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The type, model, serial number(s) and latest certified calibration date of all equipment used in the measurement of vibration levels for machine certification, shall be recorded and made available upon request. FFT Analyzer • The FFT Analyzer shall be capable of a line resolution bandwidth Df = 150 CPM for the frequency range specified for machine certification unless this restriction would result in less than 800 lines of resolution, in which case the requirement defaults to 800 lines of resolution. (Higher resolution may be required to resolve "Side Bands," or in Band 1 to resolve machine vibration between 0.3X and 0.8X Running Speed.) • The Dynamic Range shall be a minimum of 90 dB. • The FFT analyzer shall be capable of applying a Hanning window. • The FFT analyzer shall be capable of linear non-overlap averaging. • The FFT analyzer shall have anti-aliasing filters. MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ACCURACY The measurement system (FFT analyzer, cables, transducer and mounting) used to take vibration measurements for machine certification and acceptance shall have a measurement system. Amplitude accuracy over the selected frequency range as follows: • For displacement and velocity measurements ±l0% or ±1 dB. • For acceleration measurements ±20% or ±1.5 dB.
Figure 1 Measurement System Frequency Response MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CALIBRATION Vibration equipment (transducer, preamplifier, FFT analyzer, recorder and connecting cable) used to take vibration measurements for machine certification and acceptance must be calibrated by a qualified instrumentation laboratory in accordance with Sections 5.1 and 5.2 of ANSI S2.17-1980 "Technique of Machinery Vibration Measurement" within one (1) year prior to the date of machine certification. Calibration shall be traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in accordance with MIL-STD45662 "Military Standard Calibration Systems Requirements" (10 June 1980) or latest revision. VIBRATION TRANSDUCERS An accelerometer shall be used in the collection of data for machine certification and acceptance. The accelerometer must be selected and attached to the machine in such a way that the minimum frequency (Fmin) and maximum frequency (Fmax) as specified in Section 9 or specified otherwise by the purchaser, are within the usable frequency range of the transducer and can be accurately measured (reference recommendations of pickup manufacturer and/or Section 6.3, ANSI S2.17-1980). The mass of the accelerometer and its mounting shall have minimal influence on the frequency response of the system over the selected measurement range. (Typical mass of accelerometer and mounting should not exceed 10 % of the dynamic mass of the structure upon which the accelerometer is mounted.) Reference Appendix for Dynamic Mass definition and Procedure to Determine Mass Effect Integration is acceptable as a means of converting acceleration measurements to velocity or displacement, or for converting velocity measurements to displacement. VIBRATION MEASUREMENT AXES DIRECTIONS
Axial direction (A) shall be parallel to the rotational axis of the machine. Radial directions (R) shall be: • at 90° (perpendicular) relative to the shaft (rotor) centerline. Vertical shall be in a radial direction: • on a machine surface opposite the machine mounting plate. For motors or pumps that are end mounted, vertical readings shall be taken in a radial direction relative to axial readings on a surface opposite the machine to which the motor or pump is attached (reference Figure 2-b). Horizontal shall be in a radial direction: • at a right angle (90°) from the vertical readings: • In the direction of the shaft (rotor) rotation (Reference Figure 2a and 2b). • For electric motors, the Electrical Connection Box (Pot Head) may be used as the horizontal location relative to vertical (reference Figure 3). Other: • Any radial direction other than Horizontal or Vertical
(A) FOOT-MOUNTED Figure 2 Vibration Measurement Axes Directions
(B) END-MOUNTED Figure 3 Vibration Measurement Axes Directions VIBRATION MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS Required measurement positions and orientations on a machine's surface at which vibration measurements are to be taken shall be determined by mutual agreement of the purchaser and the machine builder, and shall meet the following requirements: Follow the convention specified, unless specified otherwise by the purchaser. If an obstruction or safety prevents locating a transducer as specified, locate as close as possible to the standardized position. Measurement locations used for machine certification and acceptance shall be identified on the machine layout drawing and/or machine as mutually agreed upon by the purchaser and the machine builder. Vibration measurement locations shall be on a rigid member of the machine, as close to each bearing as feasible. Bearing housings, bearing pedestals, machine casings or permanently mounted pickup mounting blocks are examples of suitable mounting locations. Vibration measurement location shall NOT be on a flexible cover or shield such as the fan cover on an electric motor or a sheet-metal belt guard. Guarding must be designed to allow accessibility to all measurement locations In the event that vibration monitoring points will be rendered inaccessible after the machine is built or access to the measurement points would present a safety problem during measurement, the purchaser shall be contacted to determine if Permanently mounted transducers are to be installed. Measurement locations shall be numbered consecutively from 1 to N in the direction of power flow per the following:
Position 1 designates the "out-board" Starting Power Point bearing location of the driver unit of the machine. Position N designates the bearing location at the "terminating" Power Point bearing location of the driven machine. (Reference Figure 3A and Figure 4) When a machine station consists of multiple components, such as two or more spindles, consecutive numbering of components shall be in the direction of process flow. (Reference Figures 3A and 3B).
Figure 3A Order and Consecutive Numbering Sequence
Figure 3B Order and Consecutive Numbering Sequence Measurement locations documented for certification and acceptance on the machine layout drawing and on any vibration data submitted shall follow the following convention: • Station or Machine • Component • Position • Orientation
) Designated transducer type to be specified by the purchaser." For a stud mounted transducer the machine's surface at which vibration measurements are to be taken shall be in accordance with that specified by the transducer manufacturer (torque. etc. the upper frequency limit of the transducer shall be reduced by 20% of the manufacturer's stated resonance for "hard" adhesives and by 50% of the manufacturer's stated resonance for "soft" adhesives. suitable surfaces shall be provided such that the mounted transducer will attach securely. if necessary. Transducer manufacturer's specifications should be consulted. For a magnetic base mounted transducer the location on a machine's surface at which vibration measurements are to be taken shall be machined.Reference Figure 3C Figure 3C Measurement Location Documentation Convention Other Component Symbols not listed above should be agreed upon by the machine tool builder and the purchaser on an as-needed basis. grease. Hand-held pickups are not acceptable for measurement by this specification. TRANSDUCER & MACHINE MOUNTING CONDITIONS VIBRATION TRANSDUCER MOUNTING At the designated measurement positions. such that the magnet base can be attached firmly without "rocking. If an adhesive is used to attach either the transducer or a magnetic mounting pad. .
) the machine must be mounted as specified Where an individual machine can be tested only as an assembled unit (e.). motor. motor/pump.g. spindle. etc.g. the machine mounting conditions shall be as equivalent as possible/feasible to those to be encountered upon installation at the purchaser's site. etc.The vibration transducer as mounted must be such that the measurement system Amplitude accuracy over the selected frequency range equals or exceeds the requirements specified MACHINE MOUNTING Where a machine can be tested as an individual unit (e. motor/fan. Figure 4 Vibration Measurement Locations .
FREQUENCY BANDS .414 x RMS Peak-to-Peak (P-to-P) = 2 x (P) = 2 x 1.Motor . The Calculated Peak will be derived from the RMS level based on the following equations: Peak (P) = 1. the units of vibration measurement will be designated by the words "True Peak".414 x RMS If a "True Peak" is required.Gear Box Spindle System (e) Figure 4 Vibration Measurement Locations Continued TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS VIBRATION MEASUREMENT UNITS Vibration data for machine certification and acceptance shall be expressed in the following measurement units: The "Peak" and "Peak-to-Peak" Vibration Amplitude Measurements will be a Calculated Peak not a True Peak.
3.The frequency range of measurement shall be divided into sub-groups called bands.0.2 . in which case the resolution requirement will default to 800 lines. or unless the Df = 1500 CPM restriction would result in less than 800 lines of resolution over the frequency range specified for certification.(Ref. BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS For vibration level limits specified in terms of "BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS" the Total vibration level "A" in a band.3 . • The maximum amplitude of any line of resolution contained within a band shall not exceed the Line Amplitude Acceptance Limit for the Band.8) X Running Order Band 2 shall be (0. Figure 5 Frequency Bands LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS For vibration level limits specified in terms of "LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS": • A line of resolution will have a band width Df = 150 CPM unless specified otherwise. Figure 5) Mandatory Bands Band 1 shall be (0.2) X Running Order Band 3 shall be (1. (Greater resolution may be required to resolve "Side Bands. as . The Fmin and Fmax for each band will be defined in units of frequency or orders of running speed of the machine.8 1." or in Band 1 to resolve machine vibration between 0.3X and 0.8X Running Speed.5) X Running Order Other Bands Bands 4 through N shall be defined by the specific machine tool application.
This may require the use of more than one accelerometer where potentially high frequencies might occur (such as gear mesh or harmonics of gear mesh) along with lower frequencies (such as due to unbalance. that line of resolution will be included in the band having the lowest acceptance level limit. a minimum of 5 lines of resolution must be used and the peak must be centered in the band. The amplitude range sensitivity of the FFT Analyzer shall be set to the maximum input sensitivity possible without overloading such that the actual measurement uses at least 80 dB of the Dynamic Range.defined by the following equation. misalignment. If a line of resolution is coincidental with the Fmin/Fmax Of two adjacent bands.) ALIGNMENT All coupled rotating machines consisting of consecutive shafts connected through a coupling (whether rigid or flexible) shall be aligned within the tolerances specified by the purchaser in the "Request for Quote." If the Purchaser does not specify an alignment tolerance. Certification will be based on: • Hanning Window. The transducer mounting shall be such that the measurement system Amplitude accuracy over the selected frequency range equals or exceeds the requirements. shall not exceed the Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit specified for the Band A = Overall vibration level in the Band Ai = Amplitude in the ith line of resolution in the Band (I=1) =The first line of resolution in the Band (i=N) = The last line of resolution in the Band N = The number of lines of resolution in the Band If the total energy in a peak is to be measured. looseness. • Four (4) averages (Linear non-overlapping). the requirements of this Standard defaults to the tolerance limits specified in Alignment Specification Consideration shall be given to any "thermal growth" that may occur during the normal operation of the machine that would cause the machine to "grow out of alignment" to the extent that the alignment tolerances of this specification would not be met. etc. .
corresponding to the half key used for balancing. balancing will achieved using a standard one-half key in the key seat in accordance with ISO 88211989. CERTIFICATION. is not provided with the rotating machine. Figure 6 Balance Test Key Dimension The use of solder or similar deposits to achieve rotor balance is not acceptable." Costs must be itemized and sufficiently detailed to permit a complete evaluation by the Purchaser. will be attached to the machine indicating the dimension of the key used to perform the balance test.or the vibration level limits specified by the purchaser in the "Request for Quote. as shown below. Any parent metal removed to achieve dynamic or static balance shall be drilled out in a manner which will maintain the structural integrity of the rotor. If a "full key". MACHINE QUOTATION.BALANCING STANDARD KEY For rotating machines and machine components with a keyed shaft. AND ACCEPTANCE QUOTATION The Quotation shall specify that the equipment will meet the applicable vibration level limits in Section 9 of this Specification . Any additional costs required to meet the specification limits shall be grouped in a separate section of the Quotation and titled "VIBRATION LIMITS. MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR MACHINE CERTIFICATION Vibration measurements shall: ." The Quotation shall state the applicable specification vibration level limits being quoted. a tag.
shall be identified on the machine layout drawing. arrangements shall be made to perform the test at the purchaser's facility. the machine will be "run-in" until it reaches speed and thermal stability. bearing type number and class. Vibration measurement locations on the machine's surface at which vibration measurements are taken shall be designated on the drawing. Shaft speeds (RPM). gear mesh frequencies (CPM). Where it is impractical to set-up and test a complete machine at the vendor's facility. Vibration Specifications Standards Electrical Motors With Alarm Limits Electrical Motor Requirements . The technical qualifications of the person doing the vibration certification shall be submitted as a part of the machine vibration certification data. rated operating load--either actual or simulated--will be applied during collection of machine vibration data. Where gearboxes are involved. Under this circumstance. no actual machining such as cutting. A copy of the acceptance must be sent to the plant's purchasing department before final acceptance is authorized. Where "rated load" is specified. Prior to taking vibration measurements. ACCEPTANCE Authorization for machine/equipment acceptance based on the vibration limits of this specification requires signature by the purchaser's authorized representative. The purchaser shall have the option to verify vibration data of equipment during machine "run-off' at the vendor's test site prior to shipment The machine layout drawing shall be submitted as a part of the Machine Vibration Certification. grinding.Be the responsibility of the supplier unless specified otherwise by the purchaser. etc. gear type and number of gear teeth. Be taken with the machine operating as specified in Section 9 Where "no load" is specified. is to be taking place during collection of machine vibration data. Vibration data for machine certification shall be measured during "run-off' at the vendor's facility. bearing manufacturer's name. Be performed by technically qualified person who is trained and experienced in vibration measurement. At the option of the purchaser. an insert such as illustrated in Figure 4-e shall be included on the machine layout drawing. shipment of the equipment does not relieve the vendor of the responsibility for meeting the specified vibration level limits.
..... and no load. Note: The required deflection is inversely proportional to the speed squared..Semi-Finish Operations Precision motor. To accomplish this it is required that the elastic mounting be deflected downwards at least by the amounts shown in the Following table due to the weight of the motor.Per agreement by vendor and Lockheed Martin The frequency range for motor certification will be from Fmin = 0.. otherwise the supports may be too stiff....... MOTOR ISOLATION . When a flexible pad is used the compression shall in no case be more than 50 percent of the original thickness of the flexible pad.Utility Operations Special motor... MOTOR SYNCHRONOUS SPEED(RPM) ISOLATION PAD COMPRESSION(INCHES) 900 1 1200 9/16 1800 1/4 3600 1/16 7200 1/64 Note: The required deflection is inversely proportional to the speed squared..3 X Running Speed (synchronous speed) to Fmax = 120. MOTOR ISOLATION Method of Motor Isolation for Measuring Vibration Place the motor on an elastic mounting so proportioned that the up and down natural frequency shall be at least as low as 25 percent of the test speed of the motor....000 Hertz) Alternating current motors will be tested at rated voltage and frequency..Finish Operations Other motor. Series and universal motors will be tested at operating speed.. A multispeed alternating current motor will be tested at all its rated synchronous speeds........ Direct current motors will be tested at their highest rated speed.Motors will be defined by four (4) categories: Standard motor... Single speed alternating current motors will be tested at synchronous speed.000 CPM (2...
shall meet the following requirements: The Velocity Amplitude (Inch/sec-Peak) of any line of resolution. Medium (integral) and Large Machines. CRITICAL SPEED Completely assembled motors shall have a percentage separation between the rotor shaft first actual critical speed and the rated motor speed as specified: ROTOR DESIGN FIRST ACTUALCRITICAL SPEED LOCATION Rigid Shaft At least 25% Above Rated Motor Speed Flexible Shaft Maximum of 85% of Motor Speed LIMITS All electrical motors defined by NEMA Standard MG-1-1993 Section I "Classification .Method of Motor Isolation for Measuring Vibration All new and rebuilt motors shall conform to the vibration limits specified when tested in accordance with this specification.” Small (fractional). measured at bearing locations in any direction shall not exceed the Line-Amplitude Band Limit values specified in and graphed when determined in accordance with using the frequency range defined The Acceleration Overall Amplitude (g's Peak) at bearing locations in any direction (ref. According to Size. Section 4) shall not exceed the Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit values specified and graphed when determined in accordance with Section using the frequency range defined. .
Model Number. position 2 vertical. Vibration signatures of velocity and acceleration.ELECTRICAL MOTOR CERTIFICATION The amplitude of vibration at bearing locations in any direction shall not exceed the values listed. Motors not meeting the certification shall be rejected. and position 3 axial shall be submitted as part of the motor certification. and a listing of the maximum peak velocity in each band for vibration measurements taken at position 1 horizontal. Frame Number. . The data shall be identified with the Motor Serial Number. The motor nameplate shall carry the following designation: Vibration data and signatures must be submitted with the motor to the Maintenance Engineering Department or other authorized representative before acceptance of the motor will be authorized. Horsepower and Synchronous speed.
Forced Draft (FD) Fans.Figure 1 Maximum Allowable Vibration Limits for Electric Motors Vibration Specifications Standards For Fans With Alarm Limits Fans are defined as: All non-positive displacement air handling units including Induced Draft (ID) Fans. Vaneaxial. etc. . Centerhung Fans. Blowers. Centrifugal. Tubeaxial. Overhung Fans.
RESONANCE Natural frequencies of the completely assembled fan unit shall not be excited at the operating speed. and of a material compatible with the parent material of the fan to which the balancing weight is attached. bolting.3 X Running Speed of Fan to 60. or of a "clip-on" design. the maximum velocity amplitude (inch/sec-Peak) of vibration at bearing locations in any direction shall not exceed the Line Amplitude Band Limit values specified and graphed.000 cpm for velocity and to 120. pop-riveted.BALANCING Permanently attached balancing weighs must be secured by welding. Access to the fan rotor for field balancing shall be designed in to the system. NOTE: It is recommended that components (rotor. a hardened bolt must be used in conjunction with a mechanical locking device (e. The frequency range for fan certification shall be from Fmin = 0. • Clip-on" balancing weights can only be used on centrifugal type fans and must be located and attached on the ID pitch of the blades such that the rotational motion of the fan creates a positive seating of the "clip-on" weight against the fan blade.000 cpm for acceleration. For fan speeds up to 3600 RPM. (Running speed should be at least 25% removed from a natural frequency of the system. NOTE: THE USE OF STICK ON LEAD WEIGHTS IS NOT ACCEPTABLE Any parent metal removed to achieve dynamic or static balance shall be drilled out in a manner which will maintain the structural integrity of the rotor or sheave.) LIMITS New and Rebuilt/Repaired Fans shall conform to the vibration limits specified when operating at specified system CFM and Fan Static Pressure. shafts sheave) be balanced individually and then trim balanced as a total assembly. • Balancing weights and method of attachment must be stable at fan operating temperature.g. SHAFT TOLERANCE Fan shaft diameter shall meet bearing manufacturer specifications for shaft tolerances. When determined in accordance using the frequency range defined . lock washer or lock nut). • If bolted.
Acceptance limits for fans running over 3600 RPM shall be specified by the purchaser. the Band-Limited Overall vibration level of acceleration (g's Peak) at bearing locations in any direction (as defined in Section 4) shall not exceed the Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit values specified and graphed.For fan speeds up to 3600 RPM. Figure 1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Fans . when determined in accordance using the frequency range defined.
Figure 2 Band Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Fans OTHER REQUIREMENTS Variable speed or adjustable sheaves shall not be used in the final installation. Drive sheave and driven sheave should differ in size by 20 % or more to avoid "beat" vibration Vibration Specifications Standards Gearboxes With Alarm Limits Gearboxes shall not exceed the Vibration Limits specified .
Integral motor spindles (motorized spindles) will be tested as a self-powered unit. properly secured in a STRESS FREE CONDITION and be either direct coupled or belt driven. .Figure 1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearboxes Figure 2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearboxes Vibration Specifications Standards For Machine Tool Spindles And Heads With Alarm Limits Spindle And Head Requirements All single spindle and multi-spindle units will be (where possible) mounted on a test stand in their normal operating attitude.
Measurement Locations Vibration measurement locations shall be. If a spindle unit is designed to operate at multiple speeds. unless this coincides with a resonance or resonance-like condition.PEAK) 1 0. In this case. the test speed shall be the maximum speed possible without encountering the resonance or resonance-like condition.The Spindle or Head will be run-in until it reaches temperature stability at operating speed.01 .000 RPM (<= 400.3 x RPM0. the unit is to be tested at that speed.000 DN) LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS BAND FREQUENCYRANGE (CPM) VELOCITY(INCH/SEC . If a spindle unit is designed to operate at all speeds in a given speed range.2 x RPM 0. the unit must be tested at its' maximum rated speed.8 x RPM 0.01 2 0. · at a point as close to the spindle bearing as possible and in line with the spindle center line Figure 1 (a) Measurement Locations for Single Precision Spindle Figure 1 (b) Measusrement Locations for Spindle Cluster Figure 1 (c) Measurement Locations for Multi-Spindle Gear-type Head Operating Speed: If a spindle unit is designed to operate at one speed. VIBRATION LIMITS LIMITS FOR BOX AND CARTRIDGE-TYPE SPINDLES The maximum velocity amplitude (Inch/sec-Peak) of vibration at bearing locations in any direction shall not exceed the Line Amplitude Band Limit values specified and graphed when determined in accordance The maximum acceleration amplitude (g's Peak) of vibration at bearing locations in any direction shall not exceed the Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits specified and graphed when determined in accordance TABLE 1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEARLESS TYPESPINDLES 600 to 12.8 x RPM1. the unit is to be tested at the each rated speed.
60K CPM 0.Angular Contact Bearings0.5 .75 .000 RPM Figure 3 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gear less Type Spindles 600 to 12.Roller Bearings Figure 2 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gear less Type Spindles 600 to 12.000 RPM TABLE 2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEARLESS TYPE SPINDLES <600 RPM LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS BAND FREQUENCYRANGE (CPM) DISPLACEMENT(MILS .2 x RPM3.5 .0075 .01 4 3.000 CPM 0.0 .Roller Bearings BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS BAND FREQUENCYRANGE (CPM) ACCELERATION(g’s PEAK) 1 0." LIMITS FOR MULTI-SPINDLE (CLUSTERS) NON-GEAR TYPE ASSEMBLIES Belt driven Multi-Spindle Clusters shall be tested as a complete assembly.8 x RPM 0.3 x RPM . .2 x RPM 0.Angular Contact Bearings1.0075 .5 .000 CPM 0.3 1.1 2 0.Roller Bearings BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS BAND FREQUENCYRANGE (CPM) ACCELERATION(g’s PEAK) 1 0.Angular Contact Bearings0.PEAK-TO-PEAK) 1 0.3 x RPM .Angular Contact Bearings0.120K CPM 0.Roller Bearings1.5 x RPM30.Roller Bearings Figure 4 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gear less Type Spindles <600 RPM Figure 5 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gear less Type Spindles <600 RPM LIMITS FOR INTEGRAL MOTOR (MOTORIZED) SPINDLES Integral Motor (Motorized) Spindles shall be tested as a complete assembly (motor & spindle). The complete assembly must meet the vibration limits specified "LIMITS FOR BOX AND CARTRIDGE-TYPE SPINDLES.<= 1000 RPM .005 .1 VELOCITY(INCH/SEC .5 x RPM 0.> 1000 RPM .8 x RPM1.PEAK) 3 1.2 x RPM3.01 4 3.005 .5 x RPM120.3 x RPM0.5 x RPM 0.
PEAK) 1 0.Peak) 1 0." LIMITS FOR GEAR-DRIVEN SPINDLE ASSEMBLIES For gear driven spindle assemblies the number of lines of resolution from 0.5 X the line amplitude of the GMF Harmonics. PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS Precision Machine Tools shall not exceed the Vibration Limits specified and graphically illustrated TABLE 4 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FORPRECISION MACHINE TOOLS LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS BAND FREQUENCYRANGE (CPM) VELOCITY(INCH/SEC .02 2 0.3 x RPM0. + 1 x Shaft RPM).g. the line amplitude of the Gear Mesh Frequency Sidebands must be less than (<) 0. In the Velocity Spectra and the Acceleration spectra.8 x RPM 0. in any direction (as defined) shall not exceed the Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits specified TABLE 3 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FORGEAR-DRIVEN SPINDLE ASSEMBLIES BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS BAND FREQUENCYRANGE (CPM) VELOCITY(Inch/sec .5 x Highest gear mesh frequency (GMF) or otherwise specified Fmax shall be sufficient to resolve the 1st Order Gear Mesh Sideband frequency (e. The maximum velocity band-limited overall amplitude (Inch/sec .8 x RPM1. the line amplitude of GMF Harmonics must not exceed 0.02 .2 x GMF line amplitude. a decision to correct or accept shall be mutually agreed upon by purchaser and machine builder.Peak) of vibration at locations specified and illustrated.08 Figure 6 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gear-Driven Spindle Assemblies Where the number of machining components or high speeds cause a head to exceed acceptable limits.5 times the line amplitude of the Gear Mesh Frequency. The line amplitude of sidebands of Harmonics of the Gear Mesh Frequency must also be <.3 x Lowest Shaft RPMto3.3 x Lowest Shaft Running Speed to 3. In the Velocity Spectra and the Acceleration Spectra.2 x RPM 0.5 x Highest GMF 0.The complete assembly must meet the vibration limits specified "LIMITS FOR BOX AND CARTRIDGE-TYPE SPINDLES.
Bandwidth = 5 lines of resolution) Excluding the lines of resolution contained in the Pumping Frequency (PF) Band.Angular Contact Bearings1.0075 .e. Gear. The band will extend + 2 lines of resolution on either side of the line of resolution containing the Pumping Frequency.roller Bearings1.3 1.000 Hertz) The Velocity Band-Limited Overall Amplitude (Inch/sec .Angular Contact Bearings0. VIBRATION LIMITS FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT & CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS For purposes of Line Amplitude evaluations a "PUMPING FREQUENCY" (PF) band will be established. • Centrifugal Operating Conditions • Non-cavitating non-separating condition.3 X Running Speed (pump RPM) to Fmax = 120. the Velocity Amplitude (Inch/sec-Peak) of any line of resolution. but not limited to Piston.5 x RPM120.Roller Bearings Figure 7 DEFAULT Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Precision Machine Tools Figure 8 DEFAULT Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Precision Machine Tools Vibration Specifications Standards For Pumps and Vibration Alarm Limits Pumps shall be defined in two (2) categories: • Positive Displacement --including.000 CPM (2.8 X PF to 1.120K CPM 0.000 CPM 0.Roller Bearings BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS BAND FREQUENCYRANGE (CPM) ACCELERATION(g’s PEAK) 1 0.5 x RPM 0. and Vane.5 .Peak) at bearing locations in any direction shall not exceed the Pumping Frequency Band Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit value specified in Table 9. and graphed when determined in accordance using the frequency range from 0.<=1000 RPM . (Reference Hydraulic Institute Standard) • Certification shall be performed while pumps are operating within design specifications. • Straight suction pipe to pump. when determined in accordance using the frequency range from 0.4. • Shaft coupling aligned. measured at bearing locations in any direction (as defined in Section 4) shall not exceed the Line-Amplitude Band Limit values specified and graphed.005 .0 .01 4 3.5 . • No piping strain.>=1000 RPM .3 x RPM .2 x RPM3. The PF Band will be centered on the Pumping Frequency (Number of pumping elements X Pump RPM). . (i.2 X PF.
Figure 1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Positive Displacement & Centrifugal Pumps .The Acceleration Band-Limited Overall Amplitude (g's Peak) at bearing locations in any direction shall not exceed the Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit values specified and graphed when determined in accordance using the frequency range from 0.3 X Running Speed to 300.000 CPM.
g. 2.Figure 2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Positive Displacement & Centrifugal Pumps VIBRATION FOR VERTICAL MOUNTED PUMPS Vertically mounted pump systems with a "Vertical Mount Height" greater than 5 feet will have an allowable increase in Velocity Amplitude Acceptance Limits in Bands 1. Vibration Specifications Standards General Industrial Machines With Alarm Limits If Vibration Limit values are not available for the machine being considered.5 ft) x 5%/ft] Velocity Amplitude Acceptance Limits specified for Bands 1.4 Inch/sec x 0. A 7 foot Vertical Mount Height would yield a 10% increase [(7 ft . and 3. 2. which ever is greater.1)] = 0.4 Inch/sec + (0. Therefore the limit for Band 1 would be [0. the Specification Limit shall (unless specified otherwise by the purchaser) default to the following: Non-machine Tools and Non-precision Machine Tools shall not exceed the Vibration Limits specified and graphically illustrated .44 Inch/sec-Peak. (e. Vertical Mount Height is defined as the furthest measurable distance from the machine mounting to the end of the driver or the end of the pump. and 3 of 5% per foot of "Vertical Mount Height" greater than 5 feet.
Figure 1 DEFAULT Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Non-Machine Tools and Non-Precision Machine Tools .
LASER SHAFT ALIGNMENT SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS The Laser Alignment System used for Coupled Shafts Alignment shall use either a combined laser emitter and laser target detector unit or separate units for its laser emitter and laser target detector.Figure 2 DEFAULT Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for NonMachine Tools and Non-Precision Machine Tools Specifications Standards For Shafts Alignment Coupled shaft alignment is the positioning of two or more machines so that the rotational centerlines of their shafts are co-linear at the coupling center under operating conditions. SHAFT ALIGNMENT TOLERANCES .
dynamic load shifts. FL. Miami. *References: “The Optalign Training Book.. The Tolerances specified are the maximum allowable deviations from Zero-Zero Specifications or ALIGNMENT TARGET SPECIFICATIONS (i.. Ludeca Inc. Above “critical speed” of Jackshaft Short coupling tolerances apply relative to the centerlines of the two machines. COUPLED SHAFTS ALIGNMENT VERIFICATION . the alignment parameters shall be measured and adjusted for operating conditions.All shaft-to-shaft centerline alignments shall be within the tolerances specified unless more precise tolerances are specified by the machine manufacturer or by the purchasing engineer for special applications. “ 1990. COUPLED SHAFT ALIGNMENT TOLERANCE VALUES JACKSHAFTS Below “critical speed” of Jackshaft Short coupling tolerances apply to each coupling of the jackshaft. Acknowledging that machines often move after start-up due to THERMAL GROWTH. an intention targeted offset and/or angularity). etc.e.
Horizontal angularity (Yaw) at the coupling point. plate thickness must equal or exceed the thickness of the machine foot. tube.27 cm) thickness.54 cm). square. but be no less than 1.Laser alignment will be performed on the machine tool builder’s floor on all shaft coupled machines.5 inch (1. e.0 inch (2. The plate surface that the driver and driven machines will bolted to must be machine ground and of sufficient size to accommodate the machine components. M. and bar shapes with a minimum 0. SOFTFOOT c. Where the machine base is constructed from commercially available steel or castings: Use H. MACHINE BASES MACHINE BASE CONSTRUCTION A solid and rigid machine base is required to achieve and maintain shaft alignment. Where bases are constructed using concrete or grouts final shaft alignment shall not be conducted until ample curing time has taken place. For machine bases consisting of a single steel plate. Horizontal offset at the coupling point. f. Vertical ANGULARITY (Pitch) at the COUPLING POINT d. Alignment tolerances used. Verification of alignment and re-alignment will be conducted at the purchaser’s facility during installation of the equipment. This information shall be provided to the purchaser at the time of functional check out. When verifying the alignment of coupled shafts the machine tool builder must document and provide the following data for each set of coupled shafts: a. b. Vertical OFFSET at the coupling point. I. Jackscrews must not rest on any rounded edges. . push/pull blocks and/or jack screws. (A minimum of Thirty days is recommended) Where the machine foundation installation specification does not require a concrete or grout base or the installation schedule does not permit the proper cure time for the concrete/grout Where corrosion is or may be a problem the base must be fabricated of corrosive resistant materials.
001” (. REQUIREMENTS FOR MACHINE PADS OR FLATS After all welding and machining has been completed and the base has been stress relieved. standard(s) for welding.M. the channel or angle stock must be reinforced using square bar or plate meeting the preceding thickness requirements. within .Use of channel or angle stock is not recommended. and/or C. JACKBOLTS Jackbolts shall be located at the front and rear feet of the movable machine for horizontal alignment positioning. HOLD-DOWN BOLTS The use of hold down bolts is the preferred method of fastening components to the base.E. Hold-down bolts shall be the preferred method of fastening machines to the base.001 inch (0. . (This requirement also applies to vertically mounted units and vertically mounted flanged units). FOOT CENTER LINES The stiffness of the machine base shall be sufficient that no foot centerline shall deform or deflect more that . JOINING SHAPES TOGETHER When joining shapes together they shall conform to the appropriate applicable A.W.0254 mm).0254 mm) over the operating range from alignment conditions to full load conditions. Jackbolts shall be parallel to the flat/pad surface and align on the center line formed by the hold down bolts in the cross machine direction. Hold-down bolts shall meet the following specifications: a. the surface of all pads or flats for each machine to be installed on the base must be co-planar. Hold-down bolts shall be centered in the hole of the machine foot. Ample room shall be left for removal and insertion of shims used in the vertical alignment of the coupled machines. stress relieve the entire base. b.S. Where use is necessary. c.B. Hold-down bolts for both the driver and the driven machine(s) (in pairs or in trains) shall be positioned (spotted) after the machine’s shafts have been aligned. MACHINE BASE SUPPORT The feet of the driver and driven machines must not overhang the machine base. After all welding and machining is completed.
AXIAL SHAFT PLAY Axial shaft play or end play must be no greater than . PIPING Piping must be fitted.175 mm). Consistent over the whole shim area. Shims must rest on bare metal. MACHINE VERTICAL MOBILITY All machines shall be installed with a minimum of . The smallest commercial shim that will fit around the hold down bolts without binding shall be used. SHIMS Shims shall meet the following specifications: a. Piping must not restrict the minimum 180 degree rotation requirement of the laser alignment system. Commercially die-cut. Made of corrosion and crush resistant stainless steel. Clean.d. c. without seams or folds from bending. not printed or stamped. Accommodation of end movement must be done without inducing abnormal loads in the connecting equipment. supported. During the alignment process coupling play or backlash must be eliminated to accomplish a precision shaft alignment. The overall shim pack shall not exceed a total of three (3) shims. and sufficiently flexible such that softfoot due to movement caused by tightening pipe flanges doesn’t exceed . . bumps. f.051 mm). e. b. Size numbers or trademarks etched into the shim. free from burrs. nicks and dents of any kind. d. which is dimensionally stable when subjected to high compression over long periods of time. Hold-down bolts shall not be undercut (“Chicagoed”) to achieve HORIZONTAL adjustment. g. h.002” (.125 inch (3. not paint or other coatings.125 inch (3.0 mm) dimensionally stable shims under each surface mounting point for vertical mobility. COUPLING PLAY/BACKLASH OEM’s must use only the couplings specified unless otherwise agreed upon by the purchaser.
g. a Master Part) .MACHINE TOOL SPINDLE LASER ALIGNMENT MACHINE TOOL SPINDLE ALIGNMENT GEOMETRY Machine Tool Spindle Alignment addresses the geometric relationship between the spindle axis of rotation and a rotation and a reference datum (e.
POSITION ERROR The torque applied to the spindle hold down bolts shall comply with the spindle manufacturer’s specification.LASER SPINDLE ALIGNMENT SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS The Laser Alignment System used for Machine Spindle Laser Alignment shall use separate units for its laser emitter and laser target detector so that Tracking Error and Angular Error can be distinguished. MACHINE SPINDLE ALIGNMENT TOLERANCES The machine spindle alignment tolerance is MACHINE DEPENDENT and shall be developed by the purchaser and the machine tool builder based on the machining operation and tolerance requirements of the part being machined. For features that require more than one machining operation on the same feature. TRACKING ERROR b. ANGULAR ERROR c. the alignment tolerance for Tracking and Angular errors for all spindles in the process is the final pass tolerance. MACHINE BASE AND MACHINE SPINDLE VERIFICATION The following information shall be provided to the purchaser at the time of runoff. MACHINE BASE VERIFICATION . The machine spindle shall be checked relative to a master part/pallet or suitable reference and be within alignment TOLERANCE specifications for: a.
final spindle alignment shall not be conducted until ample curing time has taken place. d. Tracking error (Alignment readings) d. The flatness of the QUALIFIED LEVELING POINTS. The FLATNESS of the surface to which the slide assembly will be bolted. The base shall have qualified leveling points. . and Coplanar requirements in a stress free condition. Where bases/foundations are constructed using concrete or grouts. Proper Civil engineering and Soil base Sampling should take place prior to pouring the machine base foundation. c. b. the qualified leveling points allow the machine’s flatness and LEVEL to be checked quickly and easily.When verifying the MACHINE BASE. Angular error (Alignment readings) e. c. The Parallelism of the Qualified Leveling Points to the slide assembly mounting surface. Alignment tolerances b. MACHINE BASE MACHINE BASE CONSTRUCTION A solid and rigid machine base is required to achieve and maintain spindle alignment. and all box and motorized spindle applications. A Graphic showing the integrity of Flatness and Coplanar conditions. The COPLANAR condition of the Qualified Leveling Points. MACHINE SPINDLE ALIGNMENT VERIFICATION Laser alignment will be performed at the machine tool vendors location for all Multispindle heads. Torque (actual) and torque sequence of hold down bolts. Position error (Alignment readings) f. e. the machine tool builder shall document and provide the following data: a. Verification of alignment and re-alignment will be conducted at the purchasers facility during installation of the equipment. Spindle manufacturers recommend torque and sequence of hold down bolts. when the base is mounted in a STRESS FREE CONDITION. When verifying the machine spindle alignment the machine tool builder must document and provide to the purchaser the following data for each spindle: a. Flat. (A minimum of Thirty days is recommended) The machine base shall meet Level.
Alignment methodology and tolerances to be determined and agreed upon by the purchaser and the machine builder. adjustable and induce no unnecessary strains on the machine base. The SPACER BLOCKS shall be used to adjust the way assembly VERTICAL angular alignment (PITCH) and vertical position alignment. MACHINE WAYS MACHINE WAYS BOLTED TO MACHINE BASE Where the individual machine ways are bolted directly to the machine base. Spindle. d. Qualified leveling points shall be coplanar within . b.0167 mm/meter). have a nominal thickness of . MACHINE WAYS ASSEMBLY The machine way assembly load bearing areas shall be mounted on individual FULL BEARING FITTING SPACER BLOCKS. The blocks shall have slotted holes for easy removal.250 inch (6. Machine base mounting points shall be accessible. etc. Those portions of the machine base surface that support the slide assembly and the qualified leveling points shall be flat within . MACHINE BASE FLOOR MOUNTING a. Guards.0005 inch (0. stress relieve the entire base. b. (Motors. The qualified leveling points shall be ACCESSIBLE and outside the projected area occupied by the machine components. After all welding and machining is completed. c.0005 inch. The accumulative error in Flatness Surface Integrity over the entire machine base surface shall not exceed the value agreed upon by purchaser and builder.0002 in per foot (0. shims and/or grinding may be used to achieve vertical angular alignment and a vertical position alignment as dictated by the process and part tolerance. Slide. (0. MACHINE BASE TOLERANCES: a.0127 mm). The qualified leveling points shall be parallel to the slide assembly mounting surface with . .0127 mm).0005 inch (0. Pumps.350 mm) and mounting surfaces (top and bottom) shall be parallel with .a.) b. The machine base floor mounting technique shall be approved by the purchaser. The qualified leveling points shall be located above each machine mounting point.0127 mm).
rear. have a nominal thickness of . PUSH/PULL BLOCKS shall be used to adjust the way assembly’s HORIZONTAL angular alignment (YAW) and horizontal position alignment.Individual spacer blocks at each bolt may be used where a full bearing fitting spacer block is not practical. The machine way assembly shall not be doweled to the machine base. The blocks shall have slotted holes for easy removal. JACKBOLTS shall be used to move the way assembly vertically and be located adjacent to each shim/hold down bolt support point. 250 inch (6. FLANGE MOUNTED SPINDLES Push/pull blocks shall be used for position alignment in a plane parallel to the flange mounting. The push/pull blocks shall be accessible.350 mm) and mounting surfaces (top and bottom) shall be parallel within .0127 mm). All other spindle axes shall be parallel to the reference spindle axis within . BUSHING PLATES . 0005 inch (0.0005 inch per foot (0. A reference spindle shall be designated by the purchaser. and all other support points of the spindle shall be used for tracking and position alignment in the vertical plane.0417 mm/meter). MACHINE SPINDLE ADJUSTMENT DESIGN The design of an align-able machine spindle assembly shall incorporate the following: SINGLE AXIS BOX SPINDLES AND BOX SPINDLE CLUSTERS Push/pull blocks shall be used for tracking and position alignment in the horizontal plane. Jackbolts shall be used for tracking error alignment. Full bearing fitting spacer blocks located under the front. MULTIPLE SPINDLES Provide push/pull blocks for tracking and position alignment in the horizontal and vertical plane. Flange mounted box spindles are not recommend.
0000 mm I.0002/-.) If spacing or center distance constraints do not allow for a . Laser and Target post sizes should be common within one machine.D.(0.0254 mm). per meter). per meter). Provided by machine tool builder. All bushing plate locating and mounting surfaces shall be ground to a known datum.0250/-.0000 inch (+.D. therefore English to Metric I. Laser holding adapters shall be of a length that is as long as is practical and conditions allow. e.D. conversions will not be exact. Practical to install and use while machine is in a production environment.D.). If spacing or center distance constraints do not allow for a .0010/-.0002/-. (20 mm +.7500 inch (20 mm) inside diameter. (20 mm +. f.0051/-0000 mm I.D.7500 inch (20 mm) inside diameter. LASER/TARGET HOLDING ADAPTERS shall be: a. and runout of the inside diameter to the mounting journal shall not exceed .Machine spindle and tooling shall be designed whenever possible to eliminate the need for Bushing Plates. LASER ALIGNMENT SUPPORT SYSTEMS NOTE: Nominal English/Metric dimensioning is used for Laser/Target Holding Adapter I. Standard inside diameter of each Laser holding adapter shall be ground to .0000 inch I.0010 inch per foot.0000 mm).D. square and parallel to . then the inside diameter shall be reduced to the next appropriate nominal size +. Shall mount to represent the spindle’s axis of rotation.0833 mm.0833 mm. Standard inside diameter of each Target holding adapter shall be ground to .. c. Where Bushing Plates are necessary: Bushing liners shall not extend past or above the surface of the bushing plate.0250/-. . d.0051/-. Bushing plate liner position tolerances shall not exceed 5% of total part tolerance.7500 inch +. and Bushings I.0000 mm).001 inch (0. Adapters are required for each line-up application to secure the laser or target.7500 inch +.0010/-. however the tolerance integrity must be maintained. then the inside diameter may be reduced to the next appropriate nominal size +.. 0010 inch per foot (0. b.0000 inch (+.D. Bushing liner ID centerline shall be perpendicular to the bushing plate mounting surface within .0000 inch I.
0001/ .D. clamp pads. c. All of the above details and the master pallet/part that may effect the REPEATABILITY of the master shall be inspected and documented.0025/-.(National Institute of Standards and Technology). The master part shall be Meehanite cast iron or metallurgical stable hardened steel as appropriate based on part size. Practical to install and use while machine is in the production environment. The head of the bushing shall be ground square to the bushing I. e. All Adapters and Masters are to be housed in an environmental proof permanent packaging suitable for gage storage.0001/-. sizes may change due to size constraints. a. Tooling number and detail number. Details with the master pallet/part shall duplicate the production pallet/part such as: pallet feet.0000 inch (+. per meter).001 inch per foot (.0833 mm per meter).I. (Variance allowable subject to prior approval by purchaser). transfer mechanism.S. .0000 inch I. Bushings required to mount the target receiver to the master pallet shall be ground and lapped to .D. within . Where there are multiple bushings. Inside bore diameter. however I. the total accumulative error must not exceed . Accurately represent the part characteristic centerline and made to gage tolerances. I. registry system. d.0025/25/-0000 mm I.D..7500 inch + . Traceable to N. + tolerances remain unchanged.Each adapter shall be black oxide coated and have the following information clearly stamped and filled with yellow paint on the body of the adapter.D.0000 mm).) If spacing or center distance constraints do not allow for a . The Master pallet base shall be Meehanite cast iron for stability.7500 inch (20 mm) I.001 inch per foot (. etc.T. Provided by machine tool builder. Where Bushings are not used. then the inside bushing diameter shall be reduced to the next appropriate size +. TOOLING MASTERS/PALLETS AND FIXTURES SUPPORT SYSTEMS The tooling masters/pallets shall be: a. b. bushing. (20 mm +. All adapter designs requiring tool numbers shall be approved prior to build. b.D.0833 mm.D.
The ability to index the master through each station with the transfer shall be considered during the initial design. GUARDS & UTILITY CONNECTIONS Guards shall have access covers and or be designed for easy removal ensuring that all alignments points.All bushings shall be a minimum of 1. Consideration should be given to confined space restrictions. electric lines etc. Nominal cordial distances between all bushings or holes shall be within 5% of part tolerance maximum error. which provides exact control in positioning the machine. GLOSSARY 1) ACCESSIBLE: The ability to reach and adjust the aligning feature. All hard lines will be routed such that all alignment points. hydraulic lines. This misalignment condition may exist in planes both horizontal and vertical to the axis of rotation. removing guards. 4) ANGULARITY: The angle between the rotational centerlines of two shafts. All bushings/holes with the master upright assembly shall be tagged with appropriate hole number and station number. Each transfer leg shall be reviewed to identify if common bushing/hole positions are required on both sides of the upright for lining up both left and right machining stations. lubrication lines.5 inch (40 mm) in length and no blind bushing holes are acceptable with in the master unless approved by the purchaser. All design concepts shall be approved by the purchaser prior to equipment build. shims and adjustment bolts are accessible. shims and adjustment bolts are accessible. The master will be used to periodically master the pallet checking gauge and shall incorporate all design features for this inspection requirement. and an angle in two perpendicular planes. The indexing direction of the pallet shall be clearly marked to eliminate incorrect loading by the operator. non-accumulative. bushing plates. 2) ALIGNMENT TARGET SPECIFICATIONS: Desired intentional offset and angularity at coupling center to compensate for thermal growth and/or dynamic loads. horizontal and vertical. 3) ANGULAR ERROR: A misalignment condition characterized by the angular error between the desired centerline and the actual centerline. Angularity is a “slope”expressed in terms of a rise (millimeters or thousandths of an inch) . Most properly specified as an OFFSET.
E. Pads are commonly used compensate for differences in machine center line heights. the coupling.W.5. 11) C. Ontario L5N5N1 416-542-1312 12) FULL BEARING FITTING SPACER BLOCK: A single spacer block used for aligning the machine tool in the vertical plane. Co-linear as used in alignment means two or more centerlines of rotation with no offset or angularity between them. Two or more lines are co-linear when there is no offset or angularity between them (i.5) 10) COUPLING POINT: The phrase “COUPLING POINT” in the definition of SHAFT ALIGNMENT is an acknowledgment that vibration due to misalignment originates at a the point of power transmission.B.over a run (meter or inches). The shafts are being aligned and the coupling center is just the measuring point. and for increased corrosion resistance by raising the machine feet out of any possible standing . and permitted by journal bearings. a flat is a small surface flush with or cut into a BASE PLATE. (Per ANSI Y 14.: Canadian Welding Bureau: 7250 West Credit Avenue Mississauga. machined flat. and co-planar with the other flats in the base plate. The flats support the Shims and/or feet of the machine to be installed.: American Society of Mechanical engineers 345 East 47th Street New York. 5) A. END FLOAT: Shaft axial movement along its centerline caused by axial forces. thermal expansion or contraction. they follow the same path).e.M. often made of steel plate or cast iron.S. AXIAL FLOAT. NY 1017 212-705-7722 6) AXIAL PLAY. 13) FLATNESS: The condition of a surface having all elements in one plane. 9) COPLANAR: The condition of two or more surfaces having all elements in one plane. 7) BASE PLATE: The surface . to which the feet of a machine are attached. sleeve bearings and/or looseness.) Note: As used in this specifications. 8) CO-LINEAR: Co-linear means two lines that are positioned as if they were one line. (per ANSI Y14. A pad is a small block of metal that serves to elevate the feet of the machine above the surface of the base plate.
pumps. often referred to as a machine in its own context. Pads and flats have holes drilled and tapped in their centers to accept hold down bolts. 25) PUSH-PULL BLOCKS: Side push-pull adjustment blocks used for aligning machine tool in the horizontal plane.54-1991) 24) POSITION ERROR (CENTERLINE/OFFSET MISALIGNMENT): A misalignment condition that exist when the spindle/shaft centerline is parallel but not in line with (not coincidental) with the desired alignment centerline. 19) MACHINE BASE: The structure that supports the machine or machine components under consideration. 14) HORIZONTAL: Parallel to the mounting surface. etc. each foot of the machine and are used to adjust the position of the machines. spindle. 18) MACHINE: The total entity made up of individual machine components such as motors. Bolts mounted on the machine base or foundation. JACKSCREWS . Also reference MACHINE COMPONENT. PUSH/PULL BLOCKS: Positioning bolts on the machine base which are located at. 17) LEVEL: Parallel to a reference plane or a reference line established by a laser. . etc. 27) REPEATABILITY: The consistency of readings and results between consecutive sets of measurements. 16) LASER/TARGET ADAPTER: A laser/target adapter is an adapter which allows the laser/target to be mounted into the spindle or master part. 21) MACHINE DEPENDENT: A condition which is dependent on the machining operation and the design requirement of the part being machined. pump. 15) JACKBOLTS. 26) QUALIFYING LEVEL POINTS: Qualified leveling points are locations which have their heights defined and must be in same plane. fixtures. That plane must be parallel to the mounting surfaces of the slide assembly. 20) MACHINE COMPONENT: An individual unit such as a motor. fixture. optimally at the machine foot locations. spindles. 22) OFFSET: The distance (in thousands of an inch or in millimeters) between two reference centerlines such as a spindle center line and a part characteristic centerline or the rotational centerlines of two parallel shafts. 23) PITCH: An angular misalignment in the vertical plane. (ANSI/ASME b5. which provides exact control in positioning the machine.fluids.
oil. “SQUISHY” SOFT FOOT: A type of soft foot characterized by material.g. INDUCED SOFT FOOT: A type of soft foot that is caused by external forces.28) SHAFT ALIGNMENT: Positioning two or more machines (e. 36) TRACKING/TRACKING ERROR: An angular MISALIGNMENT condition .) acting on a machine independent of the foot to base plate connection.. PARALLEL SOFT FOOT: A parallel gap between the machine foot and its support surface. ANGULAR SOFT FOOT: An angled gap between the machine foot and its support surface. DEADBAND. 32) STRESS FREE CONDITION: The condition that exists when there are no forces acting on the structure of a machine. 34) TOLERANCE. 31) SPACER BLOCKS: See FULL BEARING FITTING SPACER BLOCK. 29) SPINDLE ALIGNMENT: The geometric relationship between the spindle axis or rotation and a reference datum. 35) TOLERANCE VALUES: Maximum allowable deviation from the desired values. WINDOW. etc. a motor driving a hydraulic pump(s). rust. like a spring between the underside of the machine foot and the base plate contact area. 30) SOFT FOOT: A condition that exists when the bottom of all of the feet of the machinery components are not on the same plane (can be compared to a chair with one short leg). grease. etc.) acting. coupling strain. paint. dirt. twist.) so that the rotational centerlines of their shafts are collinear at the coupling center under operating conditions. It must be corrected before the machine is actually aligned. whether such values are zero or non-zero. 33) THERMAL EFFECTS (GROWTH OR SHRINKAGE): This term is used to describe displacement of shaft axes due to machinery temperature changes (or dynamic loading effects) during start-up. OR ENVELOPE: An area where all misalignment forces sum to a negligible amount and no further improvement in alignment will reduce significantly the vibration of the machine or improve efficiency. etc. etc. or machine base that would cause distortion in the structure such as bending. (could be Shims. machine component. Soft foot is present if the machine frame distorts when a foot bolt is loosened or tightened. ( pipe strain.
Room 139 Gaithersburg.I. 39) N. National Institute of Standards and Technology Building 304.between spindle centerline and the machine way centerline. This condition may be present in both parallel and perpendicular to the way centerline 37) VERTICAL: Perpendicular to the horizontal plane.T. 38) YAW MISALIGNMENT: An angular misalignment in the horizontal plane.S. MD 20899 301-975-3503 Other Useful Information for vibration analysis is listed below: .
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