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The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2009

Study on the electrical characteristics of the UHV system with double-circuit transmission lines on the same tower
Dingxiang Du , Zexin Zhou, Yanjun Li ,Zhongqing Li, Chunxia Zhou

Abstract-- In order to analyze the electric characteristics of the UHV double circuit transmission line system , a simulation model is built on the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based on the design parameters of the very first UHV double circuit transmission line system in China .To study and master the electric characteristics of the UHV double circuit transmission line system thoroughly special compare between the UHV double circuit transmission line system and the UHV single line system and the compare between the UHV and EHV double circuit transmission line system model are made . It can be concluded the double circuit transmission line system has the following features: The ingredient of the harmonics in the fault current and voltage are redundant .There are large DC components included in the fault current and the decaying process are very slow. The amplitude of the recovery voltage are quite high ,and the beat frequency are less visible compared to the EHV system. The capacitance current of the system are high before the compensation . The fault current with high resistance are much higher in the near side than in the far side. KeyWords-- double-circuit lines on the same tower system , Electrical characteristics ,Real Time Digital Simulator , Ultra High Voltage

The dynamic simulation model are made with the parameters from the actual project . After the analysis of the system electrical characteristics , comparison of the electrical characteristics among the UHV system with double circuit transmission lines and the UHV system with single line transmission line and the EHV system with double-circuit transmission lines are made in great detail. The prototype of the UHV system with double circuit transmission lines is the HaiNan to WanNan project (East line project) . The prototype of the UHV system with single line transmission line model is the first UHV pilot project which goes from JingDongNan to Nanyang to Jingmen . The prototype of the EHV system with double-circuit transmission lines is based on one of the classical practical system.

II. THE BUILDING OF THE MODEL SYSTEM HE UHV double-circuit transmission line system is focused on one section of the East project ,which is the transmission line from HuaiNan to WanNan . The other parts of the actual system are electrically equalized according to its short circuit characteristics. That is to say the short circuit current and the DC decaying time constant remains the same as the actual system. The length of the transmission line and the parameters of the shunt reactance are also the same with the practical system. The short circuit current at the HuanNan side and WanNan side are 7.8kA and 13.7kA separately. The decaying time are 204ms and 103ms separately. which means the system angles are 89.3 degree and 89.2 degree. The length of the lines is 322 km with a shunt reactance at both sides of the lines whose capacitance is 720MVar. The neutral reactance of 700 ohm. The ratio of the CTs are 3000 to1 and the ratio of the CVTs are 1000 to 0.1kV.The model figure is shown as bellows.

I. INTRODUCTION The AC Ultra High Voltage pilot project has now successfully run into operation, which means that the voltage level and the electric power transmission ability in China is now going into a new high level. According to the planning of the State Grid of China Cooperation the first Ultra High Voltage system with double-circuit transmission lines on the same tower will be built in East China. Follow this, the research of the UHV system with double-circuit transmission lines will be push into deep degree. Based on the practical project, the modeling system are built on the Real Time Digital Simulator in the dynamic lab of China Electric Power Research Institute . The characteristics of the modeling system are analyzed .Conclusions are drawn based on the dynamic simulation and test which can be used to the type selection of the protection relays in the practical project.
This work was supported by the State Grid of China Cooperation. Dingxiang Du is with China Electric Power Research Institute, Haidian District, Beijing ,China (e-mail: lilac866@yahoo.com.cn).

Zexing Zhou is with China Electric Power Research Institute, Haidian District, Beijing ,China (e-mail: Zhouzx@yahoo.com.cn)

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Fig. 1. The UHV double-circuit transmission line model system connecting figuret

The shunt reactance compensation rates are 82% in the UHV double-circuit transmission line system, 88.1% ( JingDongNan to NanYang )and 86.3% (Nan Yang to JinMen ) in the UHV single transmission line system and 75% in the EHV double-circuit transmission line system. The quality of the positive sequence reactance is 300 and 150 for the neutral reactance. The short circuit current at he JingDongNan side is 5.75kA and 7.22kA at the JinMen side according to the pilot project. The short circuit current in the 500kV system are the same as that of the East Project.The system impedance angle of the 500kV system are 78 degree at the N side and 79.8 degree at the L side. The length of the 500kV model is the same as the UHV double-circuit project. The length of the 1000kV single line model is 363km from JingDongNan to Nan Yang and 291km from NanYang to JinMen which is exactly the same as the pilot project. The CT ratio in the 1000kV system is 3000 to 1 A and 1250 to 1A in the 500kV system . The CVT ratio in the 1000kV system is 1000 to 0.1 kV and 500 to 0.1kV in the 500kV system .The parameters of the CVT model are the same as the actual CVT used in the pilot project. III. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DOUBLE-CIRCUIT TRANSIMISSION LIN E ON THE SAME TOWERSYSTEM

following test results. The first condition is that the two lines are on normal operation condition ,that means that the two lines are both on service. When a single-phase-to-ground fault is applied at different position of the one line ,the induced current in the parallel line are compared between two voltage level. The detailed induced current are listed in TABLE I to TABLE III. We can draw the conclusion that the induced current is higher at the further side of the fault point and the induced current is higher with the 1000kV double-circuit on the same tower transmission line system than that in the 500kVsystem.
TABLE I The Induced Zero Sequence Current With The Fault Point At The End Of The Parallel Line

TABLE II The Induced Zero Sequence Current With The Fault Point At The Original Terminal Of The Parallel Line

TABLE III The Induced Zero Sequence Current With The Fault Point In The Middle Of The Parallel Line

The second condition is that one line of the double-circuit lines are out of service for inspection ,which means that both ends of the line are connected to the ground. Comparison between the fault current and the zero sequence current on the The analysis of the electrical transmission line system is healthy line are made between the two system of 1000kV and made in the following aspects. 500kV with double-circuit transmission line on the same tower A. The influence of the mutual inductance In non-mutual inductance system, the current of the faulty To get intuitive understand of the mutual inductance between the double lines on the same tower in 1000kV system. phase are equal with the zero sequence current when a singlethe comparison between the mutual inductance of the 500kV phase-to-ground fault occurred and the direction of the two double circuit line system and that of the 1000kV double current are opposite. But when there exists a mutual circuit line system are made. The induced current in the two inductance between the two lines , the zero sequence current will be influenced by the mutual inductance and will not the system are also analyzed. The line parameters of the two system with different same as the faulty phase current. The zero sequence current at voltage level are different especially the zero impedance. the near side of the fault position will increase and the remote There are two zero impedance . One is the zero impedance side of the fault position will decrease. And if the position is with only one of the double-circuit lines on service. The in the middle of the line ,the zero sequence current will not other is the zero impedance with the two of the double-circuit influenced by the mutual inductance. Overall the influence in lines on service. The two zero impedance of the 1000kV the 1000Kv system are greater than in the 500kV system. TABLE IV The Faulty Current And The Zero Sequence Current With The system are greater than that of the 500kV system which Single-Phase-To-Ground Fault At The End Of The Line, When The Parellel means that the mutual impact between the two lines in the Line Out Of Service For Inspection 1000kV double-circuit line system is stronger. We can see the different mutual inductance level in the

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TABLE V The Faulty Current And The Zero Sequence Current With The Single-Phase-To-Ground Fault At The Original Terminal Of The Line, When The Parallel Line Out Of Service For Inspection

TABLE VI The Faulty Current And The Zero Sequence Current With The Single-Phase-To-Ground Fault In The Middle Of The Line, When The Parallel Line Out Of Service For Inspection

Since that the mutual inductance of the 1000kV doublecircuit on the same tower system is greater that that of the 500kV double-circuit on the same tower system .the influence between the lines are greater in the 1000kV system .Because of this characteristics the ground distance element in the protection relays will not work properly, the protection reach will be reduced or exaggerated .Thus the operation of the relay will be affected. B. Harmonic analysis The harmonic constituents in the fault current are analyzed with single phase to ground fault and three phase fault. The harmonic constituents in the first cycle of the fault current after a single-phase-to ground fault are listed in TABLE VII and the harmonic constituents in the second cycle of the fault current after a single-phase-to ground fault are listed in TABLE VIII .Only those harmonics whose percentage are above three are listed in the TABLE. The fault point is K3 , at side L and the fault type is A phase to ground fault.
TABLE VII The Analysis Of The Harmonics In The Fault Current For The First Cycle After A Remote Single Phase To Ground Fault

TABLE VIII The Analysis Of The Harmonics In The Fault Current For The Second Cycle After A Remote Single Phase To Ground Fault

From the test result we can see that the harmonics in the 1000kV system are richer and greater than that in the 500kV system. Among the harmonics in the 1000kV system , the main parts are three ,four, six and nine harmonics. Among the harmonics in the 500kV system , the main parts are two and three. For three phase fault we can see the same results. That harmonics in the 1000kV system are richer and greater. With further frequency spectrum analysis , we made some statistic about the fractional harmonics. The fractional harmonics in the 500kV double-circuit lines on the same tower system are mainly 5.5 and 14 harmonics. But for the 1000kV double-circuit lines on the same tower system 3.5 and 5.5 harmonics are the main constituents and 3.7 and 1.6 for the single line system of 1000kV. By using the harmonic analyzing tool, the fault current and voltage on both sides of the UHV double-circuit system are analyzed when three phase fault were applied at the fault point K3 and K1 respectively . First three phase fault at K3 side L of the line are exerted. The harmonics in the current of both sides are mainly 5.5 and the contents range up to 15%The harmonics in the voltage of side N are mainly 3.5 and 5.5,which reach 3%. Then three phase fault at K1 sideN of the line are exerted. The harmonics in the current of both sides are mainly 3.5 and 6.0 and the contents range up to 8%The harmonics in the voltage of side L are mainly 3.5 which reach 5.8%. The capacities of the 1000kV double-circuit lines are greater than that in the 500kV system ,which lead to the rich harmonics during fault transient process. This characteristics may have some affect on the fast protection and transient protection relays. The conductors in the 1000kV transmission line are 8 bundled conductors, which means the capacitance of the transmission will increase. That will bring out the high frequency of free oscillations in the transient procedure. The exist of the harmonics will affect the accuracy of the classical distance protection relays and will lead to the overreach of the distance relays. By using an analogy filter or a digital filter the high frequency harmonics can be filter off. But to the free oscillations harmonics, the oscillating frequencies are near power frequency, special attention should be paid and special band stop filter can be used to avoid the mal-operation of the relays. C. The decay of the DC component Simulate a three phase permanent fault at the end of the line, the fault injection angle is zero degree of one phase of

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voltage. The decaying time of the DC component in the fault current are compared. In the 1000kV double-circuit and single line system, the fault taken palace when A phase voltage pass zero. The decaying time of the A phase current at side N is about 160ms to 170ms.While for the 500kV double-circuit line system ,the decaying time is about 80ms to 90ms. The positive impedance angle of the 1000kV line are 2.6 degree higher than that of the 500kV line ,which lead to the increase of the decaying time of the aperiodic component of the current at the remote side . In the UHV transmission line ,the line inductance is low the impedance angle is high and the decaying time constants large and the shunt reactance are there .All the above factors result in that the current can not change abruptly when the fault occurred and thus large decay DC component grow out and the decaying process are very slow. The decaying DC component will have bad effect on the saturation of the current transformers. Only if the TPY type CT are used and sufficient margin are left, the decaying time constants will not threat the reliability of the protection relays. . D. The dissipate of the voltage One of the double-circuit lines are on service normally, the tested line is one side energized. Open the breakers on the energizing terminal abruptly , the voltage of the line are analyzed and compared. For the 1000kV system, the time from the open of the breakers to the voltage drop to 20 percent of the normal voltage before the operation is about 1.8s. But for the 500kV system this time is about 1.6s. .The decaying time after the breakers open are determained by the determined by the angle of the line impedance and the quality factor of the shunt reactance. The line impedance angle for the 1000kV system is 88.5degree and 86.2 degree for the 500kV system. The compensation rate of the modeling system are 82% for for the 1000kV system and 75% for the 500kV system. The quality factor of the shunt reactance are the same 300 for positive sequence and 150 for the neutral reactance. E. The capacitance current The actual capacitance current of the three model system before compensation are 840A for the 1000kV double-circuit line on the same tower system and 450A for the 500kV double-circuit line on the same tower system 720A for the 1000kV single line system respectively And after compensation the capacitance current are 75A for the 1000kV double-circuit line system and 106A for the 500kV doublecircuit line and 30A for the single line 1000kV system .We can see that the capacitance current after reactance compensation are quite low . From the analysis of the construction of the transmission lines, the equal diameter of the bundle conductors is increased for the UHV system. The capacitance between the phases and from phase to ground is also increased, which leads to the

capacitance charging current increased quite a lot .Thus the theory based on the equivalency of the resistance and reactance as lumped impedance and neglect of the line capacitance is not so accurate . That will make the classical distance relays less precise and need improvement. Actually because the existence of the dispersed capacitance ,the angle and magnitude of the current at both terminals are affected and changed. If the load current is low enough , this will affect the reliability and sensitivity of the differential relays. Which will lead to refusing action of the relays under the fault with high resistance. So we need to apply shunt reactance to compensate the capacitance current to improve the reliability and sensitivity of the differential relays. F. The recovery voltage The recovery voltage after the breakers tripped by relays or any other reason are simulated and analyzed in the 1000kV and 500kV double circuit lines on the same tower system . Double circuit lines on service, an A phase-to-ground metallic fault at side L is applied , the line breakers at the near side tripped after 50ms, and 100ms for the remote breakers. The wave of the voltage are compared and analyzed. From the compensation ,the recovery voltage in the 1000kV system are higher that that in the 500kV system , and the beat frequency in the 1000kV double-circuit lines on the same tower system is not so sufficient compared to that in the 500kV system .In the 500kV double-circuit lines on the same tower system the wave with a beat frequency of 10Hz can be seen visibly .The magnitude of the recovery voltage with base frequency in the 1000kV system is one to three volt higher than that in the 500kV system

Fig. 2 . The recovery voltage after the trip of a single phase fault

G. The fault current with high resistance Under different load levels, high resistance fault are applied at different position along the line . The zero sequence current flow through the relay and the fault point to

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ground are measured. These current values can be reference to the setting of the relays. The detailed test result are listed as below table IX . The resistance is 600 ohm and the fault position are K1 K2 and K3 which are located at the original terminal the middle and the end of the line.
TABLE IX The Fault Current With Fault Resistance Of 600 ohm

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Ruisheng Li and Jiale Suonan, "The Unique Problems in the 750kV Transmission Line System and its Effect on the Line Protection Relays," in Proc.2005. The 10th Seminars of Protection &Control in China., pp. 32-34. Yongli Li and Yang Li, "The Influence of the Transient Characteristics in the 750kV Transmission Line to the Protections," in Proc.2005. The 10th Seminars of Protection &Control in China., pp. 25-27. Jiming Chai, Yuping Zheng, Tong Wu, " Problems in the Distance Relay for 1 000 kV UHV AC Transmission Lines," Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 31,No 12, June 25,2007, pp. 55-60. Bo Yu, Qixun Yang, Ying Li, Wei Fan, " Research on Fault Phase Selector of Protective Relay For Double Circuit Lines On The Same Tower " Proceedings of CSEE, vol. 23,No 4, pp. 38-42 , Apr 2003 Juankun Yang, Hongyang Zhangl, and Haiyan Hong, " Distance protection of double-circuit lines on the same pole," Guang Dong Electric Power , vol. 18, No 10, pp. 9-12 , Oct 2005 Yuping Zheng and Xiao Cheng, " Protection And Reclosure For DoubleCircuit Lines On The Same Tower," in Proc. The 28th China Grid Dispatching & Operation Conf., pp. 1-8. Hejun Mao, Liming Wang, " Study of the Features and Relay Protection of UHV Transmission Line," China Science and Technology Information , vol. 19, pp. 9-12 , Oct 2007 Li Zhao, Yong Mei, WeiBin Kong " Idea about Protection of 1 000 kV UHV AC Transmission System," Guang Dong Electric Power , vol. 20, No 1, pp. 15-18 , Oct 2007

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From the figures in the table above , the fault current decreased along with the increase of the load current. If the load is less that 3000MW, the fault current flow through the fault point is higher than 800A.If the fault points are at the terminals of the line , the zero sequence current at the near side are high and the remote side low . The zero sequence voltage is very low, especially true for the remote side, under which condition the sensitivity of the zero sequence element and the correct of the zero sequence element need to be considered. If the fault need to be cleared quickly special consideration need to be made with the setting sensitivity or the protection utilizing the faulty electrical component need to be used to clear the slight fault. H. Conclusion Through the test and analysis of the 1000kV double-circuit lines on the same tower system, the following conclusion can be drawn: The harmonics during the fault process are more rich and the content is higher compared with the 500kV system. They are mainly fractional harmonics like 3.5 and 5.5 . The decay time constant is high and the DC component are decayed slowly. After a single-phase-to-ground ,the magnitude of the recovery voltage of the tripped faulty phase are high and the beat frequency is not so obvious compared with the 500kV system .Before compensation the capacitance current is quite high ,but after the shunt reactance compensation ,the capacitance current too low to have great influence on the differential relays. The high resistance fault current is low and the zero voltage are also quite low. The sensitive and the correction of the zero element need to be considered carefully. IV. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Yanjun Li and Zhongqing Li for their work on the analysis of the relay operation l and the building of the simulation mode. V. REFERENCES Periodicals:
[1] Danhui Hu,Caiqi Tu, Hansheng Cai " Study on the Selection of Grounding Switch for 500 kV Common-tower Double-transmission Line," High Voltage Engineer, vol. 31,No 4, , pp. 21-23., Apri 2005

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VI. BIOGRAPHIES Dingxiang Du was born in ShanXi Province in China, on October 5, 1977. She graduated from the North China Electric Power University, BaoDing.
Her employment experience included the China Electric Power Research Institute. Dingxiang received her masters and bachelors degrees from North China Electric Power University in the year of 2002 and 1999

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