You are on page 1of 66

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-0

WCDMA RAN Fundamental


www.huawei.com

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-1

Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Describe the development of 3G Outline the advantage of CDMA principle Characterize code sequence Outline the fundamentals of RAN Describe feature of wireless propagation

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page1

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-2

Contents
1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-3

Contents
1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page3

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-4

Different Service, Different Technology


1G 1980s Analog
AMPS

2G 1990s Digital
GSM CDMA IS-95 TDMA IS-136 PDC

3G IMT-2000

TACS NMT Others

UMTS WCDMA
Demands drive

Technologies drive

cdma 2000 TD-SCDMA

3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribers


Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page4

The first generation is the analog cellular mobile communication network in the time period from the middle of 1970s to the middle of 1980s. The most important breakthrough in this period is the concept of cellular networks put forward by the Bell Labs in the 1970s, as compared to the former mobile communication systems. The cellular network system is based on cells to implement frequency reuse and thus greatly enhances the system capacity. The typical examples of the first generation mobile communication systems are the AMPS system and the later enhanced TACS of USA, the NMT and the others. The AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) uses the 800 MHz band of the analog cellular transmission system and it is widely applied in North America, South America and some Circum-Pacific countries. The TACS (Total Access Communication System) uses the 900 MHz band. It is widely applied in Britain, Japan and some Asian countries. The main feature of the first generation mobile communication systems is that they use the frequency reuse technology, adopt analog modulation for voice signals and provide an analog subscriber channel every other 30 kHz/25 kHz. However, their defects are also obvious: Low utilization of the frequency spectrum Limited types of services No high-speed data services Poor confidentiality and high vulnerability to interception and number embezzlement High equipment cost
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-5

To solve these fundamental technical defects of the analog systems, the digital mobile communication technologies emerged and the second generation mobile communication systems represented by GSM and IS-95 came into being in the middle of 1980s. The typical examples of the second generation cellular mobile communication systems are the DAMPS of USA, the IS-95 and the European GSM system. The GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is originated from Europe. Designed as the TDMA standard for mobile digital cellular communications, it supports the 64 kbps data rate and can interconnect with the ISDN. It uses the 900 MHz band while the DCS1800 system uses the 1800 MHz band. The GSM system uses the FDD and TDMA modes and each carrier supports eight channels with the signal bandwidth of 200 kHz. The DAMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System) is also called the IS-54 (North America Digital Cellular System). Using the 800 MHz bandwidth, it is the earlier of the two North America digital cellular standards and specifies the use of the TDMA mode. The IS-95 standard is another digital cellular standard of North America. Using the 800 MHz or 1900 MHz band, it specifies the use of the CDMA mode and has already become the first choice among the technologies of American PCS (Personal Communication System) networks. Since the 2G mobile communication systems focus on the transmission of voice and low-speed data services, the 2.5G mobile communication systems emerged in 1996 to address the medium-rate data transmission needs. These systems include GPRS and IS95B. The CDMA system has a very large capacity that is equivalent to ten or even twenty times that of the analog systems. But the narrowband CDMA technologies come into maturity at a time later than the GSM technologies, their application far lags behind the GSM ones and currently they have only found large-scale commercial applications in North America, Korea and China. The major services of mobile communications are currently still voice services and low-speed data services. With the development of networks, data and multimedia communications have also witnessed rapid development; therefore, the target of the 3G mobile communication is to implement broadband multimedia communication. The 3G mobile communication systems are a kind of communication system that can provide multiple kinds of high quality multimedia services and implement global seamless coverage and global roaming. They are compatible with the fixed networks and can implement any kind of communication at any time and any place with portable terminals.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-6

3G Evolution
Proposal of 3G
IMT-2000: the general name of third generation mobile communication system The third generation mobile communication was first proposed in 1985and was renamed as IMT-2000 in the year of 1996
Commercialization: around the year of 2000 Work band : around 2000MHz The highest service rate :up to 2000Kbps

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page6

Put forward in 1985 by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union), the 3G mobile communication system was called the FPLMTS (Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication System) and was later renamed as IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunication-2000). The major systems include WCDMA, cdma2000 and UWC136. On November 5, 1999, the 18th conference of ITU-R TG8/1 passed the Recommended Specification of Radio Interfaces of IMT-2000 and the TD-SCDMA technologies put forward by China were incorporated into the IMT-2000 CDMA TDD part of the technical specification. This showed that the work of the TG8/1 in formulating the technical specifications of radio interfaces in 3G mobile communication systems had basically come into an end and the development and application of the 3G mobile communication systems would enter a new and essential phase. The 3GPP is an organization that develops specifications for a 3G system based on the UTRA radio interface and on the enhanced GSM core network. The 3GPP2 initiative is the other major 3G standardization organization. It promotes the CDMA2000 system, which is also based on a form of WCDMA technology. In the world of IMT-2000, this proposal is known as IMT-MC. The major difference between the 3GPP and the 3GPP2 approaches into the air interface specification development is that 3GPP has specified a completely new air interface without any constraints from the past, whereas 3GPP2 has specified a system that is backward compatible with IS95 systems.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-7

3G Spectrum Allocation

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page7

ITU has allocated 230 MHz frequency for the 3G mobile communication system IMT2000: 1885 ~ 2025MHz in the uplink and 2110~ 2200 MHz in the downlink. Of them, the frequency range of 1980 MHz ~ 2010 MHz (uplink) and that of 2170 MHz ~ 2200 MHz (downlink) are used for mobile satellite services. As the uplink and the downlink bands are asymmetrical, the use of dual-frequency FDD mode or the single-frequency TDD mode may be considered. This plan was passed in WRC92 and new additional bands were approved on the basis of the WRC-92 in the WRC2000 conference in the year 2000: 806 MHz ~ 960 MHz, 1710 MHz ~ 1885 MHz and 2500 MHz ~ 2690 MHz.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-8

Bands WCDMA Used


Main bands
1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz

Supplementary bands: different country maybe different


1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA) 1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan) 890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia) ...

Frequency channel numbercentral frequency5, for main band:


UL frequency channel number 96129888 DL frequency channel number : 1056210838
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page8

The WCDMA system uses the following frequency spectrum (bands other than those specified by 3GPP may also be used): Uplink 1920 MHz ~ 1980 MHz and downlink 2110 MHz ~ 2170 MHz. Each carrier frequency has the 5M band and the duplex spacing is 190 MHz. In America, the used frequency spectrum is 1850 MHz ~ 1910 MHz in the uplink and 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz in the downlink and the duplex spacing is 80 MHz.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-9

3G Application Service
Error Ratio

conversational

streaming

interactive

background

Time Delay
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page9

Compatible with abundant services and applications of 2G, 3G system has an open integrated service platform to provide a wide prospect for various 3G services. Features of 3G Services 3G services are inherited from 2G services. In a new architecture, new service capabilities are generated, and more service types are available. Service characteristics vary greatly, so each service features differently. Generally, there are several features as follows:

Compatible backward with all the services provided by GSM. The real-time services (conversational) such as voice service generally have the QoS requirement. The concept of multimedia service (streaming, interactive, background) is introduced.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-10

The Core technology of 3G: CDMA


WCDMA
CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: WCDMA

cdma2000
CN: based on ANSI 41 and MIP RTT: cdma2000

CDMA

TD-SCDMA
CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: TD-SCDMA

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page10

Formulated by the European standardization organization 3GPP, the core network evolves on the basis of GSM/GPRS and can thus be compatible with the existing GSM/GPRS networks. It can be based on the TDM, ATM and IP technologies to evolve towards the all-IP network architecture. Based on the ATM technology, the UTRAN uniformly processes voice and packet services and evolves towards the IP network architecture. The cdma2000 system is a 3G standard put forward on the basis of the IS-95 standard. Its standardization work is currently undertaken by 3GPP2. Circuit Switched (CS) domain is adapted from the 2G IS95 CDMA network, Packet Switched (PS) domain is A packet network based on the Mobile IP technology. Radio Access Network (RAN) is based on the ATM switch platform, it provides abundant adaptation layer interfaces. The TD-SCDMA standard is put forward by the Chinese Wireless Telecommunication Standard (CWTS) Group and now it has been merged into the specifications related to the WCDMA-TDD of 3GPP. The core network evolves on the basis of GSM/GPRS. The air interface adopts the TD-SCDMA mode.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-11

Contents
1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page11

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-12

Multiple Access and Duplex Technology


Multiple Access Technology
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) Time division multiple access (TDMA) Code division multiple access (CDMA)

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page12

In mobile communication systems, GSM adopts TDMA; WCDMA, cdma2000 and TDSCDMA adopt CDMA.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-13

Multiple Access Technology


FDMA TDMA

Power Power
Ti m e

y nc ue re q F

CDMA

Ti m e

y nc ue req F

Power

Time

ncy Freque

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page13

Frequency Division Multiple Access means dividing the whole available spectrum into many single radio channels (transmit/receive carrier pair). Each channel can transmit one-way voice or control information. Analog cellular system is a typical example of FDMA structure. Time Division Multiple Access means that the wireless carrier of one bandwidth is divided into multiple time division channels in terms of time (or called timeslot). Each user occupies a timeslot and receives/transmits signals within this specified timeslot. Therefore, it is called time division multiple access. This multiple access mode is adopted in both digital cellular system and GSM. CDMA is a multiple access mode implemented by Spreading Modulation. Unlike FDMA and TDMA, both of which separate the user information in terms of time and frequency, CDMA can transmit the information of multiple users on a channel at the same time. The key is that every information before transmission should be modulated by different Spreading Code to broadband signal, then all the signals should be mixed and send. The mixed signal would be demodulated by different Spreading Code at the different receiver. Because all the Spreading Code is orthogonal, only the information that was be demodulated by same Spreading Code can be reverted in mixed signal.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-14

Multiple Access and Duplex Technology


Duplex Technology
Frequency division duplex (FDD) Time division duplex (TDD)

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page14

In third generation mobile communication systems, WCDMA and cdma2000 adopt frequency division duplex (FDD), TD-SCDMA adopts time division duplex (TDD).

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-15

Duplex Technology
Power Time

USER 2

FDD
UL

USER 1

DL
Frequency

Power

Time

DL UL DL DL UL

USER 2 USER 1

TDD

Frequency

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page15

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-16

Contents
1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page16

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-17

WCDMA Network Architecture


CN
Iu-CS RNS Iur RNC RNC Iub Node B Iub Node B Iub Node B Core Network CS PS Iu-PS Iu-CS RNS CS PS Iu-PS

UTRAN
Iub Node B

Uu

UE
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page17

WCDMA including the RAN (Radio Access Network) and the CN (Core Network). The RAN is used to process all the radio-related functions, while the CN is used to process all voice calls and data connections within the UMTS system, and implements the function of external network switching and routing. Logically, the CN is divided into the CS (Circuit Switched) Domain and the PS (Packet Switched) Domain. UTRAN, CN and UE (User Equipment) together constitute the whole UMTS system A RNS is composed of one RNC and one or several Node Bs. The Iu interface is used between RNC and CN while the Iub interface is adopted between RNC and Node B. Within UTRAN, RNCs connect with one another through the Iur interface. The Iur interface can connect RNCs via the direct physical connections among them or connect them through the transport network. RNC is used to allocate and control the radio resources of the connected or related Node B. However, Node B serves to convert the data flows between the Iub interface and the Uu interface, and at the same time, it also participates in part of radio resource management.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-18

WCDMA Network Version Evolution


MBMS HSUPA

GSM/GPRS CN WCDMA RTT

CS domain change to NGN WCDMA RTT

IMS HSDPA

3GPP Rel6

3GPP Rel5

3GPP Rel99

3GPP Rel4

2000

2001

2002

2005

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page18

The overall structure of the WCDMA network is defined in 3GPP TS 23.002. Now, there are the following three versions: R99, R4, R5. 3GPP began to formulate 3G specifications at the end of 1998 and beginning of 1999. As scheduled, the R99 version would be completed at the end of 1999, but in fact it was not completed until March, 2000. To guarantee the investment benefits of operators, the CS domain of R99 version do not fundamentally change., so as to support the smooth transition of GSM/GPRS/3G. After R99, the version was no longer named by the year. At the same time, the functions of R2000 are implemented by the following two phases: R4 and R5. In the R4 network, MSC as the CS domain of the CN is divided into the MSC Server and the MGW, at the same time, a SGW is added, and HLR can be replaced by HSS (not explicitly specified in the specification). In the R5 network, the end-to-end VOIP is supported and the core network adopts plentiful new function entities, which have thus changed the original call procedures. With IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem), the network can use HSS instead of HLR. In the R5 network, HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) is also supported, it can support high speed data service. In the R6 network, the HSUPA is supported which can provide UL service rate up to 5.76Mbps. And MBMS (MultiMedia Broadcast Multicast Service) is also supported.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-19

WCDMA Network Version Evolution


Features of R6
MBMS is introduced HSUPA is introduced to achieve the service rate up to 5.76Mbps

Features of R7
HSPA+ is introduced, which adopts higher order modulation and MIMO Max DL rate: 28Mbps, Max UL rate:11Mbps

Features of R8
WCDMA LTE (Long term evolution) is introduced OFDMA is adopted instead of CDMA Max DL rate: 50Mbps, Max UL rate: 100Mbps (with 20MHz bandwidth)

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page19

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-20

Uu Interface protocol structure


GC Nt DC

Duplication avoidance
GC C-plane signaling Nt DC U-plane information control UuS boundary

control

control

RRC
control control

L3
PDCP PDCP BMC RLC

L2/PDCP L2/BMC L2/RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC RLC RLC

RLC

MAC PHY
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page20

L2/MAC L1

The layer 1 supports all functions required for the transmission of bit streams on the physical medium. It is also in charge of measurements function consisting in indicating to higher layers, for example, Frame Error Rate (FER), Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR), interference power and transmit power. The layer 2 protocol is responsible for providing functions such as mapping, ciphering, retransmission and segmentation. It is made of four sublayers: MAC (Medium Access Control), RLC (Radio Link Control), PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) and BMC (Broadcast/Multicast Control). The layer 3 is split into 2 parts: the access stratum and the non access stratum. The access stratum part is made of RRC (Radio Resource Control) entity and duplication avoidance entity. The non access stratum part is made of CC, MM parts. Not shown on the figure are connections between RRC and all the other protocol layers (RLC, MAC, PDCP, BMC and L1), which provide local inter-layer control services. The protocol layers are located in the UE and the peer entities are in the NodeB or the RNC.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-21

General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface


The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other.
Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol
Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

User Plane Data Stream(s)

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Signaling Bearer(s)


Physical Layer

Data Bearer(s)

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page21

Protocol structures in UTRAN terrestrial interfaces are designed according to the same general protocol model. This model is shown in above slide. The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other and, if needed, parts of the protocol structure may be changed in the future while other parts remain intact. Horizontal Layers The protocol structure consists of two main layers, the Radio Network Layer (RNL) and the Transport Network Layer (TNL). All UTRANrelated issues are visible only in the Radio Network Layer, and the Transport Network Layer represents standard transport technology that is selected to be used for UTRAN but without any UTRAN-specific changes. Vertical Planes Control Plane The Control Plane is used for all UMTS-specific control signaling. It includes the Application Protocol (i.e. RANAP in Iu, RNSAP in Iur and NBAP in Iub), and the Signaling Bearer for transporting the Application Protocol messages. The Application Protocol is used, among other things, for setting up bearers to the UE (i.e. the Radio Access Bearer in Iu and subsequently the Radio Link in Iur and Iub). In the three plane structure the bearer parameters in the Application Protocol are not directly tied to the User Plane technology, but rather are general bearer parameters. The Signaling Bearer for the Application Protocol may or may not be of the same type as the Signaling Bearer for the ALCAP. It is always set up by O&M actions.
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-22

User Plane All information sent and received by the user, such as the coded voice in a voice call or the packets in an Internet connection, are transported via the User Plane. The User Plane includes the Data Stream(s), and the Data Bearer (s) for the Data Stream(s). Each Data Stream is characterized by one or more frame protocols specified for that interface. Transport Network Control Plane The Transport Network Control Plane is used for all control signaling within the Transport Layer. It does not include any Radio Network Layer information. It includes the ALCAP protocol that is needed to set up the transport bearers (Data Bearer) for the User Plane. It also includes the Signaling Bearer needed for the ALCAP. The Transport Network Control Plane is a plane that acts between the Control Plane and the User Plane. The introduction of the Transport Network Control Plane makes it possible for the Application Protocol in the Radio Network Control Plane to be completely independent of the technology selected for the Data Bearer in the User Plane. About AAl2 and AAL5 Above the ATM layer we usually find an ATM adaptation layer (AAL). Its function is to process the data from higher layers for ATM transmission. This means segmenting the data into 48-byte chunks and reassembling the original data frames on the receiving side. There are five different AALs (0, 1, 2, 3/4, and 5). AAL0 means that no adaptation is needed. The other adaptation layers have different properties based on three parameters: Real-time requirements; Constant or variable bit rate; Connection-oriented or connectionless data transfer. The usage of ATM is promoted by the ATM Forum. The Iu interface uses two AALs: AAL2 and AAL5. AAL2 is designed for the transmission of connection oriented, real-time data streams with variable bit rates. AAL5 is designed for the transmission of connectionless data streams with variable bit rates.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-23

Iu-CS Interface
Radio Network Layer
Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Layer

ALCAP
SCCP A MTP3-B SAAL NNI B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH

ATM Physical Layer

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page23

Protocol Structure for Iu CS The Iu CS overall protocol structure is depicted in above slide. The three planes in the Iu interface share a common ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) transport which is used for all planes. The physical layer is the interface to the physical medium: optical fiber, radio link or copper cable. The physical layer implementation can be selected from a variety of standard off-the-shelf transmission technologies, such as SONET, STM1, or E1. Iu CS Control Plane Protocol Stack The Control Plane protocol stack consists of RANAP, on top of Broadband (BB) SS7 (Signaling System #7) protocols. The applicable layers are the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP), the Message Transfer Part (MTP3-b) and SAAL-NNI (Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer for Network to Network Interfaces). Iu CS Transport Network Control Plane Protocol Stack The Transport Network Control Plane protocol stack consists of the Signaling Protocol for setting up AAL2 connections (Q.2630.1 and adaptation layer Q.2150.1), on top of BB SS7 protocols. The applicable BB SS7 are those described above without the SCCP layer. Iu CS User Plane Protocol Stack A dedicated AAL2 connection is reserved for each individual CS service.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-24

Iu-PS Interface
Radio Network Layer
Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane SCCP MTP3-B

Transport Network User Plane GTP-U C UDP IP AAL Type 5

SAAL NNI

ATM Physical Layer

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page24

Protocol Structure for Iu PS The Iu PS protocol structure is represented in above slide. Again, a common ATM transport is applied for both User and Control Plane. Also the physical layer is as specified for Iu CS. Iu PS Control Plane Protocol Stack The Control Plane protocol stack consists of RANAP, on top of Broadband (BB) SS7 (Signaling System #7) protocols. The applicable layers are the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP), the Message Transfer Part (MTP3-b) and SAAL-NNI (Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer for Network to Network Interfaces). Iu PS Transport Network Control Plane Protocol Stack The Transport Network Control Plane is not applied to Iu PS. The setting up of the GTP tunnel requires only an identifier for the tunnel, and the IP addresses for both directions, and these are already included in the RANAP RAB Assignment messages. Iu PS User Plane Protocol Stack In the Iu PS User Plane, multiple packet data flows are multiplexed on one or several AAL5 PVCs. The GTP-U (User Plane part of the GPRS Tunneling Protocol) is the multiplexing layer that provides identities for individual packet data flow. Each flow uses UDP connectionless transport and IP addressing.
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-25

Iub Interface
Radio Network Layer Control Plane NBAP NCP CCP Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane ALCAP Transport Network User Plane User plane Iub FP

SAAL UNI

SAAL UNI

AAL2 PATH

ATM Physical Layer

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page25

The Iub interface is the terrestrial interface between NodeB and RNC. The Radio Network Layer defines procedures related to the operation of the NodeB. The Transport Network Layer defines procedures for establishing physical connections between the NodeB and the RNC. The Iub application protocol, NodeB application part ( NBAP ) initiates the establishment of a signaling connection over Iub . It is divided into two essential components, CCP and NCP. NCP is used for signaling that initiates a UE context for a dedicated UE or signals that is not related to specific UE. Example of NBAP-C procedure are cell configuration , handling of common channels and radio link setup CCP is used for signaling relating to a specific UE context. SAAL is an ATM Adaptation Layer that supports communication between signaling entities over an ATM link. The user plane Iub Frame Protocol ( FP ), defined the structure of the frames and the basic in band control procedure for every type of transport channel. There are DCH-FP, RACH-FP, FACH-FP, HS-DSCH FP and PCH FP.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-26

Iur Interface
Radio Network Layer
Control Plane RNSAP User plane Iur Data Stream Transport Network Control Plane

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Layer

ALCAP
SCCP A MTP3-B SAAL NNI B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH

ATM Physical Layer

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page26

Iur interface connects two RNCs. The protocol stack for the Iur is shown in above slide. The RNSAP protocol is the signaling protocol defined for the Iur interface.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-27

Contents
1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page27

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-28

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Source Coding

Service Signal

Channel Coding & Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding & Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page28

Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. Through the modulation, the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals.

Bit, Symbol, Chip


Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-29

WCDMA Source Coding


AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) Speech
CODEC Bit Rate (kbps) 12.2 (GSM EFR) 10.2 7.95 7.4 (TDMA EFR) 6.7 (PDC EFR) 5.9 5.15 4.75

A integrated speech codec with 8 source rates The AMR bit rates can be controlled by the RAN depending on the system load and quality of the speech connections

AMR_12.20 AMR_10.20 AMR_7.95 AMR_7.40 AMR_6.70 AMR_5.90 AMR_5.15 AMR_4.75

Video Phone Service


H.324 is used for VP Service in CS domain Includes: video codec, speech codec, data protocols, multiplexing and etc.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page29

AMR is compatible with current mobile communication system (GSM, IS-95, PDC and so on), thus, it will make multi-mode terminal design easier. The AMR codec offers the possibility to adapt the coding scheme to the radio channel conditions. The most robust codec mode is selected in bad propagation conditions. The codec mode providing the highest source rate is selected in good propagation conditions. During an AMR communication, the receiver measures the radio link quality and must return to the transmitter either the quality measurements or the actual codec mode the transmitter should use during the next frame. That exchange has to be done as fast as possible in order to better follow the evolution of the channels quality.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-30

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Transmitter
Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding & Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page30

Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. Scrambling can make transmission in security. Through the modulation, the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals.

Bit, Symbol, Chip


Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-31

WCDMA Block Coding - CRC


Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected errors left after error correction. The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of block coding. Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding and they are checked after the channel decoding.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page31

During the transmission, there are many interferences and fading. To guarantee reliable transmission, system should overcome these influence through the channel coding which includes block coding, channel coding and interleaving. Block coding: The encoder adds some redundant bits to the block of bits and the decoder uses them to determine whether an error has occurred during the transmission. This is used to calculate Block Error Ratio (BLER) used in the outer loop power control. The CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is used for error checking of the transport blocks at the receiving end. The CRC length that can be inserted has four different values: 0, 8, 12, 16 and 24 bits. The more bits the CRC contains, the lower is the probability of an undetected error in the transport block in the receiver. Note that certain types of block codes can also be used for error correction, although these are not used in WCDMA.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-32

WCDMA Channel Coding


Effect
Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when interference occurs Provides better error correction at receiver, but brings increment of the delay

Types
No Coding Convolutional Coding (1/2, 1/3) Turbo Coding (1/3)
No Coding 1/2 Convolutional Coding Code Block of N Bits 1/3 Convolutional Coding 1/3 Turbo Coding
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Uncoded N bits Coded 2N+16 bits Coded 3N+24 bits Coded 3N+12 bits
Page32

UTRAN employs two FEC schemes: convolutional codes and turbo codes. The idea is to add redundancy to the transmitted bit stream, sO that occasional bit errors can be corrected in the receiving entity. The first is convolution that is used for anti-interference. Through the technology, many redundant bits will be inserted in original information. When error code is caused by interference, the redundant bits can be used to recover the original information. Convolutional codes are typically used when the timing constraints are tight. The coded data must contain enough redundant information to make it possible to correct some of the detected errors without asking for repeats. Turbo codes are found to be very efficient because they can perform close to the theoretical limit set by the Shannons Law. Their efficiency is best with high data rate services, but poor on low rate services. At higher bit rates, turbo coding is more efficient than convolutional coding. In WCDMA network, both Convolution code and Turbo code are used. Convolution code applies to voice service while Turbo code applies to high rate data service. Note that both block codes and channel codes are used in the UTRAN. The idea behind this arrangement is that the channel decoder (either a convolutional or turbo decoder) tries to correct as many errors as possible, and then the block decoder (CRC check) offers its judgment on whether the resulting information is good enough to be used in the higher layers.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-33

WCDMA Interleaving
Effect
Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits error Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more delay
Input bits 0010000 ... 10111

0 0 ... ... 0 0 0 ... ... 0

1 0 0 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 1 1 1

Interleaving periods: 20, 40, or 80 ms

000101001011

Inter-column permutation

Output bits

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page33

Channel coding works well against random errors, but it is quite vulnerable to bursts of errors, which are typical in mobile radio systems. The especially fast moving UE in CDMA systems can cause consecutive errors if the power control is not fast enough to manage the interference. Most coding schemes perform better on random data errors than on blocks of errors. This problem can be eased with interleaving, which spreads the erroneous bits over a longer period of time. By interleaving, no two adjacent bits are transmitted near to each other, and the data errors are randomized. The longer the interleaving period, the better the protection provided by the time diversity. However, longer interleaving increases transmission delays and a balance must be found between the error resistance capabilities and the delay introduced.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-34

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Source Coding

Service Signal

Channel Coding & Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding & Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page34

Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. Scrambling can make transmission in security. Through the modulation, the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals.

Bit, Symbol, Chip


Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-35

Correlation
Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals. Identical and Orthogonal signals:
+1

C1
-1

C2

+1 -1 +1

-1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1

Correlation = 1 Identical signals

C1 C2

+1 -1 +1 +1 -1

-1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1

Correlation = 0 Orthogonal signals

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page35

Correlation is used to measure similarity of any two arbitrary signals. It is computed by multiplying the two signals and then summing (integrating) the result over a defined time windows. The two signals of figure (a) are identical and therefore their correlation is 1 or 100 percent. In figure (b) , however, the two signals are uncorrelated, and therefore knowing one of them does not provide any information on the other.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-36

Orthogonal Code Usage - Coding


UE1: UE2:

1
1

1
1

C1 : C2 : UE1c1 UE2c2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

UE1c1 UE2c2

0 2

0 2

0 2

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page36

By spreading, each symbol is multiplied with all the chips in the orthogonal sequence assigned to the user. The resulting sequence is processed and is then transmitted over the physical channel along with other spread symbols. In this figure, 4-digit codes are used. The product of the user symbols and the spreading code is a sequence of digits that must be transmitted at 4 times the rate of the original encoded binary signal.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-37

Orthogonal Code Usage - Decoding


UE1C1 UE2C2:

0 2

0 2

0 2

UE1 Dispreading by c1: Dispreading result: Integral judgment:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
0 2 0 2 0 2 0

4 (means1) 4 (means1)

UE2 Dispreading by c2: Dispreading result: Integral judgment:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0

4 (means1) 4 (means1)

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page37

The receiver dispreads the chips by using the same code used in the transmitter. Notice that under no-noise conditions, the symbols or digits are completely recovered without any error. In reality, the channel is not noise-free, but CDMA system employ Forward Error Correction techniques to combat the effects of noise and enhance the performance of the system. When the wrong code is used for dispreading, the resulting correlation yields an average of zero. This is a clear demonstration of the advantage of the orthogonal property of the codes. Whether the wrong code is mistakenly used by the target user or other users attempting to decode the received signal, the resulting correlation is always zero because of the orthogonal property of codes.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-38

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading


P(f) Spreading code P(f)

f Narrowband signal

f Broadband signal P(f)

f Noise & Other Signal

Recovered signal P(f)

Signal Combination

Noise+Broadband signal P(f)

Spreading code

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page38

Traditional radio communication systems transmit data using the minimum bandwidth required to carry it as a narrowband signal. CDMA system mix their input data with a fast spreading sequence and transmit a wideband signal. The spreading sequence is independently regenerated at the receiver and mixed with the incoming wideband signal to recover the original data. The dispreading gives substantial gain proportional to the bandwidth of the spread-spectrum signal. The gain can be used to increase system performance and range, or allow multiple coded users, or both. A digital bit stream sent over a radio link requires a definite bandwidth to be successfully transmitted and received.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-39

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading


Eb / No = Ec / No PG
Power

Ebit
Eb/No Requirement Max allowed interference

Processing Gain

Max interference caused by UE and others

Interference from other UE

Echip

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page39

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-40

Process Gain
Process Gain

Pr ocess Gain = 10 log(


Process gain differs for each service.

chip rate ) bit rate

If the service bit rate is greater, the process gain is smaller, UE needs more power for this service, then the coverage of this service will be smaller, vice versa.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page40

For common services, the bit rate of voice call is 12.2kbps, the bit rate of video phone is 64kbps, and the highest packet service bit rate is 384kbps(R99). After the spreading, the chip rate of different service all become 3.84Mcps.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-41

Spreading Technology
Spreading consists of 2 steps:
Channelization operation, which transforms data symbols into chips Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal

Data symbol

Chips after spreading

channelization

scrambling

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page41

Spreading means increasing the bandwidth of the signal beyond the bandwidth normally required to accommodate the information. The spreading process in UTRAN consists of two separate operations: channelization and scrambling. The first operation is the channelization operation, which transforms every data symbol into a number of chips, thus increasing the bandwidth of the signal. The number of chips per data symbol is called the Spreading Factor (SF). Channelization codes are orthogonal codes, meaning that in ideal environment they do not interfere each other. The second operation is the scrambling operation. Scrambling is used on top of spreading, so it does not change the signal bandwidth but only makes the signals from different sources separable from each other. As the chip rate is already achieved in channelization by the channelization codes, the chip rate is not affected by the scrambling.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-42

WCDMA Channelization Code


OVSF Code (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) is used as channelization code
Cch,4,0 = (1,1,1,1) C ch,2,0 = (1,1) Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) Cch,1,0 = (1) Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,2,1 = (1, -1) Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) Cch,8,0 = (1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1) Cch,8,1 = (1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1) Cch,8,2 = (1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1) Cch,8,3 = (1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1) Cch,8,4 = (1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1) Cch,8,5 = (1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1) Cch,8,6 = (1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1) Cch,8,7 = (1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1)

SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4

SF = 8
Page42

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Orthogonal codes are easily generated by starting with a seed of 1, repeating the 1 horizontally and vertically, and then complementing the -1 diagonally. This process is to be continued with the newly generated block until the desired codes with the proper length are generated. Sequences created in this way are referred as Walsh code. Channelization uses OVSF code, for keeping the orthogonality of different subscriber physical channels. OVSF can be defined as the code tree illustrated in the following diagram. Channelization code is defined as Cch SF, k,, where, SF is the spreading factor of the code, and k is the sequence of code, 0kSF-1. Each level definition length of code tree is SF channelization code, and the left most value of each spreading code character is corresponding to the chip which is transmitted earliest.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-43

WCDMA Channelization Code


SF = chip rate / symbol rate
High data rates low SF code Low data rates high SF code
Radio bearer Speech 12.2 UL Data 64 kbps UL Data 128 kbps UL Data 144 kbps UL Data 384 kbps UL SF 64 16 8 8 4 Radio bearer Speech 12.2 DL Data 64 kbps DL Data 128 kbps DL Data 144 kbps DL Data 384 kbps DL SF 128 32 16 16 8

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page43

The channelization codes are Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes. They are used to preserve orthogonality between different physical channels. They also increase the clock rate to 3.84 Mcps. The OVSF codes are defined using a code tree. In the code tree, the channelization codes are individually described by Cch,SF,k, where SF is the Spreading Factor of the code and k the code number, 0 k SF-1. A channelization sequence modulates one users bit. Because the chip rate is constant, the different lengths of codes enable to have different user data rates. Low SFs are reserved for high rate services while high SFs are for low rate services. The length of an OVSF code is an even number of chips and the number of codes (for one SF) is equal to the number of chips and to the SF value. The generated codes within the same layer constitute a set of orthogonal codes. Furthermore, any two codes of different layers are orthogonal except when one of the two codes is a mother code of the other. For example C4,3 is not orthogonal with C1,0 and C2,1, but is orthogonal with C2,0. SF in uplink is from 4 to 256. SF in downlink is from 4 to 512.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-44

Purpose of Channelization Code


Channelization code is used to distinguish different physical channels of one transmitter
For downlink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one cell For uplink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one UE

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page44

For voice service (AMR), downlink SF is 128, it means there are 128 voice services maximum can be supported in one WCDMA carrier; For Video Phone (64k packet data) service, downlink SF is 32, it means there are 32 voice services maximum can be supported in one WCDMA carrier.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-45

Purpose of Scrambling Code


Scrambling code is used to distinguish different transmitters
For downlink, scrambling code is used to separate different cells in one carrier For uplink, scrambling code is used to separate different UEs in one carrier

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page45

In addition to spreading, part of the process in the transmitter is the scrambling operation. This is needed to separate terminals or base stations from each other.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-46

Scrambling Code
Scrambling code: GOLD sequence. There are 224 long uplink scrambling codes which are used for scrambling of the uplink signals. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by RNC. For downlink, 512 primary scrambling codes are used.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page46

Different scrambling codes will be planned to different cells in downlink. Different scrambling codes will be allocated to different UEs in uplink. The scrambling code is always applied to one 10 ms frame. In UMTS, Gold codes are chosen for their very low peak cross-correlation.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-47

Primary Scrambling Code Group


Primary scrambling code 0 Group 0 Primary scrambling code 1 Primary scrambling code 8 Primary scrambling code 8*63

Primary scrambling codes for downlink physical channels

Group 1

Group 63

Primary scrambling code 8*63 +7

512 primary scrambling codes

64 primary scrambling code groups

Each group consists of 8 primary scrambling codes


Page47

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

There are totally 512 primary scrambling codes defined by 3GPP. They are further divided into 64 primary scrambling code groups. There are 8 primary scrambling codes in every group. Each cell is allocated with only one primary scrambling code.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-48

Code Multiplexing
Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level
Scrambling code Channelization code 1 User 1 signal Channelization code 2 User 2 signal Channelization code 3 User 3 signal
NodeB

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page48

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-49

Code Multiplexing
Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level
Scrambling code 1 Channelization code User 1 signal Scrambling code 2 Channelization code User 2 signal
NodeB

Scrambling code 3 Channelization code User 3 signal

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page49

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-50

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Source Coding

Service Signal

Channel Coding & Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding & Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page50

Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. Scrambling can make transmission in security. Through the modulation, the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals.

Bit, Symbol, Chip


Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-51

Modulation Overview
Data to be transmitted: Digital Input

0
time

Basic steady radio wave: carrier = A.cos(2Ft+) Amplitude Shift Keying: A.cos(2Ft+) Frequency Shift Keying: A.cos(2Ft+) Phase Shift Keying: A.cos(2Ft+)

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page51

A data-modulation scheme defines how the data bits are mixed with the carrier signal, which is always a sine wave. There are three basic ways to modulate a carrier signal in a digital sense: amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK), and phase shift keying (PSK). In ASK the amplitude of the carrier signal is modified by the digital signal. In FSK the frequency of the carrier signal is modified by the digital signal. The PSK family is the most widely used modulation scheme in modern cellular systems. There are many variants in this family, and only a few of them are mentioned here.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-52

Modulation Overview
Digital Modulation - BPSK
1
1
Digital Input

10

Information signal

t
NRZ coding

t
-1

High Frequency Carrier

Carrier

fo

10

BPSK Waveform

=0 = =0

Modulated BPSK signal BPSK

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page52

In binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation, each data bit is transformed into a separate data symbol. The mapping rule is 1 > + 1 and 0 > 1. There are only two possible phase shifts in BPSK, 0 and radians. NRZ means none return zero.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-53

Modulation Overview
Digital Modulation - QPSK
1 NRZ Input I di-Bit Stream Q di-Bit Stream 1 1 1 2 1 3 -1 -1 1 4 1 5 -1 -1 1 6 1 7 1 1 -1 8 -1 9 -1 -1 -1 10 -1

I Component

Q Component

QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Page53

10

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

The quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation has four phases: 0, /2, , and 3/2 radians. Two data bits are transformed into one complex data symbol; A symbol is any change (keying) of the carrier.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-54

Modulation Overview
A NRZ coding Acos(ot) I(t)

fo QPSK
90o

NRZ coding A

Q(t) Acos(ot + /2)

QPSK
1 1 -1 -1

: A 2 cos( o + )
1 -1 1 -1 /4 7/4 3/4 5/4
Page54

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-55

Demodulation
QPSK Constellation Diagram
1 QPSK Waveform 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1,1

-1,1

-1,1 1,-1 -1,-1

NRZ Output

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page55

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-56

WCDMA Modulation
Different modulation methods corresponding to different transmitting abilities in air interface
R99/R4: QPSK HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page56

The UTRAN air interface uses QPSK modulation in the downlink, although HSDPA may also employ 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM). 16QAM requires good radio conditions to work well. As seen, with 16QAM also the amplitude of the signal matters. As explained, in QPSK one symbol carries two data bits; in 16QAM each symbol includes four bits. Thus, a QPSK system with a chip rate of 3.84Mcps could theoretically transfer 2 3.84 = 7.68 Mbps, and a 16QAM system could transfer 4 3.84 Mbps = 15.36 Mbps. In 3GPP also the usage of 64QAM with HSDPA has been studied.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-57

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Transmitter
Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding Spreading Modulation Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page57

Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. Scrambling can make transmission in security. Through the modulation, the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals.

Bit, Symbol, Chip


Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-58

Wireless Propagation
Transmitted Signal

Amplitude

Transmission Loss: Path Loss + Multi-path Fading

Received Signal
Time

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page58

A mobile communication channel is a multi-path fading channel and any transmitted signal reaches a receive end by means of multiple transmission paths, such as direct transmission, reflection, scatter, etc.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-59

Propagation of Radio Signal


20 15 10 5 dBm 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 dB

Signal at Transmitter

Signal at Receiver

Fading

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page59

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-60

Fading Categories
Fading Categories
Slow Fading Fast Fading

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page60

Furthermore, with the moving of a mobile station, the signal amplitude, delay and phase on various transmission paths vary with time and place. Therefore, the levels of received signals are fluctuating and unstable and these multi-path signals, if overlaid, will lead to fast fading. Fast fading conforms to Rayleigh distribution. The mid-value field strength of fast fading has relatively gentle change and is called slow fading. Slow fading conforms to lognormal distribution.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-61

Diversity Technique
Diversity technique is used to obtain uncorrelated signals for combining
Reduce the effects of fading
Fast fading caused by multi-path Slow fading caused by shadowing

Improve the reliability of communication Increase the coverage and capacity

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page61

Diversity technology means that after receiving two or more input signals with mutually uncorrelated fading at the same time, the system demodulates these signals and adds them up. Thus, the system can receive more useful signals and overcome fading.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-62

Diversity
Time diversity
Channel coding, Block interleaving

Frequency diversity
The user signal is distributed on the whole bandwidth frequency spectrum

Space diversity Polarization diversity

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page62

Diversity technology is an effective way to overcome overlaid fading. Because it can be selected in terms of frequency, time and space, diversity technology includes frequency diversity, time diversity and space diversity. Time diversity: Channel coding Frequency diversity: WCDMA is a kind of frequency diversity. The signal energy is distributed on the whole bandwidth. Space diversity: using two antennas

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-63

Principle of RAKE Receiver


Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3 Searcher correlator s(t) s(t) Calculate the time delay and signal strength Combiner The combined signal

RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page63

The RAKE receiver is a technique which uses several baseband correlators to individually process multipath signal components. The outputs from the different correlators are combined to achieve improved reliability and performance. When WCDMA system is designed for cellular system, the inherent wide-bandwidth signals with their orthogonal Walsh functions were natural for implementing a RAKE receiver. In WCDMA system, the bandwidth is wider than the coherence bandwidth of the cellular. Thus, when the multi-path components are resolved in the receiver, the signals from different paths are uncorrelated with each other. The receiver can then combine them using some combining schemes. So with RAKE receiver WCDMA system can use the multi-path characteristics of the channel to get signal with better quality.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-64

Summary
In this course, we have discussed basic concepts of WCDMA:
Spreading / Despreading principle UTRAN Voice Coding UTRAN Channel Coding UTRAN Spreading Code UTRAN Scrambling Code UTRAN Modulation UTRAN Transmission/Receiving

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page64

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

WCDMA RAN Fundamental

N-65

Thank you
www.huawei.com

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission