumped by carbon oil transfer pump (G-1208 & R) to the carbon oil tank (F-1204). Released gases from the top of vibrating screen (G-1202 ABCD) are vented through the release gas blower (G-1209). The carbon recovery is so efficient that the run-down water can either be recycled to carbon scrubber (D-1102) or after passing through a gravel filter (F-1210AB) and HCN stripper (D1201) run down to the sewer. 3.4.3 Water CircuitWater from the vibrating screen (G-1202ABCD) runs down to return water receiver (F-1209 & R) consisting of two compartments for separating out the swim and sink pellets. Clear water from return water receiver is pumped through return water transfer pump (G-1105 & R) to carbon scrubber (D-1102) through return water coolers (E-1107 A& B) . The swim pellets collect in the channel provided in the middle of return water receiver. These can be drained off to swim pellets vessel from time to time pumped to fine sieve (G-1215) with the help of gorator pump (G-1211) The under flow water is returned to F-1209 and pellets are delivered

to bunker. The sink pellets at the bottom of F-1209 are also pumped by gorator pump (G1211) to G-1215. Pumping of swim and sink pellets can be switched over from time to time. 3.4.4 CARBON RECOVERY UNIT










Figure3.4 carbon recovery unit The evolved gases from the return water receiver are vented via the release gas blower (G1209).

3.4.5 HCN StripperEffluents from methanol rectification column (D-1331) and gas entrainment from section-13, 14&15 along with overflow F-1209 is sent to the stand pipe (F-1211). Carbon slurry is flashed to 1.3 ata in carbon slurry tank at top. The flashed gases are fed to the condensator (E1201). The gases are condensed and the condensate thus collected is separated in the condensate separator (F-1202). BFW is also added here and resultant liquid overflows into the stand pipe (F-1211). The HCN stripper feed pump (G-1210 & R) take suction from stand pipe (F-1211) and feed this water to HCN stripper through sand filters (F-1210 AB). In the sand filters suspended carbon particles are filtered off. One of the sand filters remains in line and the other one under back washing with water from slurry tank (F-1201) bottom portion pumped. Filter back wash pump (G-1212). The back wash water containing carbon is run down to the slurry pits. The filtered liquid from the sand filters is sent to the top of HCN stripper (D-1201).The stripper temperature is maintained at 1000C by addition of direct steam (11 ata.). Stripping is carried out by tail gas from N2 wash section alternatively by L.P.N2 and CO2.The liquid water with little HCN is cooled in excess water cooler (E-1202) and pumped by excess water pump (G-1214) to sewer. A part of this water is diverted slurry tank bottom for back washing of sand filters.

3.5 RECTISOL 3.5.1 IntroductionSome years ago, the well known companies Lurgi and Linds started a joint development programme for the purification of technical gases which deviated entirely from the conventional methods and has led to the so called Rectisol process. According to this new process, the ultra purification of raw gas is carried out in one continuous operating under elevated pressure by regenerative gas cooling and stage wise counter current scrubbing with cold anhydrous methanol of temp. as low as -700C.M/s South African Coal, Oil & gas Corporation Ltd. was the first company to put up rectisol plant on commercial scale for purification of raw gas obtained during pressure gasification of low rank bituminous coal , in the year 1995. The sequence of removal of raw gas impurities in rectisol gas purification.It is typical for the rectisol process that primary gas cooling and limited prewash with cold methanol serve at first purpose of a sharp drying of the raw gas. The simultaneously removes HCN , there after all further gas purification operations proceed with anhydrous methanol in the cold temperature range approx. -250C to -700C. Under these conditions methanol from the gas under pressure dissolves large amount of CO2 up to 70 (NTP) liter of methanol. On account of this, the amount of solvent to be recirculated in the system compared to water scrubbing under pressure or absorption solution is comparatively small of particular importance further more is the fact that methanol at the mentioned low scrubbing temp stages sufficiently liquid to permit intense as washing, which is even improved if some CO 2 has already been dissolved. Another significant observation is that under comparable conditions H2S is considerably more soluble in cold methanol tthat CO2. This is the reason why in rectisol process, H2S is quite removable despite an excess of 50 100 times the concentration of H 2S in CO2. C, O, S also is closer to CO2 in its physical properties. The fact that the operations of gas purification in the main parts of the rectisol plant proceed at low temperatures and in the absence of water is the cause of a further remarkable advantage of the rectisol processThere is no corrosion possible. Hence, these parts of the unit need not to be constructed of alloyed steel, mild steel is fully satisfactory. 3.5.2 Pre-Cooling & Prewash of Raw GasThe pre cooling of raw gas is affected through the cold exchanger with the leaving desulferized gas. The gas temp brought down from approx. 450C to 150C by this cold

exchanger. A knockout receiver collects the condensed water. The following cooling stage two performs in the same way and in addition a limited amount of methanol is injected into the gas stream. This eliminates the foundation of ice crystal (which could cause blockage) and helps to cool the gas further (-1500C), more volatile constituents (water) are condensed in here, ultimate gas drying is achieved. The raw gas is further cooled by ammonia chiller to -280C. The methanol water condensate is sent for refrigeration.



DS E130






Figure 3.5 rectisol unit The actual methanol pre wash takes place in lower portion of methanol wash tower. The gas entering the tower is scrubbed here with a limited quantity of cold methanol counter currently. Generally, the traces of water and more volatile with low temperature and immediately enters into the main wash section, the upper portion of tower. The collected methanol is removed from the system and goes along with methanol water collected previously, for regeneration. 3.5.3 CH3OH Main Wash for H2SThe raw gas entering the main wash section (H 2S absorber) now requires to be treated with large amount of anhydrous at -310C. The H2S & CO2 content is lowered to a value less than 0.3 ppm in the outlet gas from H2S absorber. The methanol fed in this tower comes from CO2 flash column after getting stripped of CO2 with cold N2 at -700C. Hence this methanol is not completely free of CO2.The presence of CO2 in this methanol helps is selective absorption of sulphur compounds from the mixture of gases having 1:5 as the ratio of H2S to CO2. The temperature of methanol gets raised to -200C from -310C because of heat released by absorption of H2S in methanol. The methanol laden with H2S is flashed in various stages to recover H2S and purify methanol. 3.5.4 H2S Rich Methanol RegenerationThis H2S laden methanol is first flashed to a pressure of 14 ata of relieve useful gases like H2 and CO for recycle. The methanol is then flashed to 1.3 ata and stripped with cold N 2. This is being done to remove CO2, A CO2 laden methanol in limited quantity is flashed at the top of this tower to provide the necessary cold. The cold methanol (-580C due to deabsorption of CO2) rich in CO2 helps in reabsorption of H2S released during the pressure reduction. The cold more or less balance the reduced pressure to reabsorb H2S gas preferentially. Thus the H2S rich methanol free from most of the CO2 leaves this tower at -340C for hot regeneration at 870C. The high temperature deabsorption enables most of the H2S to escape. Part of the purified methanol is sent to rectification column to avoid accumulation of water in the closed methanol circuit. Thus the selective deabsorption in two to three stages helps in getting Claus gas feed with almost 50% H2S. 3.5.5 CH3OH Main Wash for CO2The converted gas from shift conversion unit enters the main CO2 absorption tower after getting pre-cooled to a temperature of -250C. The pre-cooling is done almost similar to raw gas pre-cooling. Here the synthesis gas from nitrogen wash and pure CO2 from CO2 flash column exchanges cold with incoming converted gas. A limited quantity of methanol is added to converted gas before H.E. to avoid ice deposition on tubes. The converted gas then further cooled by ammonia in ammonia chiller to a temperature of -250C.

The dry and cooled converted gas enters the CO2 absorption column from bottom, with methanol flowing counter current to gas flow. The heat of absorption of the CO2 of course dominates the cold balance and on account of this, it is necessary to compensate for this by direct introduction of cold. To inject this cold, methanol is being recirculated through ammonia chiller. However, experience has tough that only part of the heat of absorption of CO2 needs to be compensated and that the methanol going down in counter current to the gas must not get warmer than approximately -250C. The cold introduction in this part of the plant in unit and in addition has to take care of a certain amount of unavoidable cold loss during operation. Methanol in CO2 absorber is added at two different levels from two different sources. Hot regenerated pure methanol stream for H2S regeneration section is cooled to -580C and fed at the top of the CO2 methanol coming to this tower, after getting stripped with cold nitrogen in CO2 flash column is added at the middle portion. Thus the top feed of methanol brings down the CO2 in outgoing gas to minimum value (10ppm) thus the decarbonated gas leaves this section practically pure at low temperatures suitable for subsequent N2 wash section.

3.5.6 CO2 Rich Methanol RegenerationCO2 has laden methanol leaving from the bottom of absorption tower of -180C proceeds toCO2 flash column where it is being flashed in three stages. The first stage flash at 14 ata delivers useful gases like CO and H2. The second stage flash at 1.9 ata delivers pure CO2 (98%) and the third stage flashing and stripping with cold N2 delivers impure CO2 or off gas. Thus the methanol gets purified in III stage by N2 stripping. The gas deabsorption occurring in this procedure now cools the methanol down, at the end to -75 0C and thus brings back this portion of the cold again. The cold regenerated methanol partly is recycled to CO2 absorption tower feeding at a mid point. The other part of this cold methanol is sent to H2S absorber. Thus the integrated H2S and CO2 removal sections of rectisol plant help in selective absorption as well as better cold utilization.

3.6 METHANOL (CH3OH)Methanol (methyl alcohol), CH3OH, is a colorless neutral liquid at ambient temperatures with a mild order. It is highly toxic material whose ingestion or inhalation can cause blindness or death. Methanol has also been called wood alcohol (or wood spirit). The physical properties of methanol are given below-

Sr. NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

PROPERTIES Freezing point Boiling point Density Viscosity Critical temperature Critical pressure Specific heat liquid

Specific heat vapor Heat of Vaporization at 64.70C Flash point Open cup Closed cup 11. Flammability limits in dry air, lower (above 210C) 12. Ignition temperature in air 13. Soluble in water 14. The German Engineering Society Standard for 30 mt exposer time. Methanol as pollutant in air should not exceed 15. Pollutant methanol in air should not exceed for exposer more than once in 4 hours Table 3.4 properties of methonal

SPECIFIED VALUE -97.80C +64.70C 0.79609 gm/ml 0.6405 at 150C 2400C 78.5 atm 0.565-0.575 cal/gm (at 030C) 12.20 cal/gm mole (at 1000C) 8430 cal/mole 160C 120C 6.7% (vol.) 3850C 10 ppm (15 mg/Nm3)

30 ppm (40 mg/Nm3)

3.6.1 CO2 Rich Methanol Circuit320 T/hr of methanol at -180C from bottom of CO2 absorber D-1540 is let down to a pressure of 14 ata in the lower portion of CO2 flash column D-1541 over the bed of rasching rings. 803 m3/hr of recycle gas is released in this section.

Methanol from bottom of lower portion of tower D-1541 is cooled to -27 0C in Ammonia chiller E-1542A, B from -18.50C. This cooled methanol 311 t/hr is then taken to top of tower D-1541 & flashed to a pressure of 1.9 ata of tower. The methanol is then fed to the top of middle column D-1541 at a temperature of -500C and flashed to a pressure of 1.3 ata. This methanol now gets stripped of CO2 with the help of cold N2 bubbling through plates.About

Flue Gas to Atmosphere Start up Fuel Gas purge heat er 64 ata Steam, HE-B Gas 1st conv erter R301 11 ata Steam 2nd conv erter Boiler, E-302 R302 BFW 11 ata Steam 3rd conv erter Boiler HE-1 R303


To water wash column

Let Do wn Dru m

Condenser Gas A, (DSG)


CW Conc -B (DCG)entra tion Colu mns Rebo-iler Steam Waste Water to C-Recovery Higher Alcohol to tank Steam HE-2 Ether colu mn

Reci rcul ator Com pres ssor



Metho-nal Separat -or




Product Methanol (99.95%) to Storage Section in SGP (94MTPD)

Figure 3.6 regeneration of methanol 20 T/hr of methanol from bottom of lower column after ammonia chiller is sent to H2S flash column top at -270C. 3.6.2 Lean CO2 Methanol CircuitAbout 311 T/hr of lean CO2 methanol is taken out from bottom of the middle portion of tower D-1541 at -70.50C. This methanol is pumped by methanol feed pump G-1570. About 11 T/hr of this methanol is returned to top of the lower column D-1541.Another part about 185 T/hr of methanol at -690C is sent to CO2 absorber D-1540 at 25th plate. The rest 115 T/hr of methanol haetedin exchanger E-1543A,D to a temperature of -310C and sent to H2S absorber. The methanol is heated by cooling incoming pure methanol (135 T/hr) in CO2 absorber C1540.0.2 T/hr of methanol in raw gas and 0.3 T/hr of methanol in converted gas are added through injection nozzle from discharged methanol by pump G-1570. 3.6.3 L. P. Nitrogen Circuit14500 Nm3/hr of nitrogen at a pressure of 2.2 ata and temperature of +300C is coming for stripping. It is being cooled to -350C in exchanger E-1544.It then enters the bottom of middle column D-1541 at 1.6 ata. This N2 along with CO2 and other gases comes out from the top of middle column D-1541 at a temperature of 500C and 1.3 ata pressure. This gas is known as off gas and its quantity is 30877 Nm3/hr.The off gas is divided into three parts for giving away its cold to various streams. One portion i.e. 13939 m3/hr of off gas is used for cooling ammonia from +150C to +10C in exchanger E-1547. The off gas at +30C from E-1547 is sent to stack. Second portion about 13700 Nm3/hr of off cools in coming L. P. Nitrogen in exchanger E1544 to a temperature of -350C. The heated off gas at +120C is sent to stack. Third portion about 3238 Nm3/hr of off gas is used for cooling Claus gas in exchanger E-1548A/B to a temperature of -400C. The Claus gas is again heated by hot off gas from E-1548A/B in E1548C to a temperature of +50C. The off gas at a temperature of -40C from E-1548C is then sent to stack. 3.6.4 Ryle Gas Circuit803 m3/hr of recycle gas at -640C and 14 ata gets released from lower portion of CO 2 flash column D-1541. And 780 m3/hr of recycle gas at -180C and 13 ata gets released from lower portion of H2S flash column D-1376. The two streams are mixed together at 13 ata. 1583 m3/hr of this mixed recycle gas attains -420C temperature by direct cold transfer. Recycle gas then goes to a separator F-1345 to separate out entrained methanol separated methanol from separator F-1345 is sent to slop tank. Recycle gas then gives away its cold in gas. The recycle gas coming out of exchanger is at a temperature of 00C. It then enters the recycle gas

compressor is compressed to a pressure of 50 ata & attains a temperature of +1320C. It is cooled in water cooler E-1345. It is compressed to a pressure of 50 ata & attains a temperature of +40C. In exchanger E-1346 by low pressure recycle as. It then is sent to meet the main raw gas feed line going to E-1301B after separator F-1301.

3.7 RECTISOL-I/II (SECTION -13&15) 3.7.1 Objective To remove the H2S and CO2 from raw gas for the production of sulphur and CO2 for urea manufacturing. 3.7.2 Principle - Absorption and Stripping. 3.7.3 Process- H2S and C, O, S is considerably more soluble in cold methanol than CO2.Therefore, Rectisol-I is used for removal of H2S from raw gas. After that remove CO2 from same gas i.e. Rectisol-II 3.7.4 Raw Gas Circuit 85750 Nm3/hr of raw gas from carbon scrubber in gasification section at a temp of 450C and pressure of 49 ata comes to rectisol wash section for removal of H2S. In enters the separator (F-1303) to separate out entrained water droplets. This raw gas then enters gas heat exchanger (E-1301 A), where it is being cooled to 180C by the desulphurized gas (DSG) on tube side. Raw gas is then fed to condensate separator (F1301). 1583 m3/hr of recycle gas at 40C at purified methanol about 0.2T/hr are being added into the raw gas at the outlet from separator F-1301.The combined gas temperature then becomes 16.50C. This combined gas is then cooled to a temp of -150C in gas/gas heat exchanger (E-1301B).It is cooled by DSG from H2S absorption tower (D-1370).The cooled raw gas 87333 m3/hr at -150C and 48.15 ata pressure is fed to ammonia chiller (E-1302) for further cooling up to -220C and 48 ata then this raw gas enters the bottom of H2S absorption tower (D-1370) for complete removal of H2S gas. 3.7.5 H2S Rich Methanol CircuitH2S rich methanol comes out from the bottom of tower D-1370. The separated methanol water from exchanger E-1301B is mixed with H2S rich methanol from Tower D-1370. About 3T/hr of this H2S rich methanol is taken out from tower D-1370 at a temperature of -22 0C. It becomes 3.2 T/hr after addition of methanol water from E-1301B. This 3.2 T/hr of H 2S rich methanol is being flashed to a pressure of 2.35 ata on the top of regenerator reflux drum F1372. 3.7.6 Lean H2S Methanol Circuit112 T/hr of methanol from the bottom of upper column of H2S absorber D-1370 is taken out at a temperature of -200C.

This methanol is flashed over a bed of rasching rings in lower column of D-1376 at a pressure of 13 ata. The recycle gas is liberated in this lower part of tower D-1376. This 112 T/hr of methanol is then flashed to a pressure of 1.32 ata in the upper part of the column at the 19th plate. It gets cooled because of desorption taking place from methanol at this pressure. About 20 T/hr of CO2 rich methanol is being fed at the top of tower D-1376. This would decrease the partial pressure of H2S in this tower D-1376 would be very little evolution of H2S in this tower D-1376. Absorbed CO2 gas gets released in this tower from methanol lean in H2S. The 20 T/hr of CO2 rich methanol at -220C &14 ata pressure gets flashed to a pressure of 1.32 ata in tower D-1376. Due to this flashing the desorption of CO 2 takes place which produces the cold. Hence the waste gas leaving tower D-1376 is quite cold (-580C). This methanol in tower D-1376 is stripped by L.P.Nitrogen. The L.P.Nitrogen (2500Nm 3/hr) at 1.85 ata and 250C is cooled to a temperature of -340C in exchanger E-1375, before admitted to tower D-1376.H2S lean methanol from bottom of upper part of column D-1376 is pumped by pump G-1376 to H2S hot regenerator tower D-1371 at its 39th plate via heat exchangers E-1376A to G. This 132 t/hr of methanol gets heated upto 880C in exchanger E1376 A to G. A little quantity of fresh methanol is also added into the methanol stream going to tower D-1371. This methanol gets stripped of almost all dissolved gases in this tower D1371. 3.7.7 Why we use methanol in rectisol? Methanol used in rectisol because this eliminates the foundation of ice crystals (which could cause blockage) and helps to cool the gas further (-1500C). 3.7.8 Claus Gas CircuitAbout 1155 Nm3/hr of H2S rich gas along with 6200 m3/hr of methanol vapor comes out from the top of tower D-1371. This gas is being cooled in exchanger E-1372 by waste gas from tower D-1376 (after E-1375). It is cooled from 870C to 850C in E-1372. It is further cooled to 450C in E-1373 by cooling water. This H2S rich gas is then cooled to 220C in E-1374 by river water before finally feeding to bottom of regenerator reflux water. About 1308 Nm3/hr of Claus gas comes out from the top of regenerator reflux drum at a pressure of 2.35 ata and temperature of 250C. This Claus gas is then cooled to -400C in exchanger E-1548A/B by off gas coming from CO2 flash column methanol from Claus gas is separated in separator F1547 & returned to regenerator reflux drum. Claus gas is then heated in exchanger E-1548 A & B.The 1308 Nm3/hr of Claus gas at 50C and 1.7 ata pressures in sent to Claus unit 21 for sulfur recovery. 3.7.9 Methanol Purification Circuit132 T/hr of lean gas H2S methanol from tower D-1376 via pump G-1376 and E-1376 A-G along with little impure methanol (from slop tank) comes to H2S hot regenerator D-1371 for rectification. It is admitted in 52 plate tower at 39 th plate at a temperature of 880C and pressure of 2.75 ata. Purified methanol vapors (3212 m3/hr) at 3.1 ata and 960C coming from methanol water rectification column D-1331, are admitted on the 10th plate of tower D-1371.

About 14.2 T/hr of H2S free methanol from the bottom of regenerator reflux drum F-1372 is fed to the top plate (52nd) of tower D-1371.153 T/hr of pure methanol from bottom of upper part of tower D-1371 is taken out by a pump G-1371. This methanol is filtered in filter F1302. A small quantity of fresh methanol is being added to the suction of pump G-1371, from fresh methanol pump G-1391. Impure water is being recycled from bottom of tower D-1331 via steam reboiler E-1331.270 kg/hr of impure water (100 ppm methanol) at 1370C inlet off from bottom of methanol water rectification column to stand pipe F-1211 in carbon recovery section via cooler E-1333.3212 m3/hr of pure methanol vapors are drawn out from top of tower D-1331 at 3.1 ata and 960C. These pure methanol vapors are fed to tower D-1371 at 10th plate. 3.7.10 Fresh & Slop Methanol CircuitFresh methanol is received in fresh methanol tank F-1391A. From this tank it is pumped by pump G-1391 to regenerator reflux drum F-1372, and to suction of pump G-1371, and tower D-1371 with methanol stream (132T/hr).Part of pure methanol from tower D-1371 is returned to fresh methanol tank F-1391 A via exchanger E-1376 G to Cr. Methanol from slop drum G1390 is pumped to tower D-1371 along with methanol stream from H 2S flash column D1376. 3.7.11 Desulphurized Gas Circuit85098Nm3/hr of desulphurized gas comes out from top of the H2S absorber at 47.1 ata and -290C. It is then fed to gas heat exchanger E-1301B to give away its cold to raw gas. It gets heated to a temperature of 50C in the exchanger E-1301B. It is then fed in series to exchanger E-1301A. Where it attains a temperature of +350C. This desulphurized gas is then fed to saturator D1401 in CO shift conversion section. 3.7.12 Converted Gas Circuit121399 Nm3/hr of converted gas comes from CO shift conversion cooler E-1404 at a temperature of 450C & pressure of 43 ata. It enters the separator F-1502 to separate the entertained moisture. About 300 kg/hr of methanol is being added to this gas to avoid freezing in subsequent heat exchanger. The converted gas along with methanol is cooled in exchanger E-1503, by synthesis gas from N2 wash section and outgoing CO2 gas from CO2 flash column. The moisture and methanol separated from converted gas is sent to flash column D-1331.The cooled converted gas at -170C from exchanger E-1503 is then further cooled in ammonia chiller E-1504 temperature of -250C.This cooled converted gas at -250C and 41.9 ata enters the CO2 absorber D-1540 from bottom. Pump G-1540 circulates methanol taking suction from bottom of tower D-1540. This circulating methanol is being cooled in ammonia chiller E-1540AB before entering the 9th plate of lower column D-1540.

3.7.13 Decarbonated Gas Circuit79905 m3/hr of decarbonated gas comes out from the top of CO2 absorber D-1540 at 560C and 40.9 ata. entertained methanol is separated from this decarbonated gas in separator F-1503. The separated methanol is sent to CO2 flash column D-1541. Decarbonated gas is then sent to N2 wash section for carbon mono-oxide removal at -550C and 40.9ata.

3.8 CO-SHIFT CONVERSION(SECTION-14) All feed stock containing carbon produce carbon monoxide (CO) as one of the constituents of the synthesis gas, the CO not only remains some of the hydrogen producing potential of the stock but also must be removed from the gas to avoid poisoning of ammonia synthesis catalysts. Therefore the synthesis gas produced from carbon feed stock must pass through a step for reacting CO with water, so that is called shift reaction. Formation of hydrogen and CO2 by the reaction CO with water vapor in the presence of FeO catalyst is one of the earliest industrial applications of catalysts. The technology of this process is known as shift conversion, has been highly developed since its early inception, and at present it is used very extensively for the production and purification of H2. 3.8.1 Basic ChemistryCO reacts exothermally with steam at elevated temperature according to equationCO+ H2O
Cataly The heats of reaction within the temperature range of 500 to 1000K are given below; st


Sr.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Temperature 0 K C 500 227 600 327 700 427 800 527 900 627 1000 727

Heat of Reaction, Kcal/gm mol. -9.520 -9.294 -9.051 -8.802 -8.553 -8.311

Table 3.5 heat of reaction The catalyst is used to promote the reaction at lower temperatures. (About 5000C) and there by improve the equilibrium. The longer the gases are allowed to react the nearer they will approach equilibrium. An excess of steam reduces the CO content of the product to a low value. The equilibrium concentrations of CO in outlet gas from shift conversion with various steam/CO ratios are given in the diagram below. The cost of the larger volume of catalyst required, or of using even more steam to improve the equilibrium, has to be considered in relation to the advantages given by a lower CO content the exit gas. These advantages include a reduction in the energy required for compression because there is less CO mixed with a given quantity of H2 and N2 and a reduction in the work to be done by the CO removal equipment. Although pressure does not affect the position of equilibrium, operation at elevated pressures may give advantages such as an increased rate of reaction, reduced compression costs and more effective use of the surplus heat in the exit gases. The savings offered by these advantages have to be set against the extra cost of equipment to withstand and higher
Flue Gas to Atmosphere Start up Fuel Gas purge heat er 64 ata Steam, HE-B Gas 1 conv erter R301
s t

11 ata Steam 2nd conv erter Boiler, E-302 R302 BFW

11 ata Steam 3rd conv erter Boiler HE-1 R303


To water wash column

Let Do wn Dru m

Condenser Gas A, (DSG)


CW Conc -B (DCG)entra tion Colu mns HE-2 Ether colu mn

Reci rcul ator Com pres ssor


Metho-nal Separat -or


CW Rebo-iler Steam Waste Water to C-Recovery Higher Alcohol to tank Steam Reboiler GAS-C


Product Methanol (99.95%) to Storage Section in SGP (94MTPD)

Figure 3.7 co shift conversion unit pressures. The CO concentration in the gas leaving the water gas shift converter is usually from 3% to 5%. 3.8.2 Design and OperationThe important design variables for a shift converter are temperature pressure space velocity. Steam/gas rates and the carbon monoxide content of the inlet gas. Since these variables interact, some working in opposite directions, it is not possible to define generally, valid optimum operating conditions and therefore, each case has to analyze individually. The activity of shift conversion increases markedly with temperature and is sufficiently high at 3500C for commercial operation at pressures above 10ata. Operation at near atmospheric pressure requires temperatures of 4000C or higher. Although high operating temperature is desirable from the stand point of catalyst activity or rate of reaction, they are undesirable from the standpoint of equilibrium, which becomes unfavorable with increasing temperature. The conversion efficiency increased appreciable for a given temperature by an increase in operating pressure from atmospheric to about 20ata; above 20ata the effect of pressure is practically negligible. The space velocity used i.e. commercial installations depends to a considerable extent on other operating conditions. Typical space velocities used in first conversion stage are 500, 800 and 1000 volumes per volume per hour for operating pressures of 3, 9 and 25ata respectively and for temperatures and for temperatures between 370 to 4500C. Somewhat higher space velocities may be used in second or third stage converters where the CO concentration in the inlet gas is quite low. The steam gas ratio required for optimum conversion varies with both temperature and pressure. For a given set of operating conditions with respect to pressure and temperature, conversion first increases with an increasing steam/gas ratio, and after reaching an optimum decreases upon further addition of steam. This behavior is due to favorable effect on the equilibrium of high concentrations of

steam and the unfavorable effect of decreased contact time. Steam/dry gas ratios ranging from 1:1 to 5:1 are typical for the first stage conversion and 0.5:1 to 1:1 are normally used in second stage. 3.8.3 Process DescriptionCommercial shift conversion catalyst consists of iron oxide promoted by the addition of chromic oxide. Typical preparations contain 70 to 85% ferric oxide and 5 to 15o chromic oxide and are relatively insensitive to sulfur compounds (up to 200ppm) and not permanent affected by limited exposure to liquid water. Good commercial catalysts are active over a temperature range of 3500C to 6000C. The converter contains one or several fixed beds of catalyst in the latter case with provision for heat removal between beds. This is particularly desirable in installations processing gas with a very high CO content. Although the reaction is only moderately exothermic a fairly close of the temperature is desirable because of the unfavorable change in equilibrium with increasing temperature. Catalyst when charged is Fe2O3 which is reduced to Fe3O4 during start up. These catalysts are usually manufactured by co precipitating the iron and chromium as hydroxides or carbonates from a mixed salt solution by adding sodium or ammonia hydroxides or carbonates. After washing, drying and decomposing the oxides are suitably shaped forming pellets. The desulphurized gas from H2S removal section first passes through a saturator where it is heated and saturator with water vapor by direct contact with water at 2160C, These gases are then fed to shift convertor-I along with the theoretical equivalent quantity of steam Partially converted gas at 4190C shift converter-I is cooled to a temperature of 3600C in an indirect exchanger. The cooling is done to achieve better equilibrium conversion in subsequent shift converter-II converted gas from shift converter-II at 3840C is then cooled in different indirect and direct heat exchangers before sending to carbon dioxide removal section. The converted gas would have the following composition: Gases CO2 CO H2 CH2 N2 , Ar Volume % 33.43 3.0 62.78 0.35 0.44

Table 3.6 converted gas composition 1000, 00 (saturated with water) The last traces of CO left in this converted gas would be removed in nitrogen wash unit. 3.8.4 Tips Low Temperature Catalyst Low temperature catalyst is made up for zinc and copper oxides with A12.03 sometimes added. Ranges for commercial catalysts are: ZnO, 32-62.2%, ZnO, 15.3-31.2% and AI2O3, 0-40.5%. Only CuO is in the reduced from during operation. Low temperature catalyst is much more sensitive to poisons such as sulfur and chlorine and to maloperation than is the high temperature type. It is so sensitive to sulfur poisoning that a guard bed of ZnO is often installed to protect the catalyst. This catalyst is capable of giving rapid conversion at relatively low temperature, on the order of 200 to 300 0C. At lower temperature equilibrium is much more favorable, making it possible to reduce the CO content of the exit gas to 0.2 to 0.3%. This low temperature catalyst would not be used in Nangal Expansion shift converters.

3.8.5 Process Details3.8.6 Gas Circuit85098 m3/hr. of desulphurized gas at 46ata and 350C comes to saturator D-1401 in CO shift conversion section. This gas gets saturator with water vapors at 2160C and 45.7ata pressure. Saturator D-1401 is a packed tower. The gases coming out from top of the Saturator D-1401 are fed to separator F-1403 to separate out any entrained liquid particles. These gases now along with water vapor at 2160C are fed to shift converter-I. The 64ata 4600C steam is being added in shift convertor-I. There is a connection for desulphurized gas to pass through start up heater E-1402 during the start up process. The catalyst in shift converter-I is type & 3 B Iron oxide high temperature catalyst. Partially converted gas leaves shift converter-I at a temperature of 4190C and pressure of 44.7ata. It is cooled in exchanger E-1401 to a temperature of 360 0C by circulating water. The partially converted gas then enters shift convertor-II. Converted gas comes out from shift converter-II at a temperature of 3840C and pressure of 43.8ata. There is a bed catalyst in shift convertor II. The reaction taking place in shift convertor I and II is as follow: CO + H2O Catalyst CO2 + H2

The converted gas coming out from shift convertor-II is cooled in exchanger E-1403 A/B to a temperature of 2250C. The converted gas in then further cooled in a direct cooler D-1404.

193t/hr. of 650C cold water is being sprayed from the top of packed direct cooler D-1404. The gas is cooled to a temperature of +750C in this cooler. It further cooled to a temperature of 450C in exchanger E-1404 by cooling water.121399 Nm3/hr. of converted gas at 43ata and 450C is sent to rectisol wash section of removal of CO2. 3.8.7 Water Circuit529 T/hr. of water at 1670C is drawn out from the bottom of saturator D-1441, 0.15 T/hr, of ammonia water is added to this water from saturator. This ammonia water is added to neutralize and carbolic acid present in the water stream Ammonia water is prepared in ammonia water vessel F-1402 and then is pumped by G-1403 to the out let stream of water from saturator.529 T/hr. of water is then pumped by pump G-1401. It is divided into two portions. One of the portions about 193 T/hr. water at 1670C is going in absorption refrigeration section to give away its heat in reboiler (E-1901) of rectification column. Part of this 193 T/hr. stream is cooled in trim cooler E-1406 by cooling water before sending total streams to B.F.W. preheater E-1405 AB. This stream at 1250C then gives its heat to boiler feed water in E-1405 AB boiler feed water preheater. This 193 t/hr. of cooled circulating water at +650C is sent to the top of direct cooler D-1404. Another of the portion 336 T/hr. of 1670C & 71 T/hr. of B.F.W. at 1030C are mixed together and fed to direct cooler from middle section over the first bed of rasching rings.600 T/hr. of circulating water from direct cooler D-1404 bottom is pumped by G1402 to exchanger E-1403 AB, where it gets heated up to a temperature of 223 C. It then again is heated in circulating water heater E-1401 up to a temperature of 2300C by converted gas from shift convertor-I 600 t hr. of circulating water at 2300C is fed to the top of saturator D-1401. The water separated in the separator F-1403 is also returned to the bottom of saturator D-1401. 3.8.8 H.P. Steam Circuit29.3 T/hr of 64ata steam 4600C from yard comes to condensate separator F-1401. Steam from condensate separator is fed to shift convertor-I.A tapping is there in steam line before condensate separator which leads steam to start up heater E-1402. The process condensate from start up heater is flashed in H.P. condensate flash vessel F1405.

3.9 LIQUID NITROGEN WASH(SECTION-16) 3.9.1 Nitrogen Wash-Final purifications by cryogenic methods gives the most complete purifications of any of the process used, not only are the carbon oxides removed, but the methane and argon contents are reduced to such a low level that little or no purging is required in the synthesis loop. Cryogenic methods are used mainly in conjunction with partial oxidation for synthesis gas production.Partial oxidation is especially amenable to cryogenic purifications methods because the air separation plant needed to supply the liquid nitrogen wash. The air separation plant is expensive and difficult to justify unless there is a need for oxygen as well as the nitrogen.Cyrogenic purification involves scrubbing the synthesis gas after CO2 removal with liquid nitrogen, the :impurities dissolve in the nitrogen and are separated in the liquid form. Normally the separated liquid is evaporated in a heat exchanger to provide part of the refrigeration load for the incoming gas. Because of the low temperature involved the entering gas must first be treated to remove almost completely any impurities would freeze on the heat exchange surface in the 'Cold Box'. Otherwise the unit would have to be shut down frequency for deriming (defrasting). The main trouble of this type comes from moisture and residual CO2; a system must be used that reduces these to very low

content before introduction into the nitrogen wash cold box. Methanol absorptions (Rectisol) process helps for this purpose, as CO2, H20 and sulfur compounds are removed in the same unit.The dry CO2, free gas first passes through a per-cooler and then enters the scrubber. The purified gas is warmed in per-cooler, and is then ready for feeding to the synthesis loop after adjusting the proper hydrogen nitrogen ratio. The scrubber effluent liquid (Tail Gas) is volatilized through an expansion valve and the cold gas is used to liquefy incoming high pressure nitrogen from nitrogen compressor. The nitrogen wash removes practically all the impurities from the incoming gas. The main impurities in the synthesis gas then are the oxygen and argon introduced with nitrogen added. Typical levels of impurities in the various gas streams are given below.

Tail gas to SGP via HCN stripper in Sec.12 Syn. gas to Syn. gas compr. Feed Gas (DCG) from sec-15SS

HP N2 from N2 Compressor



E150 3



F101 N/R



E-43 in ASU

N2 from ASU


Figure 3.8 liquid nitrogen wash section

Constituents H2 N2 CO CH4 Ar CO2 H2O

Feed Gas% 94 0.1 4.8 0.5 0.1 0.001 0.0003 0.0005

Gas% 75 25 <0:0005 < 0.0001 <0.0006 Nil Nil < 0.001

Waste Gas% 16 44 33 3.5 3.3

O2 Table 3.7 level of impurities 3.9.2 Nitrogen Wash Section-

79905 Nm3/hr. of decarbonated gas comes out from CO2 absorber D-1540 at a temperature of -560C and pressure of 41.0ata. The entrained methanol is separated from this gas in separator F-1503.This decarbonated gas at -540C and 40.5ata comes to Nitrogen wash Section. It enters one of the feed gas absorbers D-104 A/B. These absorbers contain in bed of molecular sieves. H2S, CO2 and methanol are being separated in this adsorber D-104 A. The decarbonated gas containing H2S- 0.1 ppm CO2 -10 ppm, NO+NO2 -0.2 ppm and methanol -50 ppm is cleaned in D-104 A so that the outgoing decarbonated gas contains NI (CO2. H2S, NO+NO2) and < 2 ppm of methanol. The life of molecular sieves is expected to be 5-6 years in D-104 A/B..While one adsorber is on streams the other is being regenerated by a fraction of tail gas. Impurities free decarbonated gas leaving from absorber D-104 enters the filter F-101 where particulate matter is being separated. Decarbonated filtered gas then enters the cold box. Pure Nitrogen Gas at -1330C is being added to this gas in the cold box. N2 gas from Air Separation Unit is also into the stream of decarbonated gas. The feed gas (decarbonated +N 2) is being cooled in main exchanger upto a temperature of -1840C is fed to the bottom of nitrogen wash tower T 202. It passes through 60 trays in tower. Carbon monoxide is being removed from feed gas in this tower T 202. Liquid nitrogen is being fed at -189C from the

top of tower T-202 to strip out CO from feed gas. Purified gas containing <5 ppm CO comes out from the top of tower T 202 at -1890C. The gas contains about 11% N2 and 89% H2. This purified gas then passes through a venturi J 201 where liquid nitrogen is added. This aids the operation of the heat exchangers, avoids wastage of pure nitrogen due to short term fluctuations in plant through put and provide a small reserve of washing nitrogen to compensate for fluctuations in the quantity of impurities entering the column. The purified gas now known as synthesis gas is divided into the parts. One of the parts gives away its cold in exchanger E-217. It gets heated upto a temperature of 58 C in exchanger E217. The II part is passed through test exchanger E-218. Both join together at the outlet of E217.400 Nm3/hr. purified synthesis gas is sent to nitrogen precooler E-209 cooling incoming nitrogen. The II part 75500 Nm3/hr. goes to rectisol section in cooler E-1503. Heated synthesis gas at + 360C from E-209 are mixed together. About 3600 Nm3/hr. of makeup nitrogen from nitrogen compressor discharge meets the synthesis gas. The nitrogen and hydrogen ration in synthesis gas mixture is maintained at 25:75 by density analyzer.99500 Nm3/hr. of total synthesis gas at 30C and 38.5 ata is sent to suction of synthesis gas compressor as make up gas. 3.9.3 Nitrogen Circuit28500 Nm3/hr. nitrogen from Air Separation Plants is compressed in Nitrogen Compressor (Turbine driven). It is compressed of 42.5ata nitrogen compressor. A part of this nitrogen about 3600 Nm3/hr. is directly bled to synthesis gas to adjust the mixture. The other part 24900 Nm3 hr. of nitrogen goes to cold box in nitrogen precooler E-209 by outgoing tail gas and part of synthesis gas. Cold nitrogen is fed to upper part of main exchanger E-217 for further cooling with evaporating tail gas and outgoing product gas (synthesis gas) Part of cold nitrogen at -1330C from E-217 is sent to Air Separation Unit. The other part is again fed back to lower part of E-217 for further cooling and liquification liquid nitrogen at 1580C, returns from air separation unit. It is being mixed with pure liquid nitrogen stream in exchanger E217. The two streams in the exchanger are sub cooled in bottom part of main exchanger E-217 by cooling upto -1840C.The liquid nitrogen is fed to the top of nitrogen wash tower T-202. The liquid nitrogen takes CO+CH4+Ar from product gas in this tower T-202. In the column T-202 the impurities in the fed gas vapor are replaced by nitrogen and pass to the bottom of the column in the liquefied residual gas. A pure hydrogen nitrogen mixture leaves the top of the column T-202 at about -189C and normally contains about 11 % nitrogen A small quantity of liquid nitrogen is added in the venturi J-201 3.9.4 Tail Gas circuit-

7440 Nm3/hr. of the liquid residual gas known as tail gas leaves the base of tower T-202 at a temperature of -1840C. This liquid tail gas is expanded to pressure just above atmospheric and evaporated in main exchanger E-217. Tail gas coming out of main exchanger E-217 at -500C is sent to nitrogen per-cooler E-209 to give away is cold. Tail gas leaves exchanger E209 at a temperature of + 250C. A part of fail gas at -50'C from exchanger E-217 is fed to absorber D-104A/B for cooling after regeneration. Hot tail gas at +250C from nitrogen precooler E-209 is utilized for regeneration purpose in adorers. During regeneration cycle a part of tail gas is heated in electric heat of H-101. It is then passed upwards through molecular sieve bed of absorber D-104A/B. When the bed is fully regenerated tail gas is cooled to its operation temperature by the upward flow of cold fraction of the tail gas. The regeneration gas leaving the bed is added to the rest of the tail gas. It is then cooler in cooled E-102 by cooling water. This tail gas is sent to unit 12 HCN stripper before being burnt in steam generation plant.

3.10 COMPRESSOR (SECTION-17) AIR COMPRESSOR 3.10.1 IntroductionAir compressor is a unit of compressor section -17 because in this section more compressors are available such as N2, O2, NH3 compressor etc. It is a multistage compressor having nine axial and two radial stages. These stages accomplished by 9 axial & 2 radial impellers. Air compressor is mainly driven by steam turbine which is directly coupled (by toothed coupling which permits an axial play of coupled shaft due to thermal expansion) with compressor. This compressor broadly consists of the following parts1) - Casing (Horizontally split) - It is of a rigid compression proof casting. 2) - Rotor comprises a shaft, Axial & Radial impellers, Thrust bearing disc etc. The individual compression stages within the casing are sealed by means of labyrinth seal inert. In air compression system, two interstage cooler and one after stage cooler are implies for maintain the temperatures.

3.10.2 Specifications-

Power Requirement

Norm. rpm

Max. rpm

Min. rpm

Ist Critical rpm

2nd Critical rpm

Prohibited Speed Range in rpm

No. of Impellers (Axial & Radial resp.) 9 &2

13000 KW







Table 3.8 temperature specifications 3.10.3 Working ProcedureIn this section, 1,42,600Nm3/hr (at 0.98ata & 350c) of atmospheric air sucks by the multistage compressor(Axial & Radial Stages) and enters in the air intake tower and simultaneously air is passed to the Universal filters where all dusts are removed for prevent the wrecking of impellers. After filtration, air is given to the air compressor where air is compressed from . 98ata.to7ata.and temperature approaches to 450c after several stages (Our Main Objective). After the completion of 9th axial stage air has not completely compressed i.e. partially Compressed (because only axial stage has completed and radial has not) and partially compressed air has temperature of 1740c and pressure about 3.07ata, in this partial compression, pressure is less increases from initial i.e. 0.98ata to 3.07ata while temperature

reaches to very high value from initial i.e.350c to 1740c so we need 7ata pressure and 450c because this specification is very similar to the RHEs design data where air reaches to its liquefaction temperature. For this we provide one inter stage cooler (cooling medium is cold water) after completion of 9th or last axial stage, where temperature reaches to 430c and then this cooled air (3.07ata & 430c) is passes to the again compressor for first radial stage (10 th stage).in completion of first radial stage again temperature approaches to high from 430c to 960c and less pressure increases from 3.07ata to 4.84ata. Again to maintain the temperature we provide second inter stage cooler (cooling medium is cold water) after completion of first radial stage, this is also partially compressed air. After passing of first radial stages air into second inter stage cooler temperature reaches to again 430c and 4.84ata pressure, then this cooled air (430c & 4.84ata) is sent to the air compressor for 11th stage (second radial stage) for further compression where again temperature approaches to high from 430c to 980c but pressure increases up to our desired value i.e.7.08ata after second or last radial stage temperature approaches to 980c for this we provide one after stage cooler for maintaining temperature around 450c. Note- All techniques involve, depicted by the respective flow sheet. 3.10.4 Process SpecificationSuction Flow Rate,Nm3/hr Suction Pressure, ata Suction Temperature,0c Discharge pressure, ata Discharge Temperature,0c






3.10.5 Main Compressor TurbineThe turbine is condensing cum extraction type which is used to drive the compressor. This is a multistage reaction type turbine with extraction control. The turbine speed is controlled by a Woodward governor and is equipped with requisite controls and emergency trips with bearing temperature, vibration, axial displacement, high steam extraction pressure, low oil pressure, high condenser pressure and level, over speed cooling water failure, low control oil pressure etc. An air seal is provided to check oil flow into the turbine from bearings. The steam from turbine exhaust enters the surface condenser and condenses on water cooler condenser tubes. The collected condensate is pumped by condensate pump to BFW treatment plant. Vacuum is maintained by steam jet ejector, in the condenser. A constant level is maintained in the hot well by a control valve.

Sr.No. Medium 1 Line Steam Pressure, ata 2 Olive Steam temperature, 0C 3 Steam Flow Rate, T/hr 4 Exhaust Pressure, ata 5 Output, KW 6 Extraction Pressure, ata 7 Extraction Steam Flow, T/hr Table 3.9 compressor turbine data 3.10.6 Lube Oil System-

Specified Value 64 460 72 0.15 13000 11 28.5

Independent 100% capacity gear pumps (2 Nos.) of horizontal designed are provided one serves as a standby. The main oil pump is turbine driven and the auxiliary pump is having motor drive. The oil pumps delivered the full amount of oil required via dual oil coolers, dual oil filters .The pressure downstream of the filter is maintained at the oil pressure required for the turbine control i.e. about 10ata by the bars controllers. The oil pressure is throttled down to meet the actual requirements upstream of each bearing point on the compressor and the turbine. In addition, an emergency run out pumps and an overheated oil tank have been provided.

3.11 N2 COMPRESSOR 3.11.1 CompressorThe two casing multistage centrifugal compressor works as a radial compressor and is directly driven by a steam turbine. The compressor has twelve impellers. The gas is conducted from impeller to impeller between individual stages bladed cross over sections. The shaft of H.P.casing is connected to via a gear box, each casing has six impellers. The gas is fed to inter coolers after the impeller stages 2nd, 4th, 6th, 9th, and 12th through integrally cast volutes from the machine & is returned to next impeller stage from the inter cooler through the intake nozzles. The casing is a pressure tight and dimensionally stable horizontally split casting. The suction and discharge nozzles are on the lower half. The rater consists of the shaft, impellers, Thrust bearing collar and dummy piston. The impellers are shrunk on the shaft. They are so arranged on the shaft that the longitudinal thrust is partly cancelled out and internal leakage is minimized. The dummy piston reduces the longitudinal thrust cased by impeller arrangement down to a value permissible for thrust bearings. The thrust bearing cooler is held by the shaft nut and prevented from rotation by a feature key. The journal bearing design ensures smooth and reliable operation of the compressor. Design is such that the bearings largely adopt itself to the operating condition (i.e. oil temp, speed, slight on balance due to fouling etc.). These bearing are not damaged by brief reverse running of rotor. The thrust bearing absorbers thrust in both directions. Max. oil pressure is 1.8 kg/cm2 and normal oil temperature is 450C.

The sealing of various compression and process stages within casing is by means of labyrinth sealing inerts. These are horizontally split and swing into the casing inerts. The tip clearance takes into account expansion resulting and ensure that there will be no contact with casing starts up and when running first critical speed. The N2 gas leakage from L.P. compressor labyrinth seals enters the 3rd & 5th impellers stages of L.P. casing & the leakage from H.P. casing labyrinth seals enter 1st impeller stage of H.P. The oil seal rings of the bearing are sealed with N2 to avoid oil entering the compressor. The toothed coupling permits a given play (axial) of the coupled shaft due to the thermal expansion. The compressor has got surge control device which will operate solenoid operated bypass valve between 1st stage of the H.P. compressor and suction of L.P. compressor. 3.11.2 Main TurbineTurbine for driving, N2 compressor is of condensing extraction type. Steam from 65 ata header passes to main stops valve (SSV) which serves to isolate the live steam supply from the machine following a trip in the shortest possible time. SSV is fitted with a pilot valve and is actuated by servo motor. Steam strainer is built in the quick closing valve SSV. Downstream of SSV, there is line steam control valve (STV). This serves to control the steam flow of the turbine as a function of one or several controlled variables. In case of tripping interrupts the steam flow and serves as a second isolation. The control force for the valve is applied by a rotor piston servo motor. Power assisted stop and check valve is provided to protect the turbine against reverse flow of steam from the extraction steam line and to isolate them when a trip occurs. Control valve permits the quantity of steam required for necessary output i.e. speed. Steam fed to the nozzle chamber of turbine expanded into nozzle thus making it run. Turbine is insulated with asbestos materials. Labyrinth shaft seals are used at the shaft passage for sealing the casing with internal overpressure or vacuum. The steam is whirled about in the labyrinth by multiple throttling in a narrow annular clearance and expanded to such an extent that from the last clearance only a small steam is leaking. The thrust bearing has the function of hold the shaft in the prescribed axial position and to keep up the static and dynamic axial thrusts. During operation the oil temperature, shaft position vibrations etc. are of continuously monitored. Sealing steam is supplied at controlled pressure by a PCV and controlled temperature by a TIC to the labyrinth seals. 3.11.3 Oil SystemIt consists of: 1. Turbine control oil 2. Turbine bearing oil 3. Compressor bearing oil 4. Supply to coupling

The oil pump (steam turbine driven with electric motor driven as stand by) deliver full amount of oil required via dual oil coolers and dual oil filters. The Bearing oil pressure in the distributor is maintained at 5.6 ata by the bypass valve on the oil line after oil cooler. The oil pressure is throttled down to meet the actual requirements upstream of each bearing point on the compressor and turbine these oil pressure are constantly monitored. An overhead tank is counted to the oil pressure line to provide emergency run out if both the oil pumps fails. 3.11.4 Turbine Control Oil1) - The control system requires a constant supply of oil at 120 ata pressure. 2) - In the short term, an additional amount of oil is required for actuating plungers of nozzle valves. The first condition is met because the pressure is maintained constant at 120 ata by the control oil pump which is connected to the discharge of lube oil pumps. To fulfill the second condition, the pump reserve is supplemented by an accumulator which covers the additional volume demand and also the possible drop in pressure when switching over the pumps.

3.12 O2 COMPRESSOR 3.12.1 CompressorThe two casing multistage centrifugal compressor of single shaft construction is driven directly by a steam turbine. The compressor has thirteen impellers. The gas is conducted form impeller to impeller between individual stages by bladed cross over sections. The gas is fed to intercoolers after the impeller stages, 2nd, 4th, 7th, 9th and 11th through integrally cast volutes from the machine and is returned to next impeller stage from the intercooler through the intake nozzles. Downstream of the last impeller the medium being conveyed is discharged from the machine through integrally cast volute with diffuser. The casing is a pressure tight and dimensionally stable horizontally split casting. The suction and discharge nozzles are on the lower half. The compressor is located inside a fire wall to isolate it from other equipments. All valves and monitoring points are located outside fire well. The rotor consists of the shaft the impellers, the thrust bearings cooler and the dummy piston. The impellers and shrunk on the shaft. They are arranged on the shaft that the longitudinal thrust is partly cancelled out and internal leakage is minimized. The dummy piston reduces the longitudinal thrust caused by impeller arrangement down to a valve permissible for thrust bearings. The thrust bearing cooler is held by the shaft nut and prevented from rotation by a feather key. The journal bearing design ensures smooth and reliable operation of the compressor. Design such that the bearing largely adopts itself to the

operating condition (i.e. oil temperature speed, slight unbalance due to fouling etc.). The bearings are not damaged by brief reverse running of the rotor. The thrust bearing absorbs the residual thrust of the rotor. The thrust bearing absorbs thrust in both directions. The required oil pressure is 1.2 to1.5kg/cm2(gauge) and bearing temperature should not exceed 750C.The sealing of various compression and process stages within casing is by means of labyrinth sealing inverts. These are horizontally split and running into the casing inserts. The tip clearance takes into account expansion resulting from rotation and ensures that there will be no contact which casing during start up and when running through first critical speed. The leaking gas from labyrinth flow to suction of the compressor. The equalizing pressure is maintained above the suction pressure stage 1 by a valve. The outer chamber of compressor is supplied with sealing gas N2. The sealing N2 pressure is same as pressure in equalizing line. Part of the sealing gas enters the atmosphere via the outer part of the labyrinth. The other flows into middle labyrinth chamber from the sealing N2 and O2 are discharged to vent. The oil seal rings of the bearings are sealed with nitrogen to avoid entering the bearings. The toothed coupling permits a given axial play of the coupled shaft due to thermal expansion. The compressor includes extra safety measures. The labyrinth sealing tips are of non sparking material. The compressor is assembled perfectly free from grease. Additional rotor earth connections are fitted to the bearing pedestal oil sealing ring to conduct off any creepage current from the rotor. There is a high pressure nitrogen receiver which supplies nitrogen to the compressor for purging in case of any tripping of the machine.

3.12.2 Main TurbineThe condensing multistage reaction type turbine is used to drive the compressor. Steam from the header passed through a strainer to quick closing valve which is operated by control oil. The control valves allow only set amount of steam to the turbine. The control valves which are adjusted by Woodward governor permit the quantity of steam required for necessary output of the turbine i.e. speeds. Steam fed to the nozzle chamber of the turbine is expanded in the nozzles thus making the turbine run. The quick closing valve will isolate steam in case of any trip. The turbine casing is isolated with asbestos mats. Labyrinth shaft seats are used at the shaft passages for sealing the casings. The steam is whirled about in the labyrinth by multiple throttling in narrow annular clearance and expanded to such an extent that from the last clearance only a small stream of steam is still leaking. The narrower the clearance the lower the steam losses. However, the operating safety sets a lower limit to the size of the clearance since rubbing of the shaft must be avoided. The thrust bearing has the function to hold the shaft in the prescribed axial position and to keep up the static and dynamic axial thrust. The thrust bearing require careful mounting and adjustment as well as permanent clean oil. During operation careful monitoring of oil temperature, shaft position and running condition is required. Sealing steam is supplied at controlled pressure to the labyrinth seals with the help of two control valves. 3.12.3 Oil System-

It consists of: - 1) Turbine control oil. 2) Turbine bearing oil 3) Compressor bearing oil. 4) Supply to couplings. The oil pumps steam turbine driven with electric motor driven as standby deliver the full amount of oil required via dual oil coolers dual oil filters. The pressure downstream of the filters is maintained at the required oil pressure for the turbine control i.e., about 10ata by the bypass controller. The bearing oil pressure in the distributor upstream of the consumers is maintained at 3.5ata by the follow on the oil pressure controller.The oil pressure is throttled down to meet the actual requirement upstream of each bearing point on the compressor and turbine. The setting throttles can be adjusted during operation if required. The oil pressures are constantly monitored by pressure gauges. The overhead tank is connected to the oil pressure line. It is under constant flow, and is thus heated. The overhead tank has two functions: a) To bridge to short-term fall in pressure when changing over from one pump to the other. b) To provide emergency run-out if both oil pumps fail

From the bearings the oil returns under gravity to the oil tank through sight-glasses. 3.12.4 Turbine Control Oil Circuit-

1) The control system requires a constant supply of oil upto 10ata pressure. 2) In the short term, an additional amount of oil is required for the actuating plungers of
the nozzle valves. The first condition is met because the pressure is maintained cons at 10ata by the bypass controller. To fulfill the second condition, the pump reserve is supplemented by an accumulator which covers the additional volume demand and also the possible drop in pressure when switching over the pumps. 3.12.5 Bearing GearThe turbine is equipped with a bearing gear to turn the rotor after shut-down during the cooling down period and moreover for turning the rotor prior to start up when seal steam is to be applied to the labyrinth seals. The barring gear is mounted at the four end bearing pedestal. Barring gear operation after turbine shut-down enables that during cooling down process no differential temperatures will arise in the turbine rotor.

3.13 CO2 COMPRESSOR The single casing centrifugal compressor works as a radial compressor and is driven directly by a steam turbine. There are two process stages with two impellers in each stage. Gas after compress on in the 1st process stage is cooled in the gas intercooler E-2203 and compressed further in the second process stage. It is then cooled in the after cooler E-2204 & supplied to the CO2 purification section. The gas is conducted from impeller between individual stages by bladed cross over sections. The casing is a pressure tight and dimensionally split casing. The suction I discharge nozzles are on the lower half of the casing. The rotor consists of the shaft, the impellers, the thrust bearing cooler and dummy piston. The impellers are shrunk on the shaft. They are so arranged on the shaft that longitudinal thrust is partly cancelled out and internal leakage is minimized. The dummy piston reduces the longitudinal thrust caused by impeller arrangement. The thrust bearing collar is held by a shaft nut and prevented from rotation by a feather key. The journal bearing design ensures smooth and reliable operation of the compressor. Maximum oil pressure at the bearing is 1.8 kg/cm 2 (gauge). Normal oil temperature is 450C.The sealing of various compression and process stages is done by means of labyrinth sealing inserts. These are horizontally split and swung into the casing inserts. A continuous seal gas flows into chamber 3. This serves the purpose of preventing carbon dioxide gas escaping into the atmosphere and also preventing lube oil making its way into the

compressor via labyrinths. The seal gas is mixed with CO 2 in chamber 2 and led to vent. Pressure control of the seal gas is done by a two way element control system. The pressure of the seal gas is maintained at set value by PCV 4. The output from PCV 4 is further controlled by PCV 211.6 which is actuated by differential pressure in seal gas chamber. The differential pressure is measured at 2nd and 3rd seal gas chambers via a differential pressure transmitter PDT-211.2. This signal is passed on to the controller PDIC 211 as an actual value. The controller transmits a setting signal to the seal gas valve PVC-211.6 The valve provide the required quantity in order to maintain the differential pressure. Maximum seal gas pressure is 1.375ata and the differential seal chamber pressure is 250mbar.The compressor is provided with surge control device which actuates solenoid operated bypass valve between discharge and suction of the compressor. 3.13.1 Main TurbineTurbine for driving carbon dioxide compressor as of condensing type. Guide vane inserts, bearing pedestals and shaft seals are shrunk fit in the turbine casing. The rotor is a single piece with reaction blading. The control stage of rotor is provided with impulse bladed wheel. A dummy piston is provided on the rotor for reduction of the axial thrust. Steam strainer, trip valve and nozzle control valves are installed in the nozzle control valve chest block. A toothed coupling connects turbine and compressor. Steam for 65ata header passes to main stop valve (SSV) which serves to isolate the line steam supply from the machine following a trip in the shortest possible time. SSV is fitted with a pilot valve and is actuated by a servomotor. Down stream of SSV there is live steam control valve STV. This serves to control the steam flow of the turbine as a function of one or several controlled variables. In case of tripping it interrupts the steam flow and serves as a second isolation. Control valve permits the quantity of steam required for necessary output i.e. speed. The servomotor serves to open the valves under oil pressure and closes with falling oil pressure. Turbine is insulated with asbestos mats. Labyrinth shaft seals are used at the shaft passages for sealing the casing with internal over pressure or vacuum. The steam is whirled about in the labyrinth by multiple throttling in a narrow annular clearance and expanded to such an extent that from the last clearance only a small steam is leaking. The thrust bearing has the function to hold the shaft in the prescribed axial position and to shaft in the prescribed axial position and to keep up the static and dynamic axial thrusts. During operation careful monitoring of oil temperature, shaft position and running condition is required. Sealing steam is supplied at controlled pressure by PVC, 2 and controlled temperature by TIC-1 to the labyrinth seals. 3.13.2 Oil SystemIt comprises the following-

1) Turbine control oil 2) Turbine control bearing oil 3) Compressor bearing oil 4) Supply to couplings. The oil pumps (steam turbine or stand by electric motor driven) deliver the oil required via dual oil coolers and dual oil filters. The oil pressure is throttled down to meet the actual requirements upstream of each bearing point on the compressor and turbine. An overhead tank is connected to the oil pressure line. It is under constant flow and thus remains heated. The overhead tank has two functions: 1. To bridge the short term fall in pressure when changing over the pumps. 2 To provide emergency run-out if both oil pumps fail. From the bearings, the oil returns under gravity to the oil tank through sight glasses. 3.13.3 Turbine Control oil Circuit1) The control system requires a constant supply of oil at 120ata pressure. 2) In the short term, an additional amount of oil is required for actuating plungers of the nozzle valves. The first condition is met because the pressure is maintained constant by the control oil pump which is connected to the discharge of LO pumps. To fulfit the second condition, the pump reserve is supplemented by an accumulator which covers the additional volume demand and also the possible drop in oil pressure when switching over pumps. In case the turbine trips the control oil actuates the piston for barring the turbine. Sr.No. Medium Specified values CO2 Compr. 16955m3/hr. 1.3ata 260C 13.6ata 18.5ata 1610C 1840C 2650KW 3200KW 11750rpm 12340rpm 5438rpm 20280rpm

1 Suction Volume 2 Suction Pressure 3 Suction Temp. 4 Norm. Discharge Pressure 5 Max. Discharge Pressure 6 Norm. Discharge Temp. 7 Max. Discharge Temp. 8 Norm. I/p 9 Max. I/P 10 Norm. Speed 11 Max. Speed st 12 I Critical Speed 13 2nd Critical Speed Table 3.12 data of co2 compressor

3.14 SYNTHESIS AND SYN. GAS COMPRESSOR Purified gas available from nitrogen washes after removal of all the impurities and addition of makeup nitrogen has the following analysis by volume. This gas enters the first casing of Synthesis Gas Compressor at 38ata pressure and 400C. It is compressed to 80ata in 1st casing and after cooling in interstage cooler it enters the 2nd casing and is compressed to 147ata pressure. It then enters after cooling to the suction of makeup stage where it is further compressed to 216ata pressure. The gas then enters the suction of recycle stage casing and gets mixed with the recycle gas and is compressed to 231ata pressure. It then goes to the synthesis section. Interstage coolers provided after each stage cool the gas to nearly 430C before it enters the suction of next stage. Bypass cooler has also been provided for cooling the discharge gas recycles stage in case it is to be bypass to the suction side. The released gases separated from Ammonia in the flash drum of synthesis section also enter the 1st stage suction of the compressor. Nitrogen connection has also been provided in the suction line after main isolation valve for purging the loop after shut down. Synthesis compressor comprises a train of three centrifugal compressors driven by steam turbine with a speed of 10870 rpm at 100% capable of compressing 106000 Nm3/hr. of synthesis gas from 38ata to 231ata.Suction of 1st stage is connected to the nitrogen wash through a cut-out valve pneumatically driven and manually (remote) controlled from the HIC-1.1 controller. A solenoid valve shuts instantaneously this cut out valve in case of compressor shut down due to minimum seal oil level in O.H. tanks. Suction pressure is controlled at a constant level by the pressure controller PRC-1.2 which controls by variation of turbine speed through SC-1.1 controller.

There are two bypass lines. One between 2nd stage discharge line to the 1st stage. Suction has a bypass valve controlled pneumatically through hand controller HIC-1.11 The second bypass called Antisurge line is from 3rd stage discharge to 1st stage suction and has a antisurge flow controller HIC-1.4 To depressurize/vent the compressor loop pneumatic valve HIC-1.5 is provided. A solenoid valve causes the quick opening of this valve in case of compressor trip for minimum level in S.O. overhead tanks. One additional PIC has been provided in the 1st stage suction line to bleed the excess pressure to flare in case of compressor trip. 3.14.1 Major Parts of the Machine are as Follows1) CasingAll the three centrifugal compressors are similar in construction and difference lies only in the duty. The casing is barrel shaped, made of forged steel, closed, at the ends by two vertical flanges of forged steel. The two heads placed at the casing ends bear the housing for the rotor bearings and the housing for end seals which prevent the gas leakage from body inside. A rotor vibration probe is installed at both shaft ends of each compressor. Load calls are installed for monitoring axial thrust in each thrust bearing.

2) DiaphragmThe diaphragm separates each compression stage from the next. The adjacent surfaces of the diaphragms from the diffuser passages in which the kinetic energy of the gas from the impeller is converted into pressure. 3) Capacity controlOn the internal walls of the casing head flange of 3rd casing, on recycle suction end, a capacity control device with variable inlet guide vanes is provided. The control of the variable guide vanes is accomplished by a pneumatic power cylinder operated with the impulse from controller HIC-1.10. 4) Rotor It consists of a shaft on which impellers and spacers are shunk fitted. The spacers suitably position the impellers. During normal operation, each impeller is subjected to an axial thrust towards the suction due to pressure difference at the inlet and outlet of the impeller. This thrust is balanced by the balance drum.

5) Recycle Gas Systems-

Third stage is provided with an impeller for recycles gas compressor. A bypass line connects the recycle discharge to suction through a cooler and pneumatic controlled bypass valve HIC1.9. A second bypass line connects the recycle discharge with discharge of makeup stage with pneumatic valve HIC-1.6 in order to prevent dangerous differential pressure within the compressor. In the suction and discharge line of recycle compressor, cut out pneumatic valves HIC-1.7, HIC-1.8 are installed.

6) Balance DrumThe Centrifugal Compressor rotor is subjected to an axial thrust towards the suction end owing to the differential pressure generated in the two faces of the impeller. This thrust is balanced by the balance drum fitted on the end of the shaft adjacent to the last stage impeller. The balance drum is designed so as to balance about 90% of the thrust and remaining is taken by the thrust bearings.

7) Turbine The turbine has two casings HP and LP coupled directly with the compressor. H. P. part is extraction type and L.P. part is condensing type. H.P. turbine has further two extraction chambers. In the first chamber 91ata steam is expanded to 64ata steam and a major part of this steam joins 64ata header. Remaining steam after expansion in the second part of this H.P. turbine goes to the second turbine. The second turbine has two identical rotors. Steam from discharge of H.P turbine is splitup equally between these two rotors chambers. These two identical chambers goes to the surface condenser. 3.14.2 Electrical Interlocks of the Compressor Control valves in the gas system of compressor are electrically interlocked in order to prevent abnormal situation in case of failure of a valve or some erroneous operation.

1. When suction valve HIC-1.1 is not fully open Antisurge valve HIC-1.4 will remain open. It can be closed only when HIC-1.1 is in/full open position. 2. When HCV-1.7, recycle discharge cut-off valve closes, HIC-1.4, HIC-1.6 & HIC-1.9 opens. 3. When HCV-1.8, recycle suction cut-off valve closes, HIC-1.6 & HIC-1.9 will open.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Minimum lube oil pressure. Minimum seal oil level in the 1st stage O.H. tank. Minimum seal oil level in 2nd stage O. H. tank. Minimum seal oil level in 3rd stage O. H. tank. Minimum suction pressure. Minimum vacuum in condenser. Excessive axial displacement in H.P. turbine rotor. Excessive axial displacement in L. P. turbine rotor. Excessive axial thrust 1st stage compressor.

10. Excessive axial thrust 2nd stage compressor. 11. Excessive axial thrust 3rd stage compressor. 12. Excessive differential pressure between synthesis gas/recycle discharges. 13 Low flow of raw gas from gasifiers. 14. Minimum control oil pressure 15. Turbine over speed. 16. Low boiler level. 17. Ammonia separator high level 18. Local trip 19. Remote trip

3.15 AMMONIA SYNTHESIS (SECTION-18) Synthesis of ammonia from its constituents the following reactions: N2 + 2H2 2NH3 2NH3 H = - 26,000Kcals N2 + 3H2 H = + 26,000Kcals

Both these reactions proceed simultaneously and rate of each reaction will depend upon the operating conditions, such as pressure temperature and concentration of H2 /N2 in the mixture. Under specific conditions, the reaction mixture will arrive at a dynamic equilibrium, when the two opposing reactions proceed at the same rate. As the formation of ammonia is an exothermic reaction, increase in temperature, will have adverse effect on the rate of forward reaction SO, the heat of reaction is to be removed as fast as it develops. For every set of conditions, there is an optimum temperature at which rate of reaction is maximum. Synthesis of N2 and H2 to make ammonia is accompanied with decrease in volume. So, the increase in pressure will favorably shift the equilibrium towards higher ammonia content. The lower the ammonia content in the converter inlet gas, the higher will be the production rate. In high pressure plants, separation of ammonia from the converter outlet gases was possible by condensing with cooling water. In modern low pressure plants, refrigeration system is employed. Inerts like methane, argon, etc. which are present in the makeup gas get accumulated in the system. Due to partial pressure, these have an effect of lowering the production rate or in other words, we have to raise the system pressure for maintaining the same production rate. Therefore accumulation of inerts will have to be checked by purging some of the gases. Too

much purging result in loss of H2 and N2.Ratio of H2 and N2 also play an important role in the reaction. Any departure from the correct ratio 3:1 for H2/N2 will result in lower production or higher system pressure for the production rate.

3.15.1Catalyst Promoters-

Catalyst used for synthesis of H2/N2 to ammonia is reduced iron promoted with small additions of Al2O3 and CaO. All these promote have different functions. Al2O3 increases the surface of iron and prevents the enlargement of catalyst due to sintering, so that its action results in the stabilization of the surface area. K2O favors the chemisorption of nitrogen which is found to be the rate determining step in the reaction and thus increases the catalytic properties of the surface. Addition of CaO or MgO was found to increase tie thermoresistency of the catalyst.

3.15.2 Catalyst Poisons-

The catalyst gets poisoned by compounds of sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen. The former two cause permanent and irreversible damage while the latter group (oxygen compounds) causes temporary poisoning.

3.15.3 Brief Description of Synthesis Unit-

The plant is designed to process 99,850 Nm3/hr. of synthesis gas to produce 900 T/day of ammonia. Synthesis gas from the discharge of recirculator is at 230kg/ cm2 pressure and 450 temperatures. It exchanges heat with the outgoing gases from the converter in gas interchangers E -1803 A/B and is heated to 2560C. Before entering the converter, gas is divided into three parts. One part enters the converter top through HIC-18101 and travels to the bottom through annular space between converter shell and outer basket of catalyst beds. It exchanges heat with the outgoing gases from second bed in the exchanger, at the bottom of converter and enters the first catalyst bed at 3900C through central perforated tube. After reaction in the bed this gas comes out at 5250C.

Second part of the gases enters the converter through HIC - 18102 and gives quenching effect to the first bed outlet gases in the inner annular space of the basket. After using, the temperature of these comes down to 4100C and enters the 2nd bed through outer perforated shell. After reaction, these gases come out at 5100C and after exchanging heat with the incoming gases, leave the converter at 4500C. Third parts of the gases are used as cold shot for the first bed. At the time of start up these gases flow through the start-up heater and are used for heating the catalyst and during normal run, these are used as cold shot for first bed to control the bed temperatures. Synthesis converter used in our plant is two beds Topsoe radial flow converter. This has got the advantage of low differential pressure across the bed in comparison to the conventional axial flow converters. Due to low differential across the bed small particle size of catalyst can be used for higher ammonia production, and also less power is required for recirculation of gases. In the first bed 13.6 T. KMIR type, 3-6mm particle size and the second bed 31.9 T KMIR type, having 1.5-3mm. particle size Holder Topsoe catalyst is charged. With this catalyst maximum pressure drop across the bed is only 1.0 kg/cm 2. This catalyst is per-reduced to decrease the reduction time after charging. Gas from the exit to converter having 15% -16% NH 3 and at 4500C enter the waste heat boiler. In waste heat boiler 1.1 T. steam per tonne of ammonia is produced at 105ata. The level controller LRC-18101 maintains a constant level is waste heat boiler, Steam produced is sent to Steam Generation Plant for superheating to 5000C. After waste heat boiler, gas is used to preheat the boiler feed waste from 1120C to 2900C in the pre heater. The gases exchange heat in gas/gas heat exchanger E-1803 A/B and further cooled at 450C in five no. waste coolers E-1804 arranged in parallel. Before entering the ammonia chiller gas is further cooled to 320C in gas/gas heat exchanger E-1805 with the outgoing gases from the separator. In ammonia chiller, gas is cooled to a temperature of 0-50C by vapoursing liquid ammonia in the shell side. Outlet gas temperature is controlled by varying ammonia vapors pressure on the shell side, which is indirectly controlled by absorber pressure in refrigeration section. After chiller gas enters the ammonia separator F-1801 where major portion of the ammonia is separated & uncovered gases, containing 4-5% of ammonia after exchanging cold in E-1805 are fed to the section of recirculator. In case of malfunctioning of the level controller, there can be high level in the separator resulting in carryover of liquid ammonia to recirculator. For safety reasons independent alarm and trip switches are provided on the separator./Liquid ammonia from the separator is flushed at 40 kg/cm2 in flash Vessel E-1802. H2/ N2 absorbed in liquid ammonia is released and are fed back to the first stage suction of synthesis gas compressor. LIC-18106 maintains a constant liquid ammonia level in the flash vessel and excess is sent to the Horton Sphere in Ammonia Storage.

3.16 CO2 COMPRESSION (SECTION-17) & PURIFICATION (SECTION-22) The CO2 is released from methanol at the top of CO2 flash column. Entrained methanol is separated from CO2 in low temperature separator F-1501 at -500C. The CO2 gas with about 1000 ppm of methanol from separator F-1501 is sent to exchanger E-1503 where its cold is being utilized the cool converted gas from CO2 shift conversion section. 20000 Nm3/hr of this CO2 comes but from exchanger E-1503 at a temperature of +200C and pressure of 1.6ata. The suction pressure of CO2 compressor is controlled by control valve at 1.3ata. CO2 gas is compressed by turbo compressor G-2201 driven by stream turbine GT2201. Steam turbine consumes 11.5 T/hr of 64ata 4600C steam. It is a condensing turbine. CO2 gas is cooled in intercooler E-2203 by 76 T/hr of cooling water. The compressed CO2 gas at 13.5ata is cooled in after cooler E-2204 by 92 T/hr of cooling water. CO2 gas at 400C and 13ata from exchanger E-2204 is sent to either of the two absorbers D2201A/B methanol from CO2 is being absorbed by molecular sieves in absorber D-2201(one absorber remains in line for absorption and the other remains is line for regeneration). The methanol free CO2 (containing only 3ppm of methanol) comes out from bottom of absorber D-2201 at 12.6ata. This CO2 gas is further cooled in cooler E-2206 by 45T/hr of cooling water. This CO2 is sent to urea plant for synthesis of urea.

3.17 DEAERATION/STEAM NETWORK (SECTION-23) For generation of high pressure steam, boilers demand high quality feed water. Demineralised water from boiler feed water treatment plant is supplied to the boilers after it has been deaerated i.e. dissolved gases like O2 etc are removed in the deaeration section. As for as corrosion is concerned, O2 is the most troublesome gas in boiler operation and CO2 comes next. Dissolved oxygen in boiler feed water is released by increase in temperature and may attack boiler metal. CO2 lowers the Ph of the boiler water and also promotes attack on the boiler metal. 3.17.1 ProcessOn normal load conditions the deaerator receives 225T/hr of D.M.Water from B.F.W. treatment plant. This make up D.M.water is heated to 460C in E-1201 in carbon recovery and to +880C in E-1405 of CO conversion section. The inlet D.M.Water has the following specification-

Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Hardness Silica as SiO2 Iron as Fe Copper as Cu Conductivity

Not traceable <0.02 mg/kg <0.02 mg/kg <0.003 mg/kg <0.15 MS/CM


Oxygen as O2

Saturated at ambient condition 6.5 to 7.5 <0.5

6. Ph at 250C 7. Oil Table 3.14 specification of D.M. water

Deaeration plant has been designed to deaerate water upto a permissible O2 content of less than 0.02 mg/kg at design load of 382 T/hr of BFW. At normal load 335 T/hr of deaerated water is provided having O2 content less than 0.02 mg/kg at Ph-9.Process condensate available from units 11, 12, 13,19B is at higher pressure. 40.6 T/hr of this condensate is taken to the flash vessel F-2303 at normal load conditions 3T/hr of 3.5 ata steam is generated by flashing of condensate is delivered to deaerator F-2301 on level control. About 34 T/hr of low pressure condensate from 19A and steam generation plant fed to the deaerator directly. Steam for deaeration is supplied from the 3.5 ata header. Saturated steam from all blowdown flash vessels and Claus plant W.H.B. E-2102 is connected to the header. In addition 11 ata steam is being let down and desuperheated to 3.5 ata conditions in E-2304.It is customary to feed excess hydrazine in deuerated water to ensure complete removal of oxygen. Ammonia is dozed to maintain the Ph. For dosing these chemicals a complete unit comprising a dosing tank and pump has been provided. The demineralised water from B.F.W. treatment plant comes to the deaerator via two heaters E-1201 & E-1405 whereby it is heated to about 880C. The DM water live is a complete stainless steel line to avoid totally the inclusion of corrosion products in the D.M. water. The D.M. water is sprayed into the steam space of the feed water tank via an automatically operated sprinkler. The deaerator level is maintained by LIC. 223108 provided on the inlet DM water line.3.5ata steam flow to the deareator is maintained by controlling the pressure of the deareator through PICAL-23105.The pressure in the deareator is maintained at 1.2ata. The steam bubble through the water thereby raising its temp. This helps in driving out dissolved gases. The deareated BFW is pumped to the SGP and waste heat boiler by a single high pressure BFW pumpG-2301or 2303 driving by steam turbine. These pumps are interlocked with standby pump (G-2302, motor driven) which would take starts automatically in case the discharge pressure of the turbine driven pump goes below a present valve. The BFW pump is capable of delivering about 450 T/hr of BFW at 133ata pressure.

3.17.2 Steam NetworkIntroduction-Steam network mainly consists of six streams header starting from SGP and spreading throughout Ammonia-II plant. Details regarding these headers have been given belowPressure in ata 105 Temperature, in 0 C 313 Production Consumption Quantit y Gasific ation 85T,sy n-40T 340T 296T 56T 101T No.of Safety Valves Nil Safety valves Setting,kg/ cm2 97

W.H.Boiler of Gasification Synthesis SGP Extraction of Syn. Turbine Bomfa 91/95 Extraction N2/Turbine Bomfa 65/33 Extraction Air BFW Turbine and all Lube Oil Turbine & Claus

SGP goes there for super heating Syn. Turbine alt. 91/65 Bomfa stn. All Turbines & Process Steam. All Lube Oil Turbine and Urea Plant Process Steam

91 65 33 11

500 460 380 300

2 4 2 2

97 68.5 36 13

WHB&Flash Tank Gasification/D esuperheater 33/11ata 3.5 140 Desuperheater F-2304 B.D. Tank of Service Boiler and WHB Claus H Exchanger Table 3.15 data of steam headers

Utility Steam



Each of these headers have at least two safety valves and one pressure control valve along with silencer. Capacities of Various Vent Valves (80% open) and Safety Valves-

3.18 AMMONIA STORAGE The plant is built for storage, distribution, loading and unloading of NH 3.The ammonia is stored in Horton Sphere (F-2401) at a pressure of 4.35ata which corresponds to the evaporation temperature of 10C.For maintaining the pressure in Horton sphere a reliquefaction unit has been provided. The 37.5T/hr of ammonia produced in ammonia synthesis section is expanded from 39ata to the storage pressure of 4.5ata by expansion most of the inert gases are set free. Additional ammonia gas is formed by expansion and heat transfer to the ammonia in the storage Sphere. These gases are sucked from the sphere by the compressor G-2404, G-2405&G-2406 and compressed to a condensing pressure of 17.7ata. The hot gases are cooled and the main part of ammonia is condensed in the condenser E-2401 or 1.43HE-I. The condensation takes place by means of cooling water , which flows through the tubes of the condenser and NH3 condensed on the shell side from where it flows to NH3 receiver F-2404 or 1.43SR-I. The non condensed gases are led to inert gas cooler E-2404 where further ammonia condensation takes place. The gas from condensers flows through the tubes in the inert gas cooler where as in the shell side ammonia liquid vaporizes at 10C,which flows towards the sphere from where it is finally sucked to the compressor again. The inert gases containing still a small amount of ammonia gas are led urea plant via PIC24109, which controls the tube side pressure of the inert gas cooler E-2402 i.e. the control of entire high pressure loop. The condensed ammonia is led to the shell side of this cooler. The distribution of ammonia is carried out by the transfer pumps G-2401/02/03 & 1.43PC-I.These pumps take off ammonia liquid from the Horton sphere and increase the pressure to 40ata via the common cooler E-2403(Product Heater), where the ammonia is heated to 190C.the liquid ammonia is distributed to urea

plant.In the ammonia heater, the ammonia liquid from the refrigeration plant (19A) is subcooled to 60C. The subcooled liquid NH3 flows to the ammonia chiller in the synthesis section. The loading/unloading facilities include five loading/unloading stations consisting of vapor hoses and loading arms. Vapors bases are used for pressuring the wagons taking hot NH3 gas ex-compressor/condenser. This pressuring is required in case the liq. NH 3 temp in wagon is low (So the pressure) and ammonia from the wagon/flows under its own pressure to Horton sphere loading arms are connected to wagons for transfer of liquid NH 3 either to or from the same.


4.0 INTRODUCTION TO NITRIC ACID 4.1 INTRODUCTION:Before world war I nitric acid was manufactured by the reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium nitrate. Nitric acid on laboratory scale was established in 1839 by the process of oxidation of ammonia. Due to readily and cheaply available ammonia, in 1916 U.S commercial plant was set up. Due to introduction of catalyst (Pt & Rh) in the oxidation process of ammonia brings revolution and this oxidation process produces over 90% of worlds nitric acid. In the Nangal unit plant is designed to produce 560 Te/day of HNo 3 in two independents but equal streams each of 280 Te/day of HNO Objective:-To produce nitric acid by the Ostwalds process. Principle: - Combustion & Condensation. 4.1.2 Process Description: Nitric acid plant (NAP) consists of mainly two sections:(1) Combustion section (ammonia vaporization, turbo blower, ammonia burners, heat recovery via WH boilers and gas-gas exchanger) (2) Condensation section (oxidation, absorption, bleaching of HNO3 and storage of nitric acid tanks).



HNO3 Raw 4.1.3 Materials for Manufacture of HNO3:(1) (2) (3) Ammonia + oxygen in air Catalyst Dm water & water for absorption section

4.1.4 Combustion Section:The atmospheric air is sucked by a turbo compressor through an air scrubbing tower & a drop separator. The scrubbing of air is done by spraying 1000 ppm water in the tower countercurrent to the air. The entrained droplets carried with the washed air are separated in a cyclone type drop separator and drained into the trough below the air scrubbing tower through a water seal. The oxygen is introduced into the air suction line between the cyclone separator and turbo-compressor.the turbo compressor compresses the air-oxygen mixture from about 0.95 atm absolute to 3.55 atm absolute whereby the temperature rises to 218oc. For the production of nitric acid, ammonia (at 5 ata) is taken in liquid state (99.9% pure) from the ammonia storage tank and is being vaporized in the ammonia vaporizer with the help of brine solution (10% solution of nh3 in water).Ammonia vapors (at -2oc) are preheated to a temp of 50oc in a heat exchanger using part of the discharge hot air from the blower (at 3.55 ata & 218oc).These ammonia vapors (at 3.5ata & 50oc) are mixed with compressed enriched air from turbo compressor in mixing nozzle. The mixed gas (air+o2+NH3 mixture) with approximately 9.5-11.5% NH3 by volume passes through ceramic filter candles, filters before reaching the burner. The ammonia is oxidized in presence of Pt/Rh catalyst (95% pt - 5%rh) to NO in the burner at about 830oc temperature & 3.38 ata pressure according to following reaction:4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O + 217 KCAL (1) There are also chances of some side reaction taking place a/c to following reaction depending on various factors:4NH3 + 3O2 2NH3 + 2O2 4NH3 + 7O2 NH3 + 7O2

2N2 + 6H2O N2O + 3H2O 4NO2 + 6H2O N2 + 3H2

(2) (3) (4) (5)

4NH3 + 6NO

5N2 + 6H2O


2NO N2 + O2 (7) By careful control in maintaining the specified optimum conditions, the reaction is made to proceed almost entirely according to equation no (1) only, suppressing the other reactions. The flow of gases through the catalyst is also to be carefully maintained as per the design of the burners, which is approximately 11.7 Nm3/hr. per burner. If the flow rate is too much, some NH3 is may escape through the catalyst gauze and then react with NO to form nitrogen and water a/c to eq. no (6).on the other hand, if the flow rate is too low due to prolonged contact with the catalyst, the NO formed gets decomposed into nitrogen and oxygen a/c to eq. no (7).The nitrous gases formed a/c to eq. (1),then pass over a super heater coil and through a waste heat boiler which are situated below the burners. Heat of combustion is utilized to generate the steam at 17 atm abs. and 3000C in waste heat boiler used to drive the steam turbine, which in turn drives the air-blower.the gases leaving four heat boilers at about 2500c combine into one stream and flow through the tail gas heater, where the remaining heat is utilized to heat the tail gas which is subsequently used for recovering power in tail gas turbine. The cooled gases at about 150oc are further cooled by water in condensator. 4.1.5 Condensation Section:The gases are cooled down to 50 0C by means of 1000ppm cooling water in two vertical shell and tube type condensator connected in series, whereby about 90% of the water vapor resulting from oxidation in the burners is condensed and weak nitric acid of about 30% concentration on the average of the two is produced. The weak acid collected in the first condensator goes to absorption tower no.-II and that collected in the second condensator goes to the absorption tower no.-I. The nitrous gases after the second condensator get mixed with the exit air from the denitration tower and enter the two oxidation tower in parallel. By the time the gases reached the oxidation towers 60% of NO is already converted to NO2. The balance of NO still carried in the gases is oxidized in the oxidation tower according to the equation2NO + O2 2NO2 + 26.9 Kcal - (8) While cooling down from 500C to 300C here, the rest of water vapor contained in the gases gets condensed and forms 60% acid, absorbing NO2 according to the following equation3NO2 + H2O 2HNO3 +NO +32.5 Kcal - (9) As both the equations no. (8) & (9) are exothermic, the heat of oxidation and absorption is removed by circulating the acid through four water cooled coolers and one brine cooled coolers (which can be connected either in series or parallel as required) and spraying it on the top of the oxidation tower which is packed with rasching ring, while the gases flows upward in the countercurrent direction. Further the absorption reaction as given in eq.(9) is reversible and it is imperative that the heat of absorption and the heat of oxidation are removed as soon as generated to enable the reaction to proceed in the favorable direction . The gases from both the oxidation towers join together and enter the lower segment of the production tower. From there they pass into the upper segment of the same and subsequently through the entire six absorptions tower in series. All these towers are packed with rasching rings in each tower the gases travel upwards from bottom to top, whereas the acid is recirculated through the respective coolers and spread at the top of tower, flows down in countercurrent direction through the rasching rings. Due to this thorough intermingling between the gaseous and the

liquid phases, NO2 reacts with H2O forming HNO3 and NO according to the eq. (9). and then this NO is reoxidized to NO2 according to eq. (8). The heat of these reactions is eliminated by the coolers and a temperature 300C is maintaining thorough out. The gases out of the 6 th absorption tower go to the drop separator, where the entrained mist is separated. The water collected at the bottom of the drop separator flows back to the absorption tower no-6. The tail gases leaving the drop separator which are at a pressure of 2.95 ata and temp. Of 300C, then passed to the tail gas heater in the combustion section, where they are heated to about 160 0C. From there the hot tail gases flows through the expansion turbine thereby supplying a part of the driving force, for the turbo compressor. Here the pressure drops down from 2.84 ata to 1.02 ata and temp falls down to 700C then the gases pass through the air mixing nozzle in which they get diluted and are blown off to the atmosphere. Equipments Used in Nap Plant:4.1.6 Air scrubbing tower:The tower is Common for both the streams where the scrubbing of air is done by spraying 1000 ppm water in the tower counter-current to the air. Water is fed from top and air from middle section of the tower. Water removes all the dust from air and other soluble gases settles down at the bottom of the tower. If the dust is not removed it will affect the conversion efficiency of the catalyst.

4.1.7 Turbo Compressor:The purpose of this compressor is to compress air-oxygen mixture from about 0.95 atm absolute to 3.55 atm absolute whereby the temperature rises to 218oc. Turbo-compressor unit consisting of a steam turbine along with a condenser, an air blower and a recovery turbine. Air enters at a flow rate of 58550 Nm3/ Hr and discharge at a high temperature and pressure. NORMAL POWER NO. OF O.D OF SPEED REQUIREMENT STAGES IMPELLER GV 10/5 4900 RPM 3200 KW 5 1000 Table 4.1 technical data of turbocompresser The casing consists of the cast steel whereas the impeller of first stage consists of stainless steel rest of 4 stages consists of steel. 4.1.8 Ammonia Vaporizer:Ammonia vaporizer is a like a evaporator in which NH3 liquid is fed from bottom and brine solution (10% NH3) from middle section through pipe. This raises the temp of NH3 vapors to (-20c) and brine cools down to 00c. 4.1.9 Ammonia Preheater:In this preheater compressed air at 2180c heated the NH3 vapor to 500c from (-20c).Preheater is a shell and tube type heat exchanger where NH3 vapor passes from shell side and hot air through tube side. 4.1.9 Air-Ammonia Mixing Nozzle:TYPE

Objective: - To thoroughly mixing the preheated ammonia vapor with air oxygen mixture before combustion. Mixing nozzle consists of 1456 mm length and containing 11 tubes. The preheated NH3 vapor at 3ata mixed with air-oxygen to form a mixture normally with 9.5% of ammonia by volume can be adjusted upto 11.5%. Diameter of pipe Capacity Material of pipe/shell Pressure in (OD/ID) pipe/around pipe 54/49 mm 41370(Nm3/Hr) Table 4.2 air ammonia mixing nozzle 4.1.10Filter chamber:Objective: - To remove dust and other suspended particles. The filter consists of ceramics/S.S filter candles fitted in filter chambers in parallel. The filtration elements made up of aerolith whereas the upper clamping plate consists of 99.5% Al and the shell and lower clamping plate consists of St 37.21. Flow Main Dia/Length Thickness of shell 8 mm Overall Height Thickness of insulation 40 mm 3.4 Kg/Cm2


10432 (Nm3/Hr) 1900 mm Table 4.3 filter chamber Burners:-

2551 mm

There are 4 burners in each stream, each of them having 5 catalyst gauzes (95% Pt And 5% Rh) of dia 1830 mm, arranged one over the other and a recover gauze underneath them in each burner, and the wire dia is of 0.06 mm. The ammonia is oxidized in presence of Pt/Rh catalyst (95% pt - 5%rh) to NO in the burner at about 830oc temperature & 3.38 ata pressure. The burners are insulated with sillan rock wool. Dia/Length Quantity Handle Working temperature 200-3000c Working pressure 3.3-3.4 Kg/Cm2 Mesh/sq mm 1024

2200/4800 mm 11700 Nm3/Hr Table4.4 technical data of burner

4.1.11Oxidation tower:Objective: - To oxidized NO to NO2. The tower which is of 9 m height is packed with raschig rings of different dimension are situated at different height from bottom. The tower having free space of 2.29 m.

Maximum working pressure 2.8 Kg/cm2

Number of tower 2

Thickness of Shell plate 4.5 mm

Maximum Working temperature 600c

Height of the grate 1.89 m

Table 4.5 data of oxidations tower 4.1.12 Absorption tower:Objective: To facilitate absorption of NO gases by water and mild nitric acid. The absorption tower are packed with rasching ring of different dimensions are situated at different heights varies from 0.48-2 mm.There are 6 absorption towers in series and in each of tower the gases travel upward from bottom to top, whereas the acid which is recirculated through the respective coolers and sprayed at the top of the tower, flows down in countercurrent direction through the rasching rings. Due to this thorough intermingling between the gaseous and the liquid phases, NO2 reacts with H2O forming HNO3 and NO.

O.D of vessel 3200 mm

Max. working pressure 2.8 Kg/cm2

Max.Working Temp. 600c

Total height Of tower 14 m

Free space in tower 1.29 m

Table 4.6 data of absorptions tower 4.1.13 Acid Storage Tanks:Objective: - To store the 54% and 60% concentrated Nitric acid. The tanks are cylindrical type constructed of steel with a storage capacity of 550 m3. Capacity 550 m3 No. of tanks 3 Height 8.3 m Inner Diameter 10m

Table4.7 data of acid storage tank