Ray Lyman Wilbur, Seerel .. y
GM.,.. O ~ ",IUI. IMnctH
Prof eastonal Paper 164
Propert'j of
For:." by lob. kpr.-tntaD4n& oJ Ooeum.nta. w ~ 0. c. .... .. • - .. . .. .. .. .. Prk-. '1.01 (paper 1:'0"''''
IDtroductlon __ . ____________________ __________________ . ________ "' ... ___________________________________________ _
HI.tory and IeOp. ot investllationl ............ _ ...... _ ........................ _._ ... ___ ..................... ___ ... __ .......... _______ .................. __ ............ ___ e ...... ____ ... __
Previou. lVork _________________________________________________ __________________________________________ _
Chapter I. (}eoaraphy _______________________________________________________________________________________ _
!,ocatioD. and extent ___ • ___ ... _________ ....... ;0 _ ... __ ._ ......... _ ............ ___ ... _ .... ______ ... ___ ... ___ ..... ____ ."' ... ___ ... ____ ...... _ ............. _____ _
1rhe[Dap------------------------------------------- ____________________________________________________ _
aketeh ________________________________________________________________________________________ _
Spanish entrada8 ______________ _____________________________________________________________________ _
1rhe trappeni _____________________________________________________________ ________ .. _________________ _
Powell &nd Wheeler lurvey, __ .. " ________________________________________ ____ ____ ______________________ _
eroNingll of tbe Colorado _________________________________________________ ___________________________ _
1ropographte _______ ______________________________________________________________________________ _
Climate o( .autbeaatern Utah _________ .. _______ .. _______ .. _______ .. _________ .. ______ • ____________________ ___ • __ _
General condit[olll ______ .. _______ .... ________ .. ___ • ___ •• ___ ... ______ • _ .. ___ .. ____ .. _______________ • ____ _____ __ _
·PTeeiplt&Uon _________________________________________________________________________________ _______ _
Fteeordl ______________________________________________________________________________ ___ _______ _
(}eographic __________________________________________________________________________ _
Variation from yenr \0 year _________________ .. _____________ .. ___________ .. _____ ...... _________________ _
Seasonal distribution ________________________________________________________________ ____________ _
Character of rainstorml .. _______________________ .. ___________ .... ________________ ._ .. _________________ ..
Temperature _______________________________________________________________________________________ _
______________________________________________________________________________________________ _
Soil ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _
Vegetatlon _____________________________ __________________________________________ ______________________ _
AnirnaJa ________________________________________________________________ • _______ • _________ • _____________ _
IohAbit&nlo ____________________________________________________ _______________________________ __ ________ _
Indian tribes _______________________________________________________________________________________ _
1rhe ptoneers-------------- - ---------------------------.----- ________________________________ _
I.ees Ferry .. ____________ .. _____________________ .. ___ .. _ ...... __ .. __ .. __ ...... __ .. _________ .. ______ • _ .. _ -' _____ . _____ _
Pana ______________________________________________________________________________________________ _
Cannonville, Henrieville, aDd Tropic- ___ .. __ .. ____ .. ___ ...... ____ .... _ .. ________________ .... __________ .. ___________ ..
EocaJante ___________________________________________________________________________________ _______ _
PopULatiOD _______________ .. ____________________________ .. ____ .. _ .. ________ .. ________ .... ________ • __ .. __________ _
______________________________________________ _
:::: ::::: ::::: :::: :::::: :::: :::::: ::::: ::::
Chapter 2. ___________________________________ e _____________________________________________ _
General atrati!raphio relations _____ .. _ .. ________________________ .. _ .. _ .. __________________ .. _ .. _______ .. __________ _
Perxnian (orInaUoDB .... _. ________________________________________ • _______________ .. _____ .. _ .... _. __ . _____ _____ _
I.ocatioD aDd esten .. ____ .. ______ • __________ ... _______ ...... ____ .. ____ • ___________ .... _ .. _ .. ______ ' __ • ___________ _
Kalbab llmeetone and Coconino 8andstone ______________________________________________________________ _
IIlatorical sketcb ________________________________________________________________________________ _
l'o",hero FUUbab F1ateau ___ • _____________________________________________________________________ _
CJli«s _____________________________________________________________________________________ _
Physical leatureo ____________________________________________________ ; __ ____________________ _
_________________________________ , __
FaunBlohazacter ____________________________________________________________________________ _
CI888ifieatlon and oorrelation _________________ ..... ______ .. ______ • ____ • __ - __ - _____ - ______________ • ____ _
Kaibab-Moenkopl oroslon Interval _________________________ • ____________________ -- - ____________________ _
Triaaeic formatioDa __ .. ___ .. ___ .. ______ .. _. ____________________________ ... ______ -- -- .. ---- - --- - - ..... - - --- - .. ----- ..
Historical oketeb __________________________________________ : __ : _______ - ____ - ____ - ___ - ___ e ____________ _
.. ---.-------- .. ------- .. ------ _____________ _________ .. __________________ _
Areal diatribullon and thIek ________________________ e ____________ - - - - - - -- - _ - - - _. _____ - - - - - - - - - - __
IJthologie feat"""' ___________________________________ e _______ - ___ - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - ___ • - - - - -- - - - - - -_
Stratlarapby ______________________________________________________________________ e _____________ _
A.ge and correlatioD _______ .... __________ .. ___ .. _ .. ___ .. __ • ____ .. ___ • -- ____ - - - - - --- - - - - .. - _ .... _-.:. --- - - - - - __ _
Moenkopl-Bhinuump erosion interval .. ______ .. ___ .. _____ .. ________ .. _____ - __ ,_ -- - - --- -- - - - - - _ - _- .... __ - - - -- ---_
Sbinarump oongloDlerate _______ .. ___________________________________ - _________________ ._. _____________ _
P ...
Chapter 2. Stratigraphy-CooIiDuod.
TrlAMIo rorma.tioDl-Continued.
Chiole form"Lion- ___ - - -.--- - - .---." - - - - - - - .--' - .-- - - - -- - -- - -- . --- --- _ .. -- -. - - - ---.- - - _. - _ .. . - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Definition, areal extent, &ad thiekaeu __________ - --- - -.- --.- -- w __ -- ' .- -- .---.- - -.- - - - - - _ ... - -- - - -. - - . --
Typlca) .eetlOOIl __ ------------ ---- -- -- --- -- ----- - --- .--- -------- -.-.- - - -- --- - - -- __ A - - - - - _ .. -. -- - ---
GeDeral re&Wrea of Itratigraphy .nd Iithol.°8Y ---- -- .- - - - -.- .-- -- - - --- - -- --- -- .-- - - - - -- - - - -- - - .. --- - --
Ap .ad correla.t.ioo ______ - ----- --- - .--- -- - --- --- -- . - - - -- - - - ---- - - -. - - - ---- - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - _. --
ChlDle· Winsate eonta,1. -- ............... -- ................. --. -- --'''' -- .• " -- . -- -- ...... - .. -- .. ..
JurAMIe format.iolll_ ------ ----- -- - -- - - - - -.-- - -- -- - - - - - -.- --- --- - - - - - ----- - - ---- ---- - -- --- - - - - - -" - - - - - - - ---
Hiot.orie.1 oketch •• __ .... __ ...... ". _'" __ ..• __ .... __ .. --0. --.--- ......... -- .. . ...... --- .. -- ......... .
GtlDerallithoiolie features ____ - -- - ------ -- --- ------ - -- ---- - - - -- -- -- - - -- -- - ------- - - - - - - - - -- - - --- - - - ---
Pruen .. kaowtedlc 01 the Juraseic of 90uthern t'lah __ . __________ _______ ____ _____ ________ __ __________ .. __ A
Major divisioll8 of .. he Jurasaic _______________ -. --- - - _r ---- - -.- -- - ---- - - .. - --- --- p ------ - - -- - .. - -- - - - - - - --
GIeD CanyoD group (Jul'08sie!) --- - -- - ----- - -. -- - - - - -- - - - --- -- - - -- - -- --- .. - --- - -- --- -- - - - -- - - - . -" - - - - - - --
Winpte lIandstone _____ --- -- ___ - - -- _ -- ___ ----- ---- .. - - - -- - -- --- -- ----" - ---- - --- .. - - - - - -- - - .. " - - - ----
To(Ulto (1) tormatioo ____ 0 .... __ ...... -- .... ---------- .. ,,- • •• - -- ........ ----........ --. -- ..... '"
Navajo .a.ndltone_ -- -- - ------ ---- - -- --- -- --- - -. - -- - p ----- - .. --- ----- - -- ---- - - - - - - - -- . - - - -- - - - - .. - --
Distribution aDd puenl appearance_ -- - - - - -- -- - --- -- - ----- - -.-- -- - -- - -- - - - - -- -- - - - - .. - - -- -- - - ---
Stratillraphlc rell.turel __________________ . _. _______ - -- -. -- - - - - -- ..... - -- - - - - - r -- - - - --- - ... -" - -- - - - --
Structure, texture. and compolitioD _____ ---- - - - - - - - - - - --- ------- - - ---- - - - --.- ---- - - ---- ---- - - ---
Color ______________ __ _____________________________ __ --------------------------------------
Glen CanyoD .roup of Pari .. Valley and westward_ - - - - -- - -- - -- -- - .. --- - --- - - .. . -------- - .... - - - ----- - ---
Son Ito/Bel group (Ju,...,,;o) ........ -- ..... -- ............ --'--'" .... " ---- ... -- ....................... .
Di.trlbution and topographic c:!l:preMiun _____ --- --- --- --. - - ---.- ---- - ---- - ---. -- .. - -- -- -- -- .. - - --- -----
Ge.neral "tra.tilrll.phie &rId litholollte fen.l:urel_ - - - - - - -- - -- -- .. ----------- - - ----- - -- - - - ----- - - -- - - - - - - ---
Age and correlation _____ ____ ___ - - -- - - - - -- ---- - - - - -- - .. - -- ----- - ---- -- -- ------ -- --- - -- - - - " - - ---
Cume1 form.tioo _______ ___ • ____ - - - -- - - - --- - . --- - - -- --- -- - -- ------ - - .. ,- "' . - --- - - - .. -- - - - - - - - - - - - - --
HiltoriBal .ketch ____ --._ - -.- -- - ------ -. --- - - -- - - - - - -- - - --- -- - --- - .. - -- ------ - - - -- - -- - -- - - - ---
Stratigraphie .ectiont. ___________ .... _ -- ----. - -- -- ---- - ----- - -- --- - - - -- --- ---- - - - --- -. --- - - -- - ---
.an&OOoo ___ . _______________________ - ________ - - _._ - 5-- - -- ----- - -- -- -----. - -- -- - - - ---
format!... ....... ________ --_ - - __ -------- -- --- ---------"'- -- - ---- - - - -- '" - .. - - --- - - --- - .. -- - - --
Ban RalRclsrol.lp and MorrLaoh rorm&ti.oa. (Cretaceouln undifferentiated ________________ __ ______ _____ · - -----
HoIlII Creek Valley ________ .. __ .. _______ ...... -- ____ • __ • ------. --. -- •• ----. - -- -- . -- •• ---- -- ---- --
Eoealanlo> ".iley. __ __ . ________ -- ____ . .. ------ -- -. - -- -- ... -- -- -- .. - --.-.--. ------ ----•.. ---- . . --
Paria V"ney ________ .. ___ _ .. ___ ___ _____ • __ • __ .. _____ .. _________ _____ _____________ • a - - - .. - -- - - - .- --
Glen Canyon nJion __ __ ___ ______ . __ _ - - _____ __ - ___ - - - - - - - -- - --- -- -- - - - - - --- - .. - --- - - - - -- -- - ---
Cre .. nceoua formationa __ • __ - __ _ -- - --- . • - - - - - . - - - ---. -. - - -.- - - - .... -- - - -. - -- - -- '" - - - - - - -- - -. -- .. - - - - - - --- - --
PrevioUi "Qrk. ___________ ______ ______ . . __ ____ _________________ _______ . -- . ___ ______ --- ------- -. - -- .
••••..•..• : •. ..•.••. ••. .. _ • • ..•.••. • ..•..•• • ..•• _ •.•••••.. _ ••.•... • •.•••... .•...•• ,
Topo",apbic expre.ion _________ _______ _______________ . ______ .. ______ • _____ • ____ .... ______ ___ - ___ - - - - -- - ..
<Xl:-relation ___________ ... ___ • ________ _____ . ___ __ _______ • ____ 'O _____________ • _____ .- ______ • __ • _ - -- ---
Areal ex\.leut and thickoeE8 _______________ . _ .. _______ _____ • ____ .. ________ .. _______ • ___ .. ______ • ___ .. ___ -_
Lithologic and atntigraphie fetlturetl ___________ 'O _ _ .. _________ _ ____ _ ____________ .. ______ • _______ • ____ --
--- -- ---._--_..-------_._-------
---------- ---- ----- ----.------
------ ------_.-.. ----------_._-
--- -- ----------_. ----- ----------
Stralll\t Cliffs And WahwCAp ___:::: ------. ------- --------' ---.... -.

format-lou (Eooene) ______________ • ____ :::: :-- - -- - - - -- -- -- ... .. -- - ---- - ------ --. - --
Di.tribut.loD and topoaraphio expre.ioD ___ ______ _____ - -- - - -- -- - - - -- -- -- -- - -- - -- - -- -- --
Pre'\-lou. atudis_. _____________ .___________ -- -- - ------ , -
------ _ ________ __ _________ . 4 __ ______ __ _ _ ____ _
p ...



Ch81)ter 2. S!ratigraphy--Continued.
'TertiAry rocks-Cont inued.
W.:)satch formation (Eocene)-Cont iut1cd.
Str.t.Ugraph.ic and lithologic features. __ • __________ '. ______ ____ _ . _ '. __________ •• __ . _. __ a __ '.,. _ _ • __
linconfor ulity at base of Eocene ____ .• ____ ... _____ _______________ • ____ ... _________________ ..... ____ __ __ _
Quaternary deposits ___ __ ________ ____ ____ • ____________ a __ • ______________ _ _ _ a _ ____ _ • _ _____________ a _. _ ____ _
rocks ___ - ___ _______________ __ '" __________ a __ ______ _ _ a _ _____________ • ___ ._.' ________ '. __ • ____ _ __ _
Chn.pt er 3. St.ructure . _ - . ' ______ ____ ____ • ___ ______ ___ __ .' ___________ ••• __________________ • ___ ____ • ____ a ___ a __ _
JlistoriC:l1 sketch __ • • __________ ____ _____ ______ _ .. __________ _____________ • ___ • ___________ .. _. _ .. ____________ _
R.egionnl relations __ __ • __ ... ,. ____________ ____ _______ _ .. ___ • ___ ____ ___ ____ ..... _. _________ _______ ____________ _
of determinat·ion ___ ___ • __ ___ ___ ___ __ ___ ___ _____ __ • __ ___ ___________ ,. ___ __ ___________ _____ __ ___ .. __
lVaterpockct IDonoc-line.... _____ _______ ______ ____ ______ __ ____ ___________ __ ____ ________ __ _______ • _____ __ ___ __ . _
Circle Cliffll upwli.rp ___ _________ ____ • ___________ • ____ __ ___ __ __ _ . ___ ___ • __ • ____ __ __ • _-..... __ .. ____ ______ ______ _
Harris synclinc __ ______ ... ___ ___ __ ___ _____ _____ _______ ____ ____ ___ __ _______ .. _____________ _____ .... ___________ _
CoUet.t antieUne. __ . ____ ___ __ _______ .. ___________ ___ __________ ___ .. ______ ____ .... __ ________ .. ___ • __ .. .. _. _______ _
Esoal.a.ate mouocHne. ______ ___ __ ______ . .;. ____ .. ____________________ ___ __________ __ .. ____________________ A ___ _
KatpnrQ"rits do\\>n\\'nrp ____ ____ __ _ A ____ ____ __ .. _ _ • _ . ___ _ • • __ __ _ ________________ _ __________ • _______________ .. _
ltock Creek anticline ____ _ . __ • _. ___ _____ __ __ ____ ____ __ .. _. _______________ ____ ______________ ________________ _
Croton syncli ne ________ ___ • __ • _. ____ ___ _______ ___ __ •• _____ . ______ ____ _____ _________ _________ ___ . ________ _
Last Chance ·syuclinc ____ ____ __ ____ _& ___ __ _ • __ ____ • _________ • ______________ • ________ __ ________ ._, _ _____ _
Smoky Anticline •• _ . • ____ ___ ____ __ • ___ __ _______ ___ • _____ ___ __ ____________ • .. _______________ ____ _
\\'n-rm Creek .syncline _____ •• ____ _____ ____ __ ___ • ___ ________ ___ • ______ .... _ _______ __ _____________________ .... _.
syncline _________ ___ ...... __ _ .. __ _________ __ .... _. __ ______ ____ ___ . ____ __ __ __________ _____ __ _______ _
Table Cli ff sync.1inc ____ ___ ___ ____ _____ .. ___ __ _______ ___ . ______ ____ ___ _________ ____________ ___ • __ __________ _
Echo tnonocline ______ . ________ _____ _____ • ___ . _____ ___ __________ _______ ___ .. : __ __ • _________ ____ _________ __ _
Pilria. plat.forw. ______ ___ _____ _____ __ ___ . ______ _______ ___ __ ______ . ___ ____ ___ ___ _ .. ____________________ .. ___ _
Ea8t Kfl.ibab monocline __ ______ ______ ___ _ .. ___ __ __ __ ____ .. ____ __ _______ _____ ___ ___ _______ ... ____ ____ __________ _
Kaibab upl\'urp_ .. ____ _____ ___ • __ • __ __ ____ __ ________ ,,_ . __ ____ _____ ___ ___ _ • . ____ ___ __________ ______ __ ___ _ _
PnunsBuguutfsult _____ __ _____ _______ __ ___ __ ___ _______ _____ ___ __ __ • __ __ __ ___ _______________ _____ ___ ••
Ch'pter 4. Physiography _______ __ __ ______ __ ____ ____ ____ ___ ___ ___ __ _____ ____________ ____ • _____ ___________ _____ _
RegioDal relatlons _______ __ ___ __ _____ _______ __ .. __ .. __________ ___ ______ ___ ____ ___ ____ _____ __ .. ____ ___ ____ ___ _
Factors that. infiuence erosion __ ____ __ ___ __ _______ ____ __ ______ ____ • ________ ____ _____ ______ __ . _. ________ ___ _ _
CIlIOa!e ___ ___ __ • __ ______ __ ___ __ _ • _____ ____ _____ _________ __ ___ ___ ________ __ ___ __ ____ ___ ___ ____ _____ _ _
Vegetatfon ____ _ • __ _ .. __ ___ __ ___ ___ ____ _____ __ ___ __ __ ___ --- --- ---- ------------. --- ---- -- --- .-.- r---- ---
Strealll gradients ________ __ ______ ___________ ___ ______ ___ _ .. __ _ . ___ .. ____ ____ _ .. ____ ____ ____ __ __ __ ___ .. ___ _
Ground _________ _________ __ _______ ___ __ __ ___ • ___ • __ • ____ _ • __ __ _________ _ • __ .. ______ __ . __ __ __ _
Rolnt.ions of topography to geology ______ ___ _____ ____ ___ ____ ___ __ ___ ___ __ ___ ________ ____ __ ___ __ ______ __ _ __ ..
(}enerat relations ___________________ ____ _______ ______ ____ ________ . ___ ... _____ __ ____ ______ • _____________ _
Relation of vnJley (orm to rock hrt.rdne6a.. ________ __ __ ___ ... _____ ______ __ ___ ___ _ . ___ ___ __ _____ _______ : ____ _
Valleys in soft rocks ____ ___ ___ ________ ______ ___ ___ •• ____ __ : ______ .. • __ _ M ___ ___ ____ • _________ __ _ _
Volleys in hard roCk8 _____ ___ ______ _____ ___ ___ __ ___ _______ _________ _ • __ ____ ___ ___ .. __ _ _
Valleys in hard aDd sort rocks __ ___ • _______ .. ________ ___ ____ :: ___ ___ ___ ___ • _____ . . ___ __ . _. __ __ . ___ __ _
.. = ==: =:: = =: =
Extent and or erosion _____ ______ _______ .. __ • ________ _ . ______ _ -.- __ _________ .. _ • ___ _____ _ .. __ . ___ ____ :. __ _
Erosion 5llrfo.ree. _______ ____ _____ _____ ___ __ ____ ____ . _____ _______ _____ __ _____ _ __ ... ___ ____ _ • . ___ . ___ ____ _
Regional ____ _ . _____ ___ ____ A __ _ _ ____ _ __ _ __ ___ _____ .. _. ____ ___ • ____ .. ___ __ ____ _ _ • ____ • _ __ __ _
C·anlloDvillo erollion surface ___ ____ ____ ___ __ ______ • __ ____ . ________ .. ___ .. __ • _______ _ .... ______ .. ____ . _. _____ _
Surf:lce of Knipnrowits Plateau . ______ __ .... _____ __________ ____ ____ _. __ ... _ - __ ___ ___ ____ ___ __ _____ __ ____ _
Surface of Paunsaugunt Plateau ___ . ___ __ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ __ ___ __ __________ __ _____ _ . _________ __ _____ ___ _ _
Slopes of Aquru-iu" ________ __ _____ ___ • __ • ___ ___ ___ __ _____ ____ ___ ____ ________ __ ____ • ___ _______ _ _
Eroalon 8urfaces a.t other localities ___ _____ ____ ___ _ • ____ __ ___ __ __ ___ __ _ . _____ _ ... . . _______ . __ _ "' ____ • ___ . __ _ _
(·nolosed meanders ___ .- ___ _____ ___ ___ ____ ___ __ .. __ __ _ ... _____ __ ___ ___ • __ _____ ____ ___ . __ ___ ___ __ __ __ . ___ ____ _ _
Cyclet of crollion . ______ A ___ • _ ___ ... _ _______ _ _ __ _______ • _ _ _ __________ ___ .. ___ _ __ __ __ . ... _ . ____ ____ w_ .. ___ ___ • __ _
Feat·ures of valleys _____ __ ________ __ _____ _ • . _____ . ___ _____ _____ ______ .. _. __ _ - __ ____ ____ - - - - ___ ___ .. __ • _. - __ _
Olen Canyon ... ______________ • ____ _____ ________ ___ . ___ ____ _ • ______ ___ . ____ _____ ______ ___ __ _____ ____ __ _
Wllhweap, Warm.. Last Chance, and Rock Valleys.. __ ___ _ a _ _ . _ .. _____ _ _ ... _ _ __ _ _ _ • __ __ _ • _ ________ ___ _ ______ _
Poria Valley _______ ____ ... _______ __ ___ . __ ______ ____ ____ ____ _ ._ .... . - - ___ ___ __ ___ - - - - - __ _____ ____ _ - - - - __ _
Escalante Valley •• ______ __ _____ ____ ____ _ • __ _______ •• ___ _ • ____ __ __ _____ _______ - . - -- _ - ____ ___ __ ____ -- -_
)'finor phyai·o@ra.phic features ___ ______ ___________ __ ______ .. ____ _____ .: __ • _____ ___ ____ ___ __ - __________ ... ______ _
AlJu"ial ____ ____ __ ____ __ _______ .... ____ __ .. ___ . _. - ____ _____ . --- - - - ---- -_ - .. _- - - - ---- --- __ - - _ - __ _
Canyon walls ___________ ___ _ . __ • __ .w _____ __ .. __ __ ___ __ • ____ _____ ___ • __________ • ____ .- __ --_. ___________ _
Butte. a.nd towen!l ____ _______ w __ _____ __ _ _ _ _____ __ __ ______ • ____ _ _ _______ - - - _ .. - ___ • _ _ _ _ ,_. _ - - - __ _ - . _ ... __
Arches and' brldges __ _______ __ ___ ____ ___ _________ A _ . __ __ _ _ . .. - _______ _ _ ____ _ ____ - - - ___ _ __ _ _ • _ -. - _ - -- ___ _
Wlltcr pocketa __ ... ___ . ______ ___ . _ ... ________ w ____ __ _ _ _ _ ______ -- __ ____ • ____ .. _ 0 ._ - ___ .. _ _ _ 0 _ _ • __ • • _ _ __ _ _
Work of the wind _____ ___________ ___ ___ ___ ______ ___ __ ___ - ___ _ - _ --- - - - - - - - - -- -- - . -- - - - - - --- - - - - - . ---
Landslide8 _____ _ _ ___ .. _____ ___ ____ _ • ___ ___ k ________ _ _________ ... - - ______ • __ ... -- - __ ... •• __ - -. - .
p ...
P ...
PL6TC]. Topoa:raphic Dl&P ot Kalplll'Owita region, ___________________________________________ .-. In pocket,
2. Geolosie map of Kalpoorowlll resioo, Ut&b-Arisona ___________________ : _____ - - - - - -. - -: -. - - - - - - -- --- - - - In pocket.
a. aeoer.u1Od view of Kalparowitaresloo looking nortb from the Utah-Arizona boundary hne_. _____________ ;___ 8
L A Contact of Moenkopi (ormation and K&ibab Umoolon. at mouth o( Kaibab Gulch; B, Cooloct 01 Kalbab hme-
',10 .. and Hermit abale 10 Kalbab Gulcb; e, Vi ..... alon, old Ule trail leadlo, to the Croeain, of the Fatbo .. ;
D HTraU" over Navajo aandatone Waterpocket Fold, near B&ker ranch ________________________________ _
6. eor:ohl,tlon ohart .110'11'101 relations the p .. leosoic and Meloloic rocks of the Kaiparowita region to tbOie of
adja •• .. ------------------------------.---------·-----.--.-----.--------------------.------
8. A, Marble 00 .... ; B, K&lbab limeolon. near junction of BU.er Fall. and Muley Twist roado __ ._. _____________ _
7. 4, Sbnabkalb shale member of Moenkopi formaUoD about 3 miles BOuthwatt of Paria; B, )loenkopi strata uncon-
(ormably overlain by Shinarump cooglomerate In northern part of Circle Cliff.; e, Butte I mile lOuthw •• t of
Parla._. _________________ . __ • ____________ • _________ • ___ ---------.------------------------------.-.
8. A, VI.wlooklna north aero,i Colorado River near Leea Ferry; H, 0/ Chinle .hale capped by jointed Wingate
_tone In lOothWoatem port of Clrole Cloth_ .. _____________ - __ - - -- - - - - - - -- -- - - - --- - -- - - - - - - - - - -- -. --
9. A, WaU of Colorado RJvor 8 miles above mouth of the Bee.lute; IJ, HODeycomb wea.theriDI in block of Wina
aandstooe, Silver FaUa Canyon. _________ - _ .......... _ ................ __ ...... __ ............ ___ ... ____ ... __ ...... -- ......... ... a ___ ......... -- ......... -- ... --
10. A, Gleo Canyon weat. of Kane Creek; B, Wall bordering Kane Creek.; C, Glen Cenyon Dear mouth of WUID
8pnnil Creek ___________________________________________________ ------:------------------------.--
11. A, Banded red and white eandetone and calcareoWl .hale of Cannel formation near Cr08lin, ol1.he Fatheraj B,
Clid' of mlUivo Entrada undatona overlain by banded Summerville 6trata. .a.nd capped by remnants of Mor ...
rieon unde\Ooe, Halla Creek Valley near Baker rLDcb _________________________________________________ _
12. A, Blah 01 nppl .. marked ohaly .. nd.teD. In Carmel formation, 40 feet above lop of Navajo in Dry Canyon; B,
Evenly Itrat.itled Entrada ... ndetone near Cannonville; e, er.-bedded Entrada .. r.d.tooe near CanDonville_
13. A, Banded ahal,. Summerville (1) Mlld,tone 1 mile lOuthweet of Ca.nDonvilllj B
MOniBOD (7) ea.ndatoQe on lower
vrabweapCraek ________________________________________ . _____________________________________ ----
U. A, 8traiSbt CIlII ... n<lllone on EacaI&Dte River weat 01 Eac&l&nte; If, Tropic .hale overlain by St .... I'ht Clill.
aan<lllon., vrahweep Cn.ok; C, vrall of Wahwoap aandalo .. , vrahweap Creek. _____ . ___________________ ._ IOf
16. Bry .. Conyon_ • ________________________________________________ • ____________ • _ c_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ ___ 106
16. Struo.un map of Kalparowite regloo ___________________________ . ________________________ .______________ 120
IT. GeoIOilo 88OtlOOB ao .... Kaiparowlte regioo _________________________________________________________ In pocket.
18. Paooraml. view from .... , of vraterpoeket Fold and .ketch ahowlnl lurI ... diatribution 0/ (ormatioos. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 120
19. A, VIew lookln, aouth aloo, Halle Valley from polot JUBt above mouth 01 Muley Twlat Creek; B, East Kalbab
__ w __________ www _____ w __ w_w _______ w __ ww __ w ______________________________________________ _
SlO. A. B. Vie ..... [lODl a poin' near the II Out" ____________ • _______________ • _________________________________ _
21. A, VI ... aloDl faoe of Straight CUIJa; B, Monoclio&! • .uey In Tropic ahal. alon, Eaat Kaibab monooUne eaat 01
Butler Viney; C, Colorado River from" pinoacle above Leea Farry __ .• __________________________________ 136
A, Oleo CanyoD "'OBt of mouth of K&oe Creek; B, Dry Valley, a bowl-like deprl!OBioD cut in the loft .trata 01 the
San &rut group and 'he MomlOD (T) lormation; e, 8tronlly underou' meander OD "fuley Twlat Creek ____ _
28. A, Canyon of Dea\h Hollow Creek; B, Canyon tributary to Muley Twi.' Creek ____________________________ _
24. To_phio and ,eolOCie map of a part of 'he vralerpockot mooocIine ____________________________________ _
215. A. Colorado RJ.ver Balla CroaiOli B, CannoD\"llle erotion ,uri.ce from point De¥ head of Little Canyon ____ _
26. AI Valley neaz Pula;: B, Paria River below Pariaj C, Glen Canyon at Waterpocket Fold _______________ _

27. A, PUla VaUey neal' mouth of CoU.onwood er.k.; B. Paria VaUey 1 mile below of Cottonwood Creekj C,
Cave in Navajo Mndatone, H&rri.e Washj D, Arch formed by eraaion of Navajo undslone in. wa.U of Eacalante
Canyon above mou\h of Sand vr .. b 16
28. EfOIIion ratQnan14 ____________________ ===== ====:::: ::==: ::: == ==:: ::::=:: :::::: =::: ::::::: =:::: =:: = =
A, Gold dredJe on Colorado Ri •• r Dear o( HanBOn (Pine Alcove) Creek; B, Steamboat eM'!.' H. SJWI'M",
coolttuQted to tt'IDaporl coal from Warm Creek to Lee. Ferry for placer mininl___________________________ 164
10. Coal _IODB measored In Kane and Garfield Counties Utah 16:
31. A, Petroutoroua Moenkopi ,\r&\& in eastern part of 'Circle
tI Bennett', oU fleldll" _______________ ... ___ .. _______ .... __ • ___ • _ .. : __ :_ •• ___ .. ____ .. _ .. _._ .... _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _
P ...
FIGURE I. Map .howinl the loea..tion of the Kaiparowit8 region _________________________________________________ _ • 4
2. Ma.p of eoutheaatern UtAh .howing location oC m.eteoroiogio atationa with reCeronce to the rims of the Blab
Ph,'-ua and to Colorado Valley _ ____ __ ______ ________ _ _________ _ _ ___ __ _ ____ _ ___ _ ___ _ ___ _______ _____ 18
3. Total and mean annual precipit.ation at-station8 in eout-hea-at.ern Ut&h _____________ ____________ .. ______ .. ___ 19
-t. 8euonal distribution of rainfa.ll In southeastern Utab ___________ ... _____________________________________ 20
:Ii. Relation or time of killin. frost to altitude in BOutheutem Utah__________________ __ _____________________ 23
8. Correlation of Crct.aceoUI formatwne and distribution of {auUM in Utab and adjacent regioDs_ ______________ 113
7. Generalized block ropreoenting .tag .. in the phyoiographic hlolory of upper Paria Valley________ 123
8. Map 01 • part of l{ane County, Utah. showlnc distribution of coal in Lb, Straight Clift's aa.ndetone
alone tbe tributaries or Warm and Laot Chao .. Creekl_______________________________________________ 150
9. Outline stratigraphic and ItructuraJ map or the Circle Cliff. area, Garfield Count,. Utah___________________ 156

lIountain. The purpooes of this exploration-to de-
termine I'ontes, to locate water holes, and to select
areRS where deto.i1ed geologic study could profitably
In their traverse of the Colorado River and of the be undertaken-were successfully I.ccomplished. It
rim of the High Plateaus the members of the Powell was found that the strlltigraphic formations previ-
Survey outlined a large aren between the Henry ollsly mapped in the N avojo country extended with
Mountains and the Kaibab Plateau within which Ihe little change throughout southeastern Utah.
Kaiparowits Platellu is the dominating feature. Diffi- During the summer of 1918 the exploratory survey
culty of RCceSS, dry climate, scant vegetation, small by Gregory was continlled. After leaving Green River,
..... ater supplies, I.nd complete absence of human Utah, on May 2, three weeks was spent in the stlldy
population previmted I. study of this region lInder the of stratigraphic sections at Temple Wash (San Rafael
conditions then prevailing, and the trl.ppers Ilnd Swell), Plensant Valley, Tl.ntalus Valley, I.nd along
prpspectors who preceded and followed these early the Wnterpocket Fold to the Colorado River at the
explorers were little interested in making detailed mouth. of Halls I.nd Hanson Creeks. After cl'08!ling
examinations of the sandstones that eonstitut6 most the \Vaterpocket Fold at Muley Twist, the next five
'of the bedrock. Largely for these reasons the Kaipa- weeks w .... devoted to nil investigation of the physi-
rowits region has long remained geologically unknown, ography and stratigraphy of the Escalante Valley,
and probably parts of it at least have been seen by . the rim of Glen Canyon, and the Kaipo.rowits Plateau
white men only within the last 10 years. Geologic and the examination of the geologic features of the
surveys within this unmapped area were needed for Paria, Wahweap, and Warm Creek Valleys at
correlating the formations and structure with those in not previously visited. In 1922, after completing in-
surrounding areas, and it seemed desirable to. know vestigations in the Kanab and Parunaweap V aUeys,
/\lore of Ihe physical features-the soil, water, climate, Gregory and L. F. Noble extended their geologic
and vegetation-as a guide in determining the use to traverse of and western Utah to include the
which this arel. of largely unappropril.ted land might Pari. VaUey and the south side of the Kl.iparowits
be put. Furthermore, the very fact that the existing . Plateau. The top and the east end of the Kaipa-
knowledge of the region was meager made .1. strong rowits Plateau were examined, and sections were
appeal. measured at Canann Peak, Henrieville, and Tropic.
With these ideas in mind field work designed to In 1924 Gregory spent two weeks in a study of
cover those pl.rts of southeastern Utah thl.t had not Mesozoic and Tertiary strata &long the eastern tribu-
been examined by scientific parties was begun by taries of the Paria River, I.nd in 1925 and 1927 he
Oregory in 1915. During that year a pack-train trav- extended the survey eastward across Glen Canyon to
erse was made from Lees Ferry along the north wall correlate the geographic and geologic features of the
of Glen Co.nyon and thence northeastward &cross the Kaiparowits region with those of southeastern Utah
Kaiparowits Plateau, through a region unmarked by and southwestern Colorado.
trails. From the head of Collett Wash the traverse Decl.use of the poesibility that the Circle CliBs
was continued to Escalante, where supplies and ad- region might contain oil poola, Moore was assigned
ditional horses were obtained, thence down the EI- to stratigrl.phie and structuro.l studies in this part of
calante River, across the Wl.terpocket Fold, .nd I southern Utah for three montha in the summer of
through the Henry MountaiDB to the mouth of I 1921. Assisted by A. C_ Tester and P. C. Benedict,
Trachyte Creek, where the Colorado was crossed by he mapped the Circle Cliffs dome, & part of the
swimming the hOl'Oea I.nd ferrying the equipment on I. Straight CliJrs front, the Harris V I.lIey southeast of
makeshift raft. The work of the season ended with Escalante, and the Ha11a V.lIey from Muley Twist
the traverse of White Canyon and the elopes of Ab&jo Creek to the C<>lor&do River. In addition to fairly
18940--31-2 ,
precise rapid geolocie and structural map-
ping, numerous stratigraphic sections were measured
and some fossils were collected. A reeonnai.6sance
study waS made of Tertiary and Mesozoic forma-
north of Kanab, where p&rty outfitted, of
the Kr.ibab Plateau southward to the rim of the
Grand CLlIyon, and along the route acrose the Paun-
oaugunt Plateau to Tropic Ilnd Henrieville in the
upper Paria Valley and to E1IC&lante by way of the
road south of the Table ClitJ Platel.u. A trip was
made from the lower Halls Creek V dley to the point
On the Colorado River where the Waterpocket Fold
Nached G1eD Canyon. In the later part of the field
HlBon I. amall area of eo&l land WIB studied in
louthern Wayne County on the northwest slope of
Mount Ellen, the most northerly I.nd highest of the
peak. in Henry Mountains. After pissing through
the Pleasant Valley and Capitol Reef W IBh the party
proceeded by wly of Fruita and Loa to Richfield.
Beginninr early in June, 1m, Moore's work 11'18
continued in the Kaiparowita region, with the pri-
mary object of cl ... ifyinr a large territory in lOuth.
central Garfield and eastern Kane Countiea that had
been withdrl.wn 18 possible cod land. A. C. Tester
and Y. W. Baas were IIS8istants. In general the work '
"18 limillll' to that of the previou. year, but in addi.
tion a reconnAiesance topographic map was prepared.
(S .. pl. 1.)
Inveatiptioll.ll were directed chiel!y to the Creta.
ceoua rocks of the Kaipl.rowits Plateau I.nd I.
pert of tha upper Pl.ril. V liley, but the older and
younger rocks were studied and mapped throughout '
most of the region. Field work terminated Sep.
tember 7.
In 1923, IS goolor,iEt of the plll'ty engaged
in mappm, Colorado River in the Grand Canyon
had opportunity to study the rock formatiou.:
In the Lees Ferry area.
the of Wila primarily a
geographiC and stl'at1Jtf&phlc reconnaissance and that
of collBitted of buic studies for possible future
eoonomlc development, the conditions that governed
work both investigators to make ohaerva.
tiOll.8 relating to all subdivisions of geology. Parts of
lrea. were studied by both geologists. Under these
Circumstances the of the field !!tudies may prop.
erly appear IS " smgle report under joint authorship
The authorship of the piper hi. heen divided as fol:
: Chapter 1 and the sections on the Tri_ic, Juras.
IIC, &nd Tertinry in chapter 2 have been written mainly
by Gregory. Cbpter 3 and the sections on the pre.
Triassic and Cretaceous in chapter 2 have been written
mainly by Moore, and the base map, geoiogic map,
sU-ucture map, and geologic sections ha.va been pre-
pared under hiM direction. Chapters 4 and represent
a combination of manuscripta by both authors. This
subdi vision of work has been adopted for convenience
only. The a.UthOI1l share equally for the
observations recorded a.nd the opinions expressed.
These investigations in the Kaiparowits region are
by no means exhaustive. Much of the work is recon.
naissanoe-some of exploratory-but text and
maps should fairly weIl present the ma.jor features of
. the geography and geology of tbis interesting part
I of the Colorado plateaus.
, • After the termination of the Powell and Wheeler
aurveys (see p. 7) • fluarter of I. century passed be-
fore the region that borders Glen Canyon becl.me a
field for geologic study.
In 1900 a party consistinll' of Tempest Anderson,
R. L. Barrett, W. )1. Da.vis, Richard E. Dodge, and
Herbert E. Gregory visited Lees Ferry on their way
from Flagstaff, Ariz., to Toquerville, Utah. Studiea
made by them of the physiographic features of Echo
Cliffs and the Pari. Plateau Ire recorded by Davis.'
Lees Ferry wu again visited by Johnson' &lid
Shimer' in 1906.
In 1913 Lawson' published a peper on the economic
of the" Shinarump clays" (Chinle formation
of nomenclature) near the settlement of Plria,
and bnef notes on the coal at Esca.lante and Warm
Creek and the placer gold along Olen Canyon haYe
appeared in. engineering and mining journals. With
these exceptions, no geologic studiea ha.d been mllde in
the Kaiparowits region prior to the field work on
which the present report i. based. On the borders of
the area exploratory surveys and detailed reconnais-
sance survey. had been made, and for,. large part of
the area the atlas sheet. of the Wheeler and P,owell
surveys, which indicate the supposed extension east.
of the geologic formations represented in tM
, High Plateaus, are available.
10. .... W. lit .. A. eJ:curstoa 10 C_ Grand Cao7oa .: tbe Colorade:
a.".rd c.n. Mua. Zoolo- BuU ..... 01 aa ( ... 1 _ vol 0) _
lOT-198, 1901,
.. #.. . . " . u ......
'loblaq, D. W.o .epott eo tbe nolOPatJ Uc:ur,1oe tbrouch New
lfezlco. Arlme •• aIM! Vtob. IUDlr:Ut ot ltu'WII· ""-.b Q .. rt .01 I" pp
",08--{lli. 190..
......,. u. ".... .
... Bhhne1', II. W., Permo-C.rto.,teroue 0' .... tbwu.en "tllO •• :
.u.;:, Amerlea Bull., 10, PO. ('7' ........ ,8. lOa.
• Llwaoo. A. C. TIle IOId 1o the Shlo.rump at Pari.: Ero •. Geoto..,.
901. 8, pp. 414-"8, 1915.

Since the begirullng of the field studies on which the
present report is based, twenty papers' that relate
ilirectly to this region have appeared. Several papers
relating to bordedng areas in which the stratigraphic
• LooQ:well. C. R .• "'lIe'r, B. D .• Moore, R. C., Bt'f ... Kirk. lind
PIIlp, 8idney. nock formatioDa Ia. the Colorado PlatSlI of lOutheo.a(.ern
t'tab aDd DOrtbern At'iaoll&: U. S. Gaol. lune,. Prot. Pnper 132. pp.
1-23, la2B. Moore, B. C .• Stratl(p'aPbJ' or • part ot .. mtht·ru Utah:
.... Aaoe. PetroleulD Oeoloi;l8t1 Bull.. yol. 6, pp. 199-221, 1922.
Bryn, Kirk. Wind eroaloQ at Leee F.rrr: Am. Jour. Bet. 'et'.,
yol. 6. pp. 281--30T. 1923. GresorY. B. B .• IDd Nollie. L. P., Notea 00
• Seolcc1cal h11VerM trom MoJava. CaW' .. to. the mo.tb 01. tbe Saln
lua.a: Alii. Jour. Sci., !Jth .er., vOl. ft. pp. 22t-238. 1823. Bryna, 10 ....
Dl8CUnloD. OD l"Od:-dlled dalD, Leu J'err1: .I. •• Soc. etvn EnE. Ttana .•
Yol. 10, pp. 1128. La Rut:. a. C., Water ,01"(>1' and looct
fOotrolot Cclorado River ,belo .... GreeD Rtver. Uleb: U. S. Geol. Su",e,
Water-Buppl, Paper Me. 182ft. Noble, L ..... A .cellon ot lb, !talbab
JllIlfttene to. B:albab Oatch, utab: '0. s. 0.01. Bune, Prot. Paper laO,
,p.. \11-60. 1928. Uoon. Il. C., Orlilo. of haeloaed. mell,u4en OD
ot m. Colorade PJateaa: Jour. GeoloD, vol. 34, p,. I8-IT, 1828.
Moore, R. C., IIlpUlcanet of 11lclOtM!Cl meandera 11l the pbraJoll'uphl.c
bletorJ af Ule Colorado Plateau eotInu1: Jour. GeololY. ftJ. N, ,p.
l1-JlO, 10M. Berry. Jt. w .. CrcadB 1.a tlM 8hlaanlmp CQnglolMrat(!
cd' lOutbem Utah: "'U'1DltOD Acad. Bet Joor., ,"oL 11, pp. 103-307,
1.2T. Grelor" B. II., 'fbe ka"ajo C!OlIlItr,...... lftCI'aphle aod h,.dro·
lraphlc HCOUllO.luauCt 0' ",rtl or A rllonct., New liIulea, aDd Utab:
U. a. GeoL Burft,. W.ter-Suppl, Paper 880, 1'18: Geo}OlJ .r nte
Na"jo EOUDt17-a. recoonallllflDCe ot parte ot Arlaobl, New lIe:aleo,
and UtAh: U. S. Geo)' SIW"'"", Prot. Paper 88. 1011. Emery. W. B., I
sequence iii closely similar to that of .the Kaiparowits
region have also been published.'
The papers by Noble, Reeside and Bassler, Gilluly
and Reeside, and that published under the joint au-
thorship of Longwell, Miser, Moore, Bryan, and Paige
are of particular value for comparative .tuilies.
Tile Green IU", .. r Delert eectlon, Utah: Alii.. Jour. 8cl., 4th ler., ?OI. 40.
pp. 1:I1-G7T. 1018. Ilab, C. L.., HlrlKOa or the .. rlDO Jura.le of
Uta': Joar. GeolocY. nil. ::1. pp. 83 ..... ' IOU, Tbe pre-Ko_topl
1) uDcollforlDU,. of tbe Colorado Pl.tflI..: Jour. GooJon' •
vol 28, pp. 81-H. 1D20. Butler. B. I .. aDd otbera,. Ore depoatta .1
Uta'; U. S. Gee!. Prof. Ill, 1120. Noble, 1.. 1'., ... IHo
Uoo of the Paleosok: tormatione ot tbe Gt'ODd Cau10S1i1 at t1M 81._
tun: u. S. CeoL But"Q' Prot. Paper lBl, pp. 21-33, Ina. ..
J. B., Jr., aDd UQNlrJ'. Barny. 8trat"rapble aecUoa.I la IDUthw.l.n
Utf.' luul nortb.estera ArlaoD..: U. S. GeoL 8Drve1 Prot. Paper 129.
pp. G!-71, 1922. IlIRl', H. D., Oeolotlc Itracture ot Ina Juao C •• fOO
aDd Idjae.ot couot17, UUb. I U. I. Oeo1. .Umt Bun. TDI, pp. 1 • ..,11&,
19201.. LoDlr"en. C. R.
TM ,re·Trlaal1e gDcootOnD.it1 .... tbern
Nevada: Alii. . .rOOf. ScI •• Dtll au., vol. 10. pp. 88-100,
• GlIIul),. JemH ... 41 Jleeelde, I. B., Jt., 8e4JmeataJ7 1'OC.' of the
SID Rd •• Swen an4 lOme .cIJaent arlal Ia. eIIaterD Utall t u.. e. Geol.
SutTe, Prot. Pmpel' 180, pp. 81-110, 1928. Lo_I"U, C. R .• OeoJOI'J
ot tbe :\fadel,. MountalDe,. Ne... wltk a aeetloo to Ille OraD.. Wula
Clta. ill WHtera Arlsona: Am. J'our. lei., Dtb ICI' •• 9'01. 1. pp. 30-81,
IIJ:!I. Ct'OIII. Whit..... 8tradcraphlc r.uUI of • recouDlllMaace ia
1fC8tem CoJorndo and .. atera Utab: Jour. OaoloU, .... 1. 11. pp.
83+-8'T8, 1.0T.
The Kaiparowits region lies mostly in GIl'field
County and Kane County, southern Utah, but
a sma.ll part of Coconino County, Ariz. (See fig. 1
and pI. I.) It is approximately included between par·
('I J 10:) MILLS
______ -J'
northeast boundary is Halls Creek. As thus appl·?xi.
matelv outlined the region has 0. length of 90 nul •. ",
a of SO miles, and an .8rea of 5,400 square
miles, nearly an in Utah. It is a vast expan ... of
undeveloped grazing land utilized .by a spa),se popu·
lation tha.t clusters ill a few small set·
t1ements where water for irrigation is
available. It is remote from the popu·
lation centers of Utah and Arizona.
The villages of Tropic, Cannonville,
and HendevilIe, near the head of the
Pari .. Va.lley, mark the terminus of
an automobile road 90 miles long that
reaches the Den"el' & Rio Grande
Western Railroad at :Marysvale, Utah.
From Marysvale a highway oIso ex·
tends 80 miles to Escalante and con·
tinues 35 miles to Boulder as a wagon
The five settlements-Tropic, Can·
Henrieville, Escalante, and
,Boulder, situated at the base of tile
High Plateaus-are the only per·
manent centers of population, and the
l'Onds to them nre the only ones that
are kept in 1·epair. To reach the few
intermittently cultivated dry brms
and the temporary .tock ca.mps, l'Oads
haye been marked out down the
Escalante Valley, along Pine Creek
and Halls Creek, and down Paria.
Creek. With suitable wagons it is pos·
sible to reach W"rm Creek and t he
Circle Clill's and to cross the Water·
pocket Fold, and at times supplies
have been brought to the settlements by
wagons from Kanab, 40 miles west;
from Green River, 100 miles north;
and even from Flagstaff, Al'i •. , 250
Ftouu I.-Map .bo .... l ... l'\e locllUon. ot Kalparowtu Jf1.;Lon (Iba<ll!d 3rea)
miles south. Except for the county
roads to Morys\'a1e and to Panguitch
and those in the immedia.te vicinity
allels 87· and 8S· and meridians 110· 45' and 112"
80'. Its south and southeast ooundary is formed by
Glen Canyon of the Colorado River; its west and
nortb boundary follows the valley e>f ti,e Paria River.
the edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau, the west ba ....
of the Table Cliff Plntuu. imd the rim of the Aqusrius
Plateau to its junction with the Wa.terpocket Fe>ld: its
of the villages, however, the recognized "ways of
going" may be called roads only for the want of a
better name. They are in reality trails with alternat·
ing stretches of sand, bare rock, and steep illclines
over which with few mishaps a .kirlf111 dri"er may
conduct a stl'ongly built, loaded wagon. For
most of the Kaipal'owits region .addle horse" an(l
"ack trains arc the only practicable means of trans-
(See pI. 4, C, D.) Only one established trail
crosses the Kaiparowit. Plateau.
The deep·cut iutedocking canyons tributary to the
Colorado, the buttressed walls of the Kaiparowita
Plateau, and its distance from settlements make the
eastern half of Kane County peculiarly difficult of
access, and the information obtainable from the few
stock men who have penetrated parta of this region
is meager and unreliable. The explorer must rely
on his e"perience and knowledge of topography to
lind routes nnd water holes.
The topographic base map that accompanies this
, report was prepared from plane-table .urvey. by
Moore, supplemented by maps of the counlry along
Glen Canyon made by the Colorado River survey.
of 19'21, by a m .. p of the Powell National Foreot made
by the Forest Sel·vice, and by the reoonnaissance maps
of the Powell Survey. (See pl. 1.)
In the Cir(·le Clift's, along the Waterpocket Fold,
and in the middle part of the Escalante Volley An area
of about 6;;0 .quare miles was mapped on a scale of
1 inch to the mile, wit h plone toble and alidade. AI·
titudes were determined by vertical angles b .. sed on a
bench mark of the United States Coast and Geodetic
Survey in Halls Valley .nd loe.tions by stodia trav-
erse and trioniulation. Section corners were located
southeast of Escalome and northeast' of the Cirele
and their position •• nd those of control points
in the inten·ening area were established by primary
triangulation. In the region east of the Paria River
and along the south flank of Lhe Kaiparowits Plateau
about 1,450 square miles was mapped wilh plane table
and olidade on L scale of 1 inch to the mile, and a
reconnaissance topographic map' was prep&red. This
survey showed th.t even the largest otream CQUI'SeS
and the most prominent cliff. and meSBS were inac-
curately or quite erroneously represented on the
earlier maps.
The geologic mapping may be rlassed as detailed
reconnaissl\noe. For parts of the region knowledge
of the stratigraphy and structure is insufficient for
precise mapping; for other parts more of the geology
i, known than is practicable to represent on the base
map. The geologic boundaries in much of the region
Ire based on mapping with plane table and aJidade 00
a sca.le of 1 inch to the mile. Though the geologic
map does not attain a uniformly high degree of ac-
tuncy, it probably records fairly the significant fea-
tures in the of southeastern Utah. (See pl. 2.)
The occupation of central Me:rico by the Spaniards
ill 1514 was followed by a series of exploratory upe-
dition. to the regions t.hat lie to the north. The firot
expedition, unde.r Nuiio de Guzman, met with disaster
before reaching tlIe Rio Grande. Marcos de Niza
was more fortunate. Accompanied by three other
priests, the Borbary negro Estevanico, and a small
body of soldi ... ·., he t .... venied Sonora and western
Arizona, reaching Zuiu in 1540. Jlis descl'iptions of
the &Cenery and especially of the intereoting pueblo
led to the ela,borately organized expedition of
Franciseo Vt\squez de Coronado, president of New
Spain. From Zuiii as a base, Coronado disp&t ched
expeditions into surrounding regions. Junn de Pa-
dilla and Pedro de Tovar discovered the unique Hopi
villages, and Garcia L6pea de Cardenas came, in his
journey northweshurd along the Moenkopi trail, to
Il great river whose blnks extended "three or four
leAgues into the ai .. " and Wei .. "broken into pinnacles
higher than the tower of the cathedra! of Seville."
ljndoubtedly Cardenas wa. the first white man to see
nny part of the Colorado cllnyons.'
After the expedition of Coronado (1540), Spanish
exploration included visits to Lhe COflst of California
(Cabrillo, 1542-43; Velosco, 1564), excursions among
the pueblos between the Rio Grande and the little
Colorado (Espej 0, 1582-83), and the founding of
Santa Fe by Juan d. Onate (16U). E:lplorations in
the Gulf of California were made by Vizcaino (1595-
96), Iturbi (1615), Ortega (1632), Carboneli (1636),
Can •• (1642), Casanate (1648), and Pinodero (1664).
The Jesuits (1642-1766) added little to the e:listing
store of geographic knowledge, but the Franciscans
(1707-1812) undertook mftny expeditions into un-
known territory now included in New Me:lico, Ari-
zona, Utah, and California. So far I.S known only
one of these famoU3 entradas ruched the land. beyond
the canyons of the Colorado.
Silvestre Velez de Escalante, min.i8tro doctrinero of
Zulli, ond Francisco Atana.io Dominguez, visitador
comisa .. io of New Mexico, set out from Sa.nts Fe on
July 29, 1776, for the purpose of discovering a better
mute f .. om New Mexico to Monterey than the one by
way of Gila, Mojave, and San Gabriel. In addition
to these two priests the party included Juan Pedro
Cisneros, alcalde mayor of Zuni, ne!na.rdo Miera y
Pacheco, capitin milidano of Sant .. Fe; and live
soldiers--Joaquln Lane, Lorenzo Olinre.., Lucrecio
Muniz, Andros MUiiiz, and Juan de Aguilar y $im6n
Lucero.' From the' clear description by Esc&!.ante
hi. route is readily traced. It led through the La
Plata Mountains, across the eastern part of the Great
Sage Plains to the base' of the La Sal Mountains,
thence northwestward acrees the Colorado and Green
'.01 ac!diUooa' _tal .. _tid rererencCli, lee Gre'lOl'J. H. 11., The
NenJo and hydrOi(rAphlc: roeoDDahianDCt of
parb! of ArIJoDIII. New )(edco, aod Utah: U. I. G.I. a.nej' Water·
IIIppl.1 Paper Iso. 1911.
Il:aeaIaate 8. V. ... DI,rlo, la DocumeatM JW)ra I, IIlatDrla ,.
.Uslco, pr. t . .,.01. I, p. 178.
Rinrs and through the Wasatch Pla.teau to Utah I
It is ditlicult to picture tho motives tha.t 100 Ese&lanto
to take this extremely circuitous l'oute. He ma.y have
been in1luencod by current rumol'S of a. great ri
north a.nd east of Monterey, which might lea.d hIm
to the California. coast, and by vague accounts of tribes
and villages north of Tusaya.n, but a. re&ding of .the
Diuio gives the impreasion tht zeal for e¥ploratJOn,
the pure joy of seeing unknown lands a.ud unknown
people, exe,·ted a. strong inftuence. Whatever the rea-
sons that brought Esca.Iante's party to the west base
of the W.sa.tch, it was evident to the lea.der that fur-
ther tra.vel to the north a.nd west would lead • way
from his prospective goal. He therefore turned south,
crossing BtrelUIl5 leading from the mountains_ Find-
ing that the India.ns knew nothing of roads to the
sea or to the 8pa.nieh settlements at the south, the
contemplated journey to California was aba.ndonOO
.... ith keen regret a.nd the decisioo reached to return
to Santa Fe t1l1'Ough the Moqui villllgea. This deci-
sion necessitated crossing the Colorado and long JOUI'-
neys through unknown lands. With tho scant sup-
pli .. remaining, supplementOO by seed. and pitlon
nuts, the party made their wily dong the blse of the
Wasatch to the Virgin River, thence elllltward fl'om
the vicinity of 8t. George, heading ca.nyons, crossing
plateaus, following dry valleys, ILnd finally reaching
the Colorado September 26. After a 12 days' search
tor a possible cl"OIISing among the cli/s and sharply cut
tributary gorll"8 of Marble Gorge and Glen Canyon,
an old Indian ford was found at the point aince known
as the CroS!1ing of the Fnthe.... The route southeast
from the crossing presented no great difficulties, and
the party reachOO Oraibi November 1ft, 1776, and Zuiii
January 2, 1777. The traverse of the plateal1ll lind
gorges north of Grand and Glen Canyons and the
cl'OII8ing of the river is perhaps the most difficult
undertaking credited to the intrepid Spanish padres.
The Hurricane Cliffs and Kanab Canyon are formi-
dable obstacles, and from the Paria outward the region
ill deeola.te and abandonOO even by Indiam i it is a
«no man's land" that sapar.tea the Utes from the
roving N syo.jos. Access to the Crossing of the Fathers
is through a narrow gorge, down precipitous slopes,
and crossing is feasible only at low w.tel· or on· ice
during abnormal winters. (See pI. 4, 0.) Lieutenant
Marshall,' who in 1872 found th .. ford but did not
cross, described the region 8S "one of remarkable
gl'811deur and almost unique in its loneliness." So far
as known Esc.lante was the first white mon to traverse I
southern Utah and the only e:tplorer to enter Glen
Canyon before Powell's memorable tra .. e...." nearly a
century later.
I U. e. auue,. W. lOOtb v ..... "'Pt .• .,oL 1. p. as. IS8&.
During the second and third decades of the nine-
teenth century trappers llnd fur ,traders crossed the
IWckies a.nd pushed their way into the Valley of the
Colorado but their wanderings, which m8.rk a note-
worthy in western exploration, added nothing
to the knowledge of southern Utah. After the over-
throw of Spanish power in 1821, a few traders ex-
tended their operations westward from Santa F.
haps as far aa the lower San Juan, ond Chittenden ,.
expresses the belief tha.t in 1824 William Bicmell, a.
trappel', wintered on the Colorado below the mouth
of the Green River. The Mission Fur Co. and its suc-
cessor, the American Fur Co., operated chiefly within
the Missouri River Basin. The business of the Rocky
Mountain Fur Co. centered on the Upper Green River
in Wyoming a.nd extended westward to Salt Lake
and northwestward into Idaho.
Camps and winter quarters were established on the
streams of the Uinta Mountains and on the Grand
River, a.nd partie!l WGrG at work along the Colorado be-
low Camp Mojave. The intervening stretch of about
600 WIS unmolested. It offered few attractions
to the trappel's, It was not beaver country nor buffdo
I'Inge. The river "could not be approached," its
Lordering countt)' was" desolate," " desert," and t"av-
6t-sed by "impassable chasms." Little food was to
be obtained, and few India.ns were there to be robbed_
The fur hunters were interested in bea .. ers, not
scenery. With the exception of Jp.mes O. Pattie,"
who in 1826 made his way northeastwu.rd from Mojave
to the Green River along the general course of the
Colo"ado, no trapper is mown to have been on or near
the gl'elLt river between the mouth of the Green a.nd
the mouth of the Virgill_ Pattie's narrative is a las-
cinatinlt story of trapper life, but Wlfortunntely it is
so deficient in geographic description that the route
followOO can not be traced. After it 1 .... 08 Black
Canyon the tl'a.il is picked up with assurance only at
the headwaters of the Platte.
Frtlmont" summarizes the knowledge of 1843 in
the following terms:
The Colorado Is but little known, Ind tha.t l1ttle de.rlved
frOiD \"l.C\le report. Tbree hundred mUM ot Ita lower part, as
It approRchea the Gult ot California, Is reported to be Imooth
and tranquil i but its upper part 1. manIfestly brokeD Into
mllll7 mUll and rapid&. From many descrtpUons ot trappers.
It 1.1 probob1e that In its toamlul course omODI It. loCtJ preci-
pices It preaents many 8Ceuea ot wUd C1'aDdeur; and though
Ooft'ering maD)' tera.ptatlona sDd otten discussed, no trappers
• C .. H. W .• A.orlean rllf' trd. of the fir We.t. vol 2.
pp. 5QO-607. 1902.
U PaUle. J. 0 •• Peno •• l aclveulurH of Jam ... O. PaUM, ol K:.otuck,.
e4J.led b, i'llDt. 1813.
.. FNmoat. J, C., R'-'1)ort of the uplol'l_. upedltloa to tbe Hoek,.
llooalal •• ,. 18"2: Coal., 2d .na., I. Doe. 17 .. , pp. 129-130.
baYe been round bold enouab to undertake a ,"olare which bas
80 c:ertain • pr06pect of • fatal termination.
I ves" pays his to the Grand Ca.nyon in
the vicinity of Cataract Creek in the following terms.:
Oun b.s beea !be IIrst ... d wlll doubtl ... be tbe I .. t party
of white. to .,.lslt thl. prodtleu Jocality. It &eeID8 lotended
by nature that the Colorado RI"er, alon" the ,reater part
ot Its Jonel1 and majestic W1l7. shall be forever UDTlatted and.
During 1867, 1868, and 1869 Maj. J. W. Powell
ws.s enllaged in general scientific exploration in west-
ern Colorado and eastern Utah under the auspices, of
the Smithsonian Institution. While engaged in this
work he mllde the memorahle trip down the Green
and Colorado Rivers. Leaving Green RiveI', Wyo.,
the old Indian crossing, May 24, 1869, Gunnison'.
crossing of now Green River, Utah, was pused
July 13, the mouth of the Green River July 18, the
Dirty (now Fremont) July 28, the Siln Juan
July 31, Ilnd the Little Colorado August 10. This
e:ttraordino.ry journey ended August 30 at the mouth
of the Virgin River. The course of the Colorado from
the mouth of the Green River to the mouth of the
Yirgin was covered in 23 days, it distance of miles,
more than 23 miles a day. The task of getting the
boats along, overcoming obstacles, procuring food,
and recording distances and directious left little time
or enel'gy fol' scientific observations beyond the im-
mediate river bitn1<s. As stated by Powell:"
Our last tr(p waa 10 hurrIed, owLDC to the loa of nUon.,
and the seleDtlftc Iu&uumenta were so badlJ' luJured that we
were not IOtJ&tIed with the resuUs AO we Uall ·
once more attempt to plea throucb the canyon_ in boats.
. derotIng two or three learl to the trip.
Altbough the scientific results were meager, this
first traverse of the Colorado bronght an end to the
fants.stic .torie3 of swiftly revolving whirlpools, long
underground passages, and plnnging waterfalls. It
proved that the river could be n .. vigated by darin"
souls with less di1liculty and perhaps less danger than
is involved in traverein" its banks &CI'OSS waterless
tributary canyons and along dry e1iffs perched thou-
sands of feet above the stream. As expressed by
the Piutes, the god T .... -wo .. ta had made the Colorado
gorges &.II a trail &cro&S the arid I .. nds and when later
that trail was closed by sending a mighty stream to
OCI'upy it, no route to the beautiful land to the west
To obtain fuller Imowledge of the region obviously
nquired more time, a.nd this involved stores of pl'O-
visions suitably placed along the ri yer route. With
DI?a. J. c .. Report upoo tb. ColorafJo BiTer of the 'West: S6tb
c. •.. tat Ita., B, !!JI. Doe. eo. 1161.
II. The 1UUUe .. Dirty DevU," ",Tet) b7 I.dl 811auer. of Powell'. PIU'17,
"108 tor tbt. es:ceptiooaU7 .. a6-.lade. _I,.n ... tT_1ft.
\I Pow.D. Z. W.O I:splorati .. of the Colorado Rlyel' ot Welt ad
hi tr1hatarl-. p. J04I. Iuat .• lSTI.
these ideas in nUlld, Powell returned to Utah in 1870
"lid from headquarters on the upper Kanab explored
the canyons of the Virgin and thG Uinkaret Plateau
. . '
JOvestigated • trail to the bottom of the canyon near
Toroweap, and on his retul'O crossed the river at the
mouth of the Paria on a ferryboat built of lumber
brought from Kanab .. After consulting with the in-
dispensable Mormon scout, Jacob Hamblin, it was
decided to have supplies taken by pack train to the
mouth of the Uinta, the mouth of the Dirty Devil,
the Ute ford (Crossing of the Fdhers), and the mouth
of the Paria.
This second expedition left Green River, Wyo., May
22, 1671, and the mouth of the Green River Septem-
bel' 19. Inability of the pack train to reach the mouth
of the Dirty Devil with provisions compelled the
el<pedition to abandon one boat and to hasten the
journey to the Crossing of tbe Fathers, whel'e supplies
h .. d been cached. The party continued to the mouth
of the Paria and thence to Kanab for winter quarters.
Powell left the river party at the Crossing of the
Fathers, followed the Ute tr.il to Puio, and pro-
ceeded to Salt Lake City. He thus became the first
geologist to tl'O verse the southwest base of the Kai-
parowits Plateau.
The plan to l'ecover the boat left at the mouth of
the Dirty Devil led to the first eumination of the
upper tributaries of the Poria, the hea.dwatera of the
Escalante, the Waterpocket Fold, and the Henry
Mountains. Starting from l{anab in May, 1872, rune
men in ch .. rge of A. H. Thompson made their way
up to Johnson Canyon through Swallow Park and
along the base of the Paunsaugunt Plateau, where
Thomp"on says:
Trnnt wa. exceedingly slow aud: c!lmcult. Our procress
19'0. otten barred by a canTon, along wbose brink we were
compelled to follow till some brollen-down !dope afforded a
WI7 to delCeDd. thea up or down tbe canyon until another
brokeD alopo permitted no to a .... lId. tbea across • m... to
another caDyon, repeatloc the mu.nelver • d.ozeD timea In halt
that Dumber of mile..
The Paria was reached near the mouth of Yellow
, Creek and the traverae continued to the head of
Table Clilf Creek [Henrieville Creek].
Bere we eUmbed 1.000 reet up a ItHp cla7 rld .. hulBl
an averace 810pe 01 20- aDd ottell DOt more thin IS teet
[wld.l at tbe top to lb. head ot • Darrow nUo,. ""lied
Potato Vane7 [Upper Vallet. a brauek or tke EB<alantel.
Do"" tbl ..... traveled S mil"" ao4 mad. Camp' at a """I
"PriDe In tb. mldot or a heautltol m .. do ....
From this camp at the ba .. of the towering pink
precipices of the Table Cliff Plateau, now the site of
summer ranches, Thompson'· studied the 8Urround-
log country. H. saVA:
To tbo north ODd S mil .. Table OIUr Platen .....
3,000 feet above u, Its 8 8Decealfon of IDaeeellSibJe preeS ..
at THm.(MK)D. ,t.., H., Report 00 • trip 10 tN moetb. ot' tbe Dlr11 DcTiI
Rt.,er, la r •• ell, I. W.o Eaploralloa or the Colorado Bt .. er fJf tb. W.t
1104 it. trlbut.,Iew.,. pp. 133-1t6, 1875,

plcea, Ind .toop, broken, ir. .. elld .lopotI, From the ba.. of 1
t.e eUIb IOUI run out to tbe edge or the v.II07, To the
ea.t. abOTe camp, tbe, roU off into a Darrow p1et.eIU.
lIoUllded on the ..... br • weU-muked \lue of duro, ber!DOlnl
near tho toot of Table ClIff ' Plateau aDd "'DUnolng "",th_
e(} mil ... to. polDt OD the Colorado Blftr oppoalte Ibe Navajo
Wou.tallt. At tbe wutera termlDU8 tb. 110e .. tomewhu.t
broken, but toward the ... t It loereo ... lu hetcht tlU It last It
Dada tor ao miles an lnaece:&alble rerUCIll Win, 2,!JOO feet
hlltb. Ita I.stern hounclorr 1M • line of cUtts. eommeoetnr Rt
the foot of Potlto Villey and prelentJDI an .hOOlt IlDbroketl
tront to tbe Colorado Rh·.r at a 1)(Jinc but .. mUe. lbo". tbe
t¥'rmlnUM ot the .-nteru line, tbwr g1\'tn, to the plateau a trape-
zoldol out:1oe. b&T!oc a leo,,"tb of M rulles, I breadth It: the
bue ot 15. at tbe opex 4. nnd atandln, at an attitude ot 0.000
te('t aboye ketO leyel. For Itl or 20 miles the we.em eDd J.
rut by • perfect ot cu,nyolls nod "'bort llneli ot cUlb,
mnldn. travel ftcr08l it .Imoat The mIddle aDd
hHtorn portlOl1l a,... qUIte level, Ind wben once 00 tile awnmit
prOlPUI In 101 dlreet:tOll 18 eo.,. 80 far 1 .. 1 han heeD ab:e
to (lII.certaln. we were tbe lIut whIte ntco to nsit Ule ploteau.
'l1J. Indian ume fur a $OJaH elevation near the oorth end 11
J[at-p4r-o·wltll (CIOtlOD l'etk], 10 'Te taIled tbe wbole plotnu
111 that Ufile.
tbrou.,;b a deep. Darrow caD10D to tbe Colondo RiTer.
tnc our party to be tbe discoverers, we decided to eon thla
stream In hODor ot "ather Esc.laote, the Old SPflDlsh explorer,
E&callnte Rtver 80(} tbe ecuntr)" wblcb it dr.lna r.ciJ.laote
B .. lo,
The "'estern bound.ary ot tbe bl'lsln Is the 'fertleal waU
Inl tbe ",terJl edge oi tbe KaipArowits Plateau. i'rom tb.,
yer1 base ot the clift' the dr.toBle I, to the Escolante River by
Darrow, deep elDYoos. preaentJng apparently lmpossable bar ..
Flers to Irn"e) toword the aoutb. To the nortb and 20 mile.
away rose tue castero slope of the Aquarius PlntcDu. It.
Icneral trend Js north aDd south, but Iwnl to tbe oorthweat
RntJ about 40 mile. from oor point ot observatlon a gNat
_Uenl an",1e proJec..U H8't1\'ard tbe Henry Mount a ins,
the slopes at Its bose seemlol' to continue out 8 long distance
and form. JaW', brokrn ridle betwccn canyon. rUDo1o;: iiotltb-
wllrd tOo tbe Escntonte Rh"er and otbel'1i rucnlng nortbward.
Here, It Anywbere, tbls caDyon rt;1on eouid be crcSfed, :wd 1
(I«:,ided to CO eastward II10ni the alol>C or Ibe Il-eat plAteau to
the salient spoken of nnel thea Rttempt tho pllSSOI;e along :he
With the position of the Henry Mountoins estnb-
lished. ThompsolL chosen route along the base of the
Aquarius Plateau across the Waterpocket Fold to the
Henry "fountains and Trachyte Creek and reachecl the
Colorado near the place where the Oan01l.ila had been
Continuing the course down the upper valley, the
p .. rty reached the stl'eam which Hamblin had mis-
tllken for the Dirty Devil IUId down which he had
f()ul:ht hi. wly for 50 miles through quicksand and
tortuous channels in all unsncce!i8ful atte,mpt to bring
s"pplies for Powell'. boat party of 1871, ThompliOn
and his fellow topographer. DeUeub.ugh, realized that
the £tI'eom they had boon following was not I,he Dirty I
Devil but R pl'eviously unknown tributary to the
Colo1'8do, the mouth of which had not been noted by
the expeditions of 1800 and 1811, A view from the
top of I cliff .. t the crest of the Esc.la.nte Ifold, near
the present village of E....,alanl •• made their position
r1ear, Thompson 11 writ •• :
I cached the previous yenr, Finding til. boat iILt.d,
four ruen of the party used it for an uneventful trip to
thc mouth of the Pari .. and later down the river to
the mouth of the Kanilb, Thompson with the l'e-
maindel' of the party retraced Ihe route to the E'SCII-
lante ar..d after milking ostronomical observations. es-
tablishing topographic atotions, nnd sketching the !ea-
tm..,s of the Escalante Bosin, continued on to Kanab,
On rftleblIl. the Humm.it we touud we were 00 tbc "'estern
rIm of I ..... In-Uk. ""Ion, 70 mil .. 10 1e"lIth by 00 In breadtb
1..:1 extendIng tram. UK' eosteru. .lorA ot tbe AqulrlUl Plateau
on the larth to the CoIontdo River on the lJOUtb and trolD tbe
Hf'nr), MouutalDl cn the ea_t to our potnt at ohse"aUOD 00
the ""e-.t. A larae portion of tbls area II Dated Mouton. rock,.
t, ..... l'fIO(j )0 an dlrectlons by • IlCrtect llbyrlnth of oa:row
J'OI"Je., IIOmetlwei aeellltni to l"l'(lU Ncb ot.ber but IIDaUy unlt-
hll' In I l\rlnclpol on8, wba»e b:nck line could be- troced.. Cuttlnlf
it .. " '''1 to COlorado. tew mlltl nb('lYt the moutb of the San
JUIlU Rlnr.
Away to the .. st and 50 lillie. dlliltant rose the Btory U:oun-
hll ... tbelr cra, lluPl'tl Ih'eaked 'A'lth Ion" lInel ot white bl
tho ttUO\Y whleb y('t n..'IIlttJooo In the 8UlcbCll benr theh' aumnl1ta.
On our ' ·U) ...... doWD tbe Colonulo River lu 1811 we hfld
the moutb tlr tll(!l Dh·ty Dl"' il to Rbont 30
mile. DOrtllf',ult trow Dluunt lllu,;. teah ' uK It at least SO
tulle. trom our Pre:I@Dt Cl.nlP and dtrt't.1:ty nCl'g" tbe ue(wOI'k
ot CIl1))'01l' bPi'ore u,. 'ro proceea rutbt'r lu direction we
bad been puraulD&' \\·ftS No Inimal without wine-
eould enulti tbe lUlcbes In the balihl at our
lef,t. Tbe etrelUll "'hid! we had foJluwt"d Iud wbor.e toune
!lOOn hemlDe loel 1u il'e multitude of cbums betore U$ was DOt
Ule one we were 10 se"reb or but In unknown, uonamed rlnr,
t1rnIDtnQ' the cnsttrD ,lope ot the A\luftrlus Plateau and O:Owin,
u noaPliOIli. A. Y .• 0,. cit .. N, 111-139.
\Vbeelet'" states that Lieutenant linrshlll of hi.
stal!' rowe 0 tl' .. erse {I'om the Parin settlement to the
Crossing of the Fathers ill 1872, and his "progress
ma.ps"" indicate Lhat during the same year all of
southern Ut .. h and northern Arizona between Nevada.
and Waterpocket Fold and north of the Coloraclo
was mapped by hls topographic porties, but there is
no other evidence to show that tho Wheeler sUI'Ye), ()f
1872 was extended to cover the Kaiparowits region,
ond Dellenbaugh" is authority for I,he statement thot
the data on thls part of Wheeler's map were tnken
from sketch maps prepared by Thompson, The mop
itself iii obviously the product of long-distance sketch-
-ing, It is also prob .. ble that tho mop of the region
from the mouLh of the Sun JUln alon" the Water-
pocket Fold, which i. credited to Lieutenant Hallie
(1873), i. iu part at le.st based on Thompson'. data,
GIlbert" credits the triangUlation of that region to
Thompson and the topography to W, H, Gr .. ves,
SIrnngely enough, no mention i. made by Wheeler <}f
the work of Thompson or of the observations malIc I:'y
::,:. s . G("Of::. W. IQOth lies:. RI!(,tt,. Yol, 1. p. 52, 188'J.
U. I . GI!O" nd (}col. Bu""". W. loot h. lin Tot:4)J:;t"vbtca l Alln
1813. • ..
: Dellt"Dbau,,,, .... S .• peOiOoal l.."Ow .... lnlc:atlC'OIi. April 2:' 1918.
aUbert. O. K .. on the C('Ole.:y of t'lle neary
ed" pI- 1. 1810.
U, ti, (a·:OI.OGTC,'.J. suftv.t::r
l' no, .. t;SSIQN .\L P.\I'ER 11>\ PLATE a
powell's pol'ties of 1869, 1871, or 1872 . . In fnot,
Wheeler ignores lhe work done by nll the pntties of
the Powell Survey.
I'i IS74 Thompson, assisted by H. Gran's and
J. H. Renshawe, completed mlps of the Aquarius
Plateau and the northern t.ribuluries of the Escalante
Bnd extended the survey to lhe Henry 1I[ountoins.
The following information regarding explorotion
nnel mapping in 1875 has been gi¥en by F. S. Dellen-
. baugh: n
I hn\' c rl"bOlU[JSOU"s .Uury of' (be trip be made 1u 1875. 1'belr
supply comp lith. SCluon ","' ns 011 tbe southeast s.trle of Rabbit
Ynlley. Gllbe-rt ,tarted tot Benry Mount nl 11S On
12. 1875. Thompsou went to 8 camp nbout )2 mil es abot' o
Parlu th1.!ll to D. point IIbont 3 b('IQW tlle " old
se>ltlemeut," toon to . camp iu Sentinel Rod t ("rahwenpj Creek
.. wnsb." about 20 wiles.. He llud difficulty In Hndtng the
trail. showlug thllt he Wthi on one which was pr()bo.bly the
El Yndo trull, dud he wcot fo thli place (EI Vndo] l_he next
day. Then he went to Warm Creek. then to 0 Iloin t below
Pnrhl setllpDlcut ognln, then bnck. to PUD;1lilch, whence he
bid come some few dnys before. Earlier . he wos in Tuntnlus
Volle)' (July 19) Rnd worked bls way to the slopcg ot thl'
A(lUUrluB, cnm,lIog on July 20 at wbot we culled )I084uito
Camp ht" 1872 becnuse we were Ctltcll sth'e thC're 00 n ruiny
night. He tben went to Boulder Creek, to hea d ot Potato
Creek, to False Creek [Horris Wllsh], ultd 10 Last Cbnnc(t
Creek [Collett W.sh] • • n-lvlllg .t this I • • t on July 28, 187G.
On AUGust 2, he WB9 at bis c3mp 26, "GilbcrL GrOT'eR.
Jack [Hillers], find m)'sel t storted for tbe eud of the KII.1·
Plutuou. Came about 25 miles the 1'nlley,
l;){mbed the ant bench ond up about 300 teet of the second,
.... hell we cnme to a plnce we could not W'OI'ked on
It aad cot tile wule, Net, up, elUDe down to the lower bencb
aDd camped. Tied the mules up on account of no water.
A:l1Iust S. Finisbed our trnU Ilnd got to the top or the plateau
at 9.30. R<lde till 2.30, muklng 15 miles be(ore we retu:bed
lbe end of ' tbe plateau, 'Vos 00 the end about two hours,
Got lCO<IeUc benrlng9 ond a lew tOpo,gr8. lIblca.1. Reached water
tbat Walter lGro:ves] hnd found In the mornlot, about halt
put 1, when our mllies had a chlluce to drink. 'l'be 1trst
",,,ter .Ioee .resterddy D1orning.
"Wednesday, August .. .. • -. It to(}k us about two
hoara to ,ct down !)()() t eet of the tlrtit cUff, ond our cnwp
wu lOme 0 miles from tbe comedown. We renched our caulp
of the, 3d lllstnnt ubout n.ao n, 111. Reached tJLmp at u' p. m."
The>" then went ou bock from tWa co_mp ()u Lo!!t Chnnce
Creek (0 n camp on Pine Cl'eek a mile above itl Junction with
tbu Escalnnte. I, SO w Mormons from Pangultcb, who tlrtl
talklnC' makIn, n hel'e. Advised them to call
the place E..,alaDte."
went out theD across Lhe Aqunrius Plateau to
the luppl)' compo
The work of the Powe.1I Survey in the Kaiparowits
region resulted in a reconnaissancetopographio map
on a scale of about! miles to the ineh ",ith • contour
interval of 200 feet, published by the United Stotes
Goologien! Survey as the Henry Mountains, Escalunte,
Echo Clift's, and Kanab mnps. From the time of their
appearance in 1886 until lhe mops showing the n
to be flooded by the proposed Lees Fet'ry dam wel'e
• Wll'lmUOICOII(lo.
prepured by the Geologicnl Survey, in 1921, these
sheets haye constituted the sole snulnble information
regarding t·he topography aud drn.inage of tltis region.
They present in bold outline the dominn.nt features
nud ndmu-ably portray the qua.lity of relief, but out-
.• ide <>f lhe routes t,·.versed by Thompson and promi-
nent features visible from easily accessible vie\vpoints,
the information they g1"e is of little value us a guide
to further explorations or as a base on which !,reologic
data III"Y be. presented. The conditions that SUr-
rounded the work prohibited more than gene,,.1 re-
connaissance. The sho,·t siops lIIade by the river par-
t.ies permiUed only generalized observations along
Glen Cn.nyon Bnd at the few pillces where the canyon
wnll could be scaled. The land parties likewise we,'e
hampered by lack of time. Thompson could give but
eight dRyS to n survey of tbe Escalante Valley and the
Kfliparowits Plateau-about 3,000 squllre miles of
intricately di S>ected nnd structur.lIy complex country
in which the relief exceeds 6,000 feet. .
The geologic results of the early survey" mny be
summarized as follows:
Powell's trips down the Colora.do canyons in 1869
lind 1871" gave the first knowl.edge of the geologic
fcatmes of Glen Canyon nnd its .immediate vicinity.
Howell" in 1875 recorded observations on the stro·
tigrnphy nnd 5t.cueture of lhe region b.tween the b.""
of the Aqua.ri us PlAteau and the Henry Mount,"ns,
briefly desr.l'ibed the 'Valerpocket nnd Escalonte
Folds, and measured a section in the upper Poria Vol-
ley. Gilbert" in connedion with his study of the
Henry in 1875 and 1816, outlined the sali-
ent physiographic of lhe Waterpocket lIexure,
tltt Escnlonte Basin, and the Knipnrowits Plale.u.
He remarks:
Two munths would be for too sbol·t 8 period in wbich to
suney a thousand Iquare miles In Pe-nnsyh'aula or llUnols,
but Illuong the Colorado plnteams It proved RumcieDt. A lew
coropl-ebensh'c 'Views from rnountaln tops ga"e Ule Iweral
lbutlou of too tOfwotions, and the remnlni!er ot the time
wos &ppnt in the examlDiltloll of rtll.e localltlea wbleb best dis·
played tbe pecuUar features o( tile atructure. So tborougb
w:l1I tbe diaplay and 80 tbe uamluntioD thar lU
Ill'epnrtllg mJ' repc)l·t I 'bove relt tbon e\'er before tbe desire
to reyh;1t the ft.e1d and pro\'e JOS coficlusiou!I by mOl'e extended
Dutton" in 1875, 1816, and 1877 mapped the
end of the Kaipllrowits Plateau and the "egion about
the headwaters of the Escalante und the Pnria, but
the age Assigned to the stra.ta and the desc"iptions of
• POwell, 1. W .• (It tbe Colorado River 01 lbe W<-at nOIS
It_ Iributat1I."., 1876.
"Howell. K E., U. S. Gc-og. ud Ceo!. Suro;erl W. 100th llu. Rt"pL,
901. 3, PI' . 227-:«11, Uni.
• GJlberl, G. K .• Rl!port on t be 01 tile R('OI'7 Mount.IDs, pp.
U. S. anI! C<=ol. Rock)' Mtn. negl(1o, 1817.
• DuttOll, C. E., Report on Ute. f«l logy or til" BIt!) Plateau. or Vtllb.
U. S. G('(lI;. and survey Roelly RII,.;lon, 1880 •
plateau .... 11 ... nd canyon. suggest that bis conclusions
were blsed on obRerntions made at vi.wpointA on the
Aquarius Plateau, many mileft distant.
ClilJ dwellings Ire found on both sides of the Colo.
rado River and &Iso ... ithin it. canyons, and probably
the Pueblo tribes and I .. ter the .s-avajos and Ctes knew
of severll crossings of the Colo"ado which they occa-
sionally utilized. The known movements of warring
Indian bands significantly coincides with times of
!£Jw water 0,· times ... hen the river ... as f"ozen over.
Old trails lead to the Colorado at its junction witb
the O,-een, It the mouth of the Little Colorado, and
down Bright _luIgel ond Shinumo Crooks. Supai in-
form.nta stole thlt crossings by meaDS of rudely con-
structed rafea were made at Grand Wash, at the mouth
of tho Virgin, and at point. on the lower Colorado.
'fhe Splnish explorers, trappers, and hunters were
faUlili.,· with I.he long·used ford at Green River, Utah,
whie" ... IUi recommended by Gunnison (18531) as a
,"Oute {or a r.ilro.,1 and latcr w •• utilized by the
" Rio Grande Hailroad. Tho Incient Ute
ford, now known a. the Crossing of tho l?athers, w ••
r"discovered by }o;ocalonte on his eventful journey
from Utah Lake to the Ropi villages of Tusayan
in 1776.
sellrt'h for a fensible crossing of the
Colorado was the result of missionary enterprise of
the Mormon Church. In 18n8 the intrepid scout
JO<Xlb Hamblin
l'(.'4!8Ived Initructioul PrClldent Dl'lghllm Younl' to take
a CII1D[l&ny ot mell ODd yhtlt the Moqut .. or town ID.dlnUl, on
the eac .tde lIf the Oolom<1o Rlftl', 'Ibe object at thle .-is1t
wnll to learn IOwetblu, at the char3cter aud. CO.l1(UUon at tbl,
I"",ple aDd to ,.ko ot any mllht I
be to prMch the 'OQel to them 0 nd do them I'ood. 11'
Leaving Santa Clan (near St. George) on October
28, the party of 12 men, including a Spanish inter-
preter (and a Welsh interpreted), proceeded by way
of " Yellow Rocks Springs n (Pipe Springo),
trqnntd tbe ('Iln7Ol'. Illld platnl1& eut"'QI'(\ And Arter cl1mt>-
lu; dllDJeI'ODIL clift's aud, cronlng eJ:tenaJ"e nS8urea La. tbe
rocka. tbe teDtb dar out from bome we crossed tbe Colorado
lUu,r at tbe Ute ton] knowII in Bl)8ull!lk blstory as tbe Cro.r. '
lac of the hth ....
The t .... il beyond ..... reported "not only difficult
but -,metimes very dangerous."
A second journey over this route was made in 1859
aud • third in so timed IS to C"OS$ the river at
its low-water stage_ The return from t.he IIncom-
pletocl third trip, which WIS dolayed bv disastrous
trouble with the Navljos, was ill winter,
• Little, J, .I. .. Jacob ".albUa. a lla"t;tU,... o( blll I,)('nonal expert'- '
em:!:, :M (!d., . ' Salt 1.ak4 CUT. [).:o\\'ret 1008.
and the C"ossing ,s de!ICribed by Hamblin" as
Our l'Oute ",os I dlJlleult one to travel in the winter .eAsOG.
The ford ot the Colorado wu deep and d.llngeroua at aDy dme
but upeclllllr ,,' hen the .fee "'W' running. Sometimes there
were steep rocks to climb j III other times {he trll! ra.n aloDC
the 1I 1w<»;t perpendicular sides of deep rock 83:. urea, n:urow,
wilh frequent short ,,' bere u ml!!step micht plunge UI Dr
our Ilnlmols buudreds ot feet below. SometLmes the preclpl-
10UII rocks were cOTered ,,' lth lee, which bad to be backed.
with our hatchet! before we could feel any surety of a toot.-
At one time we waited until Dearly midday tol' the sun
to melt tbe frost Dnd Ice on a steep rock, that we mJCht be
ollie to C'el our antmahi out of n pleh onto the plain above.
On thil occasion my J)Ock ulule sUpped ond tell, tben rolled
and BUd dowD. to "'ltbln about a YIn! of. the edp ot n cba!lID
below. We fRStened a Ion; lariat to the animal flDd laved it
und the pack.
lis extreme difficulty and the hostility of the
Navajos discouraged further use of tho Glen Callyon
crossing, but the project of converting the Hopis to
the Mormon faith;though delayed, wos not abandoned.
Explorations in soutbwestern Utah, which resulted
in the settlement of St. George and of fertile spots in
the Virgin and &nta Clara Valleys in 1861 encour-
aged the search fOI- I crossing which might make pos-
.ible the expansion of the aettlements into northern
Arizona and which did not involve the long, difficult
route to (he old Ute ford.
A feasible crossing was found at the mouth of the
Grand Wash. By swimming the horses and trans-
porting tbe luggage on a homemade boat Hamblin
the river Ilt this point in 1862, traversed the
Coconino Pla.teau, and pl'oceeded along ba.se of the
San Francisco' )foulltains and across the Little Colo-
rado to Ornibi. This mute " ' LS found to be so long
,md tbe water holes so smon and 80 for apart that the
",turn from O ... ibi 'VIS mode over the old Ute trail.
At the Crossing of the Fathers U fording was difficult
and dangerous" but was successfully accomplished on
New Year', Day, 1863, after the lOES of eight hones.
On Hamblin's next "isit to Tusaysn in 1868 the
. . ,
river wat .. gain croiSed at the foot of Grand Wash
but d a place near the blse of the Grand Wash ClilJs
the site of Pierce Fe .... y (now abandoned). On
tllrning from Oraibi by the saffie route in Mlly, 1863,
Hamblm reported: "We had explored a practicable
thoug? difficult route for" wagon from St. George to
the LIttle Colorado." The length of tbis route a.nd
the scarcity of w.ter we..ot of the San Frllncisco Moun.
tains led Hamblin to try a new route which he had
pre"iously reconnoitered, alld in 1869 " successful
crossing WIIS mlde near tho mouth of the Paria-the
present Lees Ferry .
With Hamblin for a guide the Lees Ferry route was
used by Powell in 1871 and by Lieutennnts Hoxie and
Marshall, of the Wheeler Survey in 1873. It hns be·
come the established line of travel from Utah to Ari-
zona and is the only crossing availnble for wagons
along the 788 miles of canyon between Green River,
1:;tal1, nnd Needles, Calif. The Crossing of the
]'athers, always dangerous, is no longer practicable j a
portion of the landing has been blnsted away to block
the route 0,1 m&ruudhlg Navajos.
In 1870 southeaslem Utah, comprising about one-
qu.rter of the Stnte, was In unkno,wn land. Powell
had marked tha course of the Colorado but found no
fe •• ible routes leading from it except those already
Imown, Explorntiona by scouts of the Mormon
Church had I'esulted in locating smaU tracts of il'ri.
gable Innd at the east base of the High Plateaus, along
the Puia River, and at places south of the Colorado
canyons, Paria was founded in 1871, CannonviIIe and
Escalante in 1875, and" about 20 families were Jiving
ill Potato Valley" in 1878.
To these isolated settlements at the end of long
wads leading aeross the jagged cliffs of the High
Plateans came reports of good lands still fal'ther eRst
but sepal'nted from them by the impassable Glen Can.
yon, To confirm these l'epOits an eXp<ldition was
organized for the o"plol'&tion of the San J Ulln V
III 1879 a party of 25 men under the leadership of
Silas Smith crossed the Colorado at Lees Feny and
followed the mal'kedtrail through the Painted Desert
to the Hopi village of )loenkopi. "Led by inspira-
tiOIl," the pal'ty roached Marsh Pass on th.e Navajo
Resen-otion and, avoiding the canyon of the San Juan,
made their way eastward to the mouth of Montezuma
Creek After exploring the San J uan Valley between
McElmo Creek and Butler Wash and obtaining infor.
motion from roving prospectors, the party turned
nOlthw"rd to the Blue (Abajo) Mounb.ins. Continu-
ing Llong the base of the L. Sal Mountains, they
cl'osscd the Colorado near the present town of Moab
and followed the "Spanish trail" to Green River,
Ut .. h, and thence to Salt Lake City.
This expedition demonstrated that :1 route through
tlte N &Vajo country from Eseal .. nte or Kanab to the
San Juan Valley wa. impracticable. The country to
be traversed consists of stretches of S8ndy flats alter·
!l&ting with areas of sharp·cut canyonsj the water
holes are f,u' apart and the Navajos none too friendly;
and even if a wagon road could be constructed and
maintained, the distance, about 600 miles, is prohibi-
tin. But the expedition also demonstrated that the '
San Juan Vatl"y opportunities for irrigation
f&l'ming and thd the Abajo and La Sal Mountains
wilh their adjoining plateau lands were destined to
become valuable grazing districts. It appeal-ed that
the region east of Glen Canyon was" better country"
than that immediately west.
The officials of the Mormon Church were favorably
impressed by the report of Silas Smith, and with
chnl'acteristic foresight they promptly issued a "cull
for the Saints to occupy the Sun Juan Valley." The
pl'esidentof the church W88 firmly convinced that
"our people will want all the choice places where
there is water 8nd grDss." But to occupy this £01'-
away region was D sOl'ious undertaking. Its climate,
its agrieultuI'R1 possibilities, and the attitudo of the
few · Indians who made their home iu the adjoining
regioru; were Ii ttle known. The proposed settlement
could be reached only by the exhausting tnils th,rough
Moenkopi nnd Marsh Puss or by the st i!llonger Green
Ri"ol' route. It was recognized thllt the interest. of
the church demanded that the pioneers in the proposed
settlement have their commol'cial and religious fts·
sociations with their brethren in the Utah villages
rathel' than with the gentiles of the Colorudo mining
t"wn.; with :Escalante I'ather than with Durllngo.
With these ideas in mind, the prodigious t3sk of con·
structing a wagon I'oad from Escalnnt.e Glen
Canyon to the middle Sun Juan Valley was nnder-
taken. After preliminary sconting on both sides of
the canyon, a crossing was selected at the Hole in the
Rock, n,t the lowe I' end of the" SO·mile desert," 41lliles
I south of the mouth of the Escnlante.
In Octobel', 1879, a party led oy Silas Smith, Platte
Lymon, and Jess Nielson, with' a huge numl>er of
workmen, horses, and wagons, was established in three
camps, building a road down the desert, collecting
supplies, and assembling material. for .. crude ferry
boat. Between November 6 and December 29 aboul
70 miles of road wa • .:onstructed, and early in Janu-
ary 80 wagons, nearly 200 men and women, 50 chil-
dren, 200 hOI'SeS, and 1,000 cattle h .. d re .. ched the rim
of the canyon. Work then centered on blasting the
canyon walls and bttilding a Oat· bottomed iJQat about
9 feet wide and 28 feet long with planks bl'Ought from
Escalan(e. The Colorado was crossed in February,
and the emigrnnts labodously made their way to Fort
Montezuma, neat the pl'esent Aneth, and to the
mouth of Cottonwood Oreek, where Blull City was
established. On April 5, 188(), this settlement enrolled
225 pioneers, and the foundatioll was I.id for tile con-
trol of southeastern Utah and adjoining 11I'eas in Colo-
rado IUld Mexioo by adherents of the Mormon
This e1'OSSing of t he Colorado by the "San Juan
missionaries" was a heroie undertaking. It i. diffi·
cult enough for experienced men with a pack trainl
for parties that include women and children and
loaded wagons it seems impossible. Except fol' snow
in winter, wafer is available only at nine places on
the 216 miles of road, and at three of these places it
is strongly alkaline. I
Fram Escalante to lhe Hole in the Rock the route
presents no extreme difficulties. The" road" i. of the
sort oommon to southern Utah-a trail along which
strongly built. wagons may be dragged by 4, 6, or
horse teams under the guidance of experienced
cldvers Ind where progress is made by "hardening
quicksands," removing talus blocks, "dug·
ways," negotiating" sand ond bumplDg along
o .. r knobs and sharp-cut depressIOns of extensive sur·
fD"". (Jf bare rock. ERst of the C<>lorado the tOp<lg·
l'ophy is forbidding. Short, box-headed tribularies
lend from the river to tile plateau aooye, and only at
the rough, slippery" Clay Hill divide» is it feasible
. f "d"d"
to cross the di.sected upland9. """,.0 the lVI e
are the deep canyons that Iud to the San Juan, the
lOugh south slopes of Elk Ridge, and the sharply
IIIJturned rocks of Comb WasIl.
'nle crossing itself i. formidable. .... b1'esk in the
,·anyon wall marks it!; west end--tL mere .lit in the
towo,·ing cliiTs of massive Nanjo sandstone. No
clnyon leads 10 it, Ind tbere is not/ling in the sur-
rounding tOp<lgruphy to indicate its presence. It mll.y
now be found by tracing the marks of wagon wheeli
lIel'"", 8 miles ot wind-swept rock. After entering
the slit tho "road" uescends by passing through
1I0tches in the tops of projucting ledges, down across
dill'·fllccd bunch." to a platform 600 feet below. The
slit originally WIIS R V·shaped groove, too narrow even
{or a hoI''' if tho p<ltholes and steps were absent from
ita bottom. At one place there is a sheer 40-foot drop
into a <iepression. By blo.ting rock Bnd buHding out
platform. nnd by the skillful U!I& of logs brought from I
the Plateau, I pat.h waS made down
which single horses and men on foot might make I
their way to the river. WI\gOTlS ,.ere taken .part
ftnd carried down on the back. of men and horses, or
I(,wered by ropes. Rusty ringbolts embedded in the
cliffs Rnd the ,."moins (Jf a roughly mad. windlass
t.enr witne"" to the method employed. Only Ileces-
sity eould induce one to toke a horse down this trail;
t.o descend on foot is I strenuous bit of exercise.
The impression. gained by a t .... verse of this first
Esralnnte·Bltlff City trail is confirmed by m.ll who
used it. Through the eourt ... y of the of the
Church of the Latter·dlY Saints, the unpublished re.
1'OI1:S of the San JUOll mis.ion have been examined.
Like most occounts of men who do much nn'd sav lit-
8'1(110 whom hardships are port of the daily· rou·
tille, these I"'p<lrls to hcadqllarte,'l< ftre brief and
matter of bet, bllt they kll of ho .... s lost ann died.
(,f grain exhausted, of accident •• of sickno"", And of
nelL.nea to st ..... Dt ion. The partie. east of t.he river
•• pacially .... m to hue sulfered. TIlis cros.ing at tbe
Hole III th. nock slRnds high in the list of pioneering
for which Utah is famous, and it is
doubtful if anything but religious zeal would have
made t.he undertaking possible. But, however difti-
(,ult this route, there is nO other place betw .... Lees
Fe .... y and tbe Wale .. pocket Fold where n crossing for
.... agons could be established \vithout expensive and
carefully planned engineerillg operations. A pack-
train traverse of the rim of Glen Canyon makes com-
prehensible the feeling of these missionary explorers
t.hat "We were led as if by inspi .. ation to find the only
possible route where 0 "oatl conld be made."
The disadvnntages of the road by way of the Hole
in the Rock led to the search for a practicable Cross-
ing tarthel' upstream. Scouts f,rom Escalante found
that the Colorado could be approeched without much
difficulty at the mouth of Hall Creek, and in 1881 the
dangerous Hole in the Rock cl'oesing was abandoned
Ilnd the feny boat dragged by horses to a new site-
the present little-used Halls Crossing. The first con-
necting road f .. om Escab.nte .. as marked out aC"(Jss
Spence .. Flat, down the" sand slide" into Escalante
Canyon, and along the canyon floor to the mouth of
Sil"er l'a.n. Creek. It continued up Silver Falls
Creek and through Muley T"'ist Canyon in the W ater-
pocl .. t Fold, thence down Halls Creek to the Colorado.
With the settlement of the upper Fremont Valley
Rnd of the lands about the Abajo Mountains, tile need
developed for .. crossing of the Colorado that would
not requi ra the long journey down Halls Creek or the
still longer jOlll'lley by way of Green River and Moab.
By this time also placer miners were It work on the
Colorado, and their operations called for .. place on
the .-iver to which supplies could be brought either
f .. om Colorado towns or from Salt Lake City. In
1880 Dondy Crossing (Hite) was located' nea .. the
mouth (Jf Trachyte Creek, at I p<lint where the cftnyon
walls b .. eak down and an island midway in the current
i9 cxposed at low water. The crossings between Hite
and Lees Ferry are utilized occasionally by scientific
parties, prospector., and etockmen, hut Glen Canyon
remains t.lle sOllle barrier acroes lines of travel that
wos encountCl·.dby the Spaniard, the trappers, and
the sun'eyors for the Pacific railways.
In its larger geogmphlc relations the Klciparowits
,-egion fOl'ms put of the Colorado Platenu province,
which comprises l00,()()() square miles of stl-ongly
carved tabular relief emphasized by volcanic masses.
The outstanding top<lgraphic features are terraced
plateaus, cliff-bound mesas, mOlloclinal rid"es and
" ,
strail(ht.-sided conyons--all impressive alike for mag-
nitude ond ruggedness. Land sculpture is developed
on so enormons a scale that features in the landscape
1ll11l0ticed here wonld be prominent and picturesque
landmarks in other surronn<iin!!5.
The region as 1\ whole lies at an altitude of obout
11,000 feet, and the downward departures from this
Jev"l or., approximately equal in amount to the up-
..... ard departures. (See pI. 3.)
The crest of the Waterpocket Fold stands at 6,000
feet, and for a. distance of mOre than W miles the
·Ka.iparowits Plateau shows a level top at 7,000
feet and rises to 9,000 feet at Canaan Peak. But so
.deeply has the region been trenched that two-tllirds
of the P.ria River, one-half of the Escalante River,
.and nearly all of Halls Creek flow in channels below
5,000 feet ond Glen Canyon is cut to dept.hs below the
4,000-foot contour line. The extreme points of the
Kaiparowits region ore Table Cliff, 10,500 feet, and
Lees Ferry, 3,120 feet. Immediately bordering the
regioll and forming, RS it were, its western and north-
crll wall are the High Plateaus-the Paunsaugnnt
(9,500 feet) and the Aqua.ius (Thousand Lake Moun-
tain) 10,000 to 12,250 feet-the highest land in south-
ern Utah. For the l'egioll as a whole changes in alti.
tude are abrupt; gentle ,lopes are con.picuously ab-
sent. Above the valley floors the platean benches rise
uy steps, bcnch after bench, and into the benches the ,
·sh'l'OI11S Are sunk nn equal amount.
)[ost of these OOnchlike platforms terminate in cliffs
hundreds or even thousands of feet in height. On the
south fRce of the Paunsaugunt Plateau the Chocolate
<:lilts, Vermilion CliiYs, White Cli!s, and Pink ClifTs,
separated by broad pIR.tforms, form a terraced wall
'more than 5,000 feet high. A series of prominent
benches are. nearly continuous along the northeast and
southwest slopes of the Kaiparowits Plateau, Rnd the
southeast end of the plateRu forms a. giant stairway
descending 3,500 feet to the Colorado River, Rbout Ii
Illiles distant. Few benches interrupt the precipitous
slope that leads to the top of the Paria Plotenu, 3,000
feet above the stream at i'ts bRse, or the wall that I·ises
more than 4,000 feet in front of the Table Cliff
'rhe plateau benches are so continuous that eanyons
which their edges appeal' at a distance as insignifi-
cant breaks in a horizontel sky line. Some of the
benches are so wide and I.,.el that canyons sunk into
them are inconspicuous features. E"en Olen Cnnyon
appears from a distAnce as • narrow groove in a broad
"'''panse of flat land.
for the lava Hows that partly cover the
limestones of the Paunsnugunt and Aquariu. Plateaus,
all the topograph.ic features of the Kaiparowits ,·t'gion
nave been developed in sedimentayy rocks; the vol·
·canic piles, the laccoliths, and the necks of bo,-de"ing
region. are abeent. The Kaiparowits Plftteau i. a
slightly tilted aedimenta.y miss that extends as a
llarrow mesa from the High Plateaus to Glen Canyon,
'70 miles distant. 11.8 culminating point, Canaan Peak,
ls an 0f the Table Cliff Plateau; the Pada
. Plnteau is a huge block of sandstone, the Waterpocket
monocline is a ,·idge of folded rock intricately dis-
sected and flauked by hogbacks, and the broken
"comb" in the vicinity of Paria is the edge of saud-
stone beds uptumed in the East Kaibab fold. The
Circle Cliffs are inward-facing walls of sn.ndstone that
rim an o\'al depression. These prominent f..,turei are
but large-scale examples of the mesas, butte5, and'
ridges that characterize the landsca pe of southem
Utah. The view from any vantage point gi .. es a feel-
ing of strength and solidity_ Delicacy and grace of
out-liue a,'e lost in the general massiveness. The huge
mes.s ringed with high escarpments rise from hori-
zontfil benches, some of them miles in width, anti the
hutte. are firmly based on broad expdnsea of rock.
En-ept on the High Plateaus talus slopes are replaced
by bare ledges. Even in detail erosion forll)a follow
1\ common pllttern of angl"" rather than of curves and
slopes; pilasters, ponel., Rnd .lcoves lire bounded by
straight lines. Canyons Ire everywhere. Maul' of
them are t,renches cut into 8 seemingly levd surface
lind are seen only when their rims nre "cached; others
lire so intricately intel'lac-cd as to leo"e no space for
tr .. ils. Neo,' Con •• n Peak the heods of 14
we"e crossed in a distance of abont 3 miles. •
In gc.neral the "urface slopes of the regiou extend
from the High PldteallS southeastward to t.he Colo-
"ado; down these slopes the water is CArried in bare
rock canyons. TI,e Escalante, with its many tl'ibn-
raries, carries the run-off from 1,840 sqUAre miles; the
PRria drains 935 squllre miles and receives most of its
water from its western h·iuu!aries. Hnlls Creek, 40
miles long, drains about 110 squnre miles. Rain t.hat
falls on the south side of t.he Kaiparowits Plateau
goes directly to Glen Canyon. Few regions are so
thoroughly drained. Flat-floored, wide washes are
'''''e, and only on the tops and about the base of the
Aquarius and Table Cliff Plateaus oro there stretches
of meadow, through which the tiny sll·eom., make
their wa,. A shollow pond on the Kaiparowits Pla-
teau is the only permanent body of wIlter in the regio"
east of the High Plateaus.
The streams that head in the Pounsllngunt. Table
Cliff, and Kai)larowits Plnteaus permanent water
ill their upper courses, and" few' of the boxlike hend.
of canyons in the Water pocket Fold contain running
wnte,·. TIle characteristic stream of the region is an
intermittent. one, which usually flows in places along
it. course but "'hich becomes throughgoing only in
response to seasonal rain. and . local showers_ In
exceptionally dry yean the onJy water received by
Ihe Colorado between the Escalante River and the
P8l'io River is probably contained in the liquid mud
""pplied by the San Juan. The Paria River and
Halls Creek are at times without water in parla of
their conrses, and even in the Escalante Canyon
stretches of bare sand bave been recorded. The
ence of the semiarid cliroata shown by. lhe behaVIor
of dreams is rellected likewise in the SOlI and
tion. There Ire no large .. reas of dunes, but sand IS
piled here and there in and beyond tbe stream chan-
nels There are no areas of desert in the sense of
.. stretches of Il&It and o.Ikali, but the lower
:&!calante Valley and parts of the W .. h'Weap
are without water and sho .. sparse and
v"ietation adjusted to sterile loil and low ramfall.
Tbe cany:n walls the faces of mesas and butleo, and
expanse. of rock' many square miles in area seem
remarkably naked. These wind-swept surfaces are so
bare of vegetation that green tints and subdued tones
resUlting from plant cove!'ing are lacking in the land-
8l:ape. 'rhe conspicuo". colors aeen are the colo,... of
the rock. themselves-red, brown, yellow, and whIte,
intensi6ed by bandi of dark gray. .
For variety and interest of topographIC forms no
part of the plateau province offers more attractions.
Dislant and near-by view. amply repay the necessary
hardships of travel ..
Stat;stiea of rainfall and temperature within the
Kaiparowits region are meager and unsatisfactory.
Because of their position the three meteorologic sta-
tiona in this region record data of little more than
local vuue. Escalante ig at the immediate base of
the High Plateaus; Cannonville (includinjt Losee and
Tropic) i. near the head of a broad, deeply intrenched
valley i Paria is in a canyon. All three station. lie
approximately in a north-south line, and t.heir rec-
ords tell liUlc of the climatic conditions prevailing
east. or we.t of that line. However, the records of
these thl'el! stations, when considered in connection
"'ith thooe of other stations in Kane and Garfield
Counties and in adjoining counties, giv8 a reosonably
II1ltisfactol'Y picture of the climatc of southe .... tern
Utah, of which tho K.ip ... owita region forms a part.
I telus and the UtAh-Colorado line an stations record
than 10 i,nches of rain except and Monti-
.ello on the slopes of Ahajo MountalD. The melUl
:nnd.1 temperature .. t Giles is 51.1° and at Hite 69:7·.
Snow may fall on the High PlateJlus at any tlIDe
between September 1 and June 1 and may lie for
.... eeks or even months. Only in exceptional years
are the roads to Kanab, to Cannonville, to Escalante,
and to Boulder possahle in winter without cleanng the
drifts that block the" dugways." In severe wintel'$
these settlements have been isolated for week. at a.
011 the lower lands of the Escalante, Wahweap', and
W &.rm Creek Valleys snow rArely remains long enough
to interfere with grazing, but all parts of southeastern
t'tuh receive some snow neal'iy every year. At Alton.
Ihe mean a.nnual snowfall i. 73.6 inches, and even Lt
Giles it is 10.2 inches.
In southeastern Utah clear skies prenil. The few
records avail. ble indicate that the amount of sun-
shine is compnro.ble to that in northern 'Arizona, for
which the estimate of the United States Weather
Bureau is 210 clear days, 80 plLrtly cloudy, and 70
cloudy in a yeor. It 1& probable that few if any pillces
in southeastern Utah have less clear skies than Flag-
staff, Ariz., .. hich receives 81 per cent of the
sunshine, and for parts of Garfield and Kane
I he figure is doubtless grelLter. During MILY, June,
October, and Novembet the skies mlLy be cloudless for
5 to 10 days in succession. In the eun the hed of sum-
mer is intense' but in the shade of a rock or tree cool-
, '.
ness prevails, and this area is unlike humid regions m
that the line between scorching heat and delightful
temperature i. drawn at the edge of the shadow. Fol'-
tunately bot air is also dry air, and the humidity of
summel' ranges from so to 50 per cent. The dR.ily
1'1lD,,<T8 of temperature is more than roo and usually
exceeds the ditference between the means of the WArm-
est and of the coolest months in the year; consequently
cool Or even uncomfortably cold nights follow the
heated days.
In I:coerai, it may be said that southern Utah has
a group of local clima.tes of widely dissimilat' aspects.
The distribution of the sun's heat and the form and
Utah as s whole is deficient in rainfall. Only 16
Ollt of 169 stations record averages that exceed 20
inches.R year, and only 1 that exceeda 30 inches.
Less than 10 inches of rain falls at 50 stations. The
High Pilltenus are relatively well watered and have
severe winte ... ; most stations in this district receive
more than 10 inches of rain each year ond record mean
annual temperatures of about 43·. At the eastern foot
of the High Plateaus the rainfall is as heavy u the
On top of the plateaus, but the mean nnnual !
tl'mperatures ore grenter. Between the base of the
I position of topographic features appear to outrank
cyclonic litorms and prevailing winds as controlling
factors. The great variability in topographic expres-
sion is reflected in equally great differences in climate.
Not only are the climates of high-lying Kress con-
trasted with those of lower altitudes, but ca.nyons that
adjoin plateaus, two adjoining valleys, the opposite
.ides of platea.us and mesas, and even opposing canyon
.... lIs may ba.ve different climates. The summers 81'&
very hot, the winters are cold; daylight is aecom- I
plDied by heat, darkness by chilliness. The annual,
seasonal, montMy, and daily rainfall is subject to wide
.. riatioDs. During July aDd August rain may fall in
quantities sutlkient to flood the country; in most other
month. precipitation is deficienf. During the hottest
mont.h. moisture-laden cloud. cross the sky but pro-
duce nO rain, except perhaps a . few scattering drops.
To the Navajo and Piute mind the" rain hangs down-
"'Ird "and " to the earth."
Some miscellaneous observations on the rainf""l of
southeastern Utah are contained in the reports of
esrlier scientific and others o.re recorded in
unpublished reports in the archives of the Mormon
Churcb. AdditioMl general information has come
f.'Om long-time residents of Kane and Garfield Coun-
ties. Fortunately volunteer observers bav. made in.
strumental records at stations within and bordering
the Kaiparowits region; without these unselfish serv-
ices a discussion of the climate would be wholly spec-
Cannonville, including Tropic (1889-1919; 192r.-
26) and Losee (189S-94), furnishes the longest ron-
tinuous record of precipitation in the Kaiparowits
region. It affords nearly complete records for M
years (1889-1923). At Alton, including Ranch (1902-
1915), tho precipitation has been recorded for 26 con·
secutive years (1902--1927). At Escalante the rainfall '
observations cover 27 yeus (1901-1927) but are
neither consecutive nor complete. For Giles consecu-
tive and complete records are available for 12 years
(1895-1006). For Hite the records for 10 consecutive
years (1900--1914) include 12 complete records. At
Kanab records have been made since 1899, except duro
ing 1901 and 1908--1910, but for only 15 years are
there complete records, II,nd only three groups of 4
years in regula .• suceession. Paria has l'ecOrdS for 6
years (l89&-1900), including 5 years consecutive and
complete. The ohsel'vatioDB at Widtsoe cover 16 con·
secutive years, which include 10 years of full record,
witb two groups of 4 years in regular succession.
The records for these eight stations are too fragmen-
tary for general climatic dudi .. ; they suffice, however,
to indicate tbe nature of the rainfan. They enable
those interested in wILter development &nd agriculture
to plan intelligently, for they indicate in a general
way tbe total precipitation, it. distribution with refer·
mea to the growing season for crops, and whether
ahowers of brief duration or long-continued" soaking"
rains normally occur.
of prcctJ)HatioR ill '(lVt1tCI'. UraA., 1'. f"clc.
.. ·T'ro:e,.·l
A.1to., K __ c. ... l7
Altlludt. T,ooo he. RGCrIrd from Jlm .. f1. 1M, &0 !.Itoy, un". IQc!IlIII,>e, from
RAnch, about tI mlIGI JOuthv.'.' or Altonl
MND ••
T ....
Jnoemw _._..... I. 61 .. 7'1 ' ... _
JuUW1 •.• ______ • 1.. f..f4
'ebruery _______ _ . 2.30 . 1.a I 6..
WiD' .. ..
Marcb •• __ • _______ l.ll .!B 1M
A .. II. __ .. ....... . .... U8 T.
Mu ••. . -_. ___ . ___ ,go .2& T.
1 ... 04
' Jua .... ___ .••• _____ 0.47 O. II T .
July. ________ .____ 1.7!I J.S2 I ....
AIIIlM _____ ._ •. • _ 101
8IlDUZlel'. ___ ..... 3 . .58 mu

St'p\rtIDbtt •• _.____ 1.7(1 : .48 !.SO
C>etober. ______ .___ 1. 60 0
November ________ L-tO ! .&0
Bplq_. ____ $.37 2. M
FalL. .. _ . . '! •. " 1--;:"- & "
_____ ", _ _ -'-_...L_-"-__ A_"""_" __ ----- -! 20. d6 11.4.3 1-1.&6
".n •• , Ken. C._I,
(AI'IIude'. 41,921 tMtJ
• ... tAcnt VItiA, hi.
lI.corN of pr""'pUaU ...
Ka ... ab &.iDa Ceanl;J'-CooUnued
P.I., 1( ... Cnat1
C •• ne ... llta. Gt,rft.l. CouA\7
!.\IUt.Ut!II, ("COO 1Io<lt)
I , I I 1-.1
_ IIUl. :Jl' b'(. Mu. AIO',: NM.
18611·_· .••. ..... 1 .•••• __ __ __ .5.2', 2.f:! o.. t 1. T. S. ' __ __ .: _
lWlO •.•• J. I , ';lIO 0.':50..w . .( , 00 33111. );) 1.r.G
• 1.1j. 1.1.0
Ih'll1. . . , T; ,U, 1.00 1. 1 1.1), U,G 3..&0\. .00
1.. 11. 6.\
I 2 .. __ 1. , 1.46
1,.1) . 102. T . ..iO T. T. 1. . 1)). lU3
IIIPJ. . ... .30 3 M' T. I . i .08 .8G 'f. , -I!} I. 12. ... ,
l{1tlL •.. 33 ."(1 1.<11), T. .Q.1i T . ' 1.00 1.. ·80 .Ol;----- - " .' ______ _
,.., •• . .1 ••. •••.... , "j ... . 2I . .. .... ••. j ... ")' .................... .
l )jIH" ' _1 I , 1'. , 81 " T. .ro T. I T.
__ . u 1'. i .1 ,3\ .t4! .ttl 1. ::.0.. T. 1. 34 .Iii . 1. IH 2
1110,)..._ - ". . . to .1"2 . '11, .1.5. 3.-«) . 88 . 98' . II. (h
1861 .• 1 i. 1IQo .i1o T. ' 1.'bl 1,7: .00.M1 T. . 10. 67
)ll(I3 . • :J , i:l)' -111,1 'J OO! l. U . %l . . :.I: 1. .., ."
JQl\'I ••• J . .)2 . "/0 .:1 .8 •. .» . 1 .•. 00 T . & 18
IDGt •. •• 1'. 'r. ' I'. .n fCW: T. T. . . 1 , ! .. T1
l a(kl . ... ,IX) lil 1.2' .1 1.11 T. ! .10 200 T. ."1') 1I.m:
l lilOD••• •. 110 .11) -U, \. Gl ., I T. 'l 3(1.-11.31 T. :n.i)J:
)(,1.,.. . ... :Ut1 . 1(1' ,l 1.:1\ 1. 311, '''''''1 .• 'l V7. T. I :\lS 110411
l UI" ••• ' 'i .0 •. c. 'JJI) .'l} 1. I U\ I. . .01.U 7.47
181'» .... , 1.'\ . .12 .tl1) T. 1'. ' ,fa 'In T. 1.70 3. !lel IMW
111\0 .. . .. , 1" . 'XI . I tl)tl :ua I.-lS ,Il'J H. 1!i.1
10IL .. :'l.., l . . .1.2 .Ll'T, .tlll., ,CMl 'l. f,(i .M .• 0: .1112 33
UU2. ... .10. 'l'J .J1 I.i 1.2c . (1) .41Z, .1(.1 H.OlO
IVll •. •. . &!I 1.. .f!I! 'I . T . . IS I. .11 1.16' lUG
ItlL .. :l n I. ." .. 071 I. ' I.OS . .I/ol l T .. 1".'!lI6
.... 2.;9: :1;; 't', I.,.,. . 12 .... 1.21 . .OCI .g.::: 1. 8-41 H.offl
191f.1 ... .... ,2 . 31 .11 . 31 .00 :U_ .......... . "'''' .. ....... .
IVI7 ........ .1 1. 00 ...... . .... · ..... ..... . t .11.1 • I . 00 .• .00 ... . _.
!:!::::I =: :::!::::: .. ..
, .., .... : .,. . ,. .11> I] .,., .N 118 " "'j .'L ... 1. .10 ..... .

um .... L ...•
.. ... :.... . . . .00
3 .. 0 .Ii .03, 1.11);' . __ __
., .. ;(il3;
Rret'lrd.Jf o( JWecipHali"'It #It .fllJehc,." Utall., in
Canaon...-il .. , Gant.r. eo •• t7-COlltlnUed.
Dcoembet" ...... .
.. ........ .
,ebru ... )' ..... .... ·
Winler ....•
March .. __ ... . ___ •
Ap'II. • •.. .. ......
.. . ... _ . .. ... .
SpriCIt .. _._
T ... I
,'" wei·
dr lillt
,,"l' ); (:31'

. 10, .70

:: 17 j 1 3.0/1

for 'er
June. .... .. .. ... .. 0. 3.1 \ 0. J& '1'.
JillY' .... .......... 1.38 '''' , 6.61
Aurust·· ..
Summer .. . 3. -«i ' 1.06 .iJ

S6Pl.eUlblr ___ .•• .10 !.OJ
OetGber .. __ . ..... . .81 I T .
NOv6Ill1xr... ..... . til . 2:t ... II
- -'-
FaU __ .... . 2.. 76 , &17

Annual .• •. 111.37 , I .. ,;'
• Rceord pciOf" to ,noJ ror 1UIt\ 1fi2d !-or Tropia. " tnllM IIOtlh Of
WMlllo., GarlrW C.lmtT
!.\ :lIuufe, :,OoJO tc.t . POlSt olDeO furlDGdy Winder]
1 .....
,..,. ,. ....
___ ... . . ..c; 1.06
WjnIH . • ___
__ '!._Nj-2(;w . • .• ••
M.rcb ............ SCptember.. ..... .Il -a::
API'lL......... ... .83; .71 October. __ ......
... U .... .. h. .63 . .Jaj T. N"o\'ombcr.. ...... .71
S ......... _;'31 1! 1_ 1_.ooI.l I_._.....! OO L...._F..: ._II_ .• ..: .• _._ •• ..'. .. UO
.... Annl!ai ..... j 100Qtl &.1 I.6. U
Eaeal.at .. , G ...... l. OnmtJ'
:' : :<:.1
. • I VU ;). 2O 2. 0..1IO- . n T I. o.U:
l.S 0.
111m .... 1. 51)1 M) . . M .GO 1.6 • . U LlO
,"I .00. 0
1"»4 ..... 101 .as. 1. &.\ .150 '1. M Lei. .00.J ,
lum .... 131 i . . 1.63 "-::111 :l.fU I. •
•.• 2 "'." I. .32 -13. .72 32112. 72 1 . • 1.31 ' LOt :t.
1011 ... ' 158 I, · 1 s:l . 00. I.:\f I.17! L 2.83 . l2 .25 . 3
ISI1 .•••. 00 . I.SG .. ... , ... ............. . .1 .... .
IIUl ..................... 00 ..... ............. «i ..... .
1917 .... I Il, 1'. 1. 00 I • 1. 1l) .82
153. .00, ,00 .00 J at
19I5... . 2'21 3 "G, ."2J. 2. 12 .,')3 .to I.
lOl9" .. , . DOl . 116 T •. • 1 . • ...... LWj T ... :::
I"" "'1 .. 1 Ll.ll. OOI···'· . . .... .1 •...•••. ...••.• ...••.• ..•
l(t2l. ... ' -'" ..... ..... . .. ... 1.00 l i . .. 0' . OIl. .30\ t. 30. T;;
. . .. .(,0, ' . 3:1 .50
.00. 320' :l10 . 1.10,.01 .....
lazJ· .. ·1
r ·
.30 .70 .00 2 l&) l.10 "' ..... . 1. 40 .33"
Itl::f •• _ •. 20 ,00 .... ,03! I . !.(Io . 02 __ ........ -
'.,.. ... , ... ···· ·1 . 11 ' .00 . ····.1 U O ,.10
, " 'j;
..... 00 . . 0711 . .00' 1, 90, 2.. L z! .20 . ..o I. :-111
1927.... ..0 2. 1 1. tO
. , 2.!.Or s...ttt So 1.7(/ J. I ,
.. l.tlj .11 • 1. 33) 1. 0IZ:J.83
Rt."('6rd$ of pl'edpit4tif"Jn. 11& foutiICP"H. iii. "rchflt---CoDtd,
Ele •. I.nU'. Garlelll
lber . . • · . ----
8uul .o'
.. - ----- - F


hI.reb .-- -•• ---- -
:::: :::
. . .. -
. "
, '; 4

T otal
T .. .J
I ..
""'ct- Pt':ticd

tlr telt
.. . ... . . ---- -
- - -
u. OO 0.'.7 1. ol3
l. t..o
."0 Ju.Jy .••. _ •• •• • ___ _
l. .fO 1 S1
2.10 Au;-utU •••• ______ _
8. 00
Summ!t ____
4. '"
. J<I 1. 10
Se-I)I4!.wt;\fr • ___ __ •
I. '"
.00 , Oet 4')btr __ ___ _ • . 1. 02
. ..
.DO . 00 I N . .. mbo,.. ... ... .,. . 00
1. 10 II
.\nnuaL· __ l l1· K:I l R ';1)
GuGeld <Aunt)<
I.Hll\LJdo 3!.OO f'Oet)
'«d ·
) 'l!'II:tor
, ..
1I ,"'!)
1. j'()
. :!tl
- ;. '"
2l. 71I

You MIU", t"pr, ' M"
lune k ul
Altl.I S&Dl Oct.! NO" ' jD«.
.. :t
l lilOt ..•. 1 .00 . 4:.1 To.: .tk Ji . 1:1 1.01 O,?,: . 00 . ....
.f 131 T. . 45 • . 1 3. & T.:.. l:i . .:Ja.
11X6- •• •• 74 •• '1' . .4:0; I. :; I. . 11 tI, .l
1001 .. . . :i; .,u .. 51 1 . .. 1 .olE 1.31 • ...2:: 8.. 30
, OJ!,. I. .. . !,... I." •• ,.
}gco. ::: 1. . M .. Ci" C: .060i' . .J 1. . I. >" 'I·... 8.71
IflIL. _ . 117 , :U . S; . 1 T.:. .I .'1 '1" . . .22 .. !l.:. ' _j'. 6. 00
l li11l1 ... . ill .00, 1. .M . 1. 12; . 1 . 9. 43
)1)11. . . 3-1 2 i].f..t j 12 . .-n . U .(Bj 2 2.l • H .Ui Il. s:i
IgLL __ 2101 . 1 .37 1.1 1.011\1 . • 1--.-· . .. . . . 1 ____ . _____ '
.31 . 81 . 28 . 0:,l . ...... !11 .G2 .6& • .iil 6. '"
" ..... f.. . "I .70: . ", ." I . "I . ., . ": 7:2i
TObl ToltLi I ) TIliIll
(Of for
Pt-rlod Mt-aD wet· l'l' r!O'J Mc ... n 'WI!.!.-
__ . . _.. . 0..- 1: • ............ ': .. i:
Jw.Ullir 1h __ .. .... . IM! .30 0.76 lul)' •. __ ..... . . _. -to .GJ
tt,'rItulVy .. __ •. h •• 68 .2t 1 !1 ."' upsl. ______ .... Q T. .IV
Wlut-.r. ____ !l. 03 . M 2. 28 .. 1- a 1. 103 .M
:Iol:u-tb •• _ ••• ____ __

Sprlne __ . ___
... l.n Sepl lllUMr --- .... 1
... . .. OS
Occ.obct .. __ . __ .
N .. ""b" ........

I 13 3. t!1 __ ....

.\ nnnal._ .. _
Gllu. W.yn. COUllt,
I A lICtudo .. 000 rel!&l
. "
... 1.
1'. ...
. 78
UII ... oS. ·57
7.78 J, 12 , UII
y,.., ''''.IF'b. iM''. Apr. 'II, 'U"." UI) Au •. SoP'1 0:-';:--." 1
0<. :u,:",
1& .. _ T. T. O.!Q 0.12 0. 1( 0. 17 I.CH! T. 3, 11
I ........ to' .00 T . T. • .. T. , . " ,n T. UII
11!I9T.... ! L IO
1.57 .24 T • . .s. I. 10.111
1 •. __ . • 90'1 .20 : 'M . ... " . 41 T. 'm .H. -t.m
IM __ _ . 38 T .
• . 711.03 . 72 .aa . 78 .IS . 5.18
10 1.... 1 .Il . . 00 T. T. .071 T. . 30 . .21 ' . .00 2.215
It6I.. ... 111. T. • . +1 ,0:1 .M 1 • .25, T. T. 3 II
11<0 . .• T, '\'1 '''i . .., ., .051 ' '''1 3."
JIIOS.. .. _ .10 .42i ' . 1 1. 1 . M·.-915 .1 1. 17· .71 T. 5. 113
lD .•. • T. ' T. ::g .:m: .62- . 47) . -31 1.l8 .88 .34 • , Wl 6. 73
, ........ " , '.78" . q'l .05 I. " I." .87: .42 . U It. "
..... 12. . • t 1.27; I. . M, II. :H
--- :--
Meatl ... lSi .32: . 38; . 55 .501 . 23, .. 51 , N .72 • !HI . 6Il
T . ...
" ...
dri est
, .. ,
drI .. ,
) .....
.. __ •. __
--- - -
.. T. 0. 12
lune. ______ .• _____ l 0. 2a

.as .. .n JUI1- .. .. ---------1 . 61
.14 L,so
... . .. US ,0\ ugwill '" .. -- -- __ I • 70
. Ii 1.1&
"'Into!( •• __ .
.89 , 77 1. sr
Summcr .... --:432.70

T. ...
St<piOOlbn-____ • __ •
. n ... . 87
... T. .78 """ ..... .. __ ..... .. ...
. 10 : 1.30
}t.,'(Jwmber ... __ ___
... ... 107
8pd ftJ . ••• ••
1.43 . to
, .. Foll. .... ___
lS< I. SO
! 1
.-\nnuul __ • __
II. I»
The influence of geognlphic p()i;it.i oll on dist . .-ibu-
tion of rainfall is Apparent on compa"ison of t·he
ncords of t.ho different "tations. In t he lower parts
of volleys tributary to the Colorado t.he rn.infall is
low; at Giles, Hite, nnd Paria, with olt.it,lldes of 4,000,
3,500, ond 4,700 feet, t.h(\ mean annual rainfall is 5.62,
1.28, ond 8.45 inches, respectively. The only record at
Lees Ferry is 9.96 inches for the wet yenr 1916. Of
these stations ouly Giles prl)Sents records considered
typical for oreas with altitudes below 4,000 feet.. The
,·. infall a t Hi t.e is affected by nearness to the Henry
)Iountoins and ot l'ario b5' the presence of converg-
ing ,'aUeys. For Illost pl.ces along Glen Canyon the
rainfall is probably less than 5 inches; vegetation is
ullusually' deficient. As the Colorado tributaries are
",cended t·he rainfall increases. Along the Pt.ria River
Cannonville, 35 miles upstream from Pario "nd 1,300
feet highet· , receiveS a third more rain, and along
Kanab Creek Alton, 30 mile>; llpsu'eam and 2,000 feet
highe,' than K,umb, receives nenly twice ns much roin.
It is to compare the rainfall of two coun-
ties, Bevie)' and Piute, wholly wit·hin. the JIigh
Plateaus, with that of two adjoiNing counties, Emery
and Wayne, d,nt lie ea.,t of the plateau rim. (See
fig. 2.) From the beginning of the rec-o,'d to 1920
the average rllinfilll of throe plltteau st..tions in Sevie,'
C-ounty is 11.47 inches; of Emery County, 7.36 inches.
In Sevier Coullty PlateRu stotion (altitude 1,000 feet)
15.19 inches. In Emery County the rainfall
doc'·.lIse. regul ... ly etlsh,ord from Cftstledale (5,500
feet), with 9.03 inches of rain, through Victor and
Woodside to Green River (4,080 feet), whern 0.62
inches is recorded. East of Green River, in Grond
County, the rninfa.!1 increase. with the a.!titude. The
record of Cisco (4,386 feet) is 6.33 inches, and for
Thompson (5,150 feet) 8.17 inches.
A comparison of Piute County Wayne County
shows the relations. The average rainfall for
th" stntiol)S of Pillte Collnt.y is 9.98 inchea, for Wayne
County it is 6.80 inches, and a deerelll!e is recorded a.
the Fremont River is df'Ecended. At Giles the rainfoU
is 1!.62 incbes.
. In Garfield County from the heart of Ihe
High Plateall! to the Colorado the precipitation de-
creases from 11,62 inches at Panguit.ch (altitude 6,560
teet) to 1.28 inches at Hite, 115 miles e .. 'it (3,500 feet).
The variation in amount of roinfdl from yeor to
year ranges between less tllon h.1f tbe normal Gild
twice the llol'Dlal, measlIl'ed through a period of years .
(See fig. 3.) The records for )\.lton sho,,", that 3 years
of excessil'e rainfall oceurred during a 2G-yeu pe-
rioo-32.52 inches in 1905, M.85 inches in 1909 (the
heaviest rainfall for this station), and 28.82 inches in
lell. The precipitAtion preceding and following these
wet" yeanl was near normal. The driest year on
record at Alton il 1m, with a preeipitauon only
lUi inches, or ahout half the normal, and thIS year
.. as preceded and followed by other yea.rs. At
Cannonville where the meen annual ramfall IS 11.37
• L_ '"1 'inch •• ".. recorded for 1918 and nearly
mc' .... , Th
be times as much (21.78 inches) for 19"". e oor-
eriod that includes the wettest years at Alton, Oan-
Escalante, Giles, Hite, and Kanab. At..u
stations of record 1927 was a wet year. These dry
and IVet periods are not, however, mnde up of yean
that .how corresponding records for all statioll8.
Wide variations at one station are not matehed by
simil .... fluctuations at all other stations.


A Z 0 A
FIoou. I,-Map or lOatheutorD Utah altowtB, IocaUoa or lMteoroloa1c l uUonl wlt' to. the ,1m. or th4t RiC"
Platu.a. U. I. ColM'Sdo Vallet
responding utremes for Hite are B.III.nd 12.M inches; I 9B.S01UL nIaTRmOTlO:ll
for Kanab, 7.29 and 20.70 inches; for Pari&, •. 83 and
14.9 inch8l; and for GiLeI,2.25 and 11.99 inches. Ex- For a re,ion whose muimum precipitation is in-
kerne variation in succeosive yeara is ahOWD by recorda lufticient for agricultu ... and in places for grazing,
at Cannonville, 11.77 and 14.97 inches; at Hite, 4.« and without irrigation, great variationa in rainfall from
12.36 inch .. ; at Kanab, 8.61 and 18.00 inches; at Paria, :year to year are significant. Of even greater signi6-
6.18 and 14.09 inch .. ; and at Giles, 8.96 and 10.18 canee is the amount of rainfall r_ived in correspond.
inches. 'l1l. records show that drou&ht Ing months from year to year. In this respect south-
Wlta general in lOutheastern Utah in 1898, 18gj), 1900- eastern Utah is seriously handicapped. (See fig. 4.)
1904, and 191t.-1918, and 1922-1924 and that abnormal At Escalante the precipitation fOI January ranges
amounts of rain fell during the ye .... 190!l-1911, a . from () to 2.45 Inches; for July from 0 to inches;
and ."en for August, the wettest month of the yenr,
from 0.43 to inches. At Giles the difference fOl'
the months of dillereut years is as follows: January,
trace to 1.10 inches; February, 0 to 1.2l! inches; March,
trace to 1.10 inches; April, trnce to 1.57 inches; Mny,
trace to 1.12 inches; June, 0 to 0.72 inch; July, trace
1.50 inches; August, ·0.17 to 1.56 inches; Septembel',
trace to 2 inches; October, 0 to 3.20 inches ; November,
() to 1.20 inches; December, 0 to 0.50 inch. For some
nlOntb. the uinfall of the driest year eJ:ceeds that
of tbe wetteot year . . Similnl' contrasts occur in the
records of other stations.
The diagrams of seasonal distribution of rainf,,11
(fig. 4) show that summer ,is the rainy season for
Cannonville, Escalante, P,aria, and Widtsoo, winter at
Alton, winter and spring at Kanab, and fall at Giles
and Bite. The recorcb for Cannonville, Escalante,
Giles, Hite, and Widtsoe indicate one dry seaoon fol-
lowed by one wet season with two, seasons of inter-
mediate grade. Alton and Kanab have a dry season,
preceded and followed by wet seasons. PlU'il haa
three d1'Y seasons. These periods, however, do not
COM'eSpond witb the ireaooDS, as that terlll is conven-
tionally used. 'rhe period July, August, and Septem-
ber is the season for maximum precipitation at Can-
nonville, Escalante, Giles, Paria, , .nd Widtsoe, durin"
... hich 36 per cent of the total rain falls; and April,
May, and June constitute the dl'iest group, with 20 .
per cent of the precipitation. Rainfall in Jallual'Y to
March is slightly greater than in October to Decem-
ber; these seasons receive, respectively, about 23 and
21 per cent of the annual precipitation. For
and Kanab, Janua,'y to March constitute the rainy
season; for Hite, October to December.
The season of leRSt rainfall, April to June, is the
growing season for most crops, and therefore the sea-
1IOnai distribution of r .. in is unfavorable for agricul-
ture Or vigorous reproduction of many grasses. Half
an inch of rain a month for the period April to June
is an unusually large precipitation for most parts of
1IOutbeastern Utah, and during dry years the com-
bined precipitation of these three months may ba less
than half an inch. Moreover, plants obtain only a
portion of this meager supply, for evaporation is most
.eil'ective during the clear, dry, hot days of early sum-
mer, and the efficiency of the rainfall k. correspond-
ingly lessened. The moisture in the ground, which is
.pplied by the rains of winter supplemented by the
_ttered showers of spring, is su1licient to allow seeds
to ItOrminate and to send their shoots above ground
but is inruflieient to bring a crop to maturity. 'The
ninfaU of July therefore becomes the critical clim .. tic
factor In gruing and agriculture. The tables show
that for the period under observation less than 1 inch ' t
of nin fills during July in 10 years out of 26 at .'


Alton, IS ont of 38 at Cannonville, 8 out of in. at E;s(:a·
lant e 11 out of 12 at Giles, 12 out of at Hlte, 9 out
(I f n' at Kanl-b, ;; out of 6 at Pl\.ria, and 4 out of HI at
Widl s"e. tl. .
With deficient spring rairu; and uctllshons
in the July rainfall, nnturaJ agrICulture In. the KQlPo-
rowits region is unprofitable. In exceptIonally wet
VeAN; some" dry farms" in the Butler, Dry, Round,
Escalante Valleys have produced small crops, but
for most years the yields are to repay
cost of • ..,d Dnd tillnge. On umrrlgated Jand tban·
donod homel'f •• ,l. Dre common.
c .. •
l! 0 e
c -- E -

dowJlpour and the prccipitntion for a month may be
the result 'of an hour'. rain. Such showers seem ac-
tually to pour grr nt quantities of water on the grounll,
ancl during their' progress the surf.cos become
lakes. drv washes arc connrted mto torrents, and
cliff take the form of sheeted waterfalls. Usu-
ally t.hose sho .... ers are separated by d&ys or weeks.
of the i1Tegularity in distribution as reoorded
b . individual weather stations is doubtless due to thi ..
local distribution of rainfall.
The usunl shower is local, shortlived, and sporadic.
It rovers but a few square miles, or " 'en but a few
" 11
,.11 n
I' ll ___________________ ,

II 1\

o AJ'tor. Cennonvdle E!JC3lente Giles Wfdtsoe H,u Kanab
FIQ\:1l1: 4.-S."oDol t1i.trlbutkm of ratDtaU III lOutbeaatern Utah
The mean monthly precipitation at stations in the \
Kaiparowits region and vicinity is shown in Figure 4.
This diagram also shows the maximum and minimum
recorded monthly rainfall and the disLribution of rain
during the wettest and driest years. At some st.tiOM
the rainfall for certain months in the ddest years far
exceeds that for the ""me months of the wettest years.
At Escalante the greatest measured precipitation"for
May ocrurred in the driest year on reoord.
The characteristic rainstorm of the Kaiparowits
region is .. violent local shower. Gentle nins that last
more than 24 hours are very !'Ore, bllt. showe ... of
20 to 30 minntto' <lllration may result in a h .... ry
hundred aores. It lOay thoroughly soak a small are ...
011 a canyon floor or mesa top without affecting ad-
joining areas beyond a clearly defined limit. Prob-
ably no single shower or series of consecutive showers
has oo\' ered ,,"II of Kane or Garfield County. Dur-
in)! June, 1915, no rain was encountered on a traverse
from Lees Ferry to Hite, but the rain gllges at Can-
nonville, Widtsoe, and Alton recorded two or more
showers. In June, 1918, Escalante received five times
its normal amount of rain, while Cannonville, 35 miles·
distant, received Ie .. than half its normal amount.
On September 1, 1922, one of the heaviest downpours
received at Connon ville did not reach Butler
Valley, about 10 miles to the southeast, and on Septem-
ber 16, 1924, 8 hailstorm that destroyed fI'Ill!· trees.
uud cO"ered the ground with ice marbles had
• radius of leSs than 5 miles.
Shower:; on the Kaiporowits Pl:lteau and along
rim of I.he High Platenus are usually accompanied by
hui!, nnd during their prO;::I'eS8 and for some time
afterward the air is uncomfortnbly chilly, but at ulti.
Itll]es below 6,000 feet the intense hed (hat pl'ecedes
the spring and summer showers is reestnblishecl within
aI> hour Qr two after the rain hog ceased. The ground
soon loses its welness, and so quickly is clothing ond
camp equipment dried that it has been found unneces-
sary to curry tents, even during August. The only
Sfrious hindrance to field work is the lightning, which
olmost invoFiably accomponies showers in August nnd
September. It is disturbing to see lightning st"ike
neor.by trees and rock. and frighten the pack horses,
for it seems as if each bolt was directed toward the
men at work in the field. In September, 19-2-2. two
men were killed ill GI'OSS Yalley, south of Widt"",.
The elements of most ·significance ill the telllpera·
ture of southellstern Utllh ore given in Ihe follow in?;
t.bles, which ore compiled from rceonls obtain.J
through the United Stlltes Weat.her Bureau. All the
!;tations listed ore in. churge of voitUltnry observers:
and many of the are incomplete and some Itmy
lJe inaccurate. The infol'mMl.iolt AVailable, however,
is considel'oo sufficient to indicate tlle value to be gh'"n
to the tcmperat.ure element in the climate of the Kai.
parowits region. The figures are for the period end·
ing December 31, 1023.
Huord. oJ te'''pc-atUr6 in .out/ur" (0 "-.)
(."-]Iitude, 7,000 rMt. S:.atjOll in bilb. oorrallf \'.lkI" "cd a"'" 500 IeIll flow h.LIo offonthlib. At Ih.lICb, : 1I '}.onO{ \'slley, :'\boOl6 to:WIi south"'t'l>l, prhlll" to

Ytars Macch Ararlt !'tIlly
1If)' 3:')'
---- --
-' - - --
••• ___ ._ . • ______ _ .. • __ . _ •• _ . •• " __ • __ . __ ___ "
11 $1.7 1 27 ... 33 . • 41, t)
". 0
__ _:.
\I JIi! J 41.) ·llj.G , .. . 1'0 ... ,
100l l 11.8
W.4 ... :l Ui
&1 ti2 07
-20 -2U -10· -,
C_IIoO .....
, .....
, !leI:;,
. \tlRWl I :
- .
il:I.l II!.!)

75.2 ;:1, ... 1 71. ,
.... -loS. a .. :I':" ...
.. .. D3
.. :u.
... ,

,. ..

311. :I
21 . 0
nll- .\IIDtul
rub .. ro
{A),itude, 6,000 feet. ID !tmnll ,.1\110,.; c."'" and p!utuliland:s """tint! hundred re t in t:elgiJt.s ro ..... lnfla:s LG chI! ...."ClIt "rut. oorlh; )0,,- hili. to th. soulh nnd

(MQ, ._ •• __ • •• _ . __ • __ •••• _ ____ •
Ul b&lt monthly mellll • •• _. ___ •. • : : ::: ::-::::
I)J.Quthl), mean. __ . __ _ .. ___ ••• ____ _ .. . _ . •
Lo r= 1 :::::::: ::;:::: ::::::: ::1
27. 1
11. e
II.' I

"., \
S!.. O 110.2
11. 7 2t.O ,. ..
f!aeal ... t.
.\2. I
til. '
1!11. t I ..... \1 <8., :18.1
... ,
0 7!1. Q ... ,
63. 9
3-t. 7 .2.8 41.3 -Ii. Ii
.. 100
.. ,
101 100 34
II I. -,
{A.ltilude. &.7D!I ,"to Su;,,- iD tmal) \Owo in .bllI, country .. illillUrue:-oor. rocky !tiU«'. ·(I D f!dp 0' alli, balTeD pllil!:!.!
W.::J • •• ___ ••••• ______ • . .. ___ ._ • . __ ___ . .••. _
.. ,
ea.c GO. , G7. 7

.... .... .... 01.. 71. :I
", 0 ....
13. Z
.,. 1 .... :ki. & .... &2. 5 ,u7
.. OJ
.. ..
.. -17 -II i II ::.>
Gil ..
r."ltI\ude, 01,000 "t. lLatw. iu •• IIt,. gfsnLat! rl'itt I • .,..rally rol:.QfI: COOIIlr)')

l&&1;, ••• __
FIlabell mo
LoW", ....
DirbMt tem
1.o11"6U tem
'" 1
31. 2
... ,
.... ./57. D
70 ..

111. 8 !
n.2: 7oI. S
" . 0
91.0 .... ....
at. e .... 67. 11
.... ,
.. 100
110 III

.. ..
!O. . I
77. 0 ... .. ...,
... .... ,. ..
" I
.... ::0. , ....
.. .. 33.1
00 dO 73
.. 11 -,
fOe'. Stadoel ia tM I1D.fOII 0( Colorado Rt'rV, .. baM .-&lII a.. ... 1,500 let 2,OOr} !C';1' '-llh; t., from rh .... !
_::: ::.: J
6 .. I
.... !
It ".7
' .. ,
if. 7
... •
.. ....
... , I
... ,
117.7 ....
tneao ____ •..•• __ • __ • . . ______ . . __
.. :Mi. 7 30.. :.7.1 .... .... II.S
... ,
" ..
r.e ••
.. .. II .. M 104 I II ,,& II. 101
14 1

" .
til ..
" '"
" ....
f."'IUtude, .,911 rtet. Couatrr" ,.,*,07 M\·.r aad ope tet U. :IOUlb, witb Ilta"h abrupt bilillo "' ...
• 30..
9 +4."
• 17. I
" ..
II -15
... ,
'" -.

... ,
GI. •
30. •

... 01
... ,
Igj i
70. •
a1. :I:
42. 4
31.' 1


41. 4
M. I
,. ..

... ,
62.. •
.. ..
... 0

In. 1
.. ..

RICOf'tlI <I_JHTfII",.;ft ,gIICk.", Ulall (" F.)-Cootinued
(Ahltutle • • be_' 1,600 -.ell
The induence· of oltitude and topographic position
on temperature is shown by a comparison of
for Alton, Giles, Rite, and Kanab. Decreasmg alti-
tudes are accompanied by increasing mean annual
temperatures. At Alton (altitude TfXJO feet) the
thermometer rarely goes above 90·, and the bighest
temperatures recorded for 18 yearll are June; 94·;
July, 03·; August, OS· i and for four or five months
in a yelOr the thermometer lalb below 20
, and -20
has been recorded. At Rite (altitude 3,600 feet) zero
u-rupentures are rarely recol-ded. The range between
the highest and the lowest. monthly melOns is least for
Widtsoe, 5.6
, followed in order by Rite, Alton,
W.O· i Escalante, 31·; Cannonville, 32.4
; Kanab,
33.So; and Oiles, 84.2°. These figures of menn an-
nual temperature and the l'Gnge between the lowest
ond tho highest overage monthly means are not un-
like those prevailing in temlJerate lutitudes and there-
fore give little indic'ltion of the temperatures ellperi-
enced in this region.
'rho annual and daily re.nges of temperature Lre
of greoter significance. The maximum annual range
recorded for Alton i. 114° (940 to -20°); for Esca-
lante,116° (08
to -17°) i for Giles, 132° (1110 to
-21·); for Rite, 116° (115
to -1°); for Kanab,
120° (106
to -15·); and for Widt&oe, 169· (92°
to -lTO). The greatest t'ange (lSS0) is at Cannon-
ville, where D July ""d August. temperature of 101
oaset by the low February record of 82° below
tero. At nll points within the Kaiparowits region
below 7,000 feot, temperatures that exceed 100·
norma.lly occur for 10 to 20 days nch year. At such
times tile temperature in the sun is ahnost intolet·able.
In ti,e Fiftymile Desert and the Wahweap country
the surface soil reaches 140·, and bridle b\lckles nnd
camp utensils ellposed to tha Bun almoat scorch tha
lingers. Except within the deeper major valleys Dnd
to a leM elltent in other canyons, temperatures below
zero are normal in January, and February
Illld at points on the higher plateaus zero weather fo;
five or days in haa been ellperienced.
Reservolfs are coated With Ie&, and the soil is frozen
to depths of 2 to 6 feet. Nearly every year the Colo-
River Glen C.nyon freezes over in places;
10 1878 the Ice was feet thick • t Lee. Ferry' nnd
dnring the winter of 1924-20 horses were taken
on the ice .t tl,e mouth of RaUs Creek-a feat many
times performed by the Navajo! at Ihe Crossing of
Righ rangea in annual temperature a.re accompanied
by great daily range. A daily range of about 40·
is probably common to the whole area; ranges of W·
have frequently been experienced. A worker in this
region soon learns that however hot tbe day may
be an ample supply of blankets may be required at
r,ight. In June, 1918, along the south rim of the
Kaiparowits Plateau the bellt of the day interfered
with field work, but on three lDorning9 frost covered
the ground. At altitudes above 11,000 feet several
days with temperatures of 70
to 80· were followed
by nights in which ice formed in the camp buckets.
Sudden changes during the dlly are infrequent, ex-
cellt when thundershowers cool the air for a few
hours. On b:ot summer days a hailstorm may lower
the temperature within an hour to a point where
handling instruments and writing in notebooks is
Fortunately, bowevel, in the Kaiparowits region
high temperatures Ind great daily range are ac-
companied by dry air. Instrument&! measurements
have not been made, but for tbe region as a whole
the humidity is probably less than at Flsgstaft', Ariz.,
.... here the mean relative humidity is 62 per cent, be-
ing lowest (39 per cent) during June, the driest and,
during some years, the hottest month." High hu-
midity and high temperatnre oro not contempora·
neous, with tbe result thnt heat, though distressing, is
not enerva.ting and oppressive. Here, as in the Nl.v-
ajo country, U a bot-air bath, not a steam bath, is part
o! the daily routine."
The average date of the tlrst killing frost of au-
(umn ranges from September 12 at Alton and Can-
nonville to S at Rite; and tbe average data
of tbe last killing frost of spring rallges from March
24 at Rite to June 20 at Alton. The stations under
ohserVRtion (see p. 21) have normally a growing sea-
son as follows: Alton, 84 day.; Cannonville, 98 days;
Widtsoe, 99 days; Kanab, 128 day.; Escalante, 128
days; Giles, 140 days; and Hite, 224 days. No frost
records are available for Paria. Where water hIlS
h«:en m.ade available this long growing season, coupled
With high temperature, is favorable for alfalfa, corn,
• U. ft. We.tbn BOi, W, 'rol. 1. l012.
Ind fruit rlising. However, when Il period of several
years is considered, it appears that the normal length
of the growing season may be much shortened. Thus
the growing season may be shortened by six weeks
It Hite and reduced to 9tS days at Giles, 60 days It
Kanab, 15 days at Widtsoe, 1S1 days at Escalante, and
22 days d Cannonville; and Alton may have killing
frost any month of the year. These records are
eharted in Figure 5.
The bearing of these figures on agriculture may be
seen from the fact that oorn requires, on the a "erage,
eo to 150 day. and fruit nn e"en longer time to reach
up and down canyon walls the air seems continuously
in motion and at times is difficult to face, but during
the course of field work no widely sand-
storm WIIB encountered. The most disagreeable expe-
J-iences are Associated with the huge clouds of whiding
dust which roll across the ground to meet the oncom-
ing thundershowers. As compared, with the winds
in adjacent areas, those of the K&iparo\1'its region Ire
neither intense nor continuous. In the minds of the
Navajo who live south of the Colorado River the
Wind People were to dry up the eorth, a.nd Wind
and Night" (sandstorm) is & dreaded expression of
, powers for evil. To the of southern Utah the
FJOv .. G.-RiI!'1nl!Gn or lIme of 1I:»Ua. froft to altltudit 1Jt .oothea.t«11 Utah. Baaed •• aC ,tallo ...
Small areas of dunes and rippled flats of eolian
sand, widely spread over the Ka.iparowits region, bear
witness to the presence of winds. In place!i rocks Ire
being polished Bnd etched by wind-blown SAnd and
vegetation i. successi vely buried Ind uncovered.
For the tll"O stations where records have been kept
tbe prevailing direction of wind is west at Alton and
northwest at Cannonville. As it crosses the grass-
(overed or forest·covered High Plateaus its force is
diminished and it reaches the settlements at the plateau
base strained almost clear of dust. As the wind pro-
east ... ard down the Escalante Valley it gathers
force enough to sweep the ground clear of dust, which
it earriea to Glen Canyon and to the uninhabited
regions beyond. The wind along the southwest base of
tbe Kaiparowits Plateau likewise has no collecting
ground for dust and is hindered in its course by rock
masses that rise from the surface and project from the
plateau. It mllst start and stop, pick up, and deposit
lind at relatively short intervals. The absence of ex-
tensive aats and the presence of innumerable cliffs,
and canyons provide conditions unfavorable for
sweeps. Whirling columns of dust are
In evidence, and around bases of rock buttresses lind
winds and storms over the plateou top and among the
winding canyons are Dot unfriendly; chiefly the light-
ning is dreadful and sublime. Mooney I. halO thus
translated one of their folk songs:
The Yl1nd ItirI the
Tb. WInd 8th .. tb •• mow,.
The :.rind .tIn the wntOWI,
The wLo.d atln the creMeS.
The wind .tlrt tbe (I'Q8IfI.
The rocks are rinc1ng,
The rocks are rlnglDI.
Tho roc .... or.
Tbey ore rtnclog In the mountaIns,
Tbey are rln&1nct In tbe mountalrua.
The, Ire rfnc1ua In tIM! mountains.
An interesting phase of wind activity was observed
in canyon., with seeming disregard to regional
direction, winds on summer day. travel up the valley
and reach the surface above by going up the hot clift's
at the ct.Jlyon head or dividing to follow tributaries.
At night they return down the valley, and the explorer
soon lemrna to place his camp fires with this knowledge
in mind. At many junctions of canyons small ridies
of sand are alternately moved and replaced.
• Noo.e7. I_met. Bap. Am . .2tholOQ F.urt.eatb AnIlI. R., pSt.
106f-10111i. lags.
III the Kaipal'owit.i region soil is rare; if defilled
n. dueply uecomposed or disintegrated rock mixed
with humus and water it is alm<m--t absent. On flat-
topped mesas and plateaus the soil, weathered directly
f",m the underlying rock, forms & mont Ie & few inches
thick, Lut e,'cn he"e the soil covel' ia not continuous.
On the plateau c<lges (the" breaks") the arell.9 of dis-
integroted shale and .andstone, though technically I
d."><ed as soil, bnve no agricultural value. In general
tho conditions ore unfavorable for moking and retain-
ing The scanty vegetation, the absence of sod,
tho .udden .howers, and the "Rpid run-olf favor re-
mov.l of the ""iI o. rapidly as it is formed. Soil does
not remain on the .steep slopes that ore characteristic
of this region, nor ou flatter "-Teas where tbe surface is
thoroughly wa.hed by tumultuous waters from cloud-
bursts olld cleau by winds. Over of
squore miles t·be surfa::e con.ists of clean, bare rock. I
)o[""t of the soil in tbis region is 1t'lnsPOrted 8Oil. It
hOi! been lll'ought to its present positiofl by .t''earns and
wind. ltlllny depr .. sion. on the surface ba"e been
filled by deb .. is washed from their edges, and into
IlIl1ny rock trllcks material from near-by
I,l.""" h •• been dumped. Some former canyons and
inullmeroble tributary "ulleys have been partly filled
with .Iream-bome debris, and a fe,. tI.t-lloored \"11-
ley. nro lIanked with soil deposited .t high ..... ter
.lageo. Similnr soil is displayed in alluviol cones
dong volley side'S lnd in f .. agmentary terraces th.t
cling to co.nyon wall.. Eoli.n soils in the form of
dunes are displayed hero and there It lhe bases of
on opentlllts, .nd within CIlnyons. At one place
III the Escnlante Valley dunes ha,'e completely oblit-
.. ated the canyon wall and replaced bue rock with
soil that supports. covel' of 'fegetltian. In tbe Wah-
eountry. wind-blown soil coats lArge oreRB, and
hlle the air probably forms put of
" ,ost. SOIls III regIon. In foct, some of the best
"reUS ID volley. owe their VAllie to nnnn.l
Irrusscs thot find uncertain foothold in the shifting
Such soil as the region .lford. is de"ived from rocks
thot nre deficient in the minerol matter needed by
plont.. Tbe sandstone and sandy shale of the Puia
Volley, Glen Canyon, Waterpocl<et Fold, and Esca-
lllllte Vnlleys nre p,'Ovaitillgly quartzoee and. therefore
poorly supplied ",ith plant foods. The ilndstone and
shale thot the upper h.1f of the KaIparowits
PlotenD contRIIl a hlgber propOltion of desirable min-
e, ... b, and the Iim .. tone and baslltic 1"". along ti,e
top of tbe Paun,augunt., T"ble Cliff, and
AqIIlU"US Plateaus furnish 80il of good qU'Ility. But,
about .90 per cellt of the svil is derived from
1'01 th.t furmsb hUla or 110 lime, !lotn.h, and phos-
phorIC lInd sulphuric lcid, the soil is not infel·tile, owing
Inrlrely to the arid climate. Because the scant
of water ill the ground is not suHicient to leacb out
."luble the bits of plant food sparingly
distributed in t.he rocks are accumulated in the soils
and .tol·ed for long periods. That the soil has fertil_
ity is shown by the vigorou.s notural growth of pereu-
niols and GIUlllals whc,'(l sullicient water is l)l'l)sent and
by the c"ops hanestcd at Lees Ferry, Pario, Cannon-
ville, and Escalante. The one substance lacking is
water. The dry air and open-textured soil pe"mits the
moisture to escope o.t the surfoce, ,tIlUS dep''essing tbe
Wllte,· table to It deptb thot makes natural farming
unprofitoble ILnd dry forming speeuJotive, but irriga-
tion farming brings satisfactory returns. Unforlu-
nately there is not enough woter available in the Kai-
parowits region to supply more than a few squa1'<l
Dliles, el'cept .t prohibitive cost. The most flLvorablv
situated lands are already under in-igation,ond
lund that might be irrig .. ted is more than ofl'sat by
the .mount destroyed by the down of alluvium
in the washes. (See p. 30.)
llembers of the Powell and 'Vbeeler Sunev. we"
impressed by the geneI'll scantiness of the cover
lie southerll Utah. Powell" remarks:
110n1 portioDI o! tbe ele ... u.ted dttitrtct are del'old ot Um-
ber; • • • the forests ot these \Jl,per regioDI are met-
.. tbe l'ar1et,. 01 tree Ute is 1'ery small: • • •
the eoulterow trees .. • • are ragged and ,narted. alld
tbe lumber they Ilftord l. not ot the ftaest q,uaItt;y.
Powell list. (j species of pines, 6 of fir, II of juniper,
3 of popl8t, 0 maple, a box elder, an oak, a birch, a
hackberry, and 2 species of ash-tbese last seven rare-
n 1Il ... rl,. complete lilt ot !Orelt trees. • • • }II-early an the
(11188e!l on the bt(blonds Dre bunch gtllU. The spRees bJ
whlcb they are leparaled are bare or occupied by W'et!dI and
Ihrubs. .. .. .. A. contlnuoul torf Is never ICon. .. .. •
The regionl lOuth and east of the High Plnteans are exce",.l·
mgt,. desolate; naked rocks ore tound. refusing tooting eVft
(or dwarfed C'edars and pitlon pines; the Ipriup o.re 1D..!.re-
queDt and ),ield no bountiful IUIl(1:)'; Ita patcbes of Irlas are
wldet,. ICRttered, BDd it baa but little tor
Dutton" saw in sharp contnst the "egelation of the
rim of the Plateau of the canyon lands
that Itretch enstward to the Colorado. He says:
Yealorda7 [in upper FremoDt Vane1] we were totllOJJ over I
burnlni aoil, where nothln; &l'OWS Ave the ashy-colored Mae·
the prkkl, pear. and tl. te' .. tt:'danr tbltt wrltbe Ind cuulorl
their Ihnba under a scorchll1;: IUU. To-dav "'Ie !let!
amQllit forests ot rare beaut, and IU1:urlnnce; the Is molll
.ud cool; tbe are I l·eeu. and f'npk. and hosts of tlowt!n
dt':'d: the tur! ljke the buu of • PCI'lii.u CIl1l)tt·
Eac;lwud from the plateau rilll he saw
bun,iI,I' plu.1us. barten even o( SAge-all Ilowluc witb brilbt
("{Jior BUll 8ooded. wItb blui)lg tinoUght, .. • • It ta tbe
tluem\t or deMIIlUoD. the blankest • superlative
deU'rt; • .. • tbe plaiD is burren, t reeless:. and waterless.
If Dutton had descended from the High Plateaus
to the " desolate" Escalante Basin, where " the air
boils like a pot," or had visited the Pari'" and Glen
Cau"on distl'icts, some harsh lines would be absent
fron", his picture. Traverses of these regions b"ing to
rie,.. a re,na"knbly distributed and widely varied /lora,
.bove which, along the plateau rims a.nd tops, trees
and urn.b are as abundunt as in most pR,·ta of the
l"lOlildo plateaus. It is iI'1le, however, thnt .. egeta-
tion in the Kaiparo'Tits region has an unfriendly en-
Tironment. Nowhere is it luxuriant, and at few pllUOeS
do the plants crowd one another in their search for
.. ater and favor .. ble soil. As .. rule, the grass is in
bunches, tho shrubs in clumps, and the trees in smdl
groves with considerable spaces separatin: them.
}[any plants have no nenr neighbors ; they stand as
individuals in t"ncts of several acreS or are present by
twos or threes in area$ of several square miles. Ex-
cept en the Kaiparowits Platellu and about the head-
waters of the P"ria Bnd Esc.lnnte Rivers, patch6S of
green are a small part of the Ia.ndscape. Large arerua
"'8 devoid of vegetation.
The high of hundreds of cllnyons are in gen-
e, .. 1 without plllnl coYer on mces and on their
top:!. It is possible to follow the rim of Glen Canyon
from the Pari. to Halls Creek and to continue the
journey dong the crest of the Wnterpocket Fold to
the Circle Cli& without stepping on grass or passing
b.!neeth trees. (See pI. 21, 0.) Similar conditions
woold be found in a traverse along the Esc.lante
Ri"er from its mouth to Sand Creek. For the region
•• a :"hole, including the plateau tops, dUfs, and clln-
yon walls, it ii estimated thd vegetation in the sense
:hat thLt term is used in the Colorndo pla.teau prov-
'lICe coveN! 20 per cent of the surface; for the lower
F .... I.nte V .. lIey, tbe southeast end of the Kaiparo-
w,ts Plateau, and the south half of the W.terpocl,et
. ·old it covers probably less than 5 per cent.
distribution of plant life in the Kaiparowits
tfgJon corresponds roughly ... ith the zon&! arrange-
rnen& outlined for northe ... tern Arizona,·· but the
boundaries of the zones Ilr. more Irregular .. nd broade,',
lod overlapping of zones is commOn. In this region
Iopogrlphy, with its attendant control of rainlall,
temperoture, evaporation, insolation, and wind, deter-
the character of plant life and the boundaries of
• Gtf/tOr,. H. E., The NllVeJo eountr1- a Ceo,:;raphlc a.t b,dro·
of .-rta of .\rlaoM., New )f •• leo, .ad Utah :
' . . Wuttr'-Iuppl, hper 380, P. 7:!- 191 • .

ecologic p,·oyiuces. The unusually complex yertical
and horizontal arr&lt"'ement of canyons stream ftata
· .. , ,
s opes, c ,lfs, lIIesa tops, plateau tops, areas of soil, and
nr .... s of bare rock lIatur .. lly provid .. local environ-
ment with little regard to contour lines.
Cottonwoods g"ow \\'ithill the lo .. ·es! canyons at
3,125 Ceet and also ill dry washes ",uoye 6,000 f;et. III
plnces yellow pine constitutes forests between 7,000
and 9,000 fect but is absent (mm lurge areas between
1,000 and 8,000 feet a.nd ilppears here and there below
feet . Piiion and juniper rllnge ft'om about 3,500
feet to the edge of the High Plateaus at 10,000 feet.
Sagebrush, willow, and waler-loving' grasses, reeds,
and ferns seem to be distributed almost regllrdless 0 f
Although it is difficult to establish boundaries, ot
has been found convenient in field work to recognize
three plant zones in the Kaiparowits region, as
1. Zone of cottonwood, cactus, and yucca. Thi •
zone includes the Colorado and tributary valleys to an
altitude of about .5,000 feet. Within this zone vege-
tation is overywbere scanty. In Olen Canyon yucca.
and cactus occupy the few talus slopes and cling to the
walls; willow grow. profusely on exposed sand bars,
reappearing after each flood; cottonwood .. stand on
high lerel terraces at the mouths of tributary strellms,
where serub cedar, oak, box elder, Brigham tea, rabbit
brush, hackberry, and grease wood are also found.
The vines and bushes within and adjoining Olen Can-
yon are duplicated in the Paria, Escalallte, and Halls
Vaneys and along stream ways draining south from the
Kaip8l'0witl Plateau. Cottonwoods Ire particularly
abundant in the Paria Valley. Tbe vines present in-
clude poison oak, Virginia creeper, clemntis, and grape.
Grass of several varieties nppears as detached tufts
among boulders, in rock cracks, and on quiescent sand
dunes. Moss and fems watered from seeps form ",een
spots on red sa nd"tone walls. Tamarisks and Lom-
bardy poplar that wcre planted a.i" Paria about
h. ye made good growths; fruit tt'ees, corn, Ilnd sor-
ghum give satisfactory yields nt Pari .. , HILlis Ranch,
Lees Ferl'Y, .. nd Hite.
2. Zone of pinon, juniper, .. nd sage; altitude, 5,000
to 8,000 feet. The dominant vegetation for a larger .
part of the region consists of continuous
forests, scattered patches, and individual trees of
pinon and juniper, together with vigorously growing
SAgebrush. (See pis. 8, B; 22, B.) This type pre-
vails on tbe top and flanks of the Kaiparowits Pla-
teau, along both sides of the Watel'pocket Fold, and
on the slopes of tbe P8unsaugunt, Table Clilf, a.nd
Aquarius Plateaus. Tbe rel .. tive amounts of ·piilon
and juniper difer widely from place to place, &ltd the
I sage grows under tbetrees, in "parks" between them,
i cr in uninterrupted fields covering hundreds of acres.
WiLh tl,."" dominant forms ore found Ileorly all the
pllnts represented at lower altitudes, and within this
are ma.ny indi,·idull trees and some groves of
yello\\" pjne .nd aspen, eharaderiatic of alti·
I udes. BuUberr;.,., service berries, and mountam ma-
hogany are fairly common, and at Pleasant
(altitude aoout 6,000 r ... t) occurs unusual
Lion of pinon, juniper, upen, .. ")\0\0, oak, blrcJ."
• Iders, IlIxuriant wild cherries, .. nd FrUIt
trees co .. n wheat and gro ....... flourish at C.nnom'ille,
, , ,1"- .
Tropic, Henrieville, nnd EscalAnte. Potatoes, wInch
were found growing wild in the PotaLa Vall,), (Eseo.
ConiOBelinurn IelJpulorum. Erigeron macranthus.
Cinoium (near C. drummondi; PoteDtilla flU""".
and C. eatonW. ChaenacLia dougluti,
Autenn8ria rmiea. ZygadeDUJ elecaD •.
Geranium riehardlOni i. Anemooe &loboaa.
Castilleja Jiulnoerolia. Wahlber,ell& drnmIDolKlii.
Achillea lunwals. Arabis drummondii.
With regard to the utilixation of the lond the ,ego.
tation of Garfield, Kane, alld SAn Juan Counti ...
Utah, has been studied by Depue Folck," of tht
L"nited States GeologieRl Survey. He recognizes fi1"t
zones, which he descl"ibes os follows :
t. The transltlon def!.ert brllAA typo occup!es the
Innte), produce c"""lIent cropa. Lud ... or the re.1oD IDd I •• mixture ot ,·orloUI Imoll brulh
3. Zor.e of yell01l' pine, spruce, and fir; Dltitude, opeei ..... bleb dUfer Ia domlaoDco Ir.d deDatt.r accordlDS to
8,000 to 11,000 foet. On the upper slopes and top of I local condit'o",," The Dlor. COUllDOD of tbe .. plJ1ntB or. spee;..
the Aqu" .. ius, Table Cliff, ond PaulIeauJ:llnt Plilteaua ! ot saltbush •• ueb .0 .had ... ·.:. (A/ripl ... c<J,,(crtl(olia), .0.,.
nnd rollnd .bollt Clnaan Peak yellow pine predoml- mon •• llbU8R ( .• 'rij'/C" ••• C.""".), two SIlloli suarute.",",
notes at altitudes under 9,000 fert rand is iollowed up"" : (A.triplez ,mtl-aUi; nn:1 ... Urlple:w corr .. ,«ln), as well
BS Uttle rllbblt brush, bJnet brush (ColcOflYtW t"a-mo.:.a:slmG;.
ward in turn by spruce and fir. The trees U"e intcl' 4 Mormon or Brigham tetl (Epht:l¥a.). grcusewood (Sarcoba/tli
.perled with beantiful grove. of aspen and IUider- " • ..".leular..,) . Yu ..... , and pricklyp .. r . Gmllla, gnUeln. 100
gl'uwn with oak, willow, JWlnz;anita., sngG, a.nrl many rlce are tbe principal
p:rnS8es. In pIa!" •• the pines gl·OW singly or in widely 2. The .bndscale Iype oc<:upl •• cniy a tew of the low ...
• pOC"e'! >:roup', oncl g,·.ss-floorM parks arC common. ,·.lIeys. where ahodocale (A.lrlp/ell _ferli /o/i,,) I. tile doml·
N.nrly nil the IRnd. in zone 8 are within the Powell nu"t .hrub Dnd 1$ \l.8llullr ... oeloted ,.!tb little robblt br""l,.
Mftltbush, dnd cHher ,roma or Cftlletn CraSti.
Nation.1 FOl·ost..-th" !<Ource of lumber and of sum- 3. The Junl"""plrlOn 11pe Is tound Ih.·ouKhout iIIe .roo Ilndor
mer p:rozing for Knne, Gurfield, "'ayn., and Piute dl"""""lon betw .... altitudes of 1,000 Dod 7,000 teel. WithlD
Conntie.. The following list of plant, growing in Ibl. type os ronppcd .re moo)" omnll open [>Dlehes wbere pur.
the for .... ! has been furnished by M ... Wollnce M. or mixed ota"d. or .mnll brush dom' Date. At the blih.r al,l.
Riddle, forest !lupc.rvisor: tudes stonds cOIl8IJ\t ulmost entirely of s.'1gcilrush; \I;
tJIO lower BrC'ft8 there :1 in mallY pl:J:CCI only. SC'rubbr gro\,. ,l:
of juniper 'Nith n abort bru!lb a.nd aSBOctntlon toDlfl(kC('(!
luJncillDlIy ot s.hadseale. saltb'JHh OtlMCac'C1'IoI). gal·
kotll (rOss, Indtan riCC (Orvzopsl. AymeMW!C.), And crnml
V.Jeriana oontophyl:. . I LigUlJt ieulD porteri, wild torrot
Kunzla trldentatflo, bit ter or Duystephana aflilli., mradoW'
deer bl""bcll.
PHUdocymoptarul ticteetrDmii,
.. nRelic&.
.'.tm£alUIl' thompeonM, lOCI).
Aelragalna dceumbena. nuU
Duyslcphan. porl")·U.
Dugald". hoopcsii,

gI"Of.& (Bovtetov. gnJ(.;li.l) . In addlt!on mountain DUthognn."'.
oak brush, crab applo ( CrczJoCgzu), nDd cliff rose urc abundant
hruab species included with thlt;
p.,ipJ:oro rrutlcoaa, elk brulJh.
Arnica rhizom.ta, dwarr lun·
Scricolheea dumo!llL,
Hcdyttlll'uJU pnbulare. tJce.
Apocynum aeopulo:,ull').
Koelcrin CriHtatD., carly MrOM.
Cnrcx mountain
Cnrex. fcstivtl.
.Juneu. badiulI, mcado,,' arMS.
Hym&llOXJ'8 rlohllrdsonil. yct-
),("110'" boneYluc.kle.
Erioaot\um rrOC'C:'um, amall
£rtogooum eorymhOlum, aPl,le
EriOlonllm rt\eero09uDl.
ThalietruDl Ipft.uiftorum,
Madroncl.la 0 d 0 r _ l i .limn,
Arnica corditoll&..
M nblcnbual& t.riftda
no catem
De,lpbiDium barbcyl, Inrklpur,
Sympborionrpoa oreophilu.,
trip hrulh.
Merteos!n. .ampaonii, water
Amllrella. scopUlOrllI)l,
Am.rell. Illcbeja.
Chanl&ener(on nna:UtltifolluID
flre .. ·eed.
Ocuro Ore;onclUlC', nancll_bill.
Asclcpiodors. dccumben'
tOn .. 'UloW'.
FcotuO!l ...n!&erl.
Faatucft ,·Irldula.
Brom\l8 polyftlltbll'.
AcrOltl, hiomaliAl.
Po. (aeftb ... n.n.
TiVJ,malul luridu ••
Imartitll Aeonitum coIumbianuru.
I Luplnua (.p.).
4,. The oak t.,vve OCCUI"8 tn onll' n few l't1loth·el,. small
Al'ettS at the blgher altitudes, ,eu(' ... adjoln-tng the Umbered
torest areo!.. Tbis tne as mapped "I\'CSl of l{ontleoUo repn:-
Fcnbi: an ftlm08t pure stllnd ot oak brush (Q11<"TC11I "rall-
cn,f.I) Iup[llemcx;.ted by a few Icatter!es yellow pine amI in
places IImoll AUI[e pa1.cbea. Ou the slOpes ot the Henry
MouDtftlns the typo includes a number o[ other Bpeclu .Dd is
In rcollt, a high brum type. with aRk. the d.ominant specie$.
Thc rld:;e ot this '''' ext!'1!lD.oI, rocky ond. ".neB.
811ppvrUn,:: onl)· 8 SPSr5C gl'o, .. tb or purple- loco weed, ",bereu
the upper porti(lo ot the north $Iopes patches or
f:q.rucr. IIr, and Il-"pen, .lld ,.ellow pine ;:rows lower dOWD
Rnd in tbe eaoyoD.8. Some at this Urnbar' ""ould bs,oe tom-
mrrctol "A1ue 1l it were at(esatble. Sa"ebrush. buck
(S1JfHpltoriC'C"·po.), an(1 rUff rO&e (C(Hca'Rfa ,'sullaMa")
with the' oalt brullh on theie mouutalns. At Alton
... li t" .... ItCl'eti ye1low Iline itt: with thc onle brWlb.
G. The suge tYfK\ deslgDales Irens where Enge (Ar1emitf
fritf.c:w.ta.tll) Vrest'nls a domlnRnt oppetlnlDce to the eye. awl
makes up practimlly 73 per ceDt or the IrouDd cover. Buncb
:Isa ( .. tumpuron ."i("Qtu".) I. the principal .econdaf'y apecles
Itt the b1tiher 0I1t1ludC1; but II! I'Clllaced by ,allet. cra"
)tURe'ii) on tbe lower mC'ttQ:l. Sl'attm' IUi; plants of btl' rabbit,
.. Pll!l"1io"lll COlBllI\lnlctlion rUDtl&lttfl"d ,_ • rrom 10"" (I.
Sortbr"ll. J.D. Hi. W:!G.
h,..;lh .nd linle r.bbit (Chr/llJoI-MlIIU-U-J ,h!tf.bP1l.1IU.,,)
lind • Ptrlodlcal growth of slP-venl' Innunl gntSl nnd weed
t-1Jf'l .... s tbrougbl)ut lliia UfIE'. In- ceneral, lhl'tO t,YI ....
j, Jlot f ound 8n altitude 01 5.000 teet.
Among the indigenous animals of the Kaiparowits
rogion field mice, cliff mice, ehipmunlu;, .ground
cottontails, on(l were frequently seen,
Rnd the nocturnn.1 desert rat (" t.rade rat ") is much
ill fvidence. Porcupines, badgers, and woodchuclu;
Ii". in forested areas. Snnlles and li:tnrds appear on
the lower dryer lands, bllt reptiles ore here much lei'S
common th.n in regions south of Glen Canyon. Pra.i.
rie dogs likewise ore not abundant. Bea";; Dnd wild
roh< ... ·ere seen on ''''erol occasions, .Iso tracks of the
mountain lion. Colonies of Sonoran beavers are at
,,"ark on Boulder Creek and Sand Creell, and the
name Pnunsaugunt (place of hea,'ers) for the south.
of the High Plateaus suggests mnch wider
distribution. n is reported that otter, deer, and moun.
tain sheep 'vere plentiful ·during pioneering days ond
lhat wild horses were occasionally &C('O. The Piutes
t.1l of once abundnnt East o( the Kaibab
J'lote8u deer arc now rare, and the only mountain
.heep noted during tho course 01 field work "'85 a
flock of six net.r the sout.heast base of the Kaiporo-
.. its PIaLeau. Here, os in other parts of the South.
.... st, centipedes anel scorpions are found, but. thou::h
Ihey are .occasionally unwelcome visitors about comp,
they are not abundant. Crickets and spiders are
plentiful, but mosqu.itoes give little trouble. Deer
IIi .. are a troublesome pest in some of the upland
marsh)' nlleyo. Grasshoppers a.re found in sufficient
.bllndanee to serve the Piutes •• an .I·tiele of food. In
ISH tltey destroyed the CI'OPS ot Kanab. An mh,I"
Ming VAriety of aquatic insects the in
hgms, small dreams,and raim.ater" tn.nks." Among
those studied by Moore oud Hungereord, the Illost. com.
mon are back 6"immers (lI'olo1lecta), wawr boatmen
stridel'S (Cenio, Trepobak6, M;Cf'().
"';;a), and dytiseid beetles T
The Kaiparowits region has always been ,parsely
.. ltIed. To the clitr dwellers ond the Pueblo tribes it
IU unfriendly, isolated country. The few ""loll
cldr OOll_ in Olen Canyon, in the Paria Valley, and
the rim of the Kaiplu'Owit& Plateau are in strik·
IDg tontrast \\;th the numerou.s well·designed struc-
found in .I-egions. They are poorly
bUilt and suggest temporary dwellings, pioneer out,
posts, or refuges for scllttered bands driven out from
better place,. Th,'y ;;erm tn hi' wny_ide not
perm.uent 8ett.iement,.
The Hopis say that their .nc •• tOl'S came to Tusayan
regions nort.h nnd west. They nlso speak of an
edIct. of the" old people," forbidding' travel or dwell·
ing beyond the" l,lTellt water chAsm." Although in
Hopi tradition this prohibition i. gi"en a relil,';ous
bi.gnific .. ncf, it seems not unlikely that t11I'lOt·js of
pIoneer ... outo formed ih basis.
From R c.enter, probably ot Chinle, the N a"aios ex.
tondl'<! theu' .ettlemenls " .... t, and south but
nossed the ('.olorndo onl." for huntiug oile! buter.
Likewise t.he Piutes, wI", appear to hftve been forced
by hostile tribes to occu.py undesirable l'onds, chose the
San JuAn and Virgin Valleys and the pllltenu lands
fRrther west and eost in preference to the Paria and
EscalsnLe Valleys aud the Kaiparowits Pin tean. Ar.
rowhends fmmel hen a I\d I.here show that th. rogion
b.low t.he rim of ehe High FI.telllls was a hunting
!!'l"Ound, but the >prings Rnd conYOll Uottoms sho" 110
of long·time occupanc.!,. Thompson in 1872 met
on. bond of Pilll.s ,t the northeast bAse of the
.-t'luorius Flatc.u, and the pioneer 1I[ol'1II0n hand found
four or Ih'e Piuta families living in tho Pobto
Valley. Several times Ihe Navajos entered the Paria
Valley by the Croso.ing of the and raided the
outposts, and (hey still "isit ti,e Kliparowits
rej:lon to sell blankets and buy buckKkin. The Piutes
come to ""II boskets and to gllt.her
pinon nuts .nd medICInal herbs. The 1920 censlIS lists
four Indian. in Gadield County and none it) KIlle
Count.". During' the course of !ieologic field work in
1900, 1915, 1918, .1921, 19-22, l.nd 1924 the only human
being!' of settlements were a family in
camp .1 P.fla, cnttIemen engaged in a round·up on
Hall. Creek, aud a few sheep herders within the
lIalioH",1 forest and on the Kaiparowits Plateau.
THE .0111(011 l'IOIlI.U
MOI'hlon immigrAnts to Utah lost little time it!
spying out Innd su.itnble for settlement. Within 10
yeal'S. after tlleir orrival at Solt Lake, in 1847, pioneer
h .. d b.en l'frtablished at I.ehi Provo Ncplil'
'U B ' , ,
'I more, eaver, Parowan, and other places along the
foot. of the Wa.otch Mountains and ill the San Pete
Valley. The Virgin Valley alEO had been visited by
missionaries and agricultural prospectors. In IBM
scouts were sent out in an directions from Sonta Clara
a. a Four expeditions made their way east.
ward Across Il,e Uinkaret, Kanab, and Kaibab
PlAteaus and crossed ti,e Colorado, extending their
explorations into the "londs of the Navlljoo and
Moqui" (1858-1860). As a reElilt of these investi!rll.
tions, "many Saints were called from the north "'to
form settlements in 80uthern Ut.ah." The city of St.
Georj:(e V8S founded in 1861: fcrt.ilo spots in the Vir.
gin, Sant.a Clara, Ashc, and Muddy Valleys were oc-
cupied, and the way was opened for ""tending S6ttle-
ments eastward along the base of the High Plateaus to
the Paria River and to l-egions south of the Colorado.
For this work of colonization the adherents of the
Mormon Church were peculiarly adapted. Unlike
the Spanish explorers, intent on conqnest and conver-
sion, the scouts of the church were men interested
pl·itoarily in agriculture and stock raising. It .. as
their busineas to find lands, water, and gl·a_to select
spots BIIitable for villages and farms. The pioneer
Mlonists were looking for homes, not for places to ex-
ploit and abandon. Out of this attitude grew their
policy of dealing with the Indians--a watchful friend-
liness, which hos saved BOuthern Utah from the dis-
astrous experiences of most other part. of the country.
'1'0 the Mormons the Piutes, Navajos, Ind Hopi are
Lamouites, one of the lost tribes of Is .... I, who may
gradually be 1 .... 10 imed, and they are also neighbors,
with whom friendly relations are essential.
Regarding the Pi ute. of southern Ut.ah, BI·ighom
Youug to Jacob Hamblin" on :March 0,
1.'bc bcur ot their redemptlou draw" nigh, and the tim. hi
not tar 4!atlnt when tbey v.-lll rocel"e koowled&e aDd beeiu to
rltle nod increase In the land and become a veoPle whom the
Lord "Ill bl ....
The Indlo.na . hou)d be in keeping aDd lakin&,
cat'e of stod:. 1 highly o.pprove ot Jour In dolnc yow.r
tltmlDC tbrough the nQtI.ea; 1t teacllea them to obtnln .. sub--
&lstcoce by their own lDdostty and leaves )'OU more Uberty to
.llllt otbel'9 Ilnd exteDd your ml.,lonuy labors amon, them, A.
few mhudonorletl to :dU1W oud Instruct tbem bow to raise .took
and &TRIOII, nnd taWD Dot eat It up for tbem. 18 mOlit Judlclo"a.
YOll should alwlI)'1 be corerul to lmpreaiJ upon thew thRt the,
HlJoutd not lnrr!nle ulJOU their rights h1 0111 particular, thua
culll.atlnK honor a.nd good prlnchlJea In their 1lIithtit by ex-
lI.mple u well .. precept.
In a public address in OotOOO1", 1852, Brigham
Young aaid:
Any lUall who Chl'Ut. an Illdh.n :othootd be ck'I.lt with Dlorc
sevel"ely Iha.1l tUl' a wbitL! DU1U. You bretbl"ell ItlUst
1111 aside your 1ll1 • ..,.y t<'\lUngs to,,"'uti tbem and t.'eIllte ""\9hl\ll
tn kll1 theUL
l!'rolll the day of its founding St. George became
the commercial, odmillistl·ative, and eccIcsillStic cap-
ital of southern Utllh. With f!"iends and iuppliea
Il&ured, outlying settlements could be established with
_ome confidence. Pipe Springs was colonized iii 1863·
Mocco.sin Springs, Kanab, and Mount Ca.rmel in 1864:
.nd Paria ill 1865. K .. ne Coullty, with 16 settlements
was organized in 1865. This hopeful progress
to .. n end with the begimling of Ihe Navajo raids in
186e, and for the next five years the population of the
whole county probably averaged less thall 2;} whites.
l!'Ot· the two years preceding the first a.ttucks the
Indians had been restless. The CODling of a few
• 1. A .• Iftcob B.mbUn. a oarrutlve o( hi. penoQol expel'l.
fllCt, 14 _., Balt cu,.. 'l>e5l'ret New., 1900.
peaceful whites to live among Ihem was not disagree.
able, but the uninvited occupation of lands by an in-
creasing uumbet· of families, wit It flocks and herds,
was alat·ming. In the mind. of the IndilLn all land
and fOI·ag<> and hunting in southern Utah belonged
Lo the :Piules Ot· to the Navajos, alld aU food supplies
were the common property of the cI .. ns. To him poo-
session of land did not imply conI inuous occupancy.
IL was not only his privilege to ask for food! it was
hi. t"ight to demand it. Even before the coming of
the Mot·mon pioneers und the possession of firea.rms
and horses, the profitable trade in furs and skins had
made it less necessary to depend for support on the
cultivation of sma.n trnels of land, supplemented by
hunting, .. nd the possession of horse ... nd firearms
made the Indian still more II. nomnd. A pat·ticular
grievance of the Piutes wa. the destruction by sheep
and cattle of the «0 k" and other grosseo, the seeds
of which were • valuable lIOurce of food. As Jacob
Hamblin" e"presses it:
The lreut llUlll'ben ot aDimal1 broUl;bt into the couutrY.by
ebe settler. loon devoured m()ljt ot the ve6;etaHou that had
produeed nutritious seeds., ou ,,-blch the Indian. had beeD.
IlccUiltomed to When, at tbe proper treUson of tbe
yeur, the nath'es l'e::lorted to the:;. placet to pther seeds, they
tound they bod been dellroyed by Ctlttie, WIth, perbaps, tbelr
cbJldrcn Cl'yln:t for food, onl,. the poor COll801artoD waa lett
thelll ot pth(!r!ul" Ilround CD.mp tlt"e8 ond tltlkiol o.er
tbelr grievanc:es.
Thoao who htn,oe caused lhelie noubles ba.e Dot renlized tbe
.Jttt.atlon. I bave nuwy timet: been sort:!l, ,rleved,to aee the
I IDdlan. w!th their llttle ones £;lulnC upon a table lipread wIth
food and tl-ytIl&' to ;et our people to understond thefr circum.
ataneea. wltbout betn, able 11) do so_ La.nk hU8rer and oiber
InftueJ'lC'eH h.ve canted tht!:la to corumlt man,. depredation",
Piute and Navajo alike resented the focts tha.t deer
and elk and mountain sheep we!"e driven from theit·
feeding grounds · and the domestic
livestock which took their place were treated !IS pri-
vate property.
The troubles began by .. Navajo raid on Pa.ri., tbe
most distant outpost, and the theft of cattle from
Kanab, and this raid was followed by Piute attach
011 emigrollt trains thd we'·e going from Salt Lnke to
Califomia and by the murder of settlera at Short
Creek, Pipe Springs, Upper Valley, and Averett
Creek. In 1S69 three membera of Powell's exploring
party were killed while asleep. Th .. these murders oi
Indians by whites and wbltes by Indians did not de-
nlop into .. disastrous war with its consequent devasta-
tio? of.U .. in southern Utah is largely
I oWlIlg to the f"llh, skill, and daring of Jacob Hamblin,
who discouraged reprisals and took upon himself the
task of visiting hostile bands with a vie,v 10 establish-
peaceful Late in 186lS he dtempted to
VISIt the Na,·slo chiefs, going by the Lees Ferry-Tuba
r. IdlHD. pp.. ,.. .... $.

route, but upon reaching Oraibi he learned th.t the
Novajos were in a revengeful mood .nd that" it would
be usele .. and perhaps dangerous to go into their
country." Returning to St. George, he began a series
of visits to the c1.ns north of the Colo.'ado River, with
tlle hope that the Piutos woulil throw in their lot
with the Mormon pion.ers. The ptospeets were not
bright, for the white man's WRy of doing things did
not appea.) to tI, e redsldM. H9mblin "'ftS told in 185G:
We cnn not be goO'l; we must be Wt' want you to
be Idnd to us.. It mu)' be thn.t sOlOe of our ('hlIdl'cli ".11\
,ood. but WI;: \\'(Jut to follo,,,, our ollJ customtt..-
But tad:, combined with the previou, foil' Ireatl11mt
ond the heredi!nr.v feud between Pilltes and Nft¥ftjos,
finallv'ed to an nllinnce, uncI during the yenrs 1807 t.o
1871 'Piules and Mormons sympatheticAlly combined
in "'..tehing po .. -e. and wilter holes on the Arizona-
nah trnils and in wnrding (off attncks of maralldilll!
Navajo bands.
The misunderstanding between the Piules and
"hites came to nn end with that remark.ble confe"ence
of September 19, 1870, on thf. bleak summit of Shi.,-
,,·it. Plateau, when in replyin/! to Hamblin and M;jOl'
Powell the chief ot the Shiv"its snid : "
Your talk Is coo<1, and we belIeve what YOli say_ We
In ,JaeOO Ilod look upon you os 1\ father. When you 1lE' hungry.
you may hu'-e our IRme. You mfty gather our (WCf"t fnliiti.
We lIi111 Io':'il"e ,rou rood when you corne to our lund. We wlll
sbow you t'he svrings, and you bUty drink; the wnter is good.
We will be fl1endSl, And ,,,hen :you come we win be glnd. We
will tell the Illdlnr.s who U,-e on the otber 1tide ot the great
rIver tbnt wo ha.-t"e seen (um ot!. ret'p.rrlnc: to
Major Powell). lind he's fbe Indlnn${' friend. Wp- will teU
. them be Is Jf\('ob'lII Crlpnd. W(Ii ore ,-ery poor. Laok Ilt QUI'
.... omen and cllllcll"eu: the)' are noketl. 'Vt bm· .... 00 horse.;
we eHntb the rocks, and our ore We Uye nmon,;
rlX'ka, ftr.d they yield little f()()(} find mnny tbon.... Wlleu !he
toll' moons CORle Ollr ohHllren ftre huugr)', lYe hMYC not much
to Jrln; you mllst Dot thInk us IIIf>nn. Yon are wIse; tre
bay, beard you tell stNlnge things. We ore Ignorant. LaEit
year we klllE'd three white mon. Dad men laid tbey 1\'el"'e
our t"Demlel. Tbey tDld· He!. tllought them true.
We were mad ; It mllde big Cools. We nre Yf'ry sorry, Dv
not think of them: tt hi tlo:tf': itot be (riend .. , We Qre
l«DOnut-IIke Httle cblldreu In understanding compared with
10U. Wben we do wrong do not get mad and be like
mHdren, too.
When white men klH our )Wopl€' we ldll tbern. Then they
kill more of us:, It II not \Ve IhM the wblte men
Ire I creRt number. When tlwy stop UII, there will be
no Indian If!(t to bury tht de,u't. We lo,·e our eonntry;
know not ot.ller Innd., We beAr thAt other lnn(ls I1re better:
we do not kn()w. Tbe pinel- sloll. (lnd lI'e glad. Our chil-
dren ploy In tbe WArm 8nnd : we 1lK'm tiling and ITe Ilad.
The leeds ripen and we hn'-e 10 .... t. and ,,'e ere glad. We do
Dot "'Int their looci tftDds: l\' C wlnt onr roeb anct tbe ,rent
m.ounta.lns wbere (lur fAthers ltr-ed. We fire \"etJ poor; we are
'tel,.. Il:I1or'ftD.t, but ""c arC Ter,. bonest, You han hOl!1e5 and
• LIttle. I . .6.... op. cit., " 41.
,-Que,ted t. PI.en. I. W., £':II1('l'nrlon or Ih. C{tINutlo hit't'r or lbe
"Nt. pp. IZO-lSO, J87Ci.
You hr(> wil!lC: " lood beart. \Ve
will be Nothing nl(lre tin'·€' I to FRY.
In 1871 p.a •• \'fas concluded with the Navajos, and
Ihe long succession of thefts, parleys, murders, nnd
punishments came to nn end. ' Ill the'fall ()f !hllt year
Hamhlin Rnd Powell profeed •. d to FOI·t Defiance, IIsing
the newly found cross; ng at I.ees Ferry, and in a
council nttende<1 by some 6,000 Navaj.os considered for
three d,,),s the hoped-for pfncoiul relntions to be es-
tabli,hed !lmonl( the Nliviljos, nnd white5. The
ronneil was continned nt O"aibi, where lin agreement
WIIS reached thut in the settlement oI future misunder-
standings HRstele shonld represcnt the Navajos and
Han)blin the Mormons of Bonthem Utnh. The peace
talk closet! with the words oI the spokesmon:
"We hope we muy be able to rAt at one Uble, warm
by one fire, .moke one pip"', (HId under one
blanket." This nnwritte.n arbit.rntion treaty was i.ith-
full." kfpt; even U'e trencherous killing of thre.
Navajos ill 1815 by 8 resident of Grass Valley, which
roused the rel'en:.,,,,.ful feolings of the whole N avnio
tribe, did not result iLL further bloodshed.
Confidenrc in the word of t,he Nl\vnjos led the
pion .... rs to their abandoned jields and "il-
Ingc, Rnd to search fOl' new locations in t.he region
f.St. of the High Plnteaus. The rnined homes .t
Pari. (winter, 1871) and ot Lees Ferry (1873) were
r .. tored. C.nnom·ille Henrieville (1878),
nnil Esclllnnte (187r.) were colonized, and permnnent
settlers eMme to the FrelilOnt Valley (1883).
But the redamotion of londs lind the building of
homes in \.he Kaiparowits region presented diffienl-
ties not experienced by the settlements farther .. est_
The climate is nnfavorable, and the Ilpproach to cities
t1mt fel"', as sources of snpply is long nnd difficult.
III corresponding latitudes the ()Ilses at the west base
of the Wnsntch are WArmer, receh-e 30 per cent more
rainfoll, nnd are traversed by strenms of greater Rnd
more .. gulal· lIow. Escalante is 80 miles from the
railroAd; Cannonville 90 miles; and Parin, by way ()f
Kanab, more than 150 miles. Escalante, Henrieville,
ond Pari a ne at t.he very ends of Iittle-tl·.veled' roads;
,-cry few people poss through them e:rcept to visit the
score of families on upper Boulder Cl'eek.
From the borders of these settlements unoccupied
land extends for 120 miles; eastern Kllne and Garfield
COlloties and two-thh'lls of San Juan County consti-
tute an area. of about 10,600 square miles within
which there are no permanent habitations. The mnch
buildings at Hite, at Halls Creek, and. in the Henry
Monntains are intermittently occupied, and prospec-
tors come and go from their cabins ill upper Glen
Canyon, but neither white men. nOr Indians 11IIYe
chosen this region for more t.han t.emporary use.
Fllrthermore, the settlemellts themselves are separated
from one another by natural barrien!.
To Tr pie, C&nl)Ol> trod three u. 1M Ute ior4 (iy.""" "f ,(he F&me:-s ) 1lJlli 1l
,.AUeml'nrs wt,<>ae horJ ..... DelJrl,. o,,,,rlap. IL t1'l .. , hfo Mh' f"",..ihh!- ot l.t=er Pn.l"i1l Dar..-.:.n. th.-
y ... &!!Oll or au!..ro.-.bile fl'QHl Eicalal>te mll!!t dimb reci.on ',,!tow Pal'.u. - a at<lJlpil;g PI""'-
rhe H'1I"1I Plllt"au drcle Thbl. Cliff, and t , ' (0;;'" Pint an,l. 'Il"aj"" lUId pt'NlJ> ; Jur !:be tlil!:
1 .... into> ,he Paria "-alley..Y", P,aria j dwelJ.rs bo..!nre Rlma/i, se'l"'t'
t annon.·illo rC>Qd i, tD. rough bM "f .. -;t.r .. .11U, Ie I j. pl.alll! dllfl.l\g l1is"xpllll'atj(om., "",J '['"wert J)
.." ioun.! during th" counoe <If fi..Jd ,,'ork 1h& j (iSr21, 0Drl.A n . ThDrnpllOO CIUtl?td
poople a...Ilinl!; ill th< Puia Valley h;>,. btlJ oE the: t'.re. Jt 1;; poo>'iiJi<o liun E"""lontt' 11190 P.l<""d
, ' "lIe1 lILld "f Wllterpocliet Fold jthis .;pelt.
that the Glen CanY01! region 13 un! llIIUliar " v, _J\..z • sit., i.,r '" ;,n ... l1 agricu1 'Illlll "<'<'ImmWllt:y Lb.
idell "of &<-mnle 1 "(,Jr.ilyof PoIm lIFf"'llN'.l A[t.-..<'tive to the pv..aeer..
Within IUiPU<)w1ts T 'gjan nre . (tit' · , pw..a ('any<lD ';" -here by • }, !l'b"ck {Eioot
ment.l>-L.-e: Car.rlOO.-ill", H",ml ..... Tropi' K1l1bal.l 1<.00'" whieh the fiwr
, tbe I.f.t throe included 'WltDltl 11 ""diu. of Ii IlJrolldtlll' 11ll,} !>ek,w which fc.r a dl31ani'tl "f ./>oul
L .• la"t". n Boulder. Le k the home of t.he b4llJOlI . blI"k from the !It.r .. m.
family; BouJdu lfl ,I" .. bout :t,} iamili"", "In, a1J \l\'ltll nllt£. in II pr®tian fur jrnga:
Ii.;, on 'aLter ram:!> ; o1.lt.r iour 6I!!.denl(!nti 'lion. Gr>l.ZUlg l.4orls IIl>fffiJ on both goes {Ii
re ocmull "111,,;._ Al of tlwm are ".'_;"ll"leJ From , __ rdB k"P. b. 11. bi;;toriJ!.Il "r 1.-
iU'e!l . o ",&terM., tiUahle l .... il boN red by boIrrcn b.,J, i L ,-lnOD Ch1Jreb it in Pel;6I SclIUl'U
01 WId ex'*nl.·· I ;;.-tJ.JeJ at R.IIcl<: HOlIfiI>, !! 1:",J= t}lil hogb<tek.
LU5 nan ""1; 1.0 be drI..-m .way the fullowing yC4l' by N .. ".jCl>
.\1'11, lt$ chosen .. & reiul;e bJ John D "':,(\ l\titi..,1 pis 1""" .. blJ)t£r:fur.ra.ids 00 iIbttIe·
I.!'<I in hi.> atttm}ot to c-.p" Lh .. """"",\uenec' oi par. mepu, iutber " , . In 1 71 Rock H()lllII! .....
tiOl.pati.\I] in , r""RtoUn Mead",,". ma.s>al'l't' (1.85';')' 1 cued Ly .,,, f"7',iljfl.S, DO J:,ou..'<e5, mrNlls . • fuN, 00
. \ tl'&C of!t fc ... hllndrtd a,'"", m, r 1>'1 m'" lh "f trw j of J.tdl were cruu;I rue+..eO.. The n..n .=
l 'a"" is fuorably for ;'-'-'!!t1i,,'Il., an.il IllIlllI... cre 11 famili . . lI.tldtnllpJftN' produced " pleBty
c<>rn, nnd fruit tTPfO; b,wo been iRlerlll't,u,ntl:; pb.nted i !lIIrghurn, and gs.rdell t.nJc:k." In H:..-l! .LiAu .
• illet! about IbiO. In !l boat. b"iit vI lumbtr brought I nil;" lanher ckrwn!<ln!l.m, n1I:> ffilal.l.whed, .. lid it iloot
from the Kaihab Plateau Hamblin and Powell crO:lSed became a prosperous community of cattlemen and
the ColorILdo at this point, demonstrating its value as But Reek House and Adairville were des·
a ferry site. In 1873 a fel'l'Y boat was conet,ructed by b ned to short lives. In 1874 "trouble with the
mcn from PBria, and in 1874 it was protected by a ditches" caused the, 15 families at Rock House to relo·
stano fortification. Since that date Lces Fel"Y hiS cate above the hogback, at the present site of Pari.,
been an 088onti,,1 station on the route from Uh,h to and in' 1878 the eight families I.t Ad"irville joined in
Arizona. It is com'enien! hcadqual'tel's for Govern. the exodus, for" the water in dry yoo.rs did not reach
ment surveying and e:tploring parties. During the their forms." In 1877 there were people enough to
boom II of 191<f-1913 Lees Ferry was the head- fOI'm a ward of the Ka.nab "stake." For several years
quarters for parties of men who were working at the new village of Paria prospered. rhe field !lnd gar.
Cl'('ek nlong the Paria. For some years den l'9tul'Dcd good yields, and the cattle in·
past It,has conststed of a dwelling house, a few acres IR numbel' and quality. Dy 1884 the poPllla.
of land, and a ferry boat kept in operation bon mcluded 107 resident members of the Mormon
by Coconmo County, Ariz. With the completion in Church, in addition to nonresident cat.tlemen and
1929 of the bridge &CI'OSS the Colorado at the head of about 20 Piut. men Ilnd women who worked inter·
Marble Gorge, Ferry is 5 miles distant frolll the on the basis of half rations. But pros·
F.IR.b'litaff.Kan"b hIghway. Its histol'ic ferrv boat nnd perlty came to a sudden end in 1885.
pIcturesque approaches are no longer of use: Floods. in 1883 were followed by the unusually
URn ,",vere wtnter of 1883-84 and by more floods in the
summer of 1884, which washed away farmhouses and
fields and converted the nllrrow &lream channel into
• wDsh that ."tended in plRet!s from rock wal1 to rocl,
wlI.lI. (See pI. 27,) Excepl for a few acres PI,()'
tf'Cted downstream by rock buttresses al1 the arable,
InnOO disappeared. In the spring of 1884 Paria bad
its maximum pOpulation. Iu September of that year
48 people remained, and in 1885 the Pari& ward was
uisorgunized, For the I.st 40 years ,the removal of
Pa,:ia (pah, "'Rteri re.h, deer), on the P.l'ill River,
50 miles above its month, is lhe oldest sct&lement in
.0utheR!t Utah. Situated on the established trail lead.
ot the out,-Ukt la Plateau pnl'f'.
• ('I!t n , E., Reller, .\. G., nDd BI.hlll). A L Physical It d
i;tlOlraph),. p. H . IIUO: Grt'COf)". n .. 1=:•••• The 0011. :t
I It'e • "Am. Ana. hI, Yo1. a. pp. lOT-ill 10111'
t" . r ooQ, . "f Utah. Tbe oullll at U ... foot of tb .. W .... Lcb.' · Geo,'
TOt 1. liP. 3.fo6-;JMl. 1916, . •
\I'U' l'omplet"d in 18l)'! the ha" more thllll
,\oubled population.
. ";il and aIiUl,;.l hanks has continued, until the amount
of usable I:tnd probably does not exceed 60 aaes.
·rhi. area supporls in part the two or three families
... ho Ii ve at Paria during the p[;\ni.ing and har ·estillg nCALAliTE
.. a,ons. The ambitiolls pl:ms of the nonresident
In ISH the Escalnllle Valley wa. visited by H,lIlt·
.uilltah Land & Cattle Co. fOl' the constl'uction of a blin. In 1872 Dellenbaugh and Thompson, of
"om and 10 miles of ditch· for carrying water from
v exploring expedition, " saw Mormon. from Ponguitch
Ihe Paria to ehe 50,000 ac"cs of land ·on its banks I' e· I t II :1. f ki 'tl t I . d d' cd
W 10 ·a <ec 0 ma ng .. se, emen ICI'e:tn a VIS
main in n speculative stage. Likewise Ihe exploita.
them to cdl the place (See p. S.) The
tion by the. American Pincer Corporation of the .s· fi" st settlers came in 1875, :md a town site was selected
gold "esollrces of the region, whieh in 29]0 iu 18rO in the Pot.to Valley, neO,. the junction of Pine
resulted in ,,,,col'ding 108 mining claims, affords no
(!rcek and the Escalante !tiNr-the present ,'i1lage of
Jl''Omise of a repopulatoo district. (See p. 148.) F..sca.J.nte. The reports of &rolll. land, of .llund.nt
CARlfOBV'LLE, HEIUIEVILLE, AND TROPIC w.ter for i"l;glltion ond power, and of inor."I. graz·
ing land. that extended fa .. in 011 dil'Cetions induced
With Cnnnonville ns " ceuter, Ii,. settlements hove llIony families to I.a,'e the congenial plotcAn topa
been esta1t>lished in the "ppe" Paria Valley-alI of te. west, onn though for the lirst two yellrs some
them within a. rodins of about 6 miles. Three of of were forced 1.0 find sheltcI' under overhanging
these-CAnnonville, Henrieville, Dnd Tl'Opic-,hoYe r()(:ks, in caves dug in banks, nnd in JllI>.kes"ift
grown into the other two-CliltDn, 2 miles wickinps, tent., and shl\Cks. FivIt yeu .. aiwr it. es·
... t of Tropic, and Geo"getown, 3 miles southwest of toblishment the E·sc.hmto lI'Rl'd enrQlloo 4401 names,
Cannonville, on Yellow C"eek-we"e abandoned be· and its eonsistent growth hns mode the "illllge the
cause of the scal'city of watcl' ond the destruel.ion of Ist'!"",st compact settlement in southeastern Utah, A3
the fields by floods. The site of these villages has a typical record of pioneering in the Kaiparowits re.
not found elsewhere in the Poria Valley. gion the following accollnt of the settlement of EsclI'
It is well watered and has good soil; firewood, coal, lente is given by permission of the historian of tho
ond lumber are near at hand; extensive tracts for Church of Latwr.doy Sainls:
gt'llzing surround it; and the climate is suitable for In WlIIlnm 1. )'Ial<o, bune Riddle, bo.c 1.
6eld c"ops t.nd during most yea,'') fo,' fruits. That Riddle, Chorl •• D. Wblte, 100Ioe Turl • ..-, and Wllllnm Hutcb.
tbe lcttlement of tbis region was delayed 10 years 11llI'I, III of a.o"et, utob, .roued the Eocnlnnte Mouotaluo
after the establishment of Konab and Paria is due fl'Om Sweet,,·.ler the regloo ot country
largely to it. isolation. To reach it from the ,",' est in. 810ne tbe E""nlftllto Creek ond Itl b.-lbulo.I •• with. "Iew to
GndJng • place auItablo fO[' the loeatioD ot a lettlement. 'l' hese
.oIved building expensive ronds down the cliffs Df brethren, being f.vorebl7 Impreoaed with the countl'7, melli.
the High Plateaus, Dnd from the south the only fellsi· ared sowe of the tand where E.c.lante no\v "ands Dnd ottl.
ule apprOllch is along the bed of the POl,ria River. Tne maled tbat there were 1,000 acre. of lroble land or more
fi ... t settlers came to Cannonville in 1875, to CLifton 1\'111<'" eould be u .. d for .gr!cultural purpo.... 'I.'bey 01 ...
in 1875, to Hent'ieville in 1878, to Georgetown in 1880, found a ere.t pl .. t .. of Part. bed on tbe hllla Oil tbe ""uth·
wesl. Tbe:!'e brethren p:ve A good re[Klrt ot the country.
and 1.0 in 1891. With some fiuctnations, the whleb Icd to Ihe setllement of F."".lanto being (ounded 1be
coulbined populo tion of the tlll",e existing vill.ges has lOme yenr.
ShOWll • small, consistent increase. All the settlements A nuruUer of brethren ttom Pougultch, ""lto desired to
in the upper Paria \' alley have , .xperienced great cbange their pi""" DC re.I(len"" 10 0 eounlry where Ihe eli·
dilliculty in oontrolling the intakes of irrig&tion mllte mot',-' moderule thon on I.bo Ullper Se\'lcr, decided to
settlo In Potato Valley 0(" on the E8CD.lante Creek, havln« been
<litches and in mointQinillg the c .. n&ls across the dIu· Impr .. !Ied b:r the report or tbe •• plor.,·, nlr ... mentioned.
\'iol fiats. Beginning about 1890, tha Pltria River and Con_"elltly Andrew retor 8:how I"'be w •• npJ'Olnted b7
many tributary streams have cut deeply into DIBhop George W. Sevy, or PUlIl':Ullch, to toke cbargo ot lbe
fl.oor5, ... placing fertile lields with a network of can· p.opooed ""lOllY). Thom •• neap •. D1l,";d 81""OllSOll. Doc Carl""
yon. Willed with sand and Gravel. At Henrieville 8hlrt., William Ah·ey (all oC P.ngultch), Dnd h .. e Tun>'
bow, at Pana.ccn, .• croll(ted the rIm of tbe ba,..in at wbut
all( annonville .. bout Q third of the ar .. ble acreage t.. colled Ihe Saddle of the ):"".III"to )[ountalns JUDe 28,
o[ 1880 hall been destroyed, &nd each year sees more 187G. ,,1th two wa.oua. The"" .... ,. tb. fir>tt "8gOM .. er
f@rtilG soil c ...... i.ed away as stl-eam·borne silt. At broul'ht luto Potato Volley. The bl'ethren ."""""de<! In (Ie'
Georgetown land for the 8"ppo,t of one ...,Ddlu( O1ountnln on t.bo eut 61do "rter rou;hlocklnq
bmily remains. Tropic has forestalled future diffi. Ibo wheel. and a man wllb web btud wheel.
lti b hO h h . I they wade tbe d.n.:emus descent and rlrrind on the present
CU ea Y developing an irrigation supply 19 on t e .Ite or Eocalante lUlle 20, 18 ••. ' 'I.be sI. meD mentlolled bud
Polunsaugunt Plateau, where II. dam on the Sevler DO tomlttes wil.b them. The)' beld a eoullcil at the moutb
Rh'er and a ditch" miles long directs ... at«r over the r>t lbe caayon and 10 locot •• town alt. on tbe oorth
platellu rim to lands along the Ploria. Since this ditch .1<1. of tlu! creek. op"""lte Ihe pl<lcc "'bere lbe town .. f
nfl. standti. Tbey made I temporarl saney aDd.
(Iref.Ared to bund • )ouse, Heb .. n clalmtn. I quarter see·
tlon. In or,Ier to l!IeC'IIre fbe land tor other leWers, wHh a view
til building up n town. Ou this visit these pioneer bret)reo.
while IIvln" in tht"ir wll«OHS, fJJlent con_tdernble tlrte workiuc
no tlw rond ()\'cr the mounlnln, D'lCNSt of them returning brun.
r"r Chrifol1 maa. The &E'ttlerw IneutiolJed reprelented otiler men.
wbo also ('arne o\·er durlDjl the senlon Ano aql.ted 10 the !
work on the rll.'1. The understandtng 'IUS tbllt efH."1l mIlD
.. hflllld h,.\' e 20 R(TeA (It fHrnllnJ; lano, 2lh serf'S at lucero
Iflnd, uno II cHI lot. In II oUtn h/Ht t ..... o ,,·lve. or Inort
thnn (Jne tRIOII, be ,YOY '0 hove two (lr Inflre clty loti. Onl1
for a Ilhort lime- ollrln(:, the of 1875-76 lfll1\l tlle jl!fRut
t(Nt1emcnt mUrc..fy nenled.
In 1S76. ,.ollle oC the hloclbt'cn ,,'11& bud \·h.1.te<l
F.J'Clllftntf' 11110 'O"ul"k('d on the rond the ,.fIlr returned
III Ilwh' Im'alion and eommenced 1Vork OD ID lrrlca-
Horl ./Jt(·b on the 1I0 .. 'h (It the Crack In
(,rd ... r tn brlnlJ water onto the tOWD Bite, bot to Aprn, 1818,
thc' br ethnon ngre«! to mll\'e tbe tOWD lite 811d bulld Hlelr'
on the " .. ntb side or tbc etr\'om ror farmln .. purposea.
J osiah Borkel' vr(lA the flf'lolt moo who brn\1jtht 1.'1 Ids family;
lac "rrl\'Cd in )In ft''', 1STG. And bnd .. terrlhh.! experience .In
the Eu,,' Fork VlI.llry III tbe UoW. About. dOleD
othC'f rflmtliC't) ftrrlY,:a )oter tn the WlllialD Ah-!7,
the ftrat to lon:tr hili rllmlly on tile preMnt town site, found
I!Ihelter fn a tenOl .... hlC'b he bulU. In tbllt Illme eeUu all
th .. I!nt or the aettl{'ment tOllod tPTnrlornry Ihelter
AjiUlinat lftormJl, which were nat In the bec1uning.
'l'be ,.better thrrc WI'. touna to be br,tter than in the sbnntles
whlt'h Ih(! brethN."n haNtl1, hftd oC willows. In
thai .. arne et-U.r, 10 by 12 fPct. the arst ('holr praeUcea in tbe
.. tI101»rnt werQ held. while lAeetloca were eomme.oeed m •
bowH buill of bl'1lllb and .. 1110 ..... In June, 1816, 0. tho 23d
ot Jut,. 1!iB, " lnmbcr shoot, na hastllr bunt In wb.lth a
publ1c atnner wnlf ..rvP.Cl On plolK'Cr dR,.., Jul)" 24. All tbe
people pIlrtletpnlt-d In tbl. tefillt, a number ot P1ute
Indt.n., a1toltefhcr 140 8Oulll, not eountlnc: canlnet. Prnfcul
to th1ll, on fl1e tf'nCcllnlal dn)' nt the Unite(l grntes, Jul,. 4.
11(76. 11M' J)eOIlte .b()"'l·1l thetr loyalty Ali: bl'st tber could Ia
the (,f • nnlt t11l.', hO!l\lPd a !ltrlpeo N:lVW.jO 1
blllnkt't to tbe breelle. howe"", acnt for B G'eDulue I
aa.e. wbkb WII8 raised 6n the 24th, At tbIs time WIS
onl1 • Ter)" Hale watpr In the Eacnlonte Oreek-liral'Celr
sumclent tor tbe people to irrigate tbeir IJnrden RJlOtI\ to 111
notbloc oC tJlefr rarm..-but in 8 most marvelous .,,0.1 the
water COUlmenced to focreue, thougb there ".8 con91derable
eearclty ot "".ter until 1882.
The unsatisfactory feature of Escalonte'. situation
i. ita inaccessibility, The village stands at the base of
slopes Bnd cliffs thot necessitate .. climb of 2,700 feet
to reach the" saddle" between the Aquarius and Table
Cliff Rnd t,he sharp descent beyond is only
the beginning 'of a road that st.retches 52 miles to the
railroad at Morys,-ale, Before the present expensivt,
skillfully planned )'oad wos constructed to 'WidtsDe,
mail and wagons traveled the rough, roundabout
route through Henrieville, Tropic, and Panguit.ch,
which made the distance t{) the railroad about 125
miles. When snow lay deep on the mO,unt.ins e"en
route WRS barl't'd. In tho winter of 1886 an outfit
wa. forced to go by way of the Wate,'pocket Fold,
Hall Creek, Fremont Valley, and Salina.-a distRnce
of more than 200 miles. Befol'e the railroad WRS con-
structed to ).{arysvale (1900) salable produce, chiefly
butter and cheese, was carted to Salt Lake City, 250
The distribution and growth of the population of
the Kaiparowits region is shown in the following
tobie, The figures for 1900, 1910, and 1D20 are thOE.
given by t,he Bur.ou of the Census; the other figures
represent the membership of the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Slints, which is estimated by the
church historian to comprise 92 per cent .of the
PopllltJlirm O!tA. KaiparO'ViU re,ion,
': - /7J
';: .. __ .. '''s, ___ ___
E ....... le _________ 441 417 436 I 6lrl 948 806 723 846 11,032 1,006 1,040 1,033 1,046 1,064 1,015
C.nnollville _______ 187 86
128 242 130 130 171 211 ' 219 I 311 283 277 216 216 207 227
Henric"lUo_______ _____ __ ___ _____ 146 136 142 158 170 , 158 I 153 147 : 157 I ' 159 20:
Goo."'low" _______ -----1--- - - ----- 22 85 61 281 379 --;;;;- --;7-;- --;;2-- --;6--1- --;8-0--' --;5-8-- - -;2-;- --;;7
Trop,, _____ ___ ___ ----l---- _ uu _nu_ 194 i m •• • • • ....
Bould.r ___ __ _____ __ _______ __ ________________ ,______ ______ 104 91 177 175 150 , 130 H4 144 192
________ 1 663 686 I 611 I, 111 I, 49311, 448_ ,1,515 1,602 1,718 2, 172 2, 170 2,086 12,006 2, 021 I, '98 2,089
• Alttll.
The ('NISUS records for 1930 gi"e the population of
('ounty, which includes not only the settle-
menu of EsCAlante, Boulder, CannoDville, Tropic, and
Henrieville e ... t of the High Plateaus but also the viI-
l.gea of Plngui!.(-h (1,061, or lbout one-third of the
popUlation of tbe county), Widtooe, Hakh, Spry,
Antimony, and the farms and ranches of the Sevier I
Valley, ... 4,642, For KllIle County, "hich inCludes 1
• September.
Georgeto\Vn and Pari., also Kanab (1,1911, more than
one-half the population of the county), Alton, Glen-
dale, Johnson, MOllnt, Carmel, and Orderville, the
tot .. 1 is 2,235,
Dllring the pel'jod 1900(11)2() the total increase in
the population of Kane County wi. 243, and :l'or that
part of the county east of Kanab the population de-
creBsed to a point where only 12 pel'llOns remained,
During the same period the population of Garfield pl'actice it hd" been found unprofitable to supply water
Count.'· incr •• ,.,d by 1,368, of whom 802 were added to.s much as half the otherwiiIC available ncreage, and
to tho setllemcnts on the High Plateaus and L6G to since tho region has been oettled milch choice lalld near
those in the Kaiparowits region. The population of Cannonville and at Paria bas been destroyed by flood
Kane Coullty. 2,054 (0.5 to' the sqUllre mile), and of (See p. 30.)
Garfield Cou';ty, 4,768 (0.9 to the squore mile), ,-eem.< After 40 yeur,,' experience it has Locn possible to
very sillall for regions settled 50 yenrs ago, but it ade- pI nee ulldel' ditch about 4,000 aeros of land I.hat im·
quotely represents the U carrying capacity" of south- mediately "djoins the village of &;Calunw, .bollt 1,000
eastern Utah. The nnmber of uew settlers cominl!" in .cres on Boulder Creek, Sand CI'eelc, and ot·hol· tribu-
i< offset by tile number moving out. The ,m"ll anllllni t"rie. to the Escalnnte River, and nbout a,ooo flcrea ill
increase shown-about 68 for Garfield County, 12 fo,' the vicinity of Tropic, Cannonville, and Honrieville.
County, IInu 27 for the Kaiplu'owits regicn--is Of these .. rens, which cover about 8,100 acres, it has
l"rgllly the excess of births over de.ths. The families beell found actually to irdgate .bout hllIf.
of rUl'al V"tah &Fe lal·ge. In 1920 the population of Gar- This discl"epancy is accounted fo,' in part by the varia-
6eld Coullty inclnded 2,198 children (about 47 pcr tion in water supply from yeur t.o year lnd the diffi-
under 14 years of age and 1,216 children (26 per cent) "ulty of ditches, and in part by the lack
londer 7 yenrs. Esc .. lnnte claims the largest proportion of market for crops that could readily be
of children under 5 years of age of all American com- raised. The small increa.se iu popnllltion lias lbeen
munities. The population is remarkably homogeneous. accompnnied by a corresponding increase in the acre-
Il is almost wholly Nordic-the absence of dark eyes (lge cultivated.
ond hair is very conspicuous. Of the combined popu- La Rue " .ul<!,'Ilsts tho possibility of obtaining water
lations of Garfidd and Kane Counties native-born at Esclllullte for 1:1",00 Bcres !.lilt at a ('",,1 not jllstified
whites constitute 97.1 per cent and foreign-born Ly prospective "alue of lands. He also thinks it
whites 2.8 per cent, of whom 99.6 per cent are from I •• prolJ .. ble that by utili,ing otouage reservoir. the
northern Europe. Col<>red races, including Indians, ,I Paria may furnish sufficient wlltcr to reclaim "pproxi-
are represented by f<lur Chinese and one Xegro. I mately 10,000 !lCI..,S of iLdditionalland." But attempt.
[n the decade from 1920 to 1930 tbe populoiion of to use such waters within rari .. Canyon have resulted
Garfield County decreased from 4,768 to 4,642, II.nd only in h .... ,tening the destruction of lands by periodie
tbat of Kane County inc'"eased from 2,054 to 2,233. 000d9, and plans for conveying ",ater from the Paria
Powell recognized the fact that the Kaiparowits
region hod "but little value fot· agricultlll'e," and
Thompson's traverse the Paria and Escalante
Valleys led him to the conviction that •
lu thiA portioD ot Utah Jrrtgatll)D Is essentltll to
It aU lbe sin;;l. acres 1t JI possible to cultivate without arllO·
crallrrltcation were I1IUregnted. I do. Dot believe the tum would
ooe--tonrth or 1 square mUe.
experience of the settlers i. quite in accord with
these conclusions.
. Without artificial i""igation the food crops of the
Kaiparowiti region would be those of the clift' dweller
and Piute-pifion nuts, cactus fruits, the seeds of the
"ok," «waiva" (wild millet), sunflower, goldenrod,
some squash, and rnl-ely corn, and when Pongonits, the
wind god, dried up the springs and withered the
gr • .".,., reliance would be placed on deer, rabbits,
hadg .... , porcupines, rats, mice, and lizards. The arell.
of land th.t originally possessed the essential agricul-
... l features of suitaLIe climate, lovel sul"face, fertile
8Oil, and sufficient water for irrigation furnished at
rtasonable cost is estimated ns 8,000 acres for the
Escalante V"ll.lley, 5,000 acres for the. upper Paria Val- I
ley, ."d 3,000 acres for the lower Paria Valley. In
or its triLuta.ries to the smull acreage above the canyon
walls olTer little promise. After a survey and estimate
of cost, a .chcmo for reclaiming 25,000 ac'· ... along the
lower Pari a was abllndoned.
The principal crops raised on irrigated land in this
region Itre • .Ifal fa , wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes.
Garden vegetables are grown in abundance, and in
favoraLie seasons orchards produce satisfactory yields.
The annual wheat crop at Escalante is about 3,000
bushels-more than enough to supply the community
with flour. In 1917 it was 6,000 bushels. Likewise
Cannonville, Tropic, and Henrieville raise food
enough to meet most of their wants and could profit-
ably produoe if the cost of hauling t() market
were not so great.
The pioneers of the KAip,u'owits region rejoiced to
find that the streoro flow increased soon after perm&-
lIent settlement. weTll established. Th" church
hlstorian writes:
In direet un8wer to prayer'll Qad suppllcn.t1oult on. the Jlllrt
of some of the apostle, who "tslted the lettlement in 1!:tS2, tbe-
W'llter In tbe E8catante baa lDCreued In Q most Dl4rftloU!I mall-
nero To say that there 1a at present ftve time. the amount ot
water that ItrYed the first .ettlera would hard I, do justice
fbI!! tnets.
.. l.a nl.M, to:. C., Colorado ltl.or nnd Itt llliliution: to'. H. fJeol.
\\'al(lr·i'lll(l(ll, :J1).1. l'P· 118-124, UHf;.
This phenomenon, which is widespread within the
Ollorado Plateaus, was noted by Powell:"
State., The ,.iJlIges and adjoining farms serve as
Ileadquarlers for .heepmen and cattlemen, without
whoee interests tbe populat.Jon of Escalonte, Cannon.
The Ino"'o" I. ftbundanlly pro<ed; It II 0 m.tter of onl· ville Tropic and Henrieville probably would be nIJm.
,'.r .. l .. per:.nc., The OO ..... llon. or the wrller thereon ba.. bered' by. fe'w tens and Boulder not exist at ali.
been wlcleh' extenrled. examined as tar as {MlS8ible
all Ille tact. oeemlDg 10 benr on tbe .ub) .. t. the theory ot the DIJring the summer about one·third of the popula.
IDereo .. ot ral.,.n "' •• reJ.ded. aDd another eIllla"atlon more tion is absent from the \'illllges, caring for stock and
n.,OOrl., III l1Ie tllture of nb'rleutt.re aeeepled. raising feed on outlyi.ng ranche&. The prosperity ?f
The Imount of watC'f flowing ID the streams 1$ but • .efY these communities depends upon the amount,
small pnrt of that ,,'bleb falls (rom the beavens. The ,reater d . I d'
port ot the rolnfon napor.,e. frOD\ ,he ourfoc" ",hleb 1m· "bility, and nlue of an ' , AS m n Ian
medIately r(!ccll'e ft. The exccetUngly dry ntmospbere quickly communities, the cltlZ.ens are those who
reobMorbs the mol.lure orclurloDaJl,. tbrown down h)' • ('OD- have & kno""'ledge of '\'rAtel' holes, tt'ails, grass, Rnd
junction of to\'orln, CnntHtlOO8. An,. ebonIes 1n the rl1rtlteHo browse shrubs.
whieh reeein the tBVOf"Ibie to the rlp1cJ pthpr- d d did
In. ot Ihe rain Into rill. and hl'OOU lDd ereeII., .. 'bile takln, The amouut of Ilnapprop.-iate an unreserve an
to the stream. but. 1IID011 amount of tItnl preclpltAled, "'Ill i. enormous-in KAne County about 2,300,000 acres
jp'Oftt1ylnere ... tho .oIuone of the .tream. them .. I' .... ,b....... and in Garfield County 2,500,000 acres, But _ these
tb. w.'.r In Ihe .Irennuo be.r ... 111\811 • proport,lon to the figurea have little value as a guide to prospective set.
alDouDt dl.charKO<! from tbe cloud.. TIle ortlnrl.1 tlen. Land is plentiful, but stock feed, though nu ..
wrouJlbt by anal on the MlIJ'race ot tile eat'th appnr to be
u<lequate III the production ot the observed e!lcct., The tritious, i. scarce, Catt.le and sheep must rllJlge
st,ueU.n of torelll. which hn. heeD Imm .... In thl. eouD\l'y widely in search of scant grasses, The stock owned
tor the paot 13 y .... ; Ibe cropplns of the 'r ...... aM tho at Henrieyille, Connom'ilIe, tr.d Tl'opic roams o"er
t ..... dln' of Ihe loll by ruttl.; tile de8tructlon of tbe be .. er the Paria Volley and the Wahweap country and along
dRm., cnua1nr I dro.llI""e of thu pond.; tho ere.Mr.g ot drJtt-. . d Esc.a
wood from "' .. ,,,'" ,haDnela; llIe drolnlDI of upland moodo,... Glen Canyon, and that owned by rest _nta of •
Rnd ",ony olber .U,ht modlOcaUo .. oil COrulJltrc ,. lnel'ense lanle and Boulder uses the broad EscalAnte Basin, the
too neeumul.llon of wnter In tbe It"'O"'., ODd nil thl. Is Kaiporowits Plateau, and lands east of the Water.
odd",l to tI.e lurtlty of ,,'oter to be uBed In 1l'tlgnUon, pocket Fold, As Powell" long ago pointed out, for
Studentl ot ,001011)' ond phy.lcol ,eograpb), long been all southern Ut ... h the condition.. are such that fixed
awore ot tbe!te tact.. It.& well kDown that, under t.he mOdt-
fylng Innuen.,," of moa. the streams of ony rl'glon ,..d ....... ecI diYision lines for pasture lands. fencing, and indio
frtml tho ..... Ire cblni'<l I. mlllY ImportD.at cbor... vidual ownet',hip of watNIDg places is impra.ciicable,
1..-1111... In llooc1 tImE. their '-oIume9 I re ,·....."I<elr III- Powell's osrim:ue of 4. squnre mil<:s lIS t he mini lim
eruacd l1lId tbelt po,...... " r dem-•• UOD lDultlplled. lh - . amount for -, p.stunga farm" tor the .....
IOOS at droncht '"""" III .. """, t",,, "1m bcI1>Tf' ""'" f K d Ga Ii-.... F"' _
modlll<'d Ill. ,urfa.., ot Ih • • oo.tr)' t""",me <-n.lrolr UTY ; tb. gion that includes all (I ane an r \OW vv1l1ll1t-S
.maller """lI'Obk- 01,,'111''1 tb..t r f'Ol""'" W1l.<; ronsidi-nC t.he pion1!et eettiu3 too 10"' . •
.honened, 80,1 llie ",,",,' rh'''' run .,. at .lUI ! .1"" for the be,;; and h s p ro" to be
""rlon bc<om • • mOl'< and IDOl'< dl/llrutt darlu dry ""Ooll' ; HI for. sotlth all rt of l it ..
In multlp\if'd "'II¥' til .... ,1I'«t.s .'" dlm"",,'atcd. W'blle 10 P lateans. For lu/,oe puts of s gion it is .,;ti.
tbe main lh., l'tTIUirird cm.n,."'T'S wrnn$tbt ill" lI'JAlJ ( lD Ita!' SllJ'.
fnee oro prud"cll,,- ot t nd l'bUlt l In humid •• the mated th.u; ullder ()()nditions 1 _rt
chA"" 81'8 <hl. Or od.o".. us to ,., •• In .rld I"f\'lnus b, mile is non. t.", much t o "not to ."ch st.-.ef'. In
acrl ... ltu .... b d"""ndeDl upon tt'l'l;;II" ..... ror b ... It lh. number of can Ie owned by ,,1
'" 10 1 .. _ •• Ill. ""l!I'ly 01 ,,-at"'. Eseft}anle, Boulder, Tropic., CAIlJlMlville, and Henri •.
UnfortunAtel), ineroa...", in sur/lee llow is aotam· ,'me ' .... 3 12,000 and the Dumber (J f
by deereftse in .mount of ;!l't)und .nd eh.eep about Of these AnimaL. .000 ""ttle
'lIdden fluctuations i n the n .lume of ",.ter in the lind 23,000 .;h..,p ITI'Te in th. Po .... e-lJ
, trenm,,- arable lAnd is dl'Stro, I, and tha"l Nationlll Forest-the ttle for Ii ' months (.fay Iii
,,-hlch maius is mort> diJlicnlt to irri""t • . Tne ..... atE-r 10 Oct-oher 31) and tm for m1Xlth. (Junr l'
hos been obtained at a rnin(lllS pri .... , The ."'Pfrim.nts to September 3Cii. Wi thou! the !0t\'.5il the stool!: indus-
by Sampson and in tllt ,tanti • otional ! try wonld d';1'jndle 10 11 proportions.
of ""otml show rondu i.-ely that attiileiwl inter· The pioneer .;etl.lers, '!h small berd., /Uld OO"...k>, be-
ftr.nee ><ith n!l ln I r,m·oll is fo re tioe nati'l'e hlld bren di<furbed. WeN
STOCK B.USING .UlTOUDded by conditions 1L.<ua1 for stock rn.g ....
The KlIlparowils region is _tiaUy a gt' .. di ••
triet, puh.. Ih. larp'I, . - r-&nge" in the "Cniled
411 P\1,..,.n. 1. \Y. OIl' l&zaab gt t b aC'!G: o-t tht
t:'alt«l Stata. r4. r-r tll-b:. 18'i1\.
A. 1\ ..... d WPl'1 L 1-1.. Ita'll" P""r'f'Iilf',.. 1D
ffiat1o.u to tfI .t"-I toe .. ¥fH:iq )..aDI! t. @... I:1p-pt Aar.
RnIL t'U .. lP]
- Good years" of lbe period ending in 89S ere fol.
lowed by bad )'tM1' culminating in 1896, ... ben ",ooot
ro P"t cent of tbe stock died of drought aDd
star" .. tion:' rainfall combined with the
J W op.. ('tc' pp:=o-n
- &h;aata 10.7 1'f .. ;00"*C "Pf""'"t..r, • ft'ID.DIulll:ln-
l\coa iIa."foJ.J .. ::7. 1fl2S.
of the grazing al'ea to include the Kaiparo-
.. itlI PI"teau brought more fnorable conditions.
()-.erstoclring of the ronge in response to the increased
,..1\16 of cattle during the World War appears to have
been the tirststep toward the prese.nt unfortunate state.
In crOSsing tho Kaiparowits in 1915 grass for horses
..... abundant along Wahweap, Warm, and LASt
Chance Creeks and the meSAS and dUM-covered area.
toSt of the Puia. On top of the Kaiparowits also
,flSS was plentiful. In 1918 many Bocks of sheep
fOllnd good pasturage on the plateau, but during three
days' travill about W81'm and 'Vahw.ap Crecks the
pack hOl"1!es lived on oats, leans of cottonwood, B.nd
erps of brush, and lack of feed pl"Ohibited travel along
the rim of Glen Canyon. In ]922 there was insuffi·
cient forage fel' pock trains at all places except
<lune areas in the Escalante Valley. In September,
1924, no grass or bro .... se of any kind was found in
lInfeneed areas of the Butler Vall.y and obont Canaan
Peak. There is no doubt that Escalante and
rari. Valleys and the Kaiparowits Plateau haH de.
terior.ted as pasture lands during the last decade, and
it seems unlikoly that they can be restored to the state
existing during the period 1815-1890. Some system
of reservation seems most likely to bring improvement.
It i. interesting to note that in the Kaipo.rowits re-
gion the lack of water is not a hiudraJ!lce to the
catUe industry. Though wder is ooarce, the available
sourct'S Bre so situated that only a few .mo.lI al'eas
of grazing lands are unutilized because of distance
from water holes. Many starving cattle were seen,
but nOlle thAt were seriously stlfrering from thirst.
Gold has been taken from g"uel bars in Glen Can-
yon, and more CIln doubtless be reoo"el'ed j but amount.
justifying large outla.ys are unlikely to be fOWld.
(See p. 148,) The" oil fi.lds" at Circle Clifs and in
Glen Canyon above the mouth of the Escalante hl",e
so far yielded no returns. The one known mineral
resource of potential value is t.he coal of the Kaipa-
rowits (See pp.
The sedimenta.ry rocks of the Kaiparowits regioll
are chielly of Mesozoic age-Triassic, Jurassic, and
Cretaceous. The highest plateaus of the region-the
Paunsa.ugunt, 'fable Clift', and Aquarius--o.re capped
by Eooon. strota, and in the upwo.rps, wheI" erosion
has planed deepest, Penni!>n limestones and sand.
stones .ppear, In their lithologic features these rocks,
particularly those o.ssigned to the TriaSilic .. nd Juras·
sic, resemble closely tho corresponding S6I'ies in other
parts of the ColorOldo Plateau province.
Except for variations in thickness, there is little dif-
feI'ence betwccn the fonnotions exposed at the Circle
Cliff. or the Poria Valley and those in the Navajo
cOUlMy, 150 mile, to the south, in the Virgin Valley,
ao miles to Iho and along upper White Can-
yon, 100 milea to the Ol\st, The Navajo sandstone eRn
be traced almost continuously from western Colorado
to southeastern Nevada al1d from northem New Mex-
ico to central Utah, and t.hroughout this great region
tJrotJll Qbd CornLlltion
W &lJ8tch rorUl4tion.
- - ---Unoon(ormtLy
Kaipan>wit3 (I.)Mno.-
LitHi .
the format.ioll i. char*cterized by es.sentially similar
lithology, peculiarities of wenthering, and topographic
expression. The variegated ma.rl, limestone conglom-
crate, and silicified trees of the Chinle formation dis-
tinguish this in practically Illl part! of the
plateau countI'y, and e,'en the thin Shinarump con-
glomero.te shows little change thous .. nds of square
Tho strongly predominant rock type of the I"gioll is
sandstone, Hard, massive sandstone fOI'ms most of
the plateau bench .. and verticnl canyon walls; weak,
shalJ sandstone makes up a large part of the slopes
and valley flats, Limestone is rare, except in the
Kaibab Plateau, Lenses and thin beds of conglom-
crate appear at ceI'tain horizons, ClAY shale is wide-
sproOld in ports of the CI"etaceou8 and TI'iassic, bllt
wheI'e traversed it is quantitatively mnch ' less than
sandstone, The stratigraphic featul'es of the forma-
tions in the Kaiparowits region are summarized in the
accompanying table. (See also pI. 5,)
Cb&tacter ThlckDHS (lMt
-_ .. _-----
Caicareoul sa.ndstone, ahale, And limeatonci pink:
. white, and vllrieolored, soft; uDderJiea blghe ...
plateau.; OTnl>" out in oliff. and forma elope •.
Bluieh-drab' Rne to moderately COOrM! &rained
o.rkoaic l18udelont and IlAndy ,hale, with &
,,'eak c:alcareoua cement· (orml elope!1 and
bo.dlands; a. fresh or braokish wa.ter deposit.
Yeilowiah·cny ruaeaive· sandstone v.-ith .orne
aa.ndy ahale, the upper 200 feet very maaeive
WahweapuluiatuliC. and hard; I"'rlea downward loto alternatlc.
and soft bed!!; & prominent oliff·formiD.l
UpJ.H.·r Crutl\.Cenus.
Clitfs :lQnd·
TNpic !'dUlle.
Dakota (1)

l.n,,','I" (1). M,)rri..)tl (Ilrm:1thm,
Yellowish ,to brown Irregularly hedded medium
to mAI.lve aodstone; COlltlliDlil coal bed •••
much a. 20 feet ill forlTU!J prominent.
Dilliah-<Jrab t.o sandv ehale;
uniform in color and tedure' rr8.des to f . -
iferou. sandstone at b .. shale contaioa
.\buudant GrlJphaea Itttirbcrr!/i and fouila;
form" alopea and badland • .
Yellow to nearly 'trhite ulldatone' con.loDl-
ill part; irrelut.rly bedded; contains
thID beds or coal and )arle lilicified trees in
•••. - .• •... - - - - • - - - _. - - - -- - • ••• - - - - ,-UnC",luf"rluit.v _
)fat"OOll to blui.h..gra)" ao.ndy btlnded shale,
ve:Y ma$8lve, hard conglomerate, aud coarse
lU:lroon, yello\\'. and gray irresularly
_ i.- :acSfprne
tlts I
900- t , :lilt)
._.-_. - -

JUl'lUlie (1}.
Lower ('/),
, .
Group and Iornuttivtl

Ent.radll. soud-
Carmel (ormt),-
I Nuvl'Ljo
sIOnt' ,
Locnl umlon·

l'odilto (7) for-
Thin-.bl'dd€'.d red·brown to grA)' (Tlnble sand-
IIf.one; IIhale-like bedF, alternatins nd and
'II'hit<", form b ... ,\d€'d cliffs; Illu('h
Yellow, t.an, Ught-red, hrowil and gray fine,
even-8rained llfIudatonej in places one maSlive
cro .... bedded Itratum
· oelll. poorly bedded
landstone Dnd red Iha e.
I Pink to red and bluish oandy lbAl.· .nd
buff 3l1..ndstone; gyp8um iu bedl and 88cementi
dense ailiceoul and earthy Qna
li,'ht. bluish-green nme!ltonej we"t.herli in bo.d-
lands AAd forme benoh on loop of Navajo Mnd-
Tllidrnl'A (rfel)
Light whito
pinkilb, and buff,
hi«Wy c.rcM-bedded •• weat.hers in
high cliffe And innumcn,ble cones, tow<!r8, and
domes; fornll eAve'!&, slcove., And nat.ural I
brid,es. ____ L ___ _
Maroon coarao-cn.iued c.rou-bedded landatone,
collilomerate, blue.aray hard. denlle lime-
stone; a.nd maroon and brown abalo; all in t.hin
irrefJuln.r bcda.
--- ------ 1--------------------------1-- ----
Wingate 8R.nd-
Reddiah-browu. very mtusive IBnd8tonc; prom!-
ncoil)' jointedj crop" out oomrnouly in It linllc
vertital aliff ·tna1. reIoCmblei a paUtJOdc' oro.- 2ro-tOO
bedded but. not 110 prominently &s Nd\'ajo
... ---.-.------- -r------------------
"-Uncodormity---I----- --------
Upper Trift.olJili('. I Chioleformft.tioD.
Thick calcIIoreoull aho..le or "marl,1l
finc-_'tmincd cbert,y limestone, nnd
conglomeratic limestone; Inndstone most
abundant In t.he middle perL; containa large
__________ . _ .•. __ • • _____________ ___
Upper (1) Tri" .. i •.
Shinarump conglom-
Light.-grny to yellol" couTiC-grwned to con-
IlolOeratio mndatoue, very irregularly bedded
and variable ill thicknee9j INidea locally into
bluish land, aho.1ej contninl .ilicified wood;
forma prominent. bench.
Lower Triueie.
Moenkopi (ormation.
Chocolate-brown to yel1o.,dsh "hale krt<! IInnd ..
stone, cOI)tn.lniJ)(( locally in upppr portion IVery
thin hard lirueltonea; .hale vcr)" .andy and
Irades iuto ehaly eanddtonej tho und.tone
range. (rom thin-bedded platy Lo thick .... -
live beds; ripple marked.
----- -----------J-Uncontormity-· ·
KAibab limestone.
Cooonino Mudstone.
White to ,ellowieh mauivc, more or lcM dolo-
mitic limestone, in pan chert,; lower part
increaains)y sandy and Il'I1dCII downw&rd into
Mndstone "ithout .harp change; fouiliferoua
ia part.
Light caleaT60ul crose-bedded
medium-grained SQ.J1&tcme.
UCaTIOlJ aJ'1) UT.lfT
Beds of Permian age form the surface of the Kaibab
Plaleau, which extends from north-central Arizona
northeastward ne.rly to the Paria RiYer, in Utah,
These exposures lie on the western border of the Kai·
parowits region, and as they are but prolonga.tion8 of
the Permian beds that are welI displayed on both sides
of the Grand Canyon, a discussion of them propedy
belongs with reports on that region, In this paper
they arc briefly described for comparison and L'Orre-
lation with COl'responding beds in the K.iparowits
In the Circle Cliffs several canyons have cut into
Permian limestone and sandstone, C:lpOiing in some
)Jlaees more than 200 feet of strah, and a deep well
drilled near the top of the Circle Cliff. dome gives
information concerning the rocks beneath. In addi-
tion to the broad exposures on the Kaibab Plateau
• nd the outcrop. in the Circle Cliff., Paleozoic rocks
oppear at the surface in several other parla of south·
ern Utah. Permian and Pennsylvanian rocks are well
displayed on tile San Juan Ri vel' at Goodridge, on the
Colorado. Hiver in Cataract Canyon, along the lower
Green H,ivel', and in the canyons that head in Elk
IUdge, Permian rocks are exposed in the San Rafael
Swell, in White Canyon, and in Grand Gulch. Per.
mian and older rocu are cxtensively developed also
ill the Virgin River region in southw ... tern utah. It
i.l therefore very probable that npper Palecaoie 10rml.
tions underlie aU of the plateau country in lOuthern
In the Kaiparo"'its region the exposed strata of
I'el'llliin age Ire .. signed to tile Kaibab limestone and
the Coconino sandatonl!,
Kallal LIIIEITOIfI aliI) COCOlIllfO UIII)ltOnl
Descriptions of Ihe beds now eilled Kaibllb linlestone
n nd Coconino salldstone appear in aU the geologic
reports that relate to th.e GI'8nd Clnyon region. The ..
fOI'l1lAtions could scarcely escape obaervation, fOl' they
ue cut by inmllllcrable canyon., The limestone fOI'mw
(he lurface over wide areas and presents persistent fea·
tures of lithology and fossil content. The sandstone is
• distinctive strlltigl'Uphie unit, marked especially by
its prominent cross· bedding. They were noted by
)!arcou in 18,;6 and by Newberry in 1861 and were
luter discl\ssed and represented in sectiOllS published
by Powell, Mnrvine, Howell, Gilbert, Dutton, and
Walcott, Studies of the "clrboniferons" by geolo-
gists of the Wheeler and the Powell surveys resulted
in the weIl:known threefold division called Aubrey
limestone, Aubrey sandstone, and .. Jl limestone,
In addition to the "Aubrey I> hmestone and tho!
"Aubrey" sandstone-spoken of also as "Upper
Aubrey" and as "cherty limestone" and CI'll8!l-
bedded .andstone Aubrey group included at ita
I>8se a series of sandstones and shales which were either
classed with the "Lower Aubrey" sandstones or
treated as L minor subdivision as "Lower Aubrey"
sandstone and shale. Darton I simplified this nomen·
c1ature by the substitution of the terma Kaibab lime·
stone for "Aubrey" limestone, Coconino sandstone for
"Upper Aubrey" sandstone, and Supai formation for
"Lower Aubrey" sandstone and shale.
As a result of the extensive studies of Noble' the
generaliaed descriptions of previous writers were reo
plaeed by an analysis that i. based on detailed eumi·
nation of carefully measUl'ed sections.
Reeside and Bassler' sepal·.ted the Kaibab of the
Kanab and Virgin River Valleys into five topographic
lithologie divisions .
Correlatioo of the Kaibab on the basis of lithology
and po.leontology presents little difficulty, but in spite
of the abundant fossils present the exact age of the
iormation remained long in doubt. Maroou' classed
it a. Permi.n-the equivalent of tho Magnesian lime·
stone of England, Newbeny' regarded it as "au
integ ... .l part of the Carboniferous." Geologists of the
Wheeler and the PowelI surveys referred the "Au-
brey " sandstone and "Aubrey" limestone to the upper
Carboniferous and 11 few feet at the top to the" Per·
rno·Carboni ferous." Darton' and Robinson' plaeed
the Ka.ibo.b and Coconino in the Pennsylvanian.
Noble' correlated them with the M.naano group of
Mexico, then considered Pennsylvanian. In dis·
cussing the geology of the Little Colorado Valley,
Gregory' states that "fuller investigation may re-
slllt in placing ,II or part of the Kaibab among
Pel'mian formations." Evidence f"om many sources
increasingly favol'3 the cOl'relation of the Kaibab and
Coconino with part of the Manzano group of New
Mexico, which i5 now classified 85 Permian.
, Dar-toa, H" A reconn81nllaee 01 part, ot DorthwclltcTO N""
Mnleo aDel lIortIJen. Ari:lOn&: U. II. Gell. Surve7 Ball. ,,3:5. 1910.
I Noble, L. "'0 Ttae 81:l1aumo lIuadn.ne1t: U, 8. Ge-ol. Surv .. , BIILI.
3-11, lin,,; .l. -.clloa Gl til. Paleosolc tocaratloOll DC the Gr.!ld
ClfQ'oa at the: BftIIg trQIl: U. S. G"1. 8ur\"cJ prot. Paper 131, (Jp.
25-1'3. 1823. .
• a..-fcle. J. D .• jr., Bauter. in
.. utb:weI'te-n Utab aod lIIortbweuet'. A.rI&OlIa: U. 8. Ceol. SUrYf1
.>tot. Paper 129. pp. at-T8. 1022.
I Xareo., Jute •• RbulDl •• , Se-'d DOte_: U. 8. Fac10e B. lit. Espl..
1'01. a, pt .... Po HiS. 18at.
I Kewben'7. 1. B .• Geolocical I •• ,·tl. 1. C., Report u.pon tltoe
Colorado Qlver of the West, pt. S. p. 11, 1861.
I Darto_, N. B .• op elt., pp. %8. aa.
RoItIDloll. H. H .. The !SA. Franet"cnD .elc".tc Qekj: U. 8. GII.)I.
Sur,.., Prof. Paper n. pp.. 2+-':!IIi. 1013.
• Op. cit.
·Grq9rJ', H. E .. GeolOlf7 of Ute NrlYOjo COIIDtr,.: U. ft. Geol. SllrYtf
PUP"' 93, pp. 1S-2:!, l!.Ui.
The uSUal section of the K.ib" b formation is in·
either the bottom is conceuled or the top
i. l'eDloved by erosion. The seurch by Gregory Bnd
,. for a place. where unquestionably all the Kal·
bab is disPlayed was r,,'warded by finding in Kuib .. b
Gulch .. COtnplete section with the Hermit shde below
and the above, a section which may serve
the tyP<l of the K .. il,mb limestone.
The sandstone maintains II. uniform char·
.cter throUghout Grand Canyon district, although
there are tnu'ked variations in thickness. The sand·
stooe called Coconino in southe"n Utah," pArt of
.. -hicll is described in this paper, occupies a strllti·
graphic position tlmt corresponds to the Coconino of
th"Orand Canyon but probubly is not precisely equiv.
.Ient to it. -
f:scept for Q sm.lI Olltc,'Op of Hermit shale in Kai·
bab Gulch the eXllO.,ed Pcnnian "ocks at the north
ond of the Kaibab PI.tea" consist entirely of the
Kllibab limestone. As seen here, the Kaib .. b is a some·
,..hot magnesia II gray IIrelluceous Hmestone, which
colllmonly weathers very light dralrgray 00' bull. It
i. medium tu massively bedded, and the thickness of
individulll beds unges frolll a few incheS tQ several
feet, indicuted by r""isbine. to erosion, the rock
i. h,ude,' than thOlt of the formati on .• nbove and below.
Jointing is conunon, though somewhat irregular, nnd
hal guided the weathering of cliffs and canyon walls.
Most of the KllilJnh limestone is siliceous and arena·
""ous. In places.it consists of about equal amounts of
calcite 01' doloUliu: nnd qUlUtx; elsewhere it is ... and·
&toile with lime ilnd magnesian ccment, Gradation
in the amOllne of sand grains is $Curedy noticeable in
Dlany la-yers, but in some tJ,ere is a distinct alternation
of sandstone and slightly sunJy or quite plllll lime·
stone. Besides the sand grains in the body of the
rook silie .. occurs as sm.ll nodules and as quarts
geodea. Locally chert nodules llnd lenses are abun·
dane. In parts of the formation mallY f'ossi I marine
iO\'ertebrlltcs are well preserved.
In other parts careful search re"""led onl1 frag.
DleDta'7 shells-no recognizable fossil remains. The
Kaibab is evidently of marine odgin, but the fossils
Dud the abilndance of sandy mllteriJIl that it contains
indicate that the wate,· in which it WIS deposited was
:' Gtt-l'O
l. fl. )1, Ilod Nobl@, J •. F" .. 011 • _colopal tra,'.r,,:
.\G. lour. 8eL. Gtb .er., vol. pp. 229-218, 1023.
U 1.oQw1llL C. R.o H. D. , MOON, R. C., Dr,. .... 1t1r1c. .lId
hlp, lkloe1. Roek (OTDlaUorut lu (be Culo."o Plalua. of •• ut_,e-
... trtU. .ort.bern ArIZona: U. 8. Geol. .une, Prol. Papet 131.
f. .. 1925. )I"er, H. n., Geologie ot BaD. I ... c.P1O'l •••
cooDt<l'7. U!ab: U. 8. Gool. Surve1 Bull Tat, pp. 121-122.
19:!4. GtUw1. Jomell, aDd R.eeslde. J . B .• Jr .• Se1Itmtot'l"7 neb or
liar &. btltl'l Swell and :tOme &djUl!ent' I. eostlt.'. Utah: 0. I .
SUf"I'e)' Frot. Pllper lolO, p. a3, 19:!8.
not deep nor in this urea probably at n great dist·u,
from lund.
Be,," use of its g"eat resistance to erOsion, as co
po red with the QVCI'lying ;\Iocnkol'i ulld Chinle f
Illations, which hal'e been stripped frolll its surf.
the Kni"alJ formution in House Rock Valley prese
a r"ther Sfnoo(hly rounded surface, which tllarks· I
accurutely the structure of the rocl<s along the e
flank of t.he Kilibab fold. In the steep slopes of 1
fold short consequent streams have ca'"Yed 11
row canyons, in the ,,-ails of which tho broken edges
the Kai"ab st.·at. are sharp and angular. The ro
strewn bottom of theSe canyons consists generally 0
sede. of short steps over the edges of succe:;sive h.
At Knibnb Gulch, about 8 miles south of the sctl
lUent of Puria, the canyon walls consist of Herl
shale succeeded upward "y Kai"ab limestones •
"ll11dstones thllt are unconformably o\'erl"in by Uo
kopi so fJdstoues "nd shale. At "use of tlte sect
c.len sand-_tone immediately overlies red sha
no bL'(/s .. de,·a"le to tbe Coconino are preS!
'fhe strat.a exposed in Kaibab Gulch IIllly app
priutoly be considered the type section of the Knil
limestolle. (See pl. 4, A, B.) .\s dcsc";],ed by Nobl
the stmt .. of Knibab limeRtone in Kllib." Gulch c(
prise lh'e major divisions.
St.'l'tion II" Kaib«'" a.Tell, Utalt
(At top.) Yel'Y irl'egulnr beds of bl'ecclll-cougluDI-
el'llte, intel':jtrutiRcd .witb bor'r shale fmd
IO.ndstone Bud .eaPlled by mnssh'e bells or burr Ume·
atone; tbe lI me-stooe rorms II strong cUtt; the shale and
snudstone form "s sl,llle brokeu by irregular cUffs ot
hrcLocill ___________________________________________ _
:\(ossl"e gray crystn.lIlne Hmesfone. cherty ol:d foam!·
eroclJ, cuotnlntng 0. bed or l"nd14one 10 U:e middle
ODd llu*iiug nt top 1.nto bed15 of chert and
butt earthy Ijmes tone i tbe f!l £l"Oy <.Tysbtllloo
liDlC:St o.ue rOl'm !il trong' cUlls; tbe ,Itetnntlng beds ot.
chert and buil ·Umestolle .t>o,·e the a:rq), limet;tolll.!
t'urw. 11 steep, ledgy slope ______________ ___________ _
Dull and l'eddlih fine·il'I.lned ID.udstoue, pOOrly consoU-
dllted ant) Irregularly bCtlded, Intl'l':'ttrutHled wIth
or sundy breccia and fOl'm,. slopc!'- ______ _
MltSfil\"c buff sllJceou» 1IlUHtooe. ellerty :md IOlucwlult
t'OSHmrerolls, containIng· .ome ea!cureQu:i sandlj,ooe
cenf tbe middle and I . ... fM'tl of bard dnc-
:;;rnlned hufr cNP-bedded .. nea.r tbe l)lllle; .11
bods eS:':ept calcOfeoul .. n(lstoue In tbe DllddJo of
tile member t.)rt.lstroDC cUfts ___________ :.. __________ _
A,1terllll.t!.ng bed ... of arenaceous linlcs:tone aud lrrecu-
Inrly bcddl!d Ooe-cmined buff .aud.stone i ooe tbln bed
or in trU!i mld.dle! Qr member. Lt "'err (os-
the member torwa u }L"<IlifY
broken by ,maa cll.tr!l ... ___________________ ----_____ _
U N"ble, L. tJ' .. ... ..etIoa. of tb. Kalbo'" IlmelitOIl. In fi.llIab 01
Utqh : tr. $ . GCNI. 8 .. rve, Pto(, Paprr 1,jO, PI', .. r-ajO· I!)"!&
The detailed secliolls of Kaibab limestone at
Bass trail (Grand Canyon) in the Kanab Va.lley, 10
lhe Virgin Volley, and near Lees Ferry, as by
NoLie, show a remarkable correspondence lfl .htho-
logic detail and sequence of strata with the secl.lon at
Kai bab Gulch. Even the Kaibab of the Muddy
Mount ains. Nev., 8S analyzed by Longwell," . may be
re.adily correlal ed. But the beds that are aSSIgned to
the Ka.ibab at Ihe Circle Clift's and at the San .Rafael
Swell differ much from those at Kaibab Gulch In corn-
!,osition, arrangement, and Though the
{olllil. indicate u.pproximately eqUIvalent. age, they
('an not h. correlated with assurance. EVIdently the
vicinity of lhe Paria River ,?arks .the position of a
significant change in the Kn.ibab IImeslone. Imme-
diately west of the river, in Kaibab Gulch, are the
oasternmost outcrops of typical Kaibab limestone.
East of the river the formation thins, becomes more
!<Ilndy and loses some features characteristic of sec-
tion. in the Grand Canyon region. East of
Glen Canyon no slrata assignable to the K.ibab bnve
l>P<ln recorded.
Several canyons in the central part of the Circle
Cliffs aft'ol'd excellent exposures of Permian limestone
and limy sand"tone that art! without doubt refHl'able
10 the Kaibab limestooo. (See pI. 6, B.) Beneath
the limestone lies light-colored cross-bedded sandstone
that is classed as Coconino. As on the Kaibab Pla.-
teau, the limestone occurs benellth dark-red sandy
.bale of the Moenkopi formation, and the lithologic
character IUld contained fauna of the limy beds are
..... ntially the same as those seen in typical exposures
of tho K .. ibnb throughout the Colorado Plateau prov-
ince. In fregh exposUl'es the Kaibab limestone of the
CiI'Cle Cliffs is light gray to "lmost white and
w""thers to payor buft'. It is fairly evenly
bedded, and the thickness of the individual beds
I·nng •• {rpm IL few inches to U feet or more. Locally
very thin-bedded, almost shaly strata appear. Some
uf the bods are very hard, even textured, Rnd fine
gl'ained, weather with a characteristic finely pitted
$urface, and are marked by fine mosslike dendrites
of manganese dioxide on fracture plan... Other beds
are medium g1'ained and subcrystalline and contain
disseminated rounded gnins of quartz sand. Alter-
nating with the purer limestones .. re beds in which
ilia proportion of sand is SO great that the rock is
• Lnn«WC'II. l'. R.o (toolo.,. ot tbc lI11ddr Mount.ln.. Mn.
Jour. Set. IIlh .. vall. po -IS, 1921: U. 9. Of"Ol , Surn',. Un II. iDS.
pp. 8a.-t3, I tl'l8
properly termed a limy b.ut it is 10
find an almost imper«ptlble gradation from limestone
with scattering grains of sand to with
abundant lime cement. The amollDt of sand IS con-
sider .. bly grea.ter than that .in the K .. ibab of the
Kaibab Plateau or the Grand Canyon district. One
peculiar light-yellow soft, massive which
weathers in well-rounded surfaces a{ld contaInS abun-
dant anguhr fragments of chert, was observed at ser-
eral places in the Circle Cliffs. This chert-bearing
bed i. in part a residual deposi t, and the chert is
clearly of secondary oritPn, but its posit!on the
formation beneath m&.SSlve, evenly stratIfied hmestone
shows tbat it does not represent exposure and dis-
integration of a part of the Kaibab rocks in i><>"t-
Kaibab tiroe.
As exposed in the Circle Cliff. the Kaibab formE
steep cnnyon wans that are made up of a series of
massive benches and intervening slopes. In places the
cliffs are sheer, but in general "'eak materials at lW-
tain horiwns prodllce slopes composed of a series of
minot· benches.
The Coconino sandstone, as defined in the Circle
Cliffs, includes the light creamy-white, more or less
cross-bedded so.ndstone that underlies the lowest ob-
served limestone. It dift'ers in no essential respect
from the sandstone in the lower part of the Kaibab
and is undoubtedly conformable with. the beds above:
indeed, the definition of the formations is somewhat
arbitrary. The only basis for regarding the sand·
stone as a stratigraphic unit distinct from the Kaibab
is the great thicJmess of the s .. ndstone, os revealed by
boring, and its correlation with the thick,
sandstone that in other part. of Utah has been called
Coconino. This sandstone is \'el'y ca.lcareous; as ob-
!'erved in some thin sections, the calcite filling between
tho sand grsins is approximately equo.l in qu .. ntity to
tho sand. 'rhe quartz grains are medium in size and
fairly well rounded. A few of thAl rounded grains
l'Onsist of limestone. The cross'bedding is neither
so prominent nol' 80 uniform as that in the Coconino
of the Grand Cnnyon; the individual cross-bedded
I"nses are murh thiimer; and the platy weathering of
Ihe cross laminoe is much I ... striking. In general,
the rock .. pprars Ies>< resistant to weathering than the
type Coconino and forms rounded «bouldery" sur-
hCl'O brtween irrel!:ularly disposed joint planes.
The stl·.tigraphic sequence and the composition of
lbe Pel'mian beds in the Circle Clift's are shown in tbe
following measured sections. The maximum exposed
thickness is 236 f.et .
u. m:OI.OOIC,U.
A. <';ONT."CT u .. • MOhNKe)!>1 . ·Om,.1,\TIO:"oi .\ NI> K .\Il1:\11 J.T.\ I ESTO:-O£ AT :'\101..TH 0 ....
" .\l R.\ " GULCH
C. \' IE\\ OLI.) UT I:: TIUIL LE.\ OIi'\C. T() nit:: CHOSSING OF" Till'; P.TIIEl\S
II . r.ONT ,\ CT OF" K .\IIIAU l.I :\lI:;sTO .... F. ·\ [\' 0 fI.-:HMIT SU.\T.E I ;\' "AIHA" c.n.r.fJ
D. '"Tn.'IL" OVER ;\' .\\' .UO SM''' OSTON£. WATEUPO<.; KI·:r t OOL!). NK\n U.\I(I".;I\
1,140! feet
460 (eel
- --
2)00 feel

- - - - - - -
------- - -

1,72!J - 2,035 feet
li mo:>stono
490-1,059 feel
.. 1::J:=?1 Redw.::J1I
1.500 !. feet
950-1,000 feel

r,200 feet "
Chinlo formation
850-980 f eet
Wasa lcr. (7') f or-mal lon

$a nd£tone
1,300 fee1
==:::::- = --
- - - - - - -
- - --------
- -- -- -- ----._-
Mocnlwpi formation
390-,!)40 feCl
517-600 feet


--__ t
-- -
flo GlIOr.oGJC'&L av.YZT
1,I-'tO! feet
460 (eel
kliOJl (If too P .. leowic roclts
'" tbe Gr.l.nd Canyon at
8as3 !'nil
11)0 L. ... NCIIbI., U. S. GnIl Survf)'
Prot. 131, ,.t I" 1_
1------+ ____ _
-- --
2)00 feet
J,72!:j - 2,o35 fe e t
, ." Kaihab
490-1,059 feet
- ---- --
C .......... ".
...... -.. -
.... "'-a.wo
.... -.
Top of plDtc<.lU
1.200 - 1.200 fNt
950-1,000 feet
1,200 feet '
Chinl e format ion
050-900 feet
Moenkopi formation
390 -540
--?- -
--} - -
Kaibab limestone
517 -600 feet
___ •
- __ 1
=!-----_____ -1- '
= = ::=:=:==-=== - ---
- ---?
Chin I. fo,.motion
M«n14.opi (ormllltion
Top or pl ul ('t .l u
700 feel
1,200 fod.



o;;;---.j \
----1---- - --- - ---------
Goodl"'idSc (1) forJTltttlon
! -
---.. -
Ge-1IIB1iMd ... of a.dt
Clift. r ....
• n.I II.,. XIUtaill
----t ---
Goodrid.e(p) ror ..... Uon
1,!82 fa"
1oIW ...... -..,
' I5ItdI Pkia •


. 100 r •• l

Shale. 600 reel
600 feel
.- .. -
KirU<tnd .h.l.
632.-1.t70 fafli l
l ewa .h,Io
,\600 - 2,t90 fcot
Wenc o. ,hal.
',eoo (eet.
No (Ima ro.-mDtion
400-1,000 r •• t.
Cutler formaUon
H.rmol. (ormation
1,.800 -2000 rut
Moaoverde (onn .. t .on
275-800 reel
Monce •• h&le
500-800 r"t
Me [1,..0 (ormol ion
<400-700 feel
NS .... jo send.toM
Chl!" l. ahal e
1,182- ' .. l
De Che lly •• ndelo".
0-5111 feet
MoenkopI formalio"
300-500 r •• l
GoodridC. formetion

d ..u. (I/'Cimt
""""'" F""

.. -
s t eau
[ /lvllBa

Gcodridg .. ffj fc rr.>allon
1,582 feel
PRQ".aalONAL PAPlia 1st :PLATB a
GeM-r&liud .-tiGn ol.he
Na.,..p t ountry
Br II. &. Gtotpr'J, U. $. .;.w.
au,..., Prot.
a. lJl6.
J-,1 M liV&f"dd forma t.on
215- 600 fe.et
1.4<.1 1'1::0:; Ghole
50 0· 800 rf't!t
Me Elmo formoD l lon
4(;0 -700 f eel
HI!'IYo1jo • .,.nd6tr;u, .
-WO' l,DOO r u l
Ch,,·.r . CIoh Qlc:
r.t 82-hcl
tic et.1 11y tI . ndatonC'
( 4!III'l
MoenkoPI formolion
300-500 feel
161 PLATE li
A. ':\I.'R8!.E (iOI\OI':
Vi.:: .... 1(0)khij; ,1000Il it r .. ullI I:! mii ..... /fOJI). or ... I''l'rry. l'IWWlrullh Ly K C. L .. Hue.
A. :.-IUNAIIf{ldlll"iIJ,\I .E 010' MOENKOI'I FOI1M,\,TI01\' AIJOUT 3 Mlt .. ..:g SOUTHWf.:!oJ"r 01. P,\RtA
Beo/.ibn oJ KGihab Um.(;IJtt'l1lC COC(-'ni7IrJ .!and.done of
T M P€IJTt.JI. Cir,ele Qar(i.cld. Coun-lJ/. Utah.
(Mc-lkIred b1 Ra;,-mond C. :'tIoorc]
Ttlass;c (Mll(>nkopl fOl'nlation) at tof'.
Knlblll:! Jim('Stohe-
6. Lhtle8.t one, )'(,!l\ow, dolomitic, in
bedded LcdgeJol. U'mt lD Jurge
nngular pitted solution; in ploces
(:ontoiDS Dumerous dendrites of mllngnnese.
d..i(Jxiuc Dlill concretions resembling wad;
('o:atnin8 forms l'esistnnt cnp of
)lromlnellt bench ________________ ________ 87
rJ. Llme.,,:one, I1ght yellow, soft, dolomitic, mBS-
filled with Ilngulur fragments of
wbite cbcrt; weotbN"8 in 1'mooth slope;
4. • .130ft, ligbt ncnmJ yellow. tbin
fO medium ht'ddrd; weather'S in stope i
Kalbob l1me$tone-Conlhlll("d. FC'C't
2, L.lDlPstope. yellowisb gt'Uy, flott , rhln to me-
dium beddud. poort)' this zoo'"
?'entlle1'S R!::I a slope- ;
NtrtlS l."o\"ere<L_____________________ ____ 43
I . LUoestone, IIgbt dol(1mltic,
denl5-f', l1ne-grnined, very massive. nntl In.
beds 1 to 2 feet thick willl fl oe Cll"\-
lies; weathers In lilrge blol'ks and Irregu·
lor roUUlied si(lI'le'5; u[JPcr port lUore evenly
l:C'ddrd nnd weatbcl"S to slightly IlgMer
('olor rl1:1n low(lr PllrL ___ ___________ ... ___ r:.6
'roUt. Iimc£;t oll e ________ _________ l3G
The uPP<'rmost portion of the K"ibnb (bod 4) nt.
t.bis locality bo.s less tban half the Ihickness of the
corresponding stratum (bed 7) ot The Peaks. This
clecreose appears to be due to pre-)lfoen!topi erosion.
(fa rlly concealed ____ _ ... ..,. ________________ _ 37 Section. 01 . Kalbob '",''(;810116 ",orlhca .. ' fll lV4Qoubo.:c
Limestone. whltI:.', vCl'y snndy i rounded sund
sraiJl s scattered rather e\'cnly through
til e limestone but more Ihue thon snnd i
wenthers in thl.rk le41l:cs _____________ ____ _
2. lStuulstone. White, medium to '-:ODl'se grained.
rounded quartz Kralns l1) • lime mnlrlx.
morc Soll nd tbon lime ; 19
T otul Knlbub l1mestone_______ ___ _______ 108
1. Sands tone, white. medium to course gulned,
rO\llH]C(] quartl irains in a llme mntrlx,
mod€'l' otely brenks Into Irreg-
ulnr lJlockll on weathering: exflOSed_______ 73
Totul 230
Bect.lQ" of l\(libnb I{.mC,:jtOlw 1Mlr l/1. 01 The Plmlo'If, Circle
Ofl,rficld. Cmmtll. Vlnh
Ilf ('v,!(u rt:d by RI\)' moud C. lJoon:)
F .. ,
!J"rinssll' (1tlt :t!ckopi (ormation) al top____ ________ ____ ]07
P1'"rmio." :
4, Limestone, ligbt creamy to rieh yellow, ao10-
roltie, massive. In rotber even bcdE 2 to [)
teet Ifhlck i weathers 1:1 huge Ilngnlnt
:solut ion-pitted blocks i lower pnrt coftr8e
.. uPller part fine grulncd and
dense; caps bench __ .________ _____________ 11
3. Llmestone, gnl)', doloDlitic.
fine grslned, very massive but rotber soft;
fA'totberii wblte in smooth, rounded sur-
tote. Qud slopes; coutuios obundnnt chert
u.nd hurd sJlUnterl' white fliDt 111 nodules.
Wnsc13·, nod nnculnf (ragments; In placet!-
r ock resembles n breccia composed or
BlJgulnr chert trngments beld in n matrlx
of' limestone; exposc.d __________ _ 18
bclo'W Ydlm.o CC11Ie, ! u:cd of pcltt t 1chct'e Burr traU
cf'OSBU "fe $(wds,one, Cirolc Cntr_, Gar/f(.'ll Count!/,
(Mo('nkorJi f(Jnnotinn·) li t 2GS
KnlhRb IIruestonc--
G. Lirnetltone-, brown nml yellowls.h, t.4oft; con-
tnlns much chert; lI'c.others In ledge Ine.g-
U1uf1y pitted ; IOCRll,. Komewho t shnly_____ 18
oj. Limestone, ran (0 gray, In port 8On!ly i con-
tolllS numerous enldte ('oDcretlons oDd
('hert nodOreR __________________ .: ___ 32
3. Santlstone, whlte to butr, medium to ODe
t;roJned, eolcnreous; upper port to
vel'y sond)' Umcstonc____________________ 30
2. Limestone. dark gray nnd brown, very snndy ;
In Dng-uWI' block!:' with pitted
!olurful.'£S: rOI'UlN ft prominent ledge; con-
rll iDs pelec,:.'pot:ls__________ _______________ 5
1. Sund.;.;tone, wliJte to burt bl'OWU, fin£! to
medium gmtnc-d,
w(>uthcrs gl'IIY; CrOl)'I'I out III rouuded 8ur-
tne<'s; exposed ____ ___________ ___________ 42
Totol Kllibob Jimet'tone_______ __ ___ ____ ]27
The top bed of t.he Yellow Cone soction apparently
corresponds to the soft cherty zone ",hieh on -the north
o:nd west side. of The Peaks is overlain by very mllS-
Slve, hard, thick limestone. The pelecypods (Pkurl>-
phoru. T n. sp.) obtained in the 5·foot bed of limestone
are the snme ns those found more abundantly in the
SIlndy ?eds in the central port of the Circle Cliffs, neor
the pomt where the Muley Twist rond to Green River
joins the ro.d from Silver Falls Canyon to the Ohio
Oil CO.'8 well, neal' Wagonbox Mesa.
il«li()" QI Kcibcb li,rw.ft()lfC at of JittJG. '1'1O'i.Mt ad
Silwr Falla '· ... fmt. t'Ofldll, ,.,..,.\ of Oh-ia Oil Co:, 1C;.U,
Ci rcle eltlf., ('0#,11111, 0141&
" .. )'.01MI C. lI"-A. ( Sed pi... e. 6 "
F ...
Trl" ... Ie. (lloenkoJlI forma tloll) .t loP_________________ 30
I'dlnian :
Kalbab llD'1e.ltone-
... LlmtKtooc. IICht ,t'.'I, nr)' <"Iterl')';
l.be ellert !n Irr@gUlJlr Do<hlICtl. .nd
lU)'t-l'\I j Ibe IImeetouo .ott. rothll'"r tbln
bcdtled. lad ... eat.uerln, In atol>CI that art
• tre'4VlI wid, weo.Ulered tral.'1Ueutl of chert- 10--26
:So Jllmeatoue. ,.eIlow IDd IIgbt tlfl , lloIolllltic;
lower pert Tery HIldy, ,radlUl without
.hUl' dta.ulC froID llDderlrtna .adHoDe j
upper part fine Crallted. hOl'd.
eberty, wentberlDg In anl:\llAr p:ued
"Iocb ; the IImcstone conW.lD. IlUmel' OU-.
aIDAn, lfeenl.h lraloll. apparently :1tl U(..'Qo
Dlte; tOSlllllerou._________________ ______ 41j
Z. Sand",oue. IIlht ,roy to aln108t white. fine
rnthtel1. ,,·er,. <'lIk'll!'eouA, mG8Iln: w\."O.thcf'»
)·I"'l tuwl.llh. in rounded and
blocb. III part lott. In part hord
lneall)" to Tel')' 8ant.J, nmestone In whlcb
lH:!rCl!nla.ge ot .nd aDd limo 11 2bont
___________________________ ._ 6S
1. J.lweMlO(&e, dad, ,rll.)", wl'Y 11800,.. hard i
_________ • ______________ .____ ____ 1
\'otnl K.tblb 11 __ 10"0_________________ I.S6
r .. vw,6,J. cR .... ACTa.
Careful soarel. for fossils in 11 numoor of sections ·
of the Kaibub ill the Cirelo CIi«. revealed a scarcity
of orgunic Fossils were collected, hOWi!vcr,
both from the wile of limestone beneath the ,'ery
ehelot)' zone and in the lower sandy beds. Though
faunal lists show il predominance of molluscan forms,
the molllJiCoid8, including both bl'Yozouns and brachi-
"pods, arc numerically most abundant in the lime.
stones. T,,"o or t1u'ee type. of product ids ne very
common, Tho limy ... ndston. contains larg" numbers
of a single type of pelecypod, the I..,mnins of which,
though 1.'Cllel'llUy not well preserved, CO,' OI' completely
surfoce of mllly sl.b.,
G. H. Girty'. of the fuuno, ncwm-
ponied by bl' ief COllllllent concel'ning the collections,
liN presented oolow :
Lot 4.319 .• "-t Ihe Yt"lIo,," Cone. ..... rtbea..-ct or Wllonbox lies.,
:about 1 udlN tint ot Bun Flat; aide ot CtJ't!te CUI!' ..
Ga.rdt!'kl Count,. Utlh. i'rolll lIme'&toDe. bed 2. Yello'lllo' Cone
Mar&iuifera I"Y. M. rrkto.'.\atartciia •.
btlltlntii, . It . SI',
Lot .4380. About 1 ruUe southwe8t of Obio OU Co.'s wetl,
near center ot Circle 01 tis swell, Garfield County, Utah. I'rom
limestone about 10 to 101 teet hti;her stratfCfal)blcllll,J' tJII.G
col teetlOD 4379.
Choncte. hiUanus?
Productuo oJr. P. popei.
In>duCltuI lvesi.
P'Ultula al1'. P. lDOotpelierenlJis.
Puat.ul • .III).
Compoait.a al'.
Edmondla an. E. ovata.
Nu(:ulaT .p.
Pr.raU.lodoo! sp.
Aviculipecten, 2.p.
PiCudomonotLi atl'. P. bAwn!.
PaeudomonotLs ,8p.
Myslina sa. M. 8wallo\\' L
AstarteUa .. if. A. cODcent.rid.
MyoeooohaT D. sp .
Pleurophoru:s alT. P. o(eide:1"
1.1 .. ,
Pleur0l'horeUar .p.
Euphemus? .p .
NQutilu8 IV.
Lot 4381. JuncUou ot SJlver Flllls uDd Grcen River fOOdS.
about 3 inncs south ot Ohio 011 00.'8 well, GarOeld CoUDt,..
Utah. Frou) cllicareouli saudlltone, bed 2 ot measured se<.'tlo_
at tbls lJOjllt :
PleurophorU5! n .• p.
1.ot 4382 . .About :'J lUiItlS south at Ou"o test well and about
1 Rille east or JUHCtiOQ 01 8Ul'er Filla and Green River l·OlIdi.
teater at CIUt'1i Godield Count';. Utab. FrOUl
upper part ot Knibab lime. tone, bed 3 ot lectlo.:
8eplopora 1 .p.
COOnet. hillanu3'1'
P .. t.'" off, P. tnOutpclieren-
PUlt.uI. sp.
Composit.& ap.
Edmoodio .If. E. •.
Pernipecten' 51>.
Uma o . • p.
My.lin& '1'.
Myoeollchaf D. tip.
Ast.ar\eUa! D. 01',
Pieuropborul afl'. P. occiden-
Pleurophoruel .p.
Placloglypt. cann .. ?
Plo.roIomarta 01'.
AeUtiino. .p.
Lat 4382. Oue ullie ot Junction of Greeu RI,.er aud
SU"'e:r }"alb c..uyon roods, 3 m.lles lIOutb ot Obla Oil Co.'.
well. GUl',fleld Coullt.)'. Ut ah. KalbQb Ihnestone, Crom bort.,.
UO tcct oolow t.llllt at lat G82:
8pona<J URdel.
8eptcpora 111'.
P'hyUopora 511·
8chbophori. n .• p.
Chonctet h.ilhm us1
PUitula ."Qr.
Compoaita Ip.
Por.lltlodoD .Jr. P. polit •• ,
ParaUelodau aft". P. ..ngH. ..
Ac&ntbopecten eoloradoeru.i •.
Pernipectell n. SI'· .
o.llo.,..toD d . D. occldcn-
.",vieuHpccten indet. (»C\'eral
"".) .
, 8ebiloOdu8 D. 6p.
8chiloOdus Bp.
8ebizoduI1, 3 Ip.
AstarteU .. afl'. A. concentriea.
Aatartell .. afr. A. vo.l'ica.
Myoconcha! n. ISp.
Myoconeha! n. SJl. VQ.l.
Pleurophonu5 aft' . P. oecideQ_
PleuropborUi lip,
Pleurophorue? sp.
Bucanopeia aft' . B. modeata.
Euphemud .p.
P1eurotomaria iooet,. (eever.,1
'1' .) .
Pecudomon()tU. i?det. (se\'eral I
• p.! ).
atf', )1. s'III's.lloTt'i,
Orlffithld ... 01' .
. 43
Lot .j3S1-a. At we:;t slde ot. Juuctiou of GreeD Rher and
81h'et' I'oll tl Canyon roads, about 3 miles w mh .ot Oblo 0 11
Co.':! well. Garfield County, Util h. t"'l"OIU upp:or l)tln of calcarC'·
0\13 !Rl ndBtooe, bed 2 of section :
So1ellomya? sp.
Nucula sp.
ParaUctodoo? sp.
M,'IlJina afl'. M. permia,na?
Schizodug': sp.
pl.curophorus'! n. !I [>.
BcHerophon 6IJ .
PlellTot oma riR
Lot "381. Blu1l' OD wes t ti lde ot' creek. at Junction of Grel'n
R \'ef and Slh'er FaUs Canyon ft)ud:i, 3 Illites MOuch of Ohio
Oil Co.'a test ",'ell, Garfleld Count)' , Utah. FrOlll lowel' 110rt
of Kn UJ8b lhncstonc:
Spong. Indet.
Chonel •• bill&DOS1
Puatula at!'. P. Dlonipel!ert:3n.
GirtyeU.1 n • • p.
SpiriferiDa .p.
Squ4mutario.l li p.
CLiothyridilltl'! :tp.
Delt-o pccten s tf. D. occiden-
A\'iculipecLen indet. (severs.!
• p.).
Pleurophorw? 0 . liP,
fauDu represented by the collectioDs ha,·e been dCSC1'lbcd
only In small port and contain wnDY [leW' species HOti
now ,enen. Vutber'Dlorc, the preser\' utloD of all tWlJ um·
tel'lol t. unfavorable for ldeutlfieatioo. Doth these ch' a
CU1WJtQllCes bove colltl'lbutcd to mtlke It necessary to lertl"e
Plany (orms with oot)' gencrlc or with [ht! species
only approxhnntely ldeotUled. In spite ot this fact, the fouual
reltltitms forth with oo.ulliderabte clearness and cOl'l'Obj)a
tbe correlations »uglelted. on the deld lnbebl, All
lots are Pcr mlan aDd ll how more or less close fanllnl 1l00ult.1et
to tbe Ka: bnb limestone,
Although the lithologic character and stratigmphic
position ally the beds beneath the )foenk9pi in the.
Circle Cliffs with the Kaibab limcst9ne and alth9ugh
the contained f9SSiis indicate clearly the Permian ag.l
9f these rocks and substantiate the c9rrelation with
tbe Kaibab, there remain several uncertainties C9n·
cerning their c1assificati9n.
In the Grand Cany9n the st.atig-I"Ilphic divi.i9ns of
the are clearly defined ond persist, with few
changes thr9ugh9ut a very large &.rea. Noble'. secti9n
at the B ... trail, which may be It.ken to represent the
.\'erage c9nditi9os, sh9ws n62 feet 9f Kaibab lime·
<¢<lne, subdivided into three 7.011_(1) clitr·forming,
foosiliferotls and .ome,,·bat cherty gl" y crystalline
m feet thick, at the t9P; (2) an in-egu·
larly bedded bu If and reddish friable sandstone 13G
feet thick, tending to f9rm sl9pes, in the middle; and
(3) oandst9ne aod limes
lle, grading upward into
",assive ailice<>us limestone, feet thick, at tbe base.
'l'be tbickDes1I 9f nle Kaibab in the Grand
CanY9n distl' jct is • little less t1.ao GOO feet. An
abundant marine permian fauna i. f9und in the lime·
$I9ne; a distinctive assemblage of fossils occurs in the
so·called bed." at the summit 91 the
f9rmati oll ; ulld what may be termed the Mrm.l
Kajbab fauna, repl'esented by tists given by Girty," in
19wer beds.
At the Bass tra il the CoconiD9 sandst9ne, next belm.
the Kaib.b, is 330 feet thi ck. It is a buff, unif9rmly
fine·g,·ained sanJst<>ne, characterized by cl'9ss·bedding
Oil • huge scnle, nnd presents tbe appearunce of ..
single bed. It f9rms the str9ngc»"I., highest cliffs in
Ihe upper P8l"t 9f the canY9n waU. The quart.z S11lld
gr. ins 9f the f9l'mati9n are round together by silice9u.
l-ement, and the rock does n9t effervesce with acid. In
the lower PQ,t 9f the Coc9nino 01 ... abundant tr acks 9f
small reptilcs and amphibians. '" Southeastwa"d,
toward the n19uth 9f tho Litt-Ie C91orad9 River, the
thickness 9f the Cooonin9 increases, but nOltheast·
ward, in the Morble Gorg.l, it diminishell pr<Jjl;rI!Ssively .
In the upper part 9f the Marble G9rge the Kaibab
and Coconino retain their characteristic features, but
the thickness 9f the C9C9nin9 is less than 100 feet.
(See pI. 6, A.) These formoti9M are 8n.tlyzed in the
fo1l9wing sectiM:
Sect/o,.. o( IIh! ,r,a/l Of .Ilcll'blc (}orOIJ OP1'OlfUe. tlld IIlOtl/,.. of,
B(/dger 0" 6C1.· , 7
1J mUc/.f tlcl010 Par'i" IUve,'
l'el'wlnu :
KolbRb lImcstoue- reel
11. Limestone. gl'O..1. wcatbl!rin" IIcht buff, with
lute-rbedded sbal)' IImeslone, cber" ; 8ume
of tbe mO!fSlve, 2 or 3 toot t hlek,
tonuln. 1Vt!nk beochel ; tbla dlvLaliUD cbDr-
fonu. broken .tOpe8_____ __ lttO
10. UlIl..:!;otone. a rOJ' , " 'eIltllicr1o, l'IroWll; very
ruoMlye and bard, bed. S to '10 teet thkk,
stl'8tlllcutioo e\"eD; lonnl clltl'8;
heW. break III ulI lIlul ar Jvfut tlll."elI __ :!26
9, Limestone. P'111 to ltutr; medJum to
sh' e bed, form bencbes tbut alternate wlili
thin-bedded soft libel, to Mudy bedll, and
the wbole fOrDl8. steep z.lope; this wenker
sene torDl9 _ Ilentllent break. between the
sheer clUh above and below til tbe canyon
tl ll _______ _ ________ __ ________ .. _ ___ _ _ lOS
S. Llolelttone. ,roy to bu.1l. and annwtouc;
tbls dh'LdoD commonly forma. Iteep clUr
thot If; continuous wltb the underlJlllg
lGlndstone cUfI'; ronde up II,Jj toIl0\\'8 :
LlmC8tone, to buft, thID____ a
Limestone, bult; a bard mu ..
laYer" i Conna cllfl_______ 1
LIUlutooe. burr, sorter than adJa-
cent G
Sandstone, brov.-D, crOill-bcddcd,
h n rd. 11 Hhlglt! ledgtt__ 5
. Snud.tQne, reddlli b, lOft, willy;
DJlltu.-s reeeu In cll1r or In
places a slope________________ 2
u Gl r t7, O. j! .• In N. 11., A J'eCopoalltllaDCe (It Darhl or oortb.
t:rD N'C! w aad .-\.Tlxonu : U. Geol. Dull, Uil, 1910.
.od I!IM"Wa'l , . b
.. Gilmore. C" W., '0 .. 11 tootpriltls from Ih'il Caayon: SPlit -
IfOnloo Call .. loL 'i7, No, 0, 19:26.
Kalbob " .. , Feet
8-. Llme-ltont>, ,ra1 to burr, Dnel

Sandstone. reddh.b brown. moder-
AfeJy bard: forma rounded
.lalK' or went ('lIff.a_________ 1
8ondatonB, brown,
and rather aba1y, form"
.101'" _____ _____________ 1 Y.o
Lhnefol tone, b:uiKh gray:
buft" j bard; lorma proJI't"tl
If:'dli«t ______________________ 2
soo .... tonc. rr ddl .. h brown. Eo(L
. c.'8tcnreou... erumbl9 to looae
,.and _ .. _ .. _______________ 1
l .... Jl ght ,el:ow to crelllJl.
.... y >IOte. Chin bedded, shnly.
hnl llJrp: cuntlllll" spotl
um nudnlc."6 "f ma0l=nneW'
dloxlde ______________ ________ SlA,
Limestone. b:ui¥b drab. dark.
hllrd;. breoJ;." witb ft rhlcl
HOund: "8ry fine Iruined aDd
....8rth,. In i w('aLheri
In Il n5:1e lei au with
.urtace flnely pltte<l ____ .. _ .. __ Ilh
Total Kolbob lImelJtone ___________ ..f81
(:oc"Onlno IIO.ndstone- .
7. Sandstone, reddish brttwn. gOI1Pfally bard but
.JouUy l ott: crumbk!s in the hand:
the lower 2 feet a manlv!! layer,
lt1"CgUlDrl,. bedded j tbe next 3 teet evenly
lamlDllted horizootally: the opper 10 feet
bedded, 11lther mRII.lye : welltb-
lu ronndl" •• urfncea. Jlollulu ut tap__ 16
6. ndstone. )'cl1o,,,1ah brown, blnt tIItn
(-' It c h stratum crDas-beddNJ:
wcotber. 111 plnty tr.gwenta. atalued block
on BUrtftrc ________________ ____ e
G. Sandstone. Jtgbt red, 10ft, IIOme\vhnt Irrega·
IIlr], trtratUJed; the layers cut BerON io-
cllned IAmlnne of .ubjaceot bcd:_________ 1:1
4. Snndstone, U;,bt yeUow, a .[oele berd mill-
,I.. Iei4e. ....... bedded; breaks In large
block,. promloently amlned wltb desert
vn.rolMb_____________ _ __ _____ ___________ 5
. S. SilodBtODe, yellowJ..h, blghly cros.·bedded:
weatber. tn &.Illba tbAt breAk oblique to
tile booJdlol; mao>I'o___________________ 18
2. Sandstone. nr.)' light yellow, sugary, promi·
nently c s·betlded. the tncllued :o.,lnftu
dlpplll.g sollthwest : siliceous verl'
111ft .. " .. --______________________________ U
Total Coconino AodatoDP___________ IS
He<mlt oIle.le-
1. SandBtoDe, chocoJat&-brO\\'D to reddish brown.
be-Intoed. deuce; lOme beds PlOderately
hard and form week curls: ll\oetIy rather
soCt, with sand,. shale ot alm-
liar color i the anndstones are chAracter-
Ized by concretionary 8uudure; exJ)08ed_ 296
AL places in the Marble Gorge the Coconino sand.
stone i. apparently divided into two subequal ledges.
In its stratigraphic position, its very massivo n"ncal-
cBreouS character, the lorge scale of its southward:
dipping cross-bedding, and its light color, .this sand-
stone seems clearly to belong to the Coconino forma.-
tion, as repre.<ented in the Grand Canyon. Ho.vev ... ,
the line of division between the Coconino and the Kai-
. bab is not prominent, pully because distinctions in
color and weathering are less marked in this area than
in the Grand Canyon district. In the genera.lized sec·
tion at Lees Ferry reported by Bryan" the toto! thick-
ness assigned to the Raibab and Cooonino agrees ap-
proximately with the ·meRsurements in the rJarble
Gorgt', but: as givcn by Bryan, the thickness of tb.
Raibab .ppears too small and that of the Coconino
correspondingly too large, unless much limestone of
typical Kaibab lithology is included in the Coconino.
. The Permian """tion at the upper e/ld of the MarbI,
Gorge di:tren little from the sections in the Grand
Canyon uct'pt in the thickness of the Coconino
s.ndstone and the greater thickness of the underlying
Hermit shale, which measures 531 feet at a point 3
mil .. below Badger Creek. Even tbe softer zone in
the middle part of the Kaibab and the sandy beds COr·
respond to features observed many miles to the south.
The Permian beds of the Grand Canyon persist witb
surprisingly slight change for a distance northeast-
ward of at least 65 miles from the Bass trail, but in
KRibsb Gulch, about 30 miles northwest of the upper
Marble Gorge, the Coconino aa.ndstone is absent; and
there typical Kaibab, 717 feet in thickness, rests di-
rectly on Hel'mit shale. Seemingly the north wa.rd-
diminishing Coconino sandstone disa.ppears betore it
reaches the nOI1;h end of the Kaibab Plateau. Con-
ceivably, howcver, the sa.ndy beds in the lower PIlJ1; of
the Ko.ibab at this place are equivalent to a pOI1;ion of
the sandstone called Coconino in Utah.
The top of the Kaibnb dips beneath the surface 10
miles north of Kaibnb Gulch, but \vhere it reappears
in the Circle Cliffs its lithologic features reaemble
those of the typical Kaibab in Arizona. However,
tho formation as a whole appears sandier, and the
amount of fairly pure limestone is much less. The
deep boring of the Ohio Oil Co. in tbe central part
of the Circle Cliffs begins in the Kaibab and shows
that the vary calcareolJS sandstone, \vhich is strati-
graphically the lowest rock continues be-
neath the SU,·fIW0 for several hundred feet (p.
Cuttings from the upper part of the well reveal no
essential differences from the adjacent surface rocks,
nnd there is every reason to conclude that these Imel<-
posed strata are a continuation of the CarbOniferous
capped by the Ka.ibab beds in the Circle Cliffs.
,. Bryan. Klrt, 10 Loopel), C. R" .. 4 ot.en. Roell: tormAtlon ...
tbe Colorado Plateau at Nutllt'a.tetn Utab: U. 8. Geol. Sun,,. prof..
l'a)t'r J32. pI. 1. 3, 1026.
10 the decrease in thickn."" of the limestone in .he
Cirele Clill's due to erosion prec.eding Moenkopi depo-
giLion, which rellloved the. up!>';r part of the beds '
Ollce laid down in the Circle Cliffs region 1 That
some part of the ano:! eastward thinning in
the Circle Cliffs is due to pre-Triassic erosion is Sllg-
ge,;ted hy the absence of the so-called
faunll, which indicates that the youngest part of the
!(aiblb preserved here is olde.r than the top of. the
formntion in the. G,'and Conyon country, At. the
San Raf .... 1 Swell, wbe,'. the Kaibab limestone ranges
in from 8,) feet down to a mere film, Gillulj
Dod Reeside 11 found a widespread erosionai uncon-
formity below the Moenkopi formation and ''eIlched
the tonelu.ion that" some of the Knibllb limestone hDs
been removed and that in some part the eastward
thinning of tho Kaib"b i& dne to pre-T"ins<ic erosion,"
Sandstone that is e"id.ntly <qlli-·nlent to Ih"t Lelow
the Kaibnb in the Circle Cliffs is found ill the Cataruct
('_nyolI, along the Sau Juan River, in the lfenry
Mountains, and elsewhere in e .. >'tem ond southern
Flah. This i. the "Aubrey" .nntlstone of enl'lier
writers, Dnd has been called Coconino sandstone in
...,.,.,nt .. eports," Does this .and.tone really corre-
spond to the type Coconino sandstone! The
gradation between the fossilif".'on. limcstone of typi-
eal Kaibab aspect Dnd the unde,'lying sandstone, which
is likewise fossiliferous, seems to indicat. that they
Ire only _lightly dift'erent part. of a single widespread
deposit. Limestone occurs in and unde,'lies the sond- !
stone, as shown by sUI'face cxpo.Ql1res and by well
",cords. The occurrence of marine shells in the sand-
stone of the Circle Cliff. and its calcareous chDracter
contrast with tile vertebrtlte footprint" and siliceous
rhamcle!' of the typicDl Co('Onino nnd, togcther with
.tntigraphic evidence, suggest that the formations aI's
not exactly equivDlent, This tonclusion is supported
by the observations of Gregory and Noble'· th.t
typic!l Coconino thins northward ·to the vanishing
point in Kanllb Canyon, is 2a feet thick at RyaD, on
the ,,'est side of tbe Klib.b Platellu, is enti.-ely
bcking in Kaibab Gulch--<>bserutiolls which led to
the suggestioll "that sandstone assigned to thc Coeo-
nillo in the northC:l",tcl'n, eastern, alHJ liiOutheaste .. n
(lOlrt6 of t.he plateun pro,·inc'e lIl"y form part of the
Kaibeb," Differenres ill lithologic peculillrltiessupply
additional evidence.
It seemS probable that the lesse,' thickness of tbe
limestone in the Circle Cliffs and the San Rafael
Swell, .s compared with atea. to the sonthwest, ihl
alternation with limy sandstone, lind the considerable
Jo.r.a., lind Ree.lde. J. B .• Jr., rocllA 01 n.
fta.. btae! 81\'.11 and mm.a .djacml't .. lR .... st.erll Uta. : U. a.
Cto!.. 8or.e.' Prof. 1 M. p, cH. 1!>Z8.
l.I Len:t;wtll. C. R . . and otllen, er. cU .• ". It. :\lll4ilr. U. D., op. rit .•
-GreIW'" R E., anil Xubll'!. L. r.o "". cU .• 111' . 2:ul-:l:::i . 11)':!3.
ill of the CIlklt.l'OOU8 :oiUndy
represent a gMdu.1 but m.rked chonge in litho,
logic of Klibab ...,dimentution indicuti \'0 of
nppl'Oach toward au old land maS>!, Studies of the
C"rboniferollS and e,,'ly lie.ozoic l'(>ck. in nre •• ell.t
llnJ north of the Colo':.uo River judicllt. that there
wus pCl'sistrnt or recurrent eiel"atioll in Il region
bordering southern l]toh, Red clay und sonrl, <,om.,..
conglome,'ute, Dnd g"itty arkose (MolNs,
und Cutler form"tions), which are """t.inly in part
of subaeri,,1 ol'igin, iodie.,to lllnd conditions, and so
do notuble unconformities that do not persist south-
. In passing fl'OlU northern to
southe.'n .nd soutlleastern the Carboniferou.
beds below the Knill.b 0hRnge so greatly i .. charllet.r
thnt of the (ormatious of the Grind Can-
yon ( .. n 1I0t IJe eert.ainly identified, It i. perhaps not
possible t<> determine definitely whether the •• ndstone
termed" l'oc,,!uiuo" in SQul-heastel'll Utah i. atttllllly
eqnivul"'lt to the Coconino of the Graud Canyon or
whether, II.' i. tl'll" ill pu·t, it is " facies of Kaibah
I By uelinition the nlme Kaibab i. he,·e
"pplitl(\ tn the limestone facies of wide'I""ea..1
Permian deposits, Dnd tho name Coconioo i. employed
for the purdy subjacont Md partly intel'grading and
intertonguing, SAndstone facies thut occurs iu elLSterll
Dnd southern Utab, This usage is followed in the
designDtion of t.he Permia.n strDta of the Circle Cliff.,
However, the thinning of the type (',oconino townrd
the north, the mOl'. or less pronounced ditTerences iu
lithologic character of the type C<lconino and the
Utah Coconino, and stratigrkphie uncertainties of
di1l'Cl"ut sorts suggest thill e>.-tcnsion of the name
Coconino to Utall is of doubtful propl'iety,
At none of tim exposures in the Circle Cliffs wher"
,.he contnet between the Kaibab limestone and the
Moenkopi formation was exomined is ths,'e any
marked discordance in bedding 0" any very notioe-
nble irregulnrity of the upper surface of i he Kaibnb,
However, .. n unconformity It the top of' tha Pel'mian
is indicuted by " mD"ked variation in thickness of ih.
yeIJowisl',-b,'own noncherty membe," that caps
tile KRibub ill t.he northel'll port of the Cil'clo Clilfs
alld the gradual disappeal'.nce ,of that member to the
east and sollth, The moximum observed thickness of
tlti. ledge-forming IIIomoer is 31 feet, as measured a
short di.tance west of The P.nkA, In the southem
and eastern ['Drt of the Circle Clift's the Moenkopi
rests directly on the eherty ¥one th.t underlies
the massive hard lim ... ton. just mentioned, and in
not. much of the cherty member remains,
Where tho "'PI"" part of the Kaibab Ilppellrs. to hav ..
been ,'e.moved by .,'Osion, the lower limy sandston",
,,<'CUI' proportionally ne"I"r the top of ihe formation.
Whore the uppermost KaibAb is missin&: a
ored sandotone of uneven &hiclm_ commobly occurs
wt the ba .. of &he Moenkopi_
That the Moenkopi fonnation rut. unconformably
(>0 the Kaibab or i15 equivalent has been generally
reeognizod by students of the Colorado Plateau stra-
tigraphy. The extent and .ijplificance of this erosion
intel'vol has been du.cuaed by Da Ire" and more re-
tently by r.ongwell" and others." The des<:ribed ex-
I., ... indicate on extent of the pre-Moenkopi ero-
surface of mOre than 80,000 square miles. At
most plncea the relief of the eroded Kaibnb is small i
it .... a. chnnneled but not deeply incised, and Ihe lowest
Moenkopi beds maintlin the dip and strike of the
Mgh..,.t "'rata of the Kaibab. At Spring Moull!'lin,
Nov., llOwever, the elllire thickn_ of the Kaibab Ind ,
plitt of &he Supai was cut through, and in the Moab
nlPon the Moenkopi rest. with shArp discord'lnce on
the Cutler. For the plateau pro,-inte U 1\ whole t·he
evidence • foirly uniform emertl!ence, fol-
lowed by a general widelipread submergence .. it.h lit-
tle thange ill the attitude of the Kaib.b beds. As
(Jointe<l out by Gillul." ond Reoside," .. if it is true, ,
as h ... been tuggested, Ihut the Coconino and Kaibah
grade l'lt.rllly one into the other, the unconformity is
not lIece.snrily of much importance 81rllchll"tllIy over
the plat.lu province .. a whole-thnt i9, it does not
iudicat. a pel'iod of orogenic activily."
Although the gt"l!d Triassic fOI'roationa of the
platel" provin<'e are boldly outlined by color and min.
ner of erooion, the precise limits and a,e of the forma-
tions are difficult to establish. Most of the mAny
un.confonniti .. are IOClll; the strata, e&peciQlly the
undaton.., limestones, and shales, change in
character \Yithin shan dist .. ces lIang the slrike and
f_i1. Ire enl"tmely aCtIn:e. Naturally
published dflcriptions nnd cll9llificatio'ns of the'Tri-
o""ic sediments of southern Utah are very dissimilar.
Howell," in Ihe Icction of the )[esozoic that he
measure<! in the raria Valley, a ... igncd to the Triassic
2,260 of stnta .• In he included aIL or part of
the and NI"alo, the Chinle, the Shinarump
ronglomerate, and the lfo('llkopi, a. th_ formations
Ire nOw defined. Duiton " alJplied t.he term Shino_
rump shales" io the group of strata now recogni>ed
as Moenkopi, Shinarump, and Chinle formations (i.
plrt)_ He has milch to say regarding t.hoir cOnstant
character, their color, Rnd their erosion features and
""1tb the eS{-tplioD (If Ibe dark shales of the Cre-
taceous. the toues of other !orlUnUona UTe uSUDlly bri;bt.
Ul"ei)', lind orten deUcote. lD the Sblnnt"ulup this
lint mOltiJ' stroo;. def'pt. and ao rich OJ to become cloy1ac.
Maroon, Ilore. chMOlale. purple, tlnd especiAlly '1' dol'l( brow.
ish red (nltl'0118 Reid color) are tho J)TcvaHtng hues. • • •
Tile lie of the ShJnlHump Is either Penuloll Ot' Lower Trln"'!''',
idcntltr with tbe l(lwcr rtd beds of o.lorodo nnd W),om1a: Ii
unquelltJon.1Jle. (aDd) .ho ! ormntlol.l tberc!ore covers an artl
.xc ••• Ii.DJ 250.000 squAre mno •.
The top of Ih. Shinarump was not cletenwned by
, owing to tbc ,ndnn: trllNlitlon into the YMDlillou Clift 8I'rh. ..
ablJ'ge. • • • Wltbin rbese (Sbhl:ltU\Up) ,hltl<'s there (lCten
OC"CMrt a fJR&rulllr c(!Ill:'lomel'nte. It cODE-lats ot fl'n::mentl .f
.Welded •• cod embeodded bl' • llln trll: oJ laud nnd
Son'letimca trunll. or trees . of co.nslci.erubte Size.
.melded. 01'1 roo.d.
In the Henry :.\[ollntain region Gilbert" pLaced tb.
.. Shinarump group" tit t.he base of the" Jura-Trias"
and aubdiyided it into
10) vlrlepted cla1 shll .. pmple nud wblt. abo"e Hn4
cbocolate belo .... and .lIIelDed WOOd. 300 reet: (b) grllJ' coo·
Ilomerate with .Ulcl&ed wood, tbe •• Shinarump conglomerate. It
SO teet; (e) eboeolate-co)ortd shnte, In fJlut sand", 400
In these descriptions the Chinle formntion, the
Shinarump and the Moenkopi forma-
. t·ion Ire ffoo,ni .. ble. All the geologists of the Pow,U
and Meeler surveys recognize.d this threefold dh·i-
sian of &he so--cnlled "Shin"rump group" andtenta-
tively Il ... igned it to the Tdassic, basing d'eir con-
clusions on the Triassic age of sa.urilln hones and fos-
plnnts 'l'Om the Shinarump conglomerate, deter-
mmed by Cope al)d To these workers the
Sbinarump cong-Iomtt'ate "'IS merely a marl<er in the
midllt of a thickness of shole resting on • wid ...
8pl'cad platform of Carboniferous limestone. :Ko
ha. be.n rast on the Triassic age of t.he " upper
(Chinle), but I.he eArly .ptllvlliling opin-
Ion that the" lower Shinarump" (Moenkopi) is also
Trias.;ic was abandoned after Wlllcott hod described
Permian fOfsils from ahale underlying the Shinarump
This discoyery led to the conclusion
th.t the Shinorump conglomente marked the division
behreen the Triassic and the Permian. 1I0wever,
fuller knowled"", of the relat.ion of the )-foell-kopi to
. ·O.ttOli. C. It. aepol'1 •• the ,eolOIY ot t bo OIgh Plateaua-;
llab, Jit. H4-HT, 1: . .. Gf'(Io" a'rld Burn!! nock,. l,(ta.
.• GUberl, G, It. R.,.,.I o. tbe- gt'Olo",' or tbe Heb\"'f llo11l:itlllb., p.8,
t ·. Ill . ud CIK". 8,n'''''' a(l('ky Ue-i:loo, 1871. .
TRlASSIC ¥Oltr,( .. nONS
ShillArump obm'e and the Kaibab below and <1 re-
""nsideration by Girty of the e"iclence de.rived froIU
fossils doubt on the accepted correlation. As. sub-
divided by Gregory" ·tlm Triassic included the Chinle
formation and the Shinarump conglomerate, and the
Moenkopi wns classed as doubtful Pormi.n. Loter
studies by Girt)', flOwever, proved the equinlence of
the Moenkopi of southern Utah and kno\,n lower
Triassic beds of Idaho.
The l'riass,c, then, as now defined, embrttoes three
subdi<isions--the Moenkopi formation, tbe Shinarump
rooglOIllHAte, and the Chillie formation. The beds
ossigned to the Moenkopi contoin foSsils of Lower
Triassic age; the Chinle form'Itioll and probably alsO
the Shinarump conglomerAte are Upper Tri .... ic.
A)(E .... L .\:sn Tl-llCIC",f:SS
III thc Kaiparowits region the Moenkopi formation
is exposed at Lees Ferry; at Sand WAsh, near the
ab.ndoned settlement of Paria' in the Hou"" Rock
VaUey; and .. t the Circle Cliffs and in Adjoining areas
on the west flank of the Wnterpocket Fold. At Lees
Ferry, where er""ion of the folded strat. in the Echo·
monocline brings all the Trill .. ic into vie",
the Moenkopi rests on on uneven sudnce of the Knib.!.>
limestone and is capped by Shinarump conglomerate,
which forms 8. sharply outlined bnsal step th.t mlly be
traced for mile" sOuthward along t.he Echo Cliffs ond
aouthwestward along the base of the Puia Platean.
(See pI. 8, d.) At Sand Wash, the northern terminus
of the Kaibob Plaleau, the Moenkopi forms the base
of the Vermilion Cliffs and is well expooed a.long the
Paria-Kanob road. Southward it extends up the
House Rock V .. Uey as . 0. much eroded and faulted
series of beds that coat the flanks of the elStward-
dipping Koibab monodine. (Sec p1. ., A.) West-
ward it may be continuously t.raced to points beyond
the Virgin River. In the Circle CIi ·fT. dcpression ero-
sion of the <lverlying formation! has exposed Moen-
kopi beds 08 an almost continnous flOO1' in an oval
Irea 80 miles long and 10 miles wide. From
this nrea extensions of the lIfoenkopi reach outwa.rd
radially Klong the stream nlley. that cut. through the
encircling J u ra .. ic cliffs. (See fig. 9.)
The thickness of tho Moenkopi differs widely in dif-
ferent places. At Lees Ferq it is .. bout WO feet, and
sections meAsured at near-by localities include 390 and
420 feet of strata. At Koibab Gulch and Sand Wash
• H. E., G!!'OIOIl.Y or Ibe Na,-aJo <eOulltJ"1 .•
., pam o( Arlr;oDa, Nrw Xexim. and Utab: U. S. GM!!.. Survey rrof.
'aper t3- pp. 30-.31. 1917. SP.C al!!to Sbl.cr, n. If .. l'rrmo-'I"rtatllte
til north .... estf'rn Arizona: GooI.. 8«. A .. ftrk-. I\ul! ., '"01. :10, pp .• 03-
neady complete •• elions nwnsurcrl, 490
Rnd In t.he Circle Cliffs the Herage
tbickness of the i. 4i5 feet, the masimum
being slightly more than 5()() feet and minimum
304 feet-n "srilltion ascribed mainly to erosional un-
conformiti,'" _t Ihe top and bottom of the fOflllAt.ion.
the borders of the Kaiparowits re«ion the
. . "
wnr1ntlOn is greAter. The type seetion in t.he Little
ColorRdo V A lIey 389 feet, blAt found
920 feet on the San ,J uun Ri"er, and AS shown by Ree-
. side and BR .. ler ,. the t.hickness of the Moenkopi in-
crenses westward, reaching its 1'1lOXlmUm in the Virgin
, River Valle)" ,,·h.r. two sections include 1,775 and
I 2,033 f.et of strnt.. At len"t lOCAlly in the.
region the )(oenkopi is cut out entirely by tbe Ilneon-
forlllit, at the base of the Chinle."
The Moenkopi formation nt Fn-ry con!>i!'!! of
bed8 that Jiffer liUle in compO-'ition, structure, ami
arrangement from those in the Na"aio (·ountry, to the
south and east. '.rho predominant litllOlogic features
I UP. thin bl-own sandy gypsiferolls shale and red and
' brown sandstone with white bunds neor the top. (See
p.48.) At Sand Wnsh likewise sh.le
and brown sandstone make lip most of the section, bllt
the lowermost 400' fed iij bonded with and indi-
"iduol beds of alternating red and 'green sh .. le .. hich
give to the outcrops a st.rikingly beautiful appearance.
This of beds reSEmbles the Moenkopi of
the Kanab Rnd Virgin Valleys more closely than those
of regions south and east of tho PAri a Valley.
In the Cirele Cliff. the Moenkopi formatiOn consist.
dominantly of interlominated mudstone, sandy mica-
ceous shale, and tbin-bedded platy or sha.ly sRndstone
thlt splits readily along lamiuoe, coyering the weath-
ered slopes with flaky sandstone chips. Wit.h the
mlldstone and tbin ",ndotone occur lenses of masshre
fine to medium·grained .... ndstone, but grit and con-
glomernte, as well as true clay shale, are lacking.
As 0 whole the rocks of the Moenkopi formation are
distinct.ly weak and tend to form slopes brollen by
.. eak some of "'hich ore bAl'ely disce.rllibl •.
In some places harder and thicker sandstones that are
massive )ocally and weather in large .Jabs or in thick
angular blocl<S form pronollnced but generally not
very higb clift's. Beneath the protecting cap of hard
Shinullmp the Ilpper beds of the Moen-
kopi form a cliff that rAnges from I few feet t·o more
fltan 100 feet in height. Commonly t.his rliff i. re-
• c. R. 1\041 other., 011. tif .• p. Jj,
.. R(ofl!lde, J. B., Jr .• ud Ib!:II.IIk-r, op. ('I!" fl. fU,.
.. Bl\k,.r. A, A .• lk7iJbh,C, E., :McK.IVJlt, K T., 111111 Rl:'l'tIhk-. J . It ..
jr,. op. clL " 11"; .
ec<sed, the Shinarump proj .. ,ting like Il great
cOl'nice, (See pI. 8, A ,) The brick-red colol' of the
)foonkopi, in contr • .t to the light greeni." of
tho Shinarump, Dnd the etching out of fairly evenly
• pa<'ed thin soft bed. in the Moenkopi cliffs contribute
to the strildng resemblance of th<>$C dill's to "ell-built
brick houses_ J-imc.tone i. not abundant, hut on the
south side of thi. area, near the vel'y top of the forma-
tion, a few thin,.beds of very hII'd, dense, fine-graille<!
limestolle are int.crbedded ill the sandy
.hale, and one of beds, a foot thick, which is
light gny 011 fresh frucllll'e and a
tRlmi.h brown, eontinnes with vcry even thickness 101'
nellriy R mile, At another point neal' tl,e top of the
formation on the west side of tho Circle Clift's the
'Illlfl,!' bed. arc distinctly cllcareous. Gypsum is also
rare, No interstrlltified bed. of gypsllm and little sec-
ondary ,'ein gYP""m were ob.erved, bllt .mall frag-
ment. of f<Clenite Ind minel'Ulizod watel' indicate the
presence of mOl'll or loss di_minuted calcium sulphate.
]n exposures of the Moenkopi neRr Capitol Wa..h and
northward tow. I'd Fruita, in Wayne Coulliy, only a
.hort distance north of the Circle Cliffs, the Moenkopi
i. strongly In a Cew places ca.sts of sillt
crY'llals were observed in the shaly sandstone, 'file
oil-be.ring bod. of the Circle Cliffs lnd the Water-
pocket Fold belong tl) the Moenkopi formation, (See
p, 154 Rnd pI. 31.)
A ch ... ctel'i.tic feature of the thin-bedded .t ... ta
i .. the abundance of ripple m .. rks, In many places
each platy layer i. marked ",ith asymmetric ripples
that measure on the averuge abollt In inch from
crest to cI'est, Ind 90me of the thicker sandstone sbows
I very fine cr()l;l!-bedding that is due to migration of
the I'ipples, Mud crneks, which genel'dly affect only
Olle or hI'o thin layers, appear in some places.
The dominant color tone of the Moenkopi in the
Circle Cliff. is a .hIUO of brownish mal'oon Or red-
ui"h chocolnte-brown, but a considerable part of the
formation is Il very light ci'eomy tan or buff, In parts
of the r",1 divisions Lhero M'e thin ash-gray xonea,
These colo,.. ON art'angerl ill definite binds and zones
thllt follow the Ledding and evidently I'epl'esent origi-
nal differences ill thc clJal'l\c'ler of the deposit, the
r.,'ric pigmen!.s being eOIll.pletely oxidized in 80me
pu'h of tlle formotion, whereas in othel'8 Lhere i. much
Ie .. iroll and this not so well oxidized, The wide dis-
and e"ellness of the banding are nLh&r strik-
Ing of 811Y g<!lIeral "iew of the Moenkopi
!und ... pc, (8<'e pI. 7,)
SeetiolL' Ilf the Afllfnkopi wel"e at Lees
Ferry, K.ibab GuidI, S..,d Wash, and the Circle
Clitf., .
Seelio,. of JlOf.:ftlrop. (m·uHl-tJ,q,.. "1, 1ff)ItU .. li4e o( C"I,,,.,,,Jr) J«t...
a·I Ferry
ShinnruU1p con,tOlJlcrute .
)(oenkopl loroUltiou : PM
ii. Shllle, arenaceoUlj, Nnd lfllu .sand-
stone. banded dork lefl. brown, and white, lu
alternatlIlG' beds; Cdlc:nreoos and Iron
cement; IIOUle beds or shale tbln u.s cnl-dooard,
their foliation surfaces rtpplu Dlllrked, sorne
cracked (lad cooted ... ltb G"l'alils of mica i in.
clude& tluoo tblo beds or sandy, dnk7 lime-
atone; thin ,' eiu. or gypsum crOM nearly
c\,ery squa.re Ineb or cliff tace; , esli.
lntlted ___________ .________________________ 2"lf)
4. Shole, uniformly chooolatc-cotored. yery' Sllndy,
In paf>t imbricated nnd uDe'fenl)" bedded;
mun,. folia.tloD surfaces nre IUD dried and
marks :and .. UsteoID" Antes ot
muscoyIte; ICQWS ot gypaum cross the beds,
tntersectinl' at ditter-ent angles: uUl'q'1Il1 re-
of the vtrtlttl CIlU:tel weat11erhu: to
produce 11 slope that rises by sbort·Slluced
atopo _____________ . _______________________ 160
3. COl1l'lomerate, broll'l1. CIJUlIIOSCd of wud pellets
and of l'uleoreous shale and oi
••• 0stOl'0__ ____ ______________ _ __ ______ ____ .,.
2. Shale, yellow. ripple marked, friable; lome 107-
ers sepbrated by thin sbeeta ot 8
1. eooglomerate. but( and browIl, composed chiefly
of pebbles ODd cbll)8 ot Ihneatoue, with which
are embedded both worn !:find lU6;"ulnr chunn
of cilel:t 08 mUi:"ll a. -1 inches in lep,th; the
upper part ill plac(>8 shows ne3ts ot poorl1
rounded pebble'll ot chert, Rnc) quo.rts-
tte less thou bait on Incb In diameter:
ot IVa,., erdls-bedded 8O.1ld!toue nnd ot yellow
shale nre Included; ,,,eatben "'ltll Yel',
rou"b snrtu(.'C _____ _________ .______________ Jh-8
Totnl MOt:ukopi CQl"lnlltiou_______________ aoo+
JtnJllab limestone.
The Moenkopi formation at K .. ib .. b Gulch is not
,.ell displayed for study i parts of it are covered,
other parts Rl'(l dissected into badland mounds. and
the steeply dippiug sLI'ot. are locally faulted and in
places coated with debris from The incom-
plete section is here included for comparison with
sections measured to the south at J ... e8 Ferry and 8
miles to the north .t Sanrly "Tosh,
$cclio. 01 J/oenkopi fOr,.uMioK ot KtJClJab aUlo1l. Uld
.. by Herbert E . GNlC"or1J
Shinarump conglomcl'ut'!_
Hi. Sb31e. bTowu. lumpy. :IIal,d,.. Iln).!SiterQUll, with
Jlxe 1 to 3 teet thick: of brown triable
_______________ . __ . _________ ..1______
Nof'II\orti formnlictn-Conlimk: d . Ji"M1
11. I:l-aII (\to;tOO£l. reci , hntu;j(,:Ht'd; eonllllns Dlud
lumps ttnd. Fnlt _____ 2
13, light nd, intel't'lrMlifiNI with burr and
whirl' tC8ialnnt bed$ tlncl or
scndstoTlc: forms !CtC'e[l 00
12. 8hIl1(*. brown an(l droh. f.:nndr; g):I»)ifcr-
OUB DPtlr bH.q.; to bodhmd knolls
W"lth relURrknhl ,' - n'guhlt' hilO,h; (It
hrown, gn>e:D. and ____ __________ 183
n. Covered, probably <'t"d ,.hl1l(>_________ __________ 00
10. Llml"stooe. burt. nrenn("\·OlH1. In plu('es sbnly i
C'ontnln3 Ullth,'termlnllble !!=1l('11 2
' !), S1.u:lf.", cho('o!ate·brown ilnd rt'(L_______________ 16
8. Sbale. rl'd and green: whtlC JrJlt3l1m in
e,'e-u bedz___________ _____________ __________ 1
7_ SbRI(>, bruwn, \yi;:h Il!llc.' h gY)'}tI:um In !('nml nud
di.o.:'SE'mlnnt"M gralns____ ______________ _______ as
t_ S:J.DCsrOnl!, bl·()Wll . tn bfi(ls tban 7 thlck,
And sundy l"bnlf', unenl'll!Y tll;"(ldE'.d. h_' nth:ull1r:
Nut.Jns thin (It 40
fl. Shfllc. brown
tn 41
of. Shnle, brown, with -MU<1StOfJE" lellRS, I;.YI'SIlUl :'II:d
lime (.t'ment __ __________________ _____________ 33
Sambtone, dnrk brow-n, III 1 to 4 fel't t1l1ck.
olte:motinl: wllb I!:bnl" AU bedl' bi£blr
trreJ!'ulll' and UrlCH'n: 11Im(lY;
Eurf:l('PS ot o\'()rlnppin, lR1J,iufte abuodentlJ'
markrd ,,' Uh mud cracka, ripple mnr""
trnila, nnd .finke-A at micl : forms: 'lab tDlu5____ 2S
2. Sbalpl, dRrk brown, glistenlD.a: wIttl mh:Q; bed t.
wavy; bl'enK!J into luwd, 8hnl'(l·ahnped
flnkel_________________ ____________________ •
J. C(lnglomernte, CQmpoaro ct Battened r,ellets ot
gray·butt' Umef!it(lftc, red laoostone. lind
quorts. arrnuged os If'WK''1 In sbillft Rnd nl
<:f06Jl-bcdded colne snndsto1l8
C'fIntetl ",!tb ('b\ml:i:!t (If IlUlH1Z________ __ ______ 1-4
Totn. 11oenk(lpi tormAtlon________________ :;1-&
KQlhb limestone-,
At Sand WBsh the upturned beds that form tbe base
of the Moenkopi have been beveled by erosion and
plrtly buriod in debris i some o( them hR'·. been dis-
turbed by landslides. In general the expooure re-
the Moenkopi out.CI·Ops in the Valley.
The lowest beds are brown thin .andstone and ripple-
marked and sun-dried These beds are followed
upward by 4 to 6 feet of earthy limestone and
about 000 feet of .andy, very gypsiferoUB, very thinly
laminated shale sh'ikingly banded by zones of red
Ind green. this bnnded shale lies about 75
feel of reddish shale, sandy and 8lighly gypsiferous,
Ind about ro feot of reddish-brown shale interbedded
wilh massive sandstones 1 to 3 feet thick.
In the west port of the Circle Clift's, in the
Plrt Idjacent to the Waterpocket Fold, Ind in tbe
contra! part near The Peaks exposures of the Moen-
kopi include all the bed8 from the top to the of
the formation. The following sections are typical of
I.he Circle Cliffs region ne a' whole:
s(>('tiO/l fJ( C'WII1If'tmC'f'fltc (flul uppc.t' liarl 01 .VItCtIr
Ito" forHUltifJlt 011 ""t,r ,;4(0 Of CII'c:I<: flc-Iw:er-
("1'('(" d"d The Pfoaho O(lr}fC'ld ern,,,''''. Ulall
Shinnrlllllr ________________ .. ___ .. ______ .... 6-60
MO(,DkOlli !(lrmnn(m:
l!). Sholto, ('no('l)lntE' ·brl)wn, \,('ry ,,"ndy. ;radin;
into Ifbul) Inon
('AiCll"-,,-ms .bon'_ i
1S,. chorolnt('-bl"{lwlI. thlll
r)l,ple D\lIrk(>(lo and lawlnule-tL_ .... ____ S
li. 811111(>. ("liOCtllnt(,ohl'DWll, \-ery IiQl'Idy; f[rllctt>iIi
Into thin :'!11mly ISlmthtrOn(O, mktl("('1.lllRo____ ___ :;.
Hl. Snnd'toDe. chOC'olnta-browD. bnrd, @hftly to
plnty i forms. IIUl:tn projt"ttinr )l'Cl;::Jo _______ _
,'lro\\"l.I . Mndy, ,n,dlllg to rhin shnl,.
w(>fItht'rJ1t AS; fi.love ____ _________ ..
H. Snncl,tont>, hard. lllnty:
torDU!! a ledgE' _____ ______________________ _
13. Shillf'. ehocolat e- hrown. $Rndy; gmdf's; to
td\II 1)' _______ ___________ . _______ _
12. (Obocolute-hrown, th:n bc>(hh,'<l; t(l-
enJly mlltsln" lind f(lrm-, • vromJ-
nent tee1er.. "!pple mnrket) nillt
laminate·tJ: pblll,\' zon{"8_. ________ _
ll.- 8ha.le. chocolate-brown. Mnd,., Plh.onQ("(lulII,
... ·lth thin !r('tiUlIJ nnd be-dj; ot lort IlImhlhlne:
In uJlpcr port contnln. thin (If Ihilly
InDd8toue ______ _________ .,, __ ____________ _
10, Snnd.t01w. light t:rt"('Ui8h g,'NY. (lInt)', nn(>
with A!oI)'llllnet:rie
ripple DlorkH i It IClIJht benrh _____ _
9. 81101(>. f'hocnlnte--browD. I! U D d)"; ('Outllins
nlmndac.t thin bc<ls ot .huly IUlIlda1une thnl
"'n.thel"S' I'D thin d11pt;. mxl plnty stnbs;
£orln!4 gentle cOlindAd slope in "'hleh m ICIl-
t.'oous n1RleriRI itl. Mbuntlant ___________ , __
8. Sand!ltODt, brown, ",ith thin IICbt·grn)' bunda,
pln1)', "'in, thin bed. or IIb.le bet"'ee-n
It.rder lnycrI. ,"pry ril)ple
mnrked; .top In.YN' Tn), hard nnd Ilohby____
io Sh.le. cbocolnteo-brown, ttllDdy, l\·lth thIn yeUow
Inll brown ()f HHndstone- (bat muke
.l"ht 'bGnches____________________________ r,G
G_ Sandstone. 1Igbt 1<"How. rfii un oUI·
crO[). verr JIOB!JlItve, hord: projecting
"'.11 .. _________ ___________________________ _ CI(l
5. SAndtdoo(". light. yellow, mnSlllh'('; wenl"bf'N In
thin (llnte8; grfldn to "billy anntbtlone:
(orinI' bfUch___________ __ _____ _____________ 12
.c. Shale. ("bol'Ollte-bro,,·n. BUi,(ly. mlcacroui_____ 40
So Snndfttont, lIJ;bl ft'l1ow, locn;11
(In outcrop, locnll,. Into
s1,oly. or thln·bf!dd(>c! IIl1ndstvne; forms
J1r()IDme.nt biolith __________ _______________ 1&0
2, Sand_tone, yellow. \'('r1 IIIhnl1: 10
.Nnd, shnle _____ _________________________ 5
1, Snndltone., ,cllo,..·. (",!("nre-on&, mnio-
.lvE' but tllfnl)' I.rulnnte ..... willi rIpple bed·
(ling. ,ra<'IK to .bll), IdDd8t(jfl("; t.r1O,..'!<! - __ ..
(Top of Kllbnb UJJK'8toue 3:5 tt'et Of

Practically 311 the bed. in th. foregoing secti?n
thicken or thin along the strike, and some of them diS-
appear within .... Iatilroly short e1i.bnees_ The col.or
<Iillisiolls ':lre persistent and appe:tr to follow defimte
1J<,dding planes_ The uppermost feet IS chocolate-
brown, whereas, with the .xception of about 40 feet,
the lower 1110 fe"t i.light creamy yellow. Some of the
sandstones included in the lower division sre
pi n leish red.
8cotif.ln J1ICa8vrt:tl jUdt ',-'elfl o( teller,; lturef TwUI
(Orl.'C" RI1.-er) road e,"or. t"II.",o-ft tMOutlA. elf".-0", ca.'
.ide v( (Jirr.lD Olitr". Garff,el' Oa.nJ.u. Utol&.
lllo.'ll.-arf!d by (t;1)'OJOnd C. lIO<)1'el
ShInarump eona;II1III CfRte--
7, S8Ddhtooc, bIuiijh grAy, III plDl'C:i hluck trow
conta!ned bitumens. lIHl.iS."I[ye. mediullI to
gl'lliIlPll .. ___ ___________________ __ _
lCocutt:opi forrllurll)u-
0, Shot p-, 111111'0011 to chocolntc·brI)WD, vcry
lQJudy. 111'111 tbln 1)laty
In .Io(ll' .. ________________ _ .. ______________ 1.0
6. SnnlJHtone. gny, WeMhcf'lulC bl'o?"n, In beds
2 to 6 Incllefl thki. .c{Jll1'llteu \jy S to 12
hlf!lh!'8 of lOUlldy ________ .. 9
,f, Sbnlc, yellow' uud .. nq. Mndy: sIOll(!;
obout :!8 fr et obO"e biL<;e • bed ol bard
shal y, ,'cr)" C. IClifCOWI fine 'I'alned 1;:1'0)'-
brown UpllC'Clrl_________________ !)O
3, ShMlc-, IIl1ht J'GnOW, (rade'/' Into
al.eiyw4Iublt.I.1f1Q and loft liundtdonc: woo. th-
t'\"!j I.UUl'.'tlr"Cl, ClJlCClully upper 10 to 2(J
whleb I. ft rLm rock: (he Dud-
stollC1f nl'e 5Cltnmted wlth on Il[;d ore In
(lort staIned bllcll: _____ _______ .., __________ 00
e. StlndMtOl'M!. J1hlk lIud' brown; Crude'A tl1 .nd¥
!<lhftle: bfldtllllC verT trre(Ulnr. due "rained •
lI:lt!1 of tbe dh'lslor. rather Dlrutilve, perts
10 ",rry thin bed .. l'DrlnhkL, __________ :..___ 118
1. EamtHtone; Ullper part brown. :'lDrd, limy;
lo,.,,,r JRlrt 8"n.!1, lOn, tmd aomewbut
------- --- -- ------------__ ___ ____ ___ 8
'1'ot:.11 11oenkl1pl tOl'llllltloll __ _________ __ _
Pm'whi t) ';
K"lbob nml'Slouc,
In generlll the Moenkopi shown in this
section i. not dift'e .... nt from that in ex-
posures f .. rth .. r west, except that the upper part of
the fornmtiolJ seelllS to be somewhat less resistant to
crosion and IIniforlll!y makes slopes, and that tbe
lower pArt inclucle'S massive S&Jldstoncs, some of which
01" strongly p<tmlifer0us.
Sc.:t.imt. o{ JiO(,H''t>pi /ONtUJtl.ot, mCtlS1tre4 iJl. /10"'" Of
Tile Pt'.""', .o'·"oIt't.t o( WlJ.{I'onboz ..Ve,1a, Circle OU"" O (U"
/10114 Couly. UI.,.
Tl'illSSh: :

Shi.,arullll). (.'olls1omerate ________________________ G0-1oo
finn lI,r.
MOf"ukolll fl.)rmoti,lU_
10, mllfdon. smutty: contains 1Il3UY
Ilfl.Pl!l·-tbin tl)
tn tWlk!r 15 t('eL_____ ___________ M
Tr ia...slc---COnti uued.
Moenkopi COl'm;ltlon-(;Olttiuued, Peet
9. S.a.!lristone, yellow, lloll gru iue,1. soft ;
er$ ratber sbrtly ______ _____________ ___ .. - 3
8. Shale, marooo, witb thin shnly sandl;tonp._.... 3g
I, Sondstone, bull, brown, and groy ; Rue
.:mined, thin bcddOO, iu luyers to .:I Incbes
tJ,lel< ____ . ____ .. ________________________ - S
6. Shale, ,.eUt)"'Jsb brown, saody ___________ .... 2t
5, pink to maroon, thIn bedded.
with It tew loyers ss Inu(!b AS 16
Inches in ot Intervols; hIler-
bedded wIth 'sbale, T"Cry sancy: upper [lQ,rt
yelJow·bl'OW IL .. ________________ ,_______ _ _ 48
-I, SalUh;touc, {;,l'g1 dnd lI.ght pb.1r., Une
lund i weotheu ,brown Rnd! KrQY', til
beds 2 ioche8' tQ 1 foot tbil!k, but ill
b('(!Ij. ollpe<lr v.ery uIDSI:\h'e. u.pper
vort :,uore I'eddhfb thnn lower; ord lllorilJf
well exposed ___________________________ tl
3. Snndstolle, red, 'With tbln sandy shale 1::tter-
bedded. mediunt to IDo.@sil'e beddlng______ 31
2. Sund:=toue, light brown ODd yellow to pink,
,"cry thin bz.dded, platy. abundant l1pp1e
marks; grades locally to shu Ie;
reddlsb brown; larlns slopes_____________ •
1. Shale, pink to red, sand,.; coutnins thin
beds of platy sandstone; went]len in
'1'ot:'l1 l(ookopl tOl'matJoIL____________ :tool
Kalbnb IIm .. toue.
The diminished thickness of the Moenkopi in the
region of The Pe.ks appeal's to be due to a decl'ease ill
thickness of the upper chooolate-colored zone. This
decrease is accompanied by a corresp<>i:J.ding ,incl'ease in
the thickness of the massive ShiDlll'ump conglomerate,
t<, which the presel'vation of the outliers of the Shin.-
rump called The Peaks is partly due.
In the absence of satisfactory faunal evidence tho
uge of the J..loonkopi formation in the Kaibob region
can not b'l directly determined. Conelntion with the
type Moenkopi of the Little Coloru.do Valley, Ariz., is
bosed on lithologic character and posi.
tion_ The formation lies between unmistakable
Kaibnb lime.tone and Shin,u'ump conglomerote, from
which it is sepal'1lwd by evident unconformities_
There is no doubt thot the 0f Lees Ferry,
Kaibal! Gulch, Saud Wash, and the Circle Cliffs is
part of " widely extended formation thut lies at the
bose of the Triassic'.
In the older geologic literoture 6f the pillteau
inee Il!;eries of cllOcolate-colored shales 'Was
as the lower di,-ision 01 the "Shinarump group,"
whiclt WM assigned to the Triassic. To eq\livatent
strata in the Painted Desert 'Ward" applied the
.. Word, L. p ,. Siotu. of the lIe.o2olc a( tbf: St:ltf:S;
0, S. Ceo!. lflJu . .f9, pt. 1. pp. 19-19, Itl(K;.
term Moenkopi formation ILlld described ils constitu-
ent members in these genet'al te,'m": "It is ' -cry prob-
able tllat the lo,ve,r , portion of the Moenkopi beds
belon!!S to t,he Permian_" To pel'mit comparison based
o ,
on measured sections the Moenkopi was redefined by
Gregory," Rnd its featUl'es as shown in the Litlle
Colorado Valley, the San Juan V:llley, ond the Defi-
ance Plateau were descdbed in some detail. The
Moenkopi of southwestern Utuh is discu,;,<;ed by Ree-
.ide and Bassler," who found that west of the KRibab
Platea.u the Moenkopi n thickness llluch gt'eate,'
thun ut the type locality and is d"'isible into five per-
sistent members, togethe,' with n discontinuous ""it at
the base of the formation, ns follows: '
(From and
8. Upper red boos; brick-red. (It!cp red. and bNWU
abate nod sandstone: locl1l1y mo@sh'e bedli uC
yellow medluul-gL'nloed uDdstone_____________ 473:t
6. Sbunbkalb shnle me-wOOr; grQy to white $.ml.!y
,hnle and soft saoo8toDe with some lliuk IOrei'S
nod much gypsum ___________________________ 360-030
... Middle- rcd IJlmllur to No. 2.
3. Virgin timetltone member; eo.:art hr )"('!Uot\'
acpnrit(>d by yellow and red calcarOOM _ _

1. ltock CnnyoQ eonstoDlp.rt1te at
some JocnIiUes) : no ot sbah!, lime·
!'toDe, 1Q'P8um, C()ngloUlcrlt e ot 't mestoue lind
cbert boulden, and tl minor amoullt ot 9O.1ld-

In the Virgin River Valley the Rock Cunyon con-
glomerate and the Virgin limestone ,!uembe,' are char-
acterized by a ma"ine fauna of Lowe,' Trinssic age,
A. me.snred by Lee," shale and f06Sili fHOUS lime-
stone O<juinlent to tho V:irgin member attain a thick-
ness of feet near Cedar City, and Lonll'<ell .. de-
scribe<! lower half of 1,200 to 1,600 feet of
kopi in the Muddy Mountain • • s marine limestone,
In the Spring MOllnt.iDs of Nevada the mlldn. por-
tion of the Moenkopi is about 000 feet thick
Of the subdivisions established by Reeside Ind
Bassle,' the Rock Canyon conglomerate appears 10 be
represented by tbe assemblage of miscellaneous mate-
rills that is immediately associated with th6 Kaibab-
Moenkopi unconformity at most localities in Utah,
Arizonl, and Nevada, A basal cong,lomerate, com-
posed largely of fragments derived f,'Om the
:1IGr.r1. g. E., or lM ND'·.jO U. GHI. :lor",
Pr'Ol'. Paptr H. pp. !3-31, 11»1T.
-leesId., I. B .• ir .. .. 4 B ... Strulbcnphk II«tloos In
Utd end DOrU.watena oltlzoa.: C. S. Gool. 'w ... u
Prof. Paper 121, pp.. liO-t!,
• LN. W. 'r. , 7_ 'trOD Cou.t1 coOl tid •• l"t.b: t:. 8. c.ot.
hlL IHI, p. 302, 1 to1 .
• C ..... Geo1otJT 01 thoR lluddr )(o .... .. St!"' . : ....
1000t. Bel.. Gttt 1IC!.r., ,·ot. I, p • .a8. 1021: U. S. S,*n'I!S Bull. mA.
pp. (3-(j'2,
Kaibdb, lIlArk. the base of the J[()('llkopi at Lee.
Ferry, An attenuated rep,,,sentlltive of the Vi ...
limest.one membe,' which is included in a section meas-
ured at Sand W3sh and l\ thill uufossiliferous lime-
stone at Lees' Fel'l)' may be _qui-"slout., The Shnab-
kaib member hns been tr.<-ad f,'om the Kanllb V Illey
to the PaJ'ia Ri"e!', (See pI. 7, A,) East of the Pari a
and south of Glen Canyon detailed correlation ,,-ith
the beds ch.\"lC,teristic of the Moenkopi of the Vit'gin
Ri,'er Valle," i. difficult; members thllt Me pl'Ominent
in that ,".IIe\" are abaent a" nt leust in
this areR_ it is probable thftt the of
Kaiparowits region represents only a part of that pre-
in arcas farther west, I,ikewise detailed cor-
relotion of ."Wi visions in the Moenkopi at Le ... Ferry,
Sand Wa.h, 8ml the Cit'Cle Cliff. with beds of equiVll-
lent .ge eo.t of Glen Canyon can not be ntode with
In sections by Pllige a.long
the Colorado River lielo\V Caturnct Canyon the Moen-
kopi form.tion, which hRS a mninllllll thickness of
8:10 feet, indud •• till..,. distinct subdivisious. The
lower di \'ision, Ilbout 400 feet thick, con.i"r. of '''gu-
1 ... ly hOOded toed and maroon .. nd"tone and ... ndy
shale with u layc,' of g"ay conl(lome''1lte the baS<!,
The middle divi.ioll i. a coa''S. gray cross-bOOde,l
oAnd,toM a fe\\' iuches to 60 (eet thick.
Tbe lIpper tli>'i.ioll, which is limited at the tol' by on
erosional uncodormity, comprises 300 to 400 feet of
chocola.te.rolo,oed, red, and gr.y sandstone, Recellt
investigations of 'Reeside" and othe" indicate tbe
probability that only this upper di vision is Moenkopi
and that the underlying red shale and sandstone belong
ill the Permian_ l'he Crescent Creek section includes
• " few bands of dense gray limestone" 100 feot f!'olll
tho top, and calcareou.s .h.la is recorded at Trachyte
Creek and Twomilc Canyon, of tb. Colorudn
River the lI1assl ve ero ... -bedded sandstone exposed ill
the walls of uppe" Glen Canyon oontinues as a char-
acteristic feature of the Moenkopi and gi "05 to tha
formation all appearallco qnite unlike that in the Little
Colorado, Pari .. , Kftibab, And Virgin Valleys.
The detel'lllilldion of the Virgin limestone rnember
as of Lower T,iossic age, corresponding to the .:V:ceko-
Cera8 of Idaho, flJ1J the cOl'l'elation
by Gilluly .nd Reeside" of the Moenkopi of the San
' Rafael Swell with the Woodside, 111 .. ynes, and All-
, Irareh formations of the Uinta recog-
nizad a. I.ower Triassic-make it reasonable to as_ume
that the bed. Jllapped in the Kaiparowits region as
Uoenkopi are of that age, The heru. that conformably
underlia fossilifet'ou8 zone appear to belong
clearly to the same time interval, and they .,·e sepa-
I rated by a well-marked 'unconformity from under-
==-01111111. lII'oI. R • J. B .. jr., 01'. ct' .. pIli;.
lying Permian Kaibob In the.
ngion, when the ennly bedded Moenk?pl. not
conf.llin marine fossils but where smllior htho·
loj!'ic and st.ratigraphic r.l.tions art found, It seems
very probable that th ... rock;; corrcspolld In RI."I
.11O;,lrl b. referred .ecordingly to the Low.,. Tna ......
Near F,'uita, Wayne Connly, ('tall, fo .. ils \\'ere col:
I :tro from 8andy limestone beds in the MoenkopI.
fossil. wer .. identified by G, H. Gi,'ly R" follow",
Y)"Rl1na ft. 1q"I. toll'.
["t'UltomUJlolI'll' n. 111ft.
A .. rortelln? II).
llolopel? "1'. I Nntic..1>{.I.':ihs? t;Jl.
o,.,r r:v"Cltla!
The lowcr portion at least of tI,e Moenkopi exhibits
• ff'''IIIIlFitv of bedding and uniformity o( te"turc
.. lint t"Istrongly sugbrcst in R large of
wIlI.,r. A witllilrawal oi the sen, occ(,mpnDled by
mon or Jess crosion and the oocurreru:e of more 01'
II .... ,';Ilesp, .. ad continental oepooition, is indicllled
t,y Uw hilltn" in the Moonlwpi the' characler of
uPP"" beo. of the for'mahan In dIfferent part. 01
M'nth •• ,tern Utnh and the Xuvajo country. After
Moonkopi time there Wft, ,,'ide;pr .. d erosion, which
I'''rtly bcvded tho sofl Moenkopi st"aln Rnel in plnces
mrved (li9tincl e"osioll dlRnnel. in them, The sub-
>e'llIenUy deposited Shinarump .a very
widespreud thin veneer, which col'ers tlllS sur-
facc and fills its depressions. It op.pears that m the
(,'ircle ClilTs the erosion the Shinarump
epoch ellt deeply into the Moenkopi, rNno"ing all of
IIpper contincntal bed. laid down he"t.
After tbe deposition of the Moenkopi red beds there
.. as 9n inle""al of erosion th.t affected" very lorge
pu1 of the plllt$U couutry, ns is indicated by the
widcgprtad evidence of remov.1 of pal't. of the Moen-
kopi bed8, tb. beveling of lhese beds, the corvin!: of
... a.ion channels, al\d the very marked change in the
natllre of th. Iledimentation lhat p,'C'CC<led lnd- fol·
lowed the el1,sion.
overlying [If € and
whi •. h ron.t.itul., the Ollnle format.lOn.
The thot WRS originally described by
Powell" ;s the middle. member of his" Shinarump
group" h.8 boo.n noted by.nearly all work.
ers in the plateau province. .\ speCial study of this
uJlm;;,uRI formntlon wns made by Grcgory.3'J In New
, llexieo. Arizon,, ; Vtah, ono Nevada the exposures 01
In "'\'Prlll ports of the Cirrle Cliffs the study of the
rontact bootween the Moenkopi lnd Shinorump SllOWS
that the dip of the Moenkopi rocks is slightly dift'er-
ent from that of the Shinarump. The
nnd Coane grit of the Shinn rump extend mOre 01' leu
e\'enly .CI·OSS the sliglltly upturned and smootbly
lower lit\'atn. All trosional unconformit.y is
e.sily ,Iemonsbated, In very m.ny places erosion
r1umool. t.o 100 yards in width and 20 to 100 feet
in depth, carved in the Moenkopi bed., I .. e filled '"ith
t.he massive grit of the Shinarump, lind t·he abrupt
in tho choracter of materiftl nlong '.lntven SUl-.
fac ... . is t,·cry .. here characteristic. The Shinnrump
be considered a "basal conglomerate" for t,he
. the Sh'inlll'ump cllllj.!;lomet'nte Arc remarkably ahlre;
the beds exhibit the sume range of thickness, te.'(tu ... ,
and composition. RI1<1 at n'Arly .11 plAces form !'t.
sii't. nt. bem'hes bet wcen series of fri.ble shales. Th.
wpstel'ntuost outcrop of the Shinarump isin thcSpring
'Monntllins. lI.,·... From this area it may be trae""
ea.twur<l through the Muddy Mountains, along tilt
Vermilion Clift·s. .. OSS the Waterpocket Fold and
Glen Com'on to e.stern Utah, wbere it forms the
platenn ,,;mmit ·of Elk In ,the
region the Shinarump conglomerate IS represented m
sect.ians measured at L<>cs Ferry, at places n(,ar Pam,
and .t Ihe ('ircl. Cliffs. (See pp, 49, 00.) At Le"
Ferrv the 8hinnrUlHp consists of 45 feet ot much
bedd-;.a "el'\' lenticular conglomerate, and in·
cludes of Bnndston: of different textures. The
pebbles of qllurtz nnd quart.1.ite, as much as 2 inches in
diameter nre in contact with one anotber and also
arranged' as chains of pebbles embedded in sandstone.
Fossil wood is abundant; three logs more th.n fett
in length, one of them 2Y2 feet in diameter, Ilppear
neal' the top of the fo,' mation. At Sand Wash an,d
Kaibab Gulch. ,,·he .. e the Shinarmnp conglomerate is
30 to 80 feet ' thirk, large pebbles are rore and tb.
formation consists essentiallY of coa,'S. white cross'
conglome .. ate on,\ lenticular
togetbe .. with milch fo .. il wood. At the Circle Chfl -
the Shinllrllmp is present as gray, irregularly cl'06S'
beddod, mo""i"e sandstone, without prominent .
glomerate len.e. or abundant petrified wood, and ,I
differs much tl'om place to pla.ce in t,hickness, te3'ture,
bedding. composition, and color. West of the South
Fork of SiIl'er Creek the rock is
h· .. bedded massive sandstone which shows Olin
lamination and contllins bluish slU\dy shale in its
middle pnlt. Near The Peak. the body of the rock i$
fine'grninpd massi"r Sllndstone that beds
lenses of conglomerate. Most exposu.res of the Sh,n"
rump ill the Circle Clift's orea include lower
massil'e •• "dst.one bed, middle group of greemoh·
- Pow,"1I . J. W., i{l"port O'flo lbe of' tM elUlt4!rn portioD of tbe
Dinl. PI" 53, &..'-611. U. S. Oeol. ud GCOI'. Muncy 'tv, ..
211 cUT., lSi'.
• Gnlory. H. E. The Sblllu'UCDP (.Onc'amecat.: Am. Jour. Sd.:
4tb IIt'r .• \' 01. PI). t%t ....·US, 19U: Geology of the NAvajO eoLlaU.,.·
tJ. S. Geot. '.no·,,)" Pror. PaPt"l' 93. ["P. 8T-41. 1017.
.. Grc.'J:::or}'. n. K. 111.4 No\)lf. L. F ., op. rHo
gray lind on up,per nmssive cro.:iS-bedded snnd-
stone that forms Q l'eslstanf· ledgtl. ...
i. common. In to fossil wood some folia-
tion SUrfiet'S display impressiolls of fern.. Within
distnn<!CS of less than mile at the he.d, of Halls Creek
aud along Capitol Reef Wash the Shinarump ronge.
in thicklless fmrll less thau 30 feet to more than lOC!
feet alld in texture grades from medium.grained to
coarse sandsrone. Locally nea'r Pari .. and sOllth of
Fruita, in 'Vayne CoUllty, the Shinarump is wanting,
In general the te:lture of the Shinarump along the
W.terpocket Fold Rnd nOl,thward is finer grained thu/I
.t localities in' nodhel'J\ Arizonll, Pebbles th.t .:leeed
i inch in diameter are ral·e. The •• me condition prc·
nils in exposures about the Henry :\10ulltaill'.
BrcUOIl or SAi1Wrtllnp COtfgi!llll(JftJle at Wugo"boz
J/elQ J.h. Ute 9Lrt:le eli-trot. Oar(fcld CI},.nty, Ulf.l.lI
t:\{ellaure4 b,. IhrmllotJ c. M'Jorl.!l
CMule rormntlou :
9. Brown. blue, and IMllllle sault)' rornlll
Sblno.rump conglomerate:
8. Browo m,Ufslv.e bnrd ,·ll)LJh..'-lUnrk,!,() croAA-lw.dded
sandstone: weathers durt lJrowu II! large I1ngu-
lar blockg; gto.dnally thin
Irregulllr cross laminae; l"Om.tiu.'i "'yttt,1 h. ... vc:;;.
of which ft collection "",::IS obtnJoed____________
7. Ll;bt PDdy shale; \\'catbent 10
slope ____ . ______________ .. ________________ .. ___ 15
6. Yellovd:sh-brown platy rll)plc-markl.'d cross-bedded
Inndstonc, In beds 3 Inebe. to:2 teet thick. witb
Illternatlul' :iOft sandy f;hall! and sbal, !fsud-·
stone ___ ______________________ 8
5, LIGht ,recl1Lsb-blue SODdy ilh:.lle; conttlin.:4 thin
JelUi(":J Dnd of sbaly thnt grode
10cllUy to beds of ripple-marked Cl·o6S·lJedded
plat7 3ilnd9tooe I¥.! teet thick; this dlT"islou is:
crOBs-bedded ulso Oil la:'ger .scale. an.d thlll beds
of 1lI1Dd»tone slope ouliqul?ly dowowurd_______ l()
4. Yellow soft nlos"l"e 88oostone. with hard yellow-
hlb-brown c8llplng rim r.eck 1 toot thicL:, rather
eyenl., bedded ______ .... ________________________ 1
3. Light creenlsh-blue sandy IIhu.lc___________ ______ j
2. Salt m41uive, trre:ularly be<ld.ed seol1atone, light
creamy yellow to nearly whlte, locally with
browD llotches 011 weo.tbel'l!d surtno.· ____ .. _____ S-J
ToLaI ShlnaruJ:,lp oollgluntel'l:lte______________ O".l
1. Cboeolnte·brown sandstone lind $iudy stlllll! i
forma slope.
!he 1ge of the Shinarump conglomemte is deter-
mmed chiefly by its stratigraphic position. It lies
between the Lowet TI·ia.'lSic Moenkopi formation .nd
tbe Upper Triassic Chinl. formation. Fossil conifer-
Ous wOO</ of species characteristic of the Chinle is
Ihundont. Frogmentsof f06sil cycads from the are ..
nOl1heast of Wagonbox Mesa (bed S in section above)
are described by Bel'l'Y" as Ottna:m,itea p()uvJili,
IlttT1. E. W., C,cad. Iu tbe Sbto4rU1811 t!Qblj:!dQlentt.;! oi Southo!:ru
It: WublllgtQft ." cad. Sci. Juor .• Nt. 11, pp. :JO:t--=Jf)1.
., identi"al with what Font.ine called Zall;;tes powdU
from Auiquiu,"
As defined by O"'gory," the Chill Ie formation in-
cludes tire gmup of shales, "marIo," thin soft ."nd.
, slones, fi/ld Iilllestonc conglomerates lying between tho
Shin.r-ump conglomerate and tire Wingate sandstone.
This interesting Dssemblage of stru.lr. hns been !I'aced
froll) the Dutton Plateau, N. DerOSS the Nanrio
conntry to Lees Ferry, and along the Vermilion
Cliffs into southwestern Utah. reappears in tire
Muddy MOlliltnillS ,:1nd Spr'ing MOl/ntain, Ne,'., west
01 wlrich no "utcrops have been discQvered. The
fot'lIIation is .xposed in uppe,' Glen Canyon, at the
S.n Rllfael Swell, and eastward to Orand Junction,
Along the S .. n J uall Vlllley it may he tmeed wcll into
Colorndo, Tile Benrs EDts and 'Vooden ShOt) BUI tes,
the culmin.ting pOints of Elk Ridge in Sun Juan
County, Utah, 'H'e erosion remnant·. of Clunle shales
I and sandstones.
Throughout most of thc Kaiparowits region the
formation is concealed by younger rocks, but defm'llla-
tion of the beds along the Eeho Cliffs, the Eust K.ib.b
monocline, und the W.terpocket, Fold has perniitted
slrenIDs to cut deeply illto the ovol'lying beds and tn
e"pose ill sOlllil places p,ll·t and in other places all of
the Chinle. The Chinle is ",ell on botb
sides of Ihe Color'>ldo River at Lees Fel'ry; it fOTlns
the borders of the bllsill in which the old village of
Poria is placed; it is '''posed in Glen C>lnyon below
the mOllth of Hulls CI1lCk; and and partial
I sectiolls nrc revl!nled in canyons cut into the western
flank of the Water'pocket Fold between the Escalante
Rivel' olld the north .-irn of tho Circle Cliffs.
Reeol'ds show that the Chinle is thickest in not'lh-
c"stern 1\.rizon. and southwestern lhalr. At its type
.. locality, the Chinle VRlley, 1,182 feet of .trato ex-
i posed. In the Lees Feny region measurements of
400, ;')20, 980, .nd 1,000+ feet .. ro reported, and at
Virgin City It section includes 996 feet. In south-
enstern Utah nreasnred sections give 592 feet in Pari ..
Volley, 414 to 593 feet along the Wlltel'pocket Fold,
320 .to 393 feet in upper Glen Canyon, afld 830 feet
in the San Juan Canyon. Some of the val'iation hr'
measurements, especially at Lees Ferry, ,·.sult. from
difTerences of opinion regarding the division to he,
.. tablislred bet"'een the Chinle Ind the Wingnte, but
the evidence show. that the formation is thinner ill
Ihe K.iparowits region than in .. reas to the south-
east and .. est. How lUuch this thinning is due to
t.:I Grel((t[Y. I{. E.. d ttto! NIl'·"Jo couatry: U. H. GI!UI. SUn'!.!,
pruf. \1:1. II. "2. 1:)1 T.
origi".1 thickness ond ho,,- mUl'h to 1110 ero-
,ion thot Jlreceded the deposition of t-he GI.n Canyon
grouJl of be determine-d.
The of the Chinle formation in ore3>
tlll.I bord.r the Kaiparowito region is shown in sec-
l.ion. moasured by Longwell" in upper Glen Canyon,
by Gregory" in Ihe Xav8iQ country, by in
the San JUln CAnyon, and by R<!e><ide_ and Bassler"
in the Virgin River Valley, Fur Ill<' }(nil'al'o"'it< re-
_ /.(ioll )foore" II." published ",-",-tion. ITll'o'III'"d .t the
head of Holl. Creek Ind in the Circle elill',. Tho fol-
lowing additionol are typical of the Chinle
exposur •• b.t,,'ocn the Grund Canyon Ind the -Woter-
IHJ('ket Fold:
SlY'tiMl fJf lof('(''' pa,., fJ! Oldrut: fCL7'111(JlifAt QJI ,fllf' I'i.l(' r4 Poria
Hi l1(I' G' Lee. I'f.TYf/
11ft'Il"'lrf'. 'J' UeMri Fo. (;!"t·.Iu,..y J
Clllnh.- funDI thIn : Fel't
21. 8l1ndlltoDr, HJ(bt red and butr. t'irl(' eV'f'n
00 minute 8Cllle, tn bed:oo 10 10
.. 0 ril!'@t thick; eXlends up\\'ord .H mun)""
l'n'P.Il!5·heddttt sondstone tv the foP c., tbf' ('un·
'UD "·ull.
!.1" ghale Dod nndstoD8. rOO D:nU ,rar. 11) II·
tl'nRl1o" of ahule & Int'bl't' to C
feet thick nnd _odatODC tK>ds ] 10 G if'E"t
rbtl')(; u.ne'\eDly bedded; It!} more nr
(·roa. ...... b(·(ltIed: ,'ontain or riot-
' .. ned (.'lIIY balls: ft!'W lClurhm bOIlP
il'luonC'nb: 90fDe to:I.:tlon .'Jr!lu·es rlpr,l(>
n.nrkC'd AIl(1 fi:un boke.L _______ ____ __ ______ _ 110
m. I!'I'Rll'. dirk rcu. thin. 0. 1 ... -'1 I'(>(.U" : !'t.mE.-
rulilition acrtncea r1pple mol"ked_____________ 1
8:fI IId1'l (I"P, light f\>U, Imhrlcntl ... l. r .. ll'lN!oUl;: :
t"(fIltoiu .. trC tnim, shinn qtUlrl1 rtebbles,
lind l'r)'tllnll1 of ;)'pt;unL ___ .. ______ .... ________ 2
11. bhf'I, I.,n.l)', f>ftlcnreou. ... ________ __ . __ ___ _
]6. I'rcpu.whlh . .." __
Hi. Sh"ll" r{'d "utl '"'1 i ftj tbln ns
\\,1\.)'; rll.p)e lJ,lo.rkrd ______ _
H. Umear;tofk' nnd lIU1l'8toilC
_feN) ; ('01t(,ft'tlOunry limrl't{lne pphblC's 1n
Plght k>nllcuJar hetls .. in('h("ol ft\ :1 rf'el thick:
("Ontain", hurtan 1.1Ilb' w«":ttbt'rt.'tl 11llCl .Ilnk
.DOI',-" lhoundJl___________ ____ ________ _____ _ !!2
13. ... Lnllded." wbll(' Iliid brown. It-n-
titular. friable ..
12. ttblile and
":nl)': t'cntllhl1 0( lilnO'tODc t'On,glolU'
tonU. alld 0( nllc·grtttned brown and
""nih) Jl('triR,,,:l \\'0011 __ _ .. ________ _____ ___ __ __ 30
Chinle formal iN\---colJduued.
ll . Ljmestooe l'Onglmoerate, brown j pebble.s size or
peGs cemented by lime nnd IrOL1 ____________ _
10. Shnle. nod ODd green, lentk'Ulor; wenlbcl"8 as
., DI"I'." ________ ____ ______________ ______ _
J..ImetStone conglomerate, brown. nodular; coo-
talns Sl\urion bonf'8 Ind some peQided Wood __ ..
S. Shale, pm'pie-green, .. ndY'. CtllCtlr{>()u8 i CODta.iQII.
J1mesto'ne pellets.. Quartz nnd
of loosely cemented ___ ______ ____ _
7. Limetttoue conglomerat e, brown; we-otbers Into
concretlonnry Dodules ______ ___ ____________ ..
6, Shale and" mnrl" like No, ________________ _
5, brown tine gra ined; ce-
mentcd wUb lilUe and lron ___ _____________ _
4. Sbare, brightly colored, Yl"'lIow, greell, Invender,
pUl')lle, red, plDk, V">'. btue, nDd ",bit.;
In belldlIlG'. composition, nnd texture;
BI Sil'rles of gnd,. calcareous shale. calcareous
and impure Includes
many IeIl!H of Jimestol)e conglomerate. tlort
ttnn<bstolle, and dlY mud balls. also baIls of
qUArta pebble. of quart", chalcedony.
Itnd iron..;tone, Rnd 'reins Dud sc;1ttered
l'I'Y8tJlt:s or lr(>trLOed wo()\l occurs 81
c-b!ptL, bt(J('ks. aB(l lop; n few boucs (Iud teetb
flf tiAurion. ana brtl}ccn U11i<) shell.: wcnthen
Inlo rouud«'" knolls \\' Ub spongy powdery lur·

fa<..'C, 100'1illly called wl\rL __ ________________ GI
3. dull grlly-bl'oWII, lrl'Cbrull1rly b"ntled
with block strenks; 1t'lIti('n!a.r;
600 grHin(>d; weak\)' Cf!IDcnted wltb Llme____ 23
2. Sb'll<" pluk. purple, .blue-green, l'ed..
('()Dtaim' ogC'(.'glH(:S 0'( Mnd. JUllltMI of blue-
grcf'n nUll 'bln lenses of ct:oss·bedded
lumili:ton(t: pl'e6Cnt us thin !illort beds,
V(,lll&. ond dt
trtchcd cl'ystnlsj wcathers to
.. IUllr] .. ,.._" ___ _____ ______ _____________ ____ 10
1. Shnll', ve-rY thiD bellded, fiod cal·
f"IU' eoUIi: lfQlDC tollatlon surfaces liard
ulld riI'ple marked ______________ _
Shlnarnmp C"onglom("flit(' : ('{Intnlntllogs tbat 'exceed SO feet ia
OenCTalir:c tI .('CI;ent t., (JhJ,u" fo",v,lkm ! mile. wett 01 Part.
by Hl"t'bfrt F.. Gr(·"ol's1
Sundllotone. uf G Callyorl group.
Chinle formatlOD:
ri , Sundltooe And Ilreoaceous .bale, 11gbt «reeD·
whit(- IIn.'1 str8tu 2 incbel to' a
thklt. Yt'fY lrrt'C'111ul'l,. bedded: tine grnlDoo; all
l'ul('arooa.; C{lotnius IUllnS' lensel ()t mud ftuk.es
and Ih.nel!o1one nt,o stru.,. of
lllmoll qunrtz Pt'bblC'lIJ: weRtbel'1 into mesas ond
boz·headed canvnn,
-t, SbBlc Ind .. mari."
mh'oreouli; lueludes moo)' lenses DC concretloo.·
, 1I1'X cnrlg:olrtera te, IOLOe lenses of
.'Iro'''1) Imbrk:nted 80lLdKtOoe. and Etrlug-en of
quora graiu.; about SO feet tbe top oe·
('or thIn of IY()I;Um. Dnd 00 feet from tile
bott'bm mueb J)etr1fted "'ood i 'Weathet'S into
Toundt"d monad, _________________________ --__
:billie (ormfl t i() lI-Conlinul.' tl.
<.: 3. Soodl'toue. white and Im« ; € gen('rnlly
in ,WO seI'iel:l (It b('ds SE'I'"T1ll ed by slmle lu)'ers;
eorltainS two lenses of dark-green fihn E:l.ml·
.tone and mODy Jell$f.'i; of quurtzite pebbles____ 42
2. variega ted. \' o1'lnllt in eomposldoD,
lind stntUticutioll: wl'nthel'R like 4. 6;:;
1. SlllldHtolte. brown, I.u bells 1 to 6 (eet tbiele.
ra tE' d by of a-t;,.r1l1i\{'efIUS UIH1
conlaioS grPEuru ti na lilll'-! -
::>1{lII(' _____ _ __ ____ --------- - - 60
ToWI elllol!! fOrInntlNL_____ ________ _______ (;!},.2
Sbinarump Cl'IIg;ODlt'l'aU.'.
SrcliOlt. of ('Jai»le fcrrt'llat ·iF./li (011 e(I"t sMv ()t Cirdc. (.'fitrs. lIorlk·
CU.:JI 01 WflU0r/OO:r
p{<."fU1urcd b)' Roymond C. )loorel
Wingate roIH.i:)tOnC':
22. Sandstone, brown, tine grnill('d.
oc'(lt:!oo. prolOinently jolnt(>d,
Cbtl1!e fornmtioll:
21, SbiLte. light bluisb. calcoTI!(ms, weatlu:l' iug in
,lol,Je; up[Jl'r part staJned pnrlJle, cspedtllly
.. joInt I.lnoe!, prob<lbly Oil account of pre-
Wingate- \t'eothering _________________________
20, Limestone congloruerl} te, ltl"ht s;:reeulab-bluc ruas-
tin: layer, or of limestone,
qutrlE., jO!t.ller, uod Mild' In " lime matttx ____ 1-2
)0. ShutE', lIght blub:i b. ('IHt1n'(;'oUJii; weoth{'rs , III
alope________________________________________ 31
18. Limestone, bard, nodular, mnNJ:ivl', light blu1!ih
grC€:n, mottled \'\'Itll light purple: fOl'lI1S pro-
Jecting lod;;o______ __________________________ 5
17. Sbalc, ligbt b:ne, C'nlcoreous; grades lnto Ume-
storle above and below; Corms sloJ>C__ ________ 87
16. Limestone, hord, Ilodula.r, massivE'. Hgbt
treeu, mottled with l1ght purp:e; forw$
llpper pa,rt conulinli n04!ules ot agate·
like filot _____________ . _____________________ 6
IG. Lt.mestou.e, impure, Ugbt gretmlsb LIne, with
streoks aDd motUin, ot liGht purple: bard but
breaks readily into Irresulnr (rngmeub§; crops
out in sl(lp_e but grAdes without marked: change
into ledge-torming beds, __ • _____________ _ .____ )t)
H. Li mestone, Ugbt blue, mottled with light pUl1l1e ;
upper port l:t hurd lind mnssi\'C_____________ G
13. Sbale, I1tbt bluish, colcoreous, wenthe-rs 10
slopo_______________________________________ .7
]2. Shale. Ugbt yellowlslt brown. c31coreo'ut! i becomcs
Mnd), In upper port Rnd grades into thinly
laminated sort clllcareous sllnd!:ltone; upper
pOrt ('hODges locally to bard mass ive
bedded sandstone 10 feet In great,est tblck-
BCSS _______________________________________ 26
U. Sondtitooe, I1gbt brown, medium to
coonsc graincd, "ery hard, massh'e, Ulugcn·
Ua)ly cross-bedded i brealts down 1n Jurce ltn·
rulor blocks and 1Ji'efltheJ's In thin plRty t mg·
ments' contnlns mucb ('otlrre crystnlUoc ent·
cite be't"'een Lbe grotns; locally eon,glomeratic
and contaws Srret;ulat beds and )eUSei, a:il
mucb as 1 % (eet thIck, o,t 10ft purplish s haly
conglomernte ,,-jtb pebbles thrce--fourths iocb
or Jess In diameter, composed' ot fine
limy sund1:itone; as a It'dgc whlcb
tblns locnlly to te. t___________ ___________ 22
Chinle {onollll<UI-(;(.utiuued, F't-tt
10, Shl11e, eomlry-yellow at h:lse. grud:lIg Ur1wRrd
to ligbl l'renlI\)' Inn·ndeT. light red. nod
lJrown ; 3rb,-ilJoCCQua in lower porlioD: be-
CODll'8 JD(Tell.!ilnbly culcareouJ:I upword: tbe
mtddle and lll'f..e.r partl coutllin trregulol' nol.l·
lind lilyers (It impure limestone. Il\uttlco.
grf'enish blue And la velldl'r: the \lPPCI'
3 fet't npl)Cnrs loeftlly as u mosah'c nodulor tw-
11lIf(' thIs zone wenthe1'8 os n slopC_ Co,j
!', Slimistone, dark bl"OWh. llle<lluJn to (onrse grntncd,
crumbly, mil."l\ceous.. calcareous, eroS$.-
hCtldl!(l: wenthc,r!t hI roundt'd 6U1'-
fnet's or t(J 10nse tmntL_______________ 2'i
K S:nHJstonc. d:trk brown, Ulcrllnm grnlned, bud,
l'ross-bed!led, UltlliSi'fe: conto Ins tblll
und lensC!i ot CtlDgJOlllcrute to wbleh some of
the "[l{'bblcs arc 1-% Inchew 111 tll8wetcr; wcolh·
e.nl in IQrhe IIngular bloeD, wblcb dl siutccrate
along platy crosl'; beds: forJDS a pro'nJinent
ledge _______________ .:. _____________________ 4-6
T, Sbale. Innd:r. purplJsh to b"own: ••
.Iope_______________________________________ 24
G. SonllstollfCl
tlark brown, thlnl), lo.mliluted 10 ir·
reb"Ulllr tuned lines duo to rillple marking; .
t!!.Jlludnllt mk'1l along pItt nell ; fOl'ruS
bfont.'IL _____ ______ ._________ _____ __________ :;
G, Sbillc. sundy, pUl'ple to brown; wcutbcflJ In
ronndl-d !:41or.c ___ , ____ ___________ __________ 29
·1, Limestone. tlark t!ol'th,. brown, Impure, demit!;
HboW's fine structnre rompolred oC wlnute
crystols on wentbc.I'c(] l:iLUrfnct's; wcnthfH'8
1n Irregulat' nJld roun(led block!i ____________ 1-11,.6
3. SholE', blue- to porille. sandy: WCftlhcTIS In sloVO__ 2G
2. Llmestune, brown. \'ery f(' rrngll1otls, hu(l: break.!!
into Irrec"Ulnr chat r(l l:t('mblc ruugh
slag; contains Im't' rtl'brotc fosalla and trot:-
ments ot sl11c1ficft wood _____________________ )-2
I , 8bnl£', dark bro\\·n :It base; gl'ndejl; to 011
in mtddle nnd to blue and light blUI$h gra)'
in ll('pcr Plut, stlndy; \\'puth('rs in rOl1utit'd
ond bodlnntl"__________ ______________ s,'l
Total ChInle formntlnn __________ ____ _____ noo
Shinarump t'ODglomel'ftte,
BeaHon of CMnl.e fOl'1n.allon. 1<'4 «.,., CaJItCf'No tr/.l)utarll (If SiI·'C-fl'
Farrs Creek In'lIt of Wa,uol .. lJl);l'I .Mesa
1}lI!IIJJ u\!tJ by Hl'I'bcrt .. Grl!'llor)'}
Wingate sandstone.
Cblnle formation:
27. Sandstone eongloUlHrIltl!, In\'Clldcr (IUd
bluc, mouled red; 'ot nggrcgntes of
sand, mud bolb , (>(.'llets ot limestone, and
Khort. (blCk Jensf8 ot dark-red tobulc; friable:
uPfJC'r part mucb oxldlv.ed __________ _______ _
26. cooglomerate. cray'grcen and gTecn-
blue: coos.ist!£ ot pchble8 alUI nggl'l'gnte8 of
lime-staDe ( 95 J1Cf l'E'Ot). a.nd quartz ond iron-
t-ltont: (5 Pf'r cent) thnl ronj:e In size from tbnt
ot pellS to pebbles ns much 88 ) Inch In dlnUl-
cte.r, cemeoted by Ineludes q few leDI!C8
ot firm, dcnse P-oY-gt"L'en Ih:nestone; formll
resistant bcDCb _____ - ---- --- -------
25, Shale and sbaly Modstone, roo ruu.i - 'Purple;
eOlludns: a few strIngers nnd lIdo ICDiI(."1; ot
limestone l'Onglomeratc; cnlcoreuus; weathers
ill rninlnture t'ilnyons ___ ____ ______ _
Chinle forwQtJon-ContinlWtl.
24. Slnct.tOM, Hs;bt red, bJ"llWO, uud
Imbr(,coted; rf-ieOtlaU, • lieries of leo.iM about
1 Incll: thick tllat overlap ID &I tlilttlr Irregu·
la r 1Hooner ___________ --._ --.• - ------,..- - -. ---
Xl Llmntoae eonlll)menre (SO per cent). bhulh
.reen. pay •• :ul m"ttled. Ind (40 per
Cleat). red Iud bro1\-o, Irregulorll iDterlcuved:
llme&toae oolJiji!lts ot gntenh!h flattened .... ilI8.
Dlld ,,'lUI It are ot mud:
we.then luto • rova;b kllobby _____ _
22. Shale, mottled red. Inudef", Jl'1'ee1JiM bl_:
grldes jnt() 23 ___________________ .. _____ _
21. Llnl(. .. tvDe, ,;reen Rnd gnay. ul"Htn!. deu*!; lu-
tludCli 1I\-1Odeti 0( Cltlclle «)'*taI8;
fnrms b£loch. ______ . _____ • ___ ___ ___ • __ ._ •• ___ _
20. Sbate, red Dull lootHed, (''AltIfOOU'; grades
luto 21 gad 19 _______________________ _
to, UDtcatone conglOlUCrate. apaofEJed grftd. red.
la\·e .... "lid blue; htdadei calctU1WUIf mud
bulls natt .cg:reglttell ot enIdt\! _____ _
18. Shale, rellow-red, ('"IllcareoDlJ. I@Dtit.,lar. snll;
w8\Uhen tu rOllluJed ______ . ____ _____ _
17. lJlUeJCtlllle cungtollM!r.le, Ter, b.ud
.ad lkmRO: ,Jebblea or and
j ·fllm .. OO .... ·h _________________________ _
10. Shllit! and "!lUlrt." brlJ(htl, colored, vredolJli-
IHIII( tOile. yelldw Mild nMl, with
and patch or I1U'1J',", IP'e\1D, btu, aud INb-
,ror: 81'nlllJ;emellt. cOlor, Rnd COtn[hWlliOB ot
l>t:dlC ydlh.:ly und nbl'lIptl7 vorlant; wt>utben to
round(.od klluU, wltla. IIPUDIiY surface _________ _
Iii. .n..'tll, wh1tn, red, yellow, lOll era7.
croP-beddell. cuJcnrcoU8, bl.;bly hlAticular: ID-
cillt.leit leuses or UWe9t<llle cullc:lonerate and
or Iluttcnoo mud lUlllJlli; 801.e pelrlJlcit wood
tUld SIluriau bontM; ttOt't, cruwpln readlly 1.0
Mtud __ ____________________________________ _
H. LlTup,stone couglowernte, brown, btu-green, ond
Umest,?oe and (OncretioDury
lorma In YJae from tbat of blrdaboc to that
ot hen's egWl Are nrrzwccd ns .trlng1 and.
lenses to weotbcrlul' ______________ ..
13. Shale nnd 01 mlul", brightly buo<led aud moUled
dark red, light red, Yt!l1ow, blue-green, lav-
ender, and ft8h-g'l'UY; serJes of Ol'Cl'WI'ping
lel\.5eti of cotco. tcOWf .nd8tooe, arrlllaccoll8,
calcnroouH, una a.reunceom. shute, ana Hmo-
Mtone con,:101ncr1lte; Include.
of limestooe, el.,. Iroll8toDC, and
and, alalo IIWHU ltebble. nDd UPSUUl erys-
1Ub.: 'A'cllthl!l'l5 to kDuIl8 ___________ _
12, L.lnlC1ltOtie lavender and pink,
reslstnut ____________________________ _
11. Sbille :Inti mnrl, like No. 13 ____ _
10. Llmhtouc COItllower.te, brown; consi3c8 of
boUI, lind 100000gew Je,f, tblm 1 iucb In
... labM.. .. (!or: we.k lillie Cflncut permltlS rock
to Into a 8U •• ot pebbte'lL_
9. Shill., ush-Gl'ft1. purple, nel, rreeu. and wblt@,
":r1 nlic:aceoQS llid ealca.reoUi.
1 .. ·11Kil bred or rrcen rcwbtnut Jandattlnt! ueur
the top; L'Ofttalm. dlaRlllloote(! IJ'ptlUlI1.. Iron-
stone concretion., 110100 Inurluu uud
of petTll'h:d wootL _______________ •

Chinle !ornulrioll-Colltinucll - FoM
8. LJme.tone coogiomernoo, purple and bf\lwu:
cootuirld' coucretiouory pellets: of chert and
lron ... tone: lUauy Ume:ltolle 11ebb1es routed
blnck with rcsh'tunt ___ ________ Z
7. Shale, blue-gray, cnlco.reous, bard i torUls sleell
.lope_______________________________________ a
8. SuDWJtone, butt. thlDly llDd {rrcgular111am1nuted
nnd tUlbl'tcolal; Includes mud IUtlIl)S ; flome
(OilUtiOD surfll.<.'eS rlPllle markoo _____________ 2
3. Shlile. red. hl'OWll, Bud .rellow, irreg-
ulurly bct:ftled, Sind, towud the
lOp; l.'ontolul:I 'lome Umonltc! nodulel oud iron-
!It one CODCl'etJolls - ----- - ------- ------ -_.- -___ )J
-l . SUudt!t<lJle, brO\l"D aud yellow, lu thin, e\'eu heds.
C3lcllrwu.'i Bnd mic.:4ceous; fonus 01'10 protect.
lug beuch __________ ... _____ .... ____ ____ ____ ___ !
3. Sbnle, bltnllcti yellow DOll brown. with lHottHug
ot 141'endN', white, ood t'ed, arsllluceous Dca.r
bose. strollgly enlcureoWf Elooye; includes bod-
Dod lenses of cemented by illite nud
dllUenoo "nud to.mil slove___________ J!J
2. Shale or· thin-beaded, tln",y l!!8 udstone, but!' Dod
brown, "cry uuevenly spDle
crosg-be<tded; shows ripple UJIlI'k;i lind con-
talns 8 few saudlln boDes Dud trogmeuts of
weuthc1'l5 luto ycllow clay 11 IUs
Ilud with tilted csps____ ______ __ __ ____ +l
1. Shale.. dark brO\nl, gruy, ADd earthy block,
lrrl"(Ulorly bctlded, Dooulur; coutalns much
iron BIi staiu aDd concretIollary WQS!'Ies______ 15
Total Ohinle tOl·matlou________ ____________ _
SbluQ.l1lwp con,lomcntte.
In essentials the Chinle of the K&iparowits region ii
identical with that of the Nnlljo country, where
formation is thicke,- and more widesp,'ead and has
been studied in greflter detail, All types of rocks and
of fossil. are common to the two areas, and in a broad
sellse the arrangement of the stmta is the 5ame, Dur-
ing Upper Triassic time the conditions of sedimenta-
tion appear to have been uniform over most, if not
of the plateau p.-ovince, But although as .. whole the
bed. that compose the Chinle constitute a stn.ti-
gl'lPruc nnit of unmistakable individuality a COID-
ptt,'!son of tl1e 16 sections measured in the Kai'parowits
reg'QIl makes apparent the wide vu-intion in tho order
of deposition, composition, textnre, color, and struc-
lUI" of the Chinle beds. Within Ull area of II fe«
square miles all sect.iOll" may show the 83me range
of color a"d include the sume kinds of ,'ock but the
of individual beds are not persistent,' and one
kind of rock may be replaced by auother kind within
short distances along the strike, The relative amountil
of limestone, shale, and saudstone differ with eacll
section, ftS does .. Iso the position of these strata ill the
set'ie., Moreover, the gradation in composition of
the st",tlL and of their included lenses and accessory
teI'ills i. such that no two workers are likely to
:'ribc the rock a'· to subdivide the beds in exactly
be ",me monner. Variation is particularly noticeable
:u Ihe Circle Clift·s, where with few interruptions out-
11lp' of Chinle mny be traced for seveml miles. (See
C I. S S.), In this area the lowe" half or two-thirds
IU the S1lctions is dominantly sandy and relatively
dark and the remaining upper part is VCl'y calcareous
and li"hter The sandst.one and conglomernt.e
lPpea; and disappear withi" short distances and differ
...tabl), (rom place to place in thickness and litho-
logic <haacter. The calcareous beds range by in·
>t ... ible gradations from hard, compact limestone to
liray shale, which unlike typical shale brenl" into
irregular.shaped sharp.angled fragments without
IOlicenble bedding 01' jointing. In accordance with
the degree of oxidation of the iron in the rock, the
color of the limestone ranges from light bluish greeu
to light I. vender, lind some beds or portions of beds
Jr' oIl of one color, whercas others show mottling.
M the ,out.h end of the Waterpocket Fold and at the
Burr troit tire calcareous beds nre dominantly blne.
'fhe outstanding fentures of the Chinle format.ion
Ire fossil wood, the peculiar limestone conglomer'ate,
Iud tire ,eries of vuriegated shales that weather aft.er
lhe manner of marls. Fossil wood is common in the
10l\'er b.lf of the formation; nenr Sixteelllnile Spring,
",.st of Paria, and at places in the Circle Cliffs it con·
>lit utes Ii forest. It appears as chipa, ... blocks,
Ind IS tree t.runi<s as much as 80 feet long nnd 3 feet
in diameter. No t·rees were found in place, with roots
extending into the ground; the logs show worn sur·
floo. and ends and have been stripped of branches.
'1l<igs are starce, and no cones 01' needles were found.
Tb,limeslone conglomerate occurs as lenses that .. "nge
in length from" few feet to a mile and in thickness from
Ie.s than an inch to more than feet. In places it is
."""ptionally resistnnt, forming prominent shelves on
,tilf faces; elsewhere it crumbles easily. Some ledges
consist mostly of dense limestone that coutnins a. few
poU.ts; others are made up of balls firmly or weakly
(erntntOO. 'rhe conglomerate consists essentially of
,liult and mangOllOse pebbles, most of them concretion·
ary. Chert, Ferely jasper, fragments of calcareous
.olle, and weIJ·rounded quartz g"ains are also present.
Tbe oonglomer ate grades th,'Ough loosely compacted
surdstone with disseminated cryotnls of L'llicite and
oolornite into .ondstone with Lime cement. The shale
llear the middle of the Cbinle is unusual in mode of
"etthering, in, color, and in composition. Where this
,hal. is weU exposed to it appears as mam·
""lIary mounds outlined by g"acefully curved slopes
leading to shallow, broadly concave valleys. The sides
of the mounds are scarred with innumcrublB runways
till throllgh ollly the disinte"roted surface material.
rs.., "
pI. 8.) On some mounds are I.iny benches pro· .
duced by res.istant. ledges of limestone conglomerate,
but in many mound •. the hetel'Ogeneous material re-
sponds as a uni.! to weothel'ing, and the slopes are con·
tinuous down tQ their flaring bose. (See pI. 7, 0.)
Oisintegration of the clay h.s produced " coat of
fluffy material a foot or mOre thick, exceptionally light
and incoherent. Walking on the surface in these areas
is dillicult. During heavy rains this superficial mato·
l<ial is: carried to drainage challJlels as stl'ClI.nlS and
sheets of mud, and in plnces the \llounds are stripped
down to bare rock. With condit.ions so faverable for
the removal of weathered mRterinl it is surprising to
find so few "rens that lack the powdery cover. The
lies in the readiness with which the shale
ahsorbs wllter. A frugment of fresh rock immersed
in water' swell. to nearlv twice its bulk and nfter dr)·.
- ,
ing is nothing mOre ihou ,t pile of disconnected, irreg.
ular gra.ills ; alterntlto drying ulUl wetting produces :1
, u","tance purt of which pusses through filter paper.
Unde,' tire microscope most of the mllterial appears to
be colloido!. The following chcrnical nualysis of a
>pecimeu of the gray shale was made by Prof. W. C.
Dlasdale, of the University of Cnlifornia :
Of Mptollnca of ,,'ay Iflw.la from Lee! F't7TY, .. vi::.
8101 ___ .,.. ____________________ _______ 0'___ __ uJ. ·H:i
AI:OI ____ ". _______ __ __ _______________ . _____ 18.00
F..a.._._._ ... _ ..• __ • __ . ______ . __ ._. _____ 7.80
C.O __ • ______ • _____ ... ___ ._------__ ------ 1. 87
)(r() ••• -.---.---- •••• ------ . - - ----- . • -.-- I.U6
H,O at 10-;;' C._. _____________ ___ ___ .. _____ G. 77
Ignition loss noo\' c 105" C________________ 7.20
tl7, ·J6
In discussing this analysis Lawson cnlls attention
to the ftld that the ratio of silica to is far
grcMer tlran that in clay composed of kaolin and that
the 1I.1110unt of quartz prosent is insufficient to uceount
for the excess of silica. He concludes:
It seeDls probable-, thererore. tbllt .. c,)uJol.idel'!l.blc
of the dOC'C'1l1eDt colloidal subHtnnre ICCn under tbe
Is In reality .lUcie Ilcid that thf!' prescnce 01.' silica In this
tonu DloD.S uCt)llnt tor tho pecu1inl' bebt\vlol" or [be dar with
Tile f.iabl. " marls" and .h.les of tire middle part
of the Chinle are the most richly colored beds ill the
[,lateou province. Unweathered rock shows deep tones
d yellOW, ash-gray, lavender, purple, rose-pink, rna·
roon, sienna, lilac, .nd c,'eam color alld ,arious shades
of red, blue, and b,'Own. Ou weathered surfa(,es, espe·
ci.lly when viewed 'from a distance, the color" are
blended into bands <)f dark red, brown, pink, green,
purple, .. hite, and black.
From lithologic character, local "arintions, bed·
cling. alld fossil content, the Chinle formation is evi·
a f"c,;!,-wnter deposit. No marine fossils have
" ,ta1l'SOO . • t. c .. Tile !told or the SblaaruDI[lllt Parla : Econ. GeotUg"Y.
8. , . .... G. HH3.
boen I'eported trom it, but instead tbere i. found
abundant silicified wood and in plaees U .. io and other
freih-water .bella and the bones of 1l1Od vertebrates.
The marly bcdJl appoar to have Ill'en deposited in fresh-
water lakes or ponds.
The position of the Chinle mnfomably above the
nidently stream-bomo Shinarump conglomerate Ind
the more or less gradational nllture of the near the
contAct of these form.tionA Curther indicates the con-
tinental character of the Chinle depalition.
The Chinle formation i. 8IIbstantiaUy the equivalent
of the 400 reet 01 " varieguted gypsiicrous marls eon-
taining silicified wood" measllred hy Howell" along
1 ho I'aria Hi ver and of the SOO fl\<!t of • variegated
clay shale, pUl"ple .. nd white above and chocolate oe-
row, with silicified wood," lI'hicb constitutes "din-
Ilion a" of the "Shinarnmp group" of the Henry
Mountll; ns as described by Gilbert." It i. also the
equivalent of the "upper Shinarump" "days" and
... of Powell and of Dullon and a lower part
of their Vermilion ClilT" group" or ".erics." Part.
of the Chinle find th.ir equivalents in the DoloreS for-
mntion of southwestern Colorado. Correl.tion with
tho Chinle at its type locnlity in the Kavajo country
i9 made with IISS'1I11nce.
Evidence based on f_ils •• to the age of the Chinle
of the KaipMrowits region, though meager, is quite
o6ti.ioetory. The fo."i1 wood has not been studied
hcyolld its identification as 8e"eral different species "f
coni fcrou. lree. closely .. elnlOO to thoee from the
Upp.r 'l'riussie of Arizona. Most of the mollusQ col-
lected have proved too frugmenhry fIll' specific identi-
fication, and saurinn bones are known only os repre-
sentative of specie! found in the Chinle of Arizonu
and Dolol'" of Colomdo. In the collection of bones
and SClllesdf fish •• Professor Lulll·°l"t!QOgni.es" Plloli-
iop"O'I"tU sp. (Lo"cr and Middle Triassic) Or Semi-
flOl,., ftp. (Triassic)."
Von Huene'" hOI expressed the opinion that What
h.vB been called Upper Tri .... ic nrtebrates include
also Middle Triassie typee-that is, Chinle alld Shina-
rump include also Middle Triassic. The age ot
the Chinle seems deldy et;tablished as Triasaic Rnd i.
probably Upper Trianie.
., How-ttl. E, M •• 1:. I. o.a. aDd CWI'. S.rv.n W IDOtb if
Rf>)K .. TttL .. ,. 11111. . ...
II ... K.O·!,e,ert ou the of ''e HeDr, l(ouotolu.. ]I. ..
'. -- a_ "no R.oeQo )111\. tqle, 1817.
La11,. R. I., ....... 1 ee_uMnttoa.
... :...,,:, ,.. Yo.. .. de Ih. an .f the C8IIUantal 'lrla.tc beod.
'.erSc.. .... tb reGan. _ -. foeetl "_rtftntu ' 1J •
Kat. Mu. Prw .• WOI. U, art, IS. 1m. ' . . .
The contact of the Wingate and Chinle formatiOll5
I in southern Utah closely resembles that of similar II,
posures in Arizona. (See pI's. 7, 0; 8, B.) In mOIl
places the two formations meet as seemingly conlonn.
able beds of lmlike color, texture, lind compo$itioQ
and when traced along clifT faces show lit.tle
that indicates lapse of time. In faet,. at localities
where the uppermost bed. of the Chinle a .. e red SAnd-
stone it i. difficult to detennine the limits of the forma.
tion. Close e:umination, however, ,!Sunlly reveaa
stainiug and deoomposition, which suggest exposun to
the atmosphere, ind ·Rlso loi; .. lIy interrupted lenticular
bedding. On Silver Falla Creek a bed of red
... nd.tone that contains l .... ge grai ns af quarh
and pieces of blue-green limestone and chert 2 inches
or less in diameter li .. at tbe base of the Wingate, and
extend down into greenish Chinle limestooe.
At Paria the top of the Chinle is mnl'ked by a thin
discontinuous bed of conglomerate in whi ch .grains of
quartz, fragment .. of limestone, calcnreous mud bal1s,
and pellets of clay an conspicuous. A t the Circle
, Cliffs lind near Fruita, Utah, the top of the Chinle is
uneven and the mossive Wingate sandstono occupies .
dep'ressions in the underlying shale. At seveJ"lll places
ripple marks and mud cracks wete noted in the banI
fe" feet of bed. assigned t.o the Wingat e. These ob-
servations, added to those recorded tor Glen Canyon,
San Juan Callyon, and the Navajo country, show that
. at many places the Chinle wos lenst exposed to
erosion before the Wingote was deposited. 'Fhey also
show that the unconformity. i. nowhere conspicuoUJ
and thnt the time elapEing between the end of the
Chinle epoch of dopoo;ition and the beginning of the
Wingate epoch was not great. It may well be that
deposition WftS continuous ;n. parts of the plateau
.. province.
Nearly all geologic reporb! on southern and ...stera
Uteh, northern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico,
Dnd southwestern Colorado include descriptions of
beds assigned to the Jurassic. }farcou" speak. of
Jurassic rocks along the Puerco River but it is im-
passible to determine what portion of' his "GypsUIII
formation" is assigned to this age. On the evidence
by fossil plants Newberry n regarded a Ii-
foot bed of carbonaceous shale oel.r Oraibi al Juras-
sic, .. the sole representative of the J ura.sic series."
• Nan:au. R ..... Ittd Grid DotH: U. 8. Paclftc B. a.
Vol. a. ,to '. lIP. no-uu 18H.
• Newben1. I .• Ceokcs.ra, report, 10 198, J . C .. Report .D
CoIoNd. BI ... r ot Ih .... ·tIIt. pt. '. pp. 82-83, 129-181, 1881 .
11 ,.-ellassigned " 20 or 30 feet of red marl" between
Rock Spring (in Steamboat Canyon 1) and
pueblo Colorodo (Ganado 1) to the Jurassic and stated
that evidently belonging to this series were
seen near the Moenkopi. . • • • To the eastward
[lbe Jurassic] thins out rn.pidly, until in eastern
and in New Mexico it probably disappears
The Jurassic of the Paria Valley is restricted by
Bowell'" t<> 600 feet of "cross-bedded sandstone,
l'1Irieualed gypsiferous sh,des, calcaroous shalo:s, and
.,rl; shales and sandstones "-beds that constitute
th. lower part of the San Rafael group, as described
in Ibis paper. Beds in the Pari .. V,\lley that corre-
spond to the . Navajo sandstone and Wingate sand-
stone were considered by Howell and Gilbert" as the
topmost 1,400 fo 1,700 feet of a 2,250-foot section of
the Triassic. For the Henry Mountain region Gil-
bert" used '''Jura-Trias'' as a term descriptive of
,n beds between the Dakota and the series now rllCO!:-
nized as the Kaibab limestone. Dutton ,. likewise as-
signed to the ,i J the beds in the Zuni
region, New Me-"ico, th"t lie between the Permian
and the Cretaceous and stated that, "genera.! consid-
orations" howevel', strongly f. vor a .J urassic age for
thore beds which lie above the Wingate sandstone,"
which he correlated with the Vermilion Cliff" series"
of southern Utnh. In discussing the ma,,"'Jlificent ex-
posures that border the Colorudo River on the north,
Dutten" me ntioned a "Jutijs.ic white sandstone,"
which immediately iuiderlies 300 to 500 feet of cal-
careous gypsifel'ous nnd urenac'Cous shale that contaIns
typic.l Jurassic fossils, and concluded:
Tbe JurllJt.ttic wblte to be peculIar to the
northerh .flU WCl:lt<'.rn IlOl'tion8 or the phitcnu province. In
Colorado n.nd western Ne\\' Mexico DO stratigl'ophtc
mMnber has yet found whlcO enn be Identified with It.
remafQS. however, the pDsslbllity that In tb()!',c more
luter),. the. JuraSSio 6and,;toDell IDny form the UPpel'
PArt of the sandstolle now reckoned o.s Triassic.
In Dutton's, view both the, Jurassic and Triassic
.Ireta groduaUy chlnge in color IlDd decrease i.n thick-
- in passing from the Virgin River to the Zuni
Plateau. He added:
So fir ftl present knowled,e II concerned. y .. e are ot Uberty to
(1) that tbe Jarnlllk IUDdlitone thins out .completely
iD. .-.lD.ten"tll. or (2) that It becOmes the summit ot tbe pre-
limed Triassic of New Mexico ond can not be distinguished
• KIl.e)" t. E,. U. S. Qeog. and 0001. 8urt'oya \Y. tOOth Mer. Rept.
.. ,. '27:1, lS1G. '
GI"'rc. G. Jr., Idem. p. 160.
-C1lWrt. G. R .• Report OD tbe Icolo.,. of the HeDry MountnlDly
'." 1tr;,
• notton, C, B.. Mount Taylor aDd tbe ZUni Plateau: U. S. Otol
Illlll AnD. ttept .• p. 138, 1885.
1J S ... C. Eo. Tertlllf1 hi_tory of the Orand Cuyoo dl.trlct:
· . SUtvel 1(011. 2, pp. 3G-38.
Cross" assigned the La Plata sandstone, 250 to 400
feet thick, to the Lower J ura .. ic l>n the basis of its un-
conformable relation tq the underlying Dolores
ill part), of Upper TrillSsic age, and assigned
the" McElmo formation," 400 to 1,000 feet thick in
southwestern Colorudo, to the Jurassic and correlated
it with t.he Monison formation.
Gregory" recognized the La Plata sandstone of
CroS3 as Jurassic and el>tended it southward and west-
wal'd to include the Winb'llte sandst<JIlG and the White
Clift sanel.tone of t.he early surveys and a.signed to
the "McElmo formation, Jurossic (')," all the beds
between the top of the La Plat.a. and the base of the
Dakota, t,hus including the" fossiliferous cnlcal'eous
shales" and the" gypsiferous shales nnd thin sand-
stones" of Dutton.
As described by Reeside a,nd Bassler,'· the strati-
graphic series along the lower Virgin River includes
"J urassic SIlndstone" 2,100 feet thick nnd "Jurassic
, lim",;ione ancl shule " about 460 feet thick.
As tt'eated by Longwell, Miser, Moore, Bryan, and
Paige," the Jurassic of southeastern Utllh includes
from thebllse upward Wingate, Tgdilto (I}; Nanjo,
"gypsiferous shales and snndstones," t.nd "vHl'icolored
sandstone and sbales," nnd unconformably above them
lies the" McElmo fornJa.tion, Cretaceous (I) ," t<>
665 feot thid,. In their genernlized descriptions of
"gypsiferous shales nnd sandstones" the lowermost
beds at least of the" marine Jurn .. ic" are relldily
recognized, and ," varicolored .,,,,,dst.ones and shales"
i;; on appropriate field nanle for the series of highly
variable nnd brillia.fltly colored strata that commonly
underlie' the Cretnceous of the Colortldo Plateaus pl'OV-
inee. Luptou,"' Emery,·' and Duke" set the lowel'
boundary of the Jurassic at the top of the Chinle
formation and recognized the top of the Navajo sand-
stone as a horizon above which are stratI! of known
Jurassic age and IIlso strata which hold t·he position
of the" McElmo" and closely resemble the i\lol'rison
and which may prove to be Cretaceous. All field
workers agree that the only unequivocal horizon
markers are t.he Carmel and Curtis formations, from
which faunas of Sunda.nce age have been obtained.
Because conclusive evidence is yet lacking concern-
.. CrON, Wbttmna, u. S. GeoJ. Sur-vel Oco1. ,Ula_, )Joul\talo
toUo (l\o. 111), 1910.
• Gregorf, Fl. B.o GeoioJ;1 of tbe Na\:aJo COUDtr1: U. S. 0001. SUtvC!1'
Prot. PIll*' oa. pp., 60--88. 1017.
toRcad:de.l. S., ,r., and Bu,.er, Barvel. StMltilirepblc .cctlon. 10.
lIOuthwCiJWn. Ula,h end n(lrthwll'ltcrD ArIzonA: U. S. Oeol. Survey
Prof. raper l.20, pip. 13-83, 1022.
tl Long",tll, Co D., .Dd otbell. op. dt., pp. 11-14.
• Lupt .. , C. T .. (!)II .ad J(U Dear GreeD Blyer, Grud Count" Utab:
U. S. GCtOI. 1Ia,r.·e)' Bull. 6"1, p. 124. 1014: GeoloQ aDd cool reecrureca
ot ellltlo ".ne1. Utllb: U. B. Geo1. 8u"e7 Dull. 628, P. 25. IDle.
• EmM'Y. W. B., T .. Greea River Deeert aectloD: Am. lour. Bet, "th
llet vol H, ,. IN. 1'1',
.;.' c.. L .. BoriscJo. of the mRr1De lor .. ale ot Utah: lour.
011. 27.9. 141, 18111,
in'" the age of s&nd3ton •• between the Chinle
th: fossiliferous marine Jurassic Carlnel formatIon,
these strata which make up the Glen Canyon group,
are designated in thfs report JUI"a<9ic (I) . .
Indudin" the Navajo, Todilto (I), and WlOgate
tentatively lilSigned to it, Jurassic of the plaw,au
pro.inee i. an assemblage of remarkably .hke
in extent thickness composItIOn, and color. W,lh
most of its essential' features present it from
the San Juan Mountain .• , Colo., and the Zuru Moun-
tains, N. Mex., westward and northward across Utah
and Arizona fur into Nevada. From a center at Glen
Canyon it has been traced across N avnjo
Reservation and north",.rd to pomt. the San
Rnfael Swell. Throughout this great area the thIck-
ness of the Jurnssic averages about 2,000 feet. Thick-
nellSes of loss thun 1,000 feeta.ppear only ut its essteI'D
and southern bOl·de.·s; at lhe head of Hall. Creek 3,510
feet of beds lie belween the' Chinle and the" McElmo."
The Jurassic is essentially a huge pile of consoli-
dated . and. Its massi". beds and shaly beds alike are
predominantly compoecd of quartz grains; limestone
and gypsum constitute pl'Obobly less than 1 pe.r cent,
and true argillaceous shale i. present ns sm.all
plasters included in irl'egulor beds assoc .. ted WIth
locol unconformities. l<lRllY thin and thick bods
closely reremble each othe.· i they ore alike crOES'
bedded, travCl'lled by baud. and' sb'ellks of whit. along
and aero",! the planes o"f foliation, Rnd wben unweath-
ered show ,similar I'ange ,or oolor. 'I'he striking ditter-
ences in appearonCtl are the expression of the lnfluence
of such incidental felltures os texture &nd m.nner of
weothering_ Without much ex.w,'ation some whole
,",dion. of the Jura.sic might be described .s fine-
/:rQincd cross-bedded .. ndstone, the colo.' and .tratifi-
eation of which nre reveded by woothering. With the
exception of' the inconspicuous beds of siliceous lime·
stone, the sholelike beds and mossive beds are friable
Ind crumblo readily under pressnre. Even on "i{ld·
swept surfaces the impressions of hobnails are visible,
and experience in o,limhing clift's 8000 let-ds to lacle of
faith in seeming.1,Y fi,'m projections In,l crevices. The
weakly cemented fragment. pried from cliffs by frost
soon disintegrate and ore rt'moved by rainwllsh and
wind, leaying little or no talu8.
The gained from a superficial view of
the walls and dissectcd surfaces in the Kai-
parowits region is t·hat the Cretaceous beds are gray
:lUd dull and that the Jurnssic stratn ore brightly col-
ored in tones of ,·ed. But e'-en at a distance
",hite patches ate "isible, and .. the eye traces a con-
tinuous fnce of 0 ploteou or flank of a monocline thc
color is seen to change from red to yellow, to white,
or to brown abruptly 0.' gradually and at i ..
. terv·-'.' Nearer views show thnt " red walls" r ...
III d h " h'
from mAroon to light yellow an t at w .te w.u. n
!,snge fron'I almost flonr whi.tenes£ to delicate shadeJ
of green or brown, afid • detaIled annlysls of the strata
hows that the general color IS the resultant of mia,
ond that the prevailing tone arises in lIoIl\e
places frOID of some bed and' in otber
places froOl the degree of we;Lthel"lng 01' t.he of
tho atmospbere. 'The color of a hand .speclmen IS Dol
that of the clil as .. whole, and speclUlens from the
stlme slt'atum vnry in tone with reference to their
position llong strike, their nea.'ncss to bedding
planes, and: the.r tut"re.
AlthouO'h the stratn assigned to the J urusic II',
e ,
the most conspicuous of all rocks In . the plateau
rovince definite infol'lllaiioll regarding their DIode
, .
of deposition nnd place in the time scnle remains to
b<. obtained. Tbe lithologic evidencc of 'equivalellt
O'!e and origin' of the broad subdivisions is strong; ll-
thouO'h the recogni7.ed member. thicken 'and thin and
fom; and re-form along the strike 35 single massive
beds or seriCli of thinner beds, they everywhere PI_ot
• group of features lOhich as a whole rendel·. them
unlike the members above or below, The WIDget<!
and NlLvajo sandstones, separllted by the Todilt<>
formation or seemingly merged, constitute an unmu;-
tuknble series' the combination of features that char-
acterizes the ;veriying Sl.n Rofael group is not dupli-
cated elsewhere, and the MO'Tison maintains its indi-
vidualit)' throughout \he plateau province. But
neither the upper limit nor the lower limit of the
Jurassic is confidently known, and subdi-l,isions within
the system have been made largely on the basis of
tel.i;ure, color, and arrangement of beds. Most of the
beds have been deposited by strenms or by the wind
and consequently include many uncoufol'mities thai.
perhaps are no less significnnt thuu the poorly defined
hiutuS8ll uSed in separating tbe JUl'Rssic (1) fl'OlO the
Triassic or the Jurassic from the Lower Cretaeeolll,
i.f the Morrison tMcEbno) is of Lower Cretaceous
age. Fossil. of unmistakable Jurassic nge have been
found only in a few bed. of the Carmel and Curtis
fOl1nntions. The organic remains in the Wingate,
Todilto (I), and Navajo formations cousiEt of fnlg-
ments of ,.ood and of bone, (lin05uUl' track., unios,
Dud, worm trails thlLt have Triassic ail well sa J urassi.
affinities. In fact , no entirely satisfllctory evidence
ex.ists for placillg tile Olen Cunyon gronp in tb.
JIU'assic system, and it is possible that future studies
may resnlt in drawiug the Jurassic-TJ'inssic boundary
within the Chinle or at any horizon between that
formation nod the top of the X avajo. Even the ag.
of the Morrison has not been fully established. So
f r IS detailed chronology is concerned, work among
;.ra ..
rocks is sWI in an exploratory stage. The
"riting of an history ot the plateau province
daring Mesozoic time must awaIt tuller knowledge.
Beeause of lithologic dissimilarity, color contrasts,
and of brenks in de.posit.ion, three large sub-
divisions of th" sh'at", between the Chinle formati on
the Dal{ota (¥) sandstone are readily l'ecognized
in tile field:
1. The Glen C"nyon group, J urnssic ( n. In .strati-
Crtlphic position the Glen Canyon group is ident.icnl
ITit.h the so-called La Plata" group" ot the Nanjo
rountrv JlS defined by Gr'egory, ·who considered. the
equivaient of the La Plata s"ndstone of southwestern
Colorado. Recent studies, howeYer, indic.te that
probably only purt of the so-clllled La Plata" gJ.'oup"
of the Navajo country is represented ill the LII Plata
.. ndstone as described by Cross. To avoid contusion
the lerm Glen Canyon group is introduced. The es-
,.aliol components of the Conyon group no two
m.",ive Cl'oss-'I;>ede!ed c1iff-ll1aking sandstones, the
N .... jo sandstone above and the \Vingato sRndst,me
bok,.w, sepo.rated in 1II0st places by the Todilto( i) for-
... tion, which consists of (aleareolls Mnd-
stone, Ih.le, and thin, dense limestone; Its mass, es-
tint, CIlloI', wei Ill:mner ot erosion make the Glen Con-
yOD group strikingly prominent.
2. The San Rahel group, Jurassic. The term San
Rafllel gl'oup has been proposed for the assemblage of
strata which occupies the horizOil ot the marine
Jurassic of the plateau prc)\:jn<;e and which lies 00-
t"fen the Navajo sandstolle and the Morrison forma-
tion. It consists of the Carmel , Entrada, Curtis, and
Summerville formll tions_ Although with ,the possible
txception of the Curtis tormlltion al\ subdivisions of
the San Rafael group ore represrnted. ill the KIIiparo-
wits region, where fOl'luRtion nRmes were tent.atively
applied before neighboring ll",as were studied, the
fuller de"elopll1ent of the group as a· whole ill the San
Raf.el Swell seems sufficient reason Ii, selett the group
n.me and three formation names from thAt area_ The
Stn Rahel group includes massive sandstone, .haJy
GllldStone, gypsum, IimestQne and is remarkable
for Tariation in 'form, extent., and color. Beds that
torn.pond to those included in tho Son Ratael have
Rtaernlly been classed as " lIIeElmo." .
3_ l[ol'rison formation, Ctetaceous( i). The Morri-
IlOO in the Kaiparowits region occupies the
Iotrallgraphic position of 011 but the basal pOl·t of the
"MeElmo" as that IeI'm has been used by Cross and
Gregory. It is the equi,·.lent of I the "upper
" of Lupton nnd Duke and of the" McElmo »
of Elllery. For the recion as a whole the Morrison
. e
(OQs1Sto of an upper series of ""riegated shale and 0
baSllI ""l'i •• of lent.icular massin Eandstoncs--the Salt.
Wash sandstone member-but t.he formation is excep-
Honnlly irregular in composition, color, and arrange-
ment of beds.
Beds assigned to the Glen Canyon group extonr!
entirely nCl'OSS southern Utah and eastware! to
La Plal<l Mountains of Colol·ado. In Arizona and
N'ew Me.xico they are nearlv coextensh'e with the
N,w"jo country. - In Nevlt.io they appear in the
Muddy Mountains and the Spring Valley MOllnta,ns;
trln' erses west of this district revenl no equivalent
beds." The term" Glen Canyon" seems approprint.e
for the gl-OUp of rocks t.hat form the walls of Glen
Canyon of the Colorado throughout it.s
'l'OII''Se from the Henry Mountains to the Echo CUff.
nnel likew.", ti.e ",aUs of the lower ports of the c"n-
yons of the San Jt:nn, the Pa ... in, the IIlId
mnny smaller t.ribut.nries. The Waterpocket Fold i.
an almost c.ontinuous ridge .of sandst.ones ot the Glen
ClLnyon group which the ",.Us of t.he Colorndo
Ri"er with nlonoclinal eoste,'n sIopes of the San
RM.el Swell, SO· miles t.o the north, and the lower
ESCAlallte Valley is a floor of sandstone .of this group,
20 miles wide, which extends eastward across the Colo-
rado River nnd south and west to join the Parin
Plateau in the I.ees Feny region. Over most of
southeastern Utah tbe Glen Canyon group might be
considered the bedrock. It lies, beneath the High
Platen us, and on it rests the Kaiparowits PIMe.u and
tbe highlands about the Henry Mountains. Thr.ough-
out this vast nrea the Glen Canyon group, is nowhere
less than 600 feet thick, and in many places it e:tceeds
2,000 feet . It is an unusually prominent. group ot
beds, and thel'e are few points of .observation in south-
enstern Ulah from which it is not yisible. (See pIs.
19, A; 21, 0; 26, OJ 27, 0, D.)
In boldness of sculpture the sandstones of t,he Glen
Canyon group stand first among the formations of
the plateau province. Where t.he beds are horizontal,
precipitous cliffs extend for miles, and on the cI'ests
of gentle folds great blocks of sandstone· with ver-
!.ieal sides Rnd sharp c.omers stlUld high above the
bordering canyons. Whel'e the beds 81'1) steeply up-
turned, erosion has cut the sandstones into un!lCtlable
pinnacles, which project above high, bar& masses Ot
rock tbat rest like flatirons against the limb of the
fold. Likewise in yariety of Architectural features the
Glen Canyon s .. ndstolles take high rank; they are sur-
passed, if at all, only by tbe FM'ene limestone and tbe .
remarkable assemblage of IMllta included in the San
Rafael group. Deuutifu'lly molded -domes and rounded
" GreiODry, H. F: .• IIDd Nobl., L. F., Note. on II. gto10lliC trao;r(,l'se ltom
lluhI1H!. Cnllf .. to thf: mouth o( finD Juna Rh'er, Utalb: Am. loor.
SM., urb tie!'·. \'01. p. 231, 1923.
ridges mark the surface of the sandstones, and many
cliJl' faces consist of a series of amphitheaters and
pilasters, which utend from the top to bottom and
are CIlrved without sharp edges. Wlthm the rock
itself hi ve been carved innumerable recesses, many of
them mere pockets' and niches but some that have
brood 1I00l'S and arched roofs, forming rock shelteN
suffid.ntly large to aceommod,.to the l,ouses .of the
ancient cliff dweller.. Here and there appear windows
:lnd the gracefully fOl'med arches of natural \)ridges.
In general view the Glen Conyon group i. readily
distinguished from the beds that lie below it. Its njas·
.iven ..... color· and mOllner of erosion are quite un:like
, , C . . ,
those of underlying variegated shales of the hUue
form.tion. Where the ove"lying Carmel formation i.
well ,·.presented, its di.tinctiN dull colOl' nnd thin
Btrnlil'ication are in st,·ong controst to tbe light color
and t.he massiveness of the Glen Canyon.
In many places the overlying thin beds are stripped
for back and expose the top of the Glen Cunyon group
as a sondstone-f1oorcd plat,form-un esplanllde tbat
wind. in and out of valleys and around the beautifully
bonded SolD Cliffs. (See pI. 21, 0.)
The definition and description of th Wingate s>lnd-
gtolll' of the' Navajo country presented by G"egor)'''
holds good for tIle Kaipm'o\\:its region, The composi-
tion, dctailcd structure, and ol'l'&ngernent of pIU-tS of
the Wingate are essentially alike in the two regions,
and the I'Ilnge of in color, t exture, and strati-
. ficotion lies between the same limits. (See pis. 8, B,.
9, A,. 19, B; 22, C,. 23, n .) Characteristically the
Winguie 01 ,the Kaipltorowits region is 11 very ffia.ssivc,
flne-grained sandstone, .bout 300 feet. thick, underlllin
at most locnlities by a few feet of lent.icular snndstone
nnd shnle, in part conglomeratic. It commonly ap-
pears nli a singlo ve!1icol pnlisnded wall that dacs
obo\'l\ slopes o·f Chirll. bed.. Ct'o;ls-bedding ranges
froUl inconspicuous markings to larger-scate truucated
laminae, but tho grcut n-eeping curves thlit cha'ft\cter-
ize the, Navlljo snnd.touo nre generally lacking. At
ploces n.long the Wlltorpoeket Fold cross-bedding i8 too
little developed to· be by weathering; the only
IORrkings on the smooth, rounded surf'aces of sand-
stooe ore small, sluIllow pit. that the appearance
of "boneycomb. (See pI. 9, B.) Strong verticol
jointing thllt cuts the sandstone iuto huge blocks is Il
common feature. 'l'he high, nearly verti.nl Wingate
cliff. an impassabl. barrier whem
streams have carved narrow pathways across the out-
• Gregot'f. H. R.o Oeolo,;, 0( NOVIl$o country: U, S. Geol. Sur'.C'y
Prot, (Jp. 1D17,
Miser .... described the Wingate on the lower s..
Juan as ma.sive cross-bedded snndstone, 270 feet thick
at Piute Farms, 330 feet thick near Spencer Camp,
feet thick at Copper Canyon, and 275 feet thick li
miles above the mouth of the San Juan. In sections
measured in upper Glen Canyon Longwell ,. describes
the Win nate as a sheel' wall of massive snndstone about
300 feet high at the mouth of Crescent Wasb; Dschie!!y
an unbroken cliff 366 feet high at Twomile CanyoD;
nnd as a massive member 300 feet thick, underlain by
3 to 30 feet of coarse-grained thin·bedded lenticular,
extremely cross-bedded "nndstone at Goodhope Bend_
At Capitol Reef Wush the Wingat" is a massive rlil.
making bed 420 fcet thick. Within the Kaipllrowit..
region t.he Wingate consists of a single ledge of fine-
grained cross-bedded, very massive sandstone 250 feel
thick nt the Circle Cliffs, 260 feet thick at the BI11'r
trail and Muley Twist, in the Wuterpocket Fold, MO
feet thick at the Bitter Creek divide, and 2S0 feet near
the mouth of the Escalante. Along the Paria River
the Wingate is represented by a series of cross-bedded
massive strata 10 to 30 feet thick, which form the low-
ermost 160 to 200 feet of the canyon wall. Corre·
sponding structure and thickness wore notc<a in Il cliO:
() miles northwest of Paria. At Ferry Moore as-
signed to the Wingate the lowermost 400 feet of finl!-
gmined medium-bedded to massive orange.ted sand-
stone in the cliffs along the ri'-er. The average of zr
measurements of the Wingate within the plateau pror-
ill ce is about 285 feet. The formation is thickest ·along
a line that extends from the Chllska Mountain., on
the Navajo Reservation, northward along Watllr-
pocket Fold to the Sun Rafael Swell. It is thinnest or
most modified in the Echo Cliffs and is possibly ruJt
represented at all in regions west of the Poria River.
Typically the Wingate sandstone is orange· red, not
Ilncommonly mther brilliant in tone, ond it retaiDl
that color thl'Oughout most of Arizon.\ and UtAh, but
iu places all or parts of the formation are I'ed·bro
lind in the northwest wall of the Circle Cliff. and
south of Fruitn, ill Wayne County, it5 color grades
from orange-red into light ·creamy yellow or nearly
white. III the Kaiparowits region the overlying
Todilto( 1) is t),pically mnroon, much darker tban the
Wingote, and the Navajo sandstone runges from
white, cream-color, 01' tan to red Or red-bl';'·wn, aDd
in parts of tlte Esc-II1ante Valley it is pink, with ca-eam-
colored bands. Although the color of each Qf the
three differs from place to pla<l4!, at no
place studied in Arizona or Utah is the color. of
the Wingate, (he Todilto, .nd the Navajo the same.
fllilaer. Fl. D .• In ... II. C,. R'
and othCnI, op, cit., p'. IT.
• tAagW'e-lI, C. R., and: others-, op. pp. IS. W.
Early student s of the geology of southern Utuh
recognized two divi sions in the beds thut lie between
.he Chinle (" Shinnrump group," in part, of Powell
and Dutton) and the os;emblage of beds variously
c&11ed "marine J Ul"ossic," " Grny Cliff," " Flaming
Oorce," and " MeElmo," Powell used the terms
White Cliff U group " and Vermilion Cliff " group" j
Oilbelt used the terms" Gmy Cliff group" and Ver-
milion Cliff " group" j Dutton called the rocks Vel'-
lIilion OWl " series" and " Gray Cliff sandstone," In
• section measured in the Paria Valley Howell "'
records 800 teet of " buff massive cross-bedded snnd-
ItOne," underlain by 600 feet at' " pale-vermilion mos-
sive . ondstone" o,'edying 400 feet of
".ariegated gy psif eroll s marls conlaiuing silicified
wood " (Chinle formation). The beds thllt occupy
the goneral posit ion of these t.wo Ilnmistaknble sand-
stones "ere suhdividerl by Gregory'· into the Wingot.e,
Todilto, and Navajo formations, the Wingate rOIl!(hly .
oorresponding with thc upper purt of t he Vermilion
Cli8' nnd the Navajo wit.h the White Clitl'. The name
Todilto wns introduceu for the limestOlle, calcareoll s
ahale, aud thin c:deareous saudstone that appear in
the midst of the gl' eat slIndstone cliffs that tower above
(he Chinle formntion,
In and Ileal' its type locality, Todilto Park, N, Mex"
the Todilto is predominllutly limestone and c.leal'eous
shale, commonly less than 10 feet thick, Northwul'd
and northwestward across the Navlljo Rese.'vat.ioll
1I000sured sections include increasin"h- less limestone
"' -
lnd become thicket'. 'At the mouth of Piute Canyon
tbe po!'ition of the Todilt,; is occupied by 100 feet of
thin ond irregUlarly bedded red sandstone and" sub-
Grdinate amount of calcareous shale, limestone, and
bmestonc conglomerate arranged in overlapping
lenses. At Navaj o Mountain the formation is even
thicker and contains but inconspicuous lenses of lime-
atone and linle conglomerate. This observed depar-
ture from type of the Todilto of the northwestern
Navajo Reservation led to the comment:
1be po,tHOD ot these beds between two D.18SSive sandstone
llrata, WiD.ate nnd XQ\'lIj o. is the basis tor their 1118umed
equlTaleDee .. I [It tbe 1'odilto formnUou. Tbls expresslo.D,
oo.ner, 1,10 diilerent from that in the type locality that this
eornlatloo must be considered only as • worklDC field

the publication of Gregory's conclusions ..
sene:- of thin incgular calcareous sandstone beds, in-
<iudtng some limestone, which occupies a horizon be-
tween the Wingate and Navajo sandstones, has been
by Paige, Longwell, Moore, .. nd Miser from Nn-
Mountain up the Colorn.do to the Henry Mountains,
"lie I
... t we I. 1:. It ... v. S. and Survt,. W. lOotb Vcr. Rcpt.,
" ... ,. tn, lUG.
B. Z'O 00. cit. , pp. :52-e;O.
dong the W mterpocket Fold to the Snn Rafnel Swell
and into the &n Juan CILnyon, Similar beds
-boon mapped in the Kaiparowits region. It is cleRr
that & distinct, widely traeenhle stratigrophic division
OCCurs between the 'Vingate and Navajo •• ndstones in
most of the Navajo country and in Utl>h. There is
doubt, however, whether this middle divi sion of the
Gl en Canyon g.roup cOI' responds to Grc"ory's type
1'0dilto; this name Lq applicable with a
query to the region herc dtl€cribed. The Todilto (1)
of the Kaiparowits region typically of maroon
and reddish-brown calcnreous sandstone with leS3er
lind YIlrying of shale und limestone, The
sandstone bOOs range in thickness h'om Il fruction of
an inch to more than 10 feet, but thick beds are much
less common than thin beds, The beds commonly
thicken and thin, ov.l'lap, tail out, 01' are replaced by
shale "' ithin short distllnces .Iong the strike. (See
pis, 9, A; 20, 0,) The quurtz gruins t hut compose
the snndBtone nrc well rounded, well sorted, und COllrSe
nnd I re n1'l'anged in cross-bedded l.minue thnt meet
at rel.t.ively sharp ongles, The sholy beds nrc essen-
tinily vcry thill finc-gl'aincd qllUt'tz salldstones that
contain here and th",'e bllUs and lozenges of consoli-
dated mud, Like the sandstones the shale beds are
lenticular und present few even foliation surfaces; in
degree of consolidation they differ gren.tly, The lime-
stOlle appears as compact gra.y layers, as fragments
embedded in sandstone and shu Ie, und as lenses of
limesto.ne cOHglomcrate. Lime is nl so present 11S ce-
ment , Small lenses of conglomerate composed of
quartz chel'l and sandstone fragments cemented by
lime "lid sand arc pre£ent at most places within the
lu",er half of the formation. The characteristic color
of the Todilto ( 1) is maroon, which revenls the formn.-
tiort as 11. dark-red b.nd in cliffs of Willgat e and
Navajo, but in some beds in the measured sections
maroon is replaced by gray, purple, orange color, or
pink, and on the northwest side of the Circle ClifTs the
To<lilto (1) is light creamy yellow, In the walls
of the cunyons that lead westward from the Water- .
pocket Fold the Todilto (f) appears as dark-red shllle,
thin-bedded calcareous sandstono, and lenti cnlal' COD-
glomel'atio limestone. One bed of pUl'ple limestone in-
cludes'small angular c\mnks of white chert. At the
Bole in the Rocli: tho Todilto ( 1) consists of red shilly
and thin discontinuous limestone. On the
surface of one of the limestone leflEes watel' emerges
as a seep.
The Todilto (1) is readily distinguished in the fi eld
by thinness and irre:""1llarity of stratification of bed.
and by features thllt clearly indicate deposition in run-
ning wiltor, thu. cont1'lISting shllrply with the under-
lying Wingate n.nd tho o\'et'lying Navajo, Coutacts
with tho beds al)ove and below indicato a ehunge in
conditions of deposition, In some plnces the tmnsi-
'1'1111 lUIPAIIOWrr8 ItIIGIOlf
tion appears to be gradual; elsewbere unconfol'mities
'!It. In places lenses of eonglomenta mark the bast
the Todilto (I), and" at many along
Colorado a distinct erOllional unconfom:uty separate.
the two formations, Wingate aDd Todllto (I), len-
ticular Ouviatile be(h filling valleys on the surface of
the Wingate."" An unconformity at tho top the
Todilto (I) ii shown at plares where tbe fine-gramed,
cross-bedded Navajo sandstone ... ta on an 9ur-
face of shale or slablike 03ndstonc that IS sprmkled
,.ith broken chunk. of shale, fragments of limestone,
and pellet.. of clay. At some localities the topmost bed
of thG To<liIt.o (1) is Elm baked, and .t a few pla.ces
ripplo mark;; obflCrved. Ncar Warm Spnng
Cnnyon, Longwell not ed in brown and pU'1>le shale
numerous sun crllck., 3 inct,es wide at the top, filled
with buff SAndstone pxtending downward from the
main mass of 1iav.jo sandstone. Similar .and-filled
81\n crock. "'ere obaen'ed at the top of the Todilto (I)
in Milley Twist Canyon, But notWithstanding.
• vidence of unron'ormiti.,. the upper And lower limIts
of the Todilto (I) could not be delinitely IixM in
many mea,m'ed ""c:tions, and tlte unconformities may
hAY. only loco! significance.
The 'rodilto (I) in sontl'lern Utoh is I'eprescnted by
outcrops at mony pla(!es enst of the Pari. Volley nnd
tne High PI.teaus. South and east of Glen Cltnyon
it appears wherever rock. at this hodzon are e"posed.
The Todilto (!) is thinnest well QS most calcareous
n •• r the Arizona-New Mexico boundnr,. but shows no
regulnr gradation in thickness Or in compoeit.ion where
tmeed northwestwnrd. In the great sandstone elift,
th.t extend (I'QI!!. the PU'ia Valley westwsrd .croso
UtlLh and into Nevnd,,·the formation not been def!-
llitoly recognized Ind may be absent.
In selected me. ' Ul'ed sections the following" thick ·
nesses arc recorded In New Mexico: Dutton Plateau,
2 feet; Todillo Park, 10 feet. In Arizono: Segihat.
00"-\ Conyon, 28 In Utah: Piute CRnyon, 100
feet.; mouth of Copper Canyon, feet; Twomile
CIInyon, 249 feet; Crescent Creek, 159 teet; \Y arm
Springs Conyon, 220 feet; along the Waterpocket
Fold, 160, 160, 214, anr! 220 feet; Circl!> Cliffs, 175
feet; San Rafael Swell, 40-1tlO feet.
In generd the Todilto 0) tops a bench of Wingate
sandgtone, and from it the Novaj() is stripped back for
some distanc,", th". formitjg a shelf along "hieh a
route extends .round the buttress of Navajo
BOndstone and dmfn the slopes on the limbs of mono-
e1ines. At the south end of the W.terpocket Fold
to the Colorado Riv.r is obtained down the dip
slope of the Todilto (t) beds, and ,t the Hole in the
Rock 1\ bench of'1'odilto (1) for DIS a atep in t.he canyon
wall, thus making the crossing at this place possible,
'n un,,'lPf'l1, C. I " • .cI o(bcn. (lp. ell. p. tao
Where the beds are steeply upturned, us at the Burr
trail, the Todilto (') f()rms a ... lIey.
11.& Y.lID 5.AlI'DITDltl
The Navajo undstone is remarkably well displaytd
in southern Utah. It appeal's in the San Rafael Swell,
surrounds the Henl'Y Mountains, nnd extends eut of
the Colorado River into San Jnan and Grand COIIl1.
ties. It forms the surface Of t.he Waterpoeket Fold
I\nd the Escalante Valley the walls of Paria,
Johnston, snd Ka nab Canyon., and as the towerin:
White Cliffs it utends to points beyond the Virsin
River, Throl.lghoutjtslength Glen Canyon is limrned
with the Navajo sandstone, and complete sections
al'e revealed in Pori. Canyon, Escalante Canyon,
Muley Twist Canyon, and the canyons of score. of
tl'i butal'ies ·thnt lead to the Colomd() from 1M
Kaiparowits PI.teau, -
Tho Navaj,o sandstone is everywhere a cliff maker .
Unsealable walls of eommandil)g height sre commoe,
but unlike the Kaibab,. the Dukotn (1), the Straight
Cliffs, and the Eocene st .• ota, whicb form e:<tensife,
almost borizontal terraces, plateaus, and mesa tops,
the Navajo sandstone shows vel'y uneven audRm
The frio.ble nature of the rock and the absence of rt-
.istant covering beds results if! the production of
rounded IIIIlSSCS. The floor of the lower Esralanu
Basin is a lIIazo of overlapping mOllnds, and erosioa
of tIl e White Clifts hss produced conical towers .. d
"nipples." The broad cl'est of tbe Waterpocket Fold
is a be\Vildering mn."S of low, f1n.t domes separated by
intel'vening brand, shallow pits, An a,·eo. of dissected
K "vljo sandstone is "ery difficult to trnvel'se. Tht
mounds thnt. form the surface are smooth, Slid their
rims end suddenly at the brink of deep, OIIrrow enJI-
yonS whGEe presence is little expected, "Hand holds"
and" toe holds" Ire rare nnd inconveniently placod,
Where tlley o.rc Cllt in Nani() sandstone big CRD)'oM
nnd little canyoD8 alike have box heods Rnd sheer
","ll., and many are inaccessible without special equ!p'
mont. The e"plorer soon learns that the way by
h. entered a CAnyon may be the only mode of eXIt.
(See pis. 10, (J; 19, A; 20, B; 25, A,)
Sections measul'ed .t foul' localities and detailed ex·
ominat.ion at many othera show that the Navajo sand-
stone OGrth of the Colorado River diffe\'s in U()
from tho.t south and east of river, as pr.m-
cus!y described. It is essentiaUy one bed of
ably unifonn texture o.nd without features that permIt
the establishment of subdivisions. It consists of line·
grained massive sandstone, elaoorately
Rnd includes smnll amollnts of limestone and of thln-
.Jl)]U6SIO I'OlUofAT[()S'S
bedded shaly 5AndstonQ that are distributed horizon-
cellv and vertically with no systematic arrangement.
deser.lbes at Warm Spri?gs
c.Dyon as .. vertical chff of tan sandstone appeanng
u a singl" massive bed 600 feet thick; at Twomile
CaDroo a8 "massive tan sandstone 2[>0 feet thick"
capping a rounded bi 11 "; ,at a point below tlte mouth
of Crescent Wash 1\8 "tan and buff sandstone, cross-
bedded all lurger scale, 300 feet." For the
along the San J uon Miser" records the following par-
tial thicknesses, measured upward from the b"".:
200"*" feet of cream-colored mlissive cross-bedded sond-
.ron. at Spencer Camp; 200 + feet of "massive, ex-
... edingly cross-bedded fine-grained buff sandstone
with a few bedding planes" at Copper Canyon; 140
feel of "bull" massive sandstone" oyer-
lain by , feet of compact gray'limestone at a point 12
ntil .... bo,.e the mouth of .tream; and 810 feet of
"buff massive cross-bedded sandstone" ClIpped by t%'
feet of gray thin-bedded limestone at the mouth of the
stream. At none of these places is the full thickneSs
pre!ent. Measured sections of the Navaj\l within the
Kaiparowits region show' its typied features; at the
Bur, trail it consists ot light-yellow to "hite medium-
"ained, Tery massive, highly cross-bedded sandstone
1,260 feet thick; at Bitter Creek divide, white to very
light cream·colored sandstone, massive, highly
(I'oss-bedded on a large scole, 1,400 feet thick; along
Eatalante Canyon, 430 to 680 feet of sandstone, every-
"here Cl'OEs-bedded and in most places mllSlSive, but
along the Escalante monocline and at a point near the
BiOlith of Sand Creek the upper 20 feet is somewhat
unevenly bedded; at the mouth of Warm Creek, 800 I
reet of buff sandstone, one massive, highly cross-
bedded s!>'atum; at Meskin Bar, 000 feet of nearly
white fine-grained sandstone, cross-bedded on a huge
scale, all in one mllEsi ve bed, except for a. lens of
(ompoct limestone 1 foot thick and about 800 foet
Cross-bedding ill the Navajo is remarkably devel-
oped. Horizolltal surfaces, slopes, and vertical walls
alikt! are crossed and recrossed by singularly atlract.i"e
designs. Series of pan,lIel curves merge with other
sen.,.; of curves or are truncated by curves with the
.. me or with different radii. The planes of wme
bedding laminoe appear as groups of straight lines or
ll'OUPa of curves at high "ngles. The prevailing de-
sign, however, is compoSed of CUf\'e$ tangent to eurv .. ;
starling with al'cs of small radii the laminae gradually
rieerease in curvature until they mel'ge with adjoining
curves as nearly horizontai planes. )Olany eur,..s ha .. e
uninterrupted sweeps that exceed 200 feet; commonly
Loecwen. C. R .• aDd alb_rl, op. cit.. p. 19.
':t We.. p. 17; .. n.nWlcrlpt Dote ..
they extend for tens of feet; are measured in
inches and appear a8 delicate engravings of curvilinear
pattern. In general, the laminae are etched in relief
by the removal of the weakly cemented quartz grains
that mark division plRnes, Here and thel'e the oU\·face
i, further roughened hy projecting seSIllS of quartz
and by tiny faults that break the continuity of the
ribbed surfac'e. Here a.nd there also groups of laminae
ue cl·u.hed Or *Iuo!ezed into close-set loops, and some
appear to have been kneaded, Indistinct bedding
planes lire present, bllt they are very il'regula. and are
traceable for no great distance. They are obscured by
the dominant cross-bedding to a degl'OO that gins most
exposures of Ihe Navajo the oppeamnce \If a single
massi va layer.
J..enses of dolomitic limestone are nearly universnl
constituents of the Navlljo formation but are not
.. bundant 01' couspicuous. 'fhei. ou!.cl·ops al'1! rarely
n,Ol'e than 1 foot thick •. nd a few hundred feet long.
],fast of them extend for less !lum 100 feet, a.nd some
""" mere plasters 10 to ilO feet in (liameter_ Some of
I the lenses are nearly pure dolomite, so hard and so
resi.t"nt to weathering that they serve as protecting
"'Ups of small mounds developed ill Ihe sandstone and
form shelves on otherwise smooth surfaces. OtIlel'S
...... mixtures of dolomite und quartz sand Ind at their
ends merge with the surrounding rock. They lie at
no one hOI'izon, but nearly all the dolomitic lenses seen
are within the topmost 100 feet of the N naja, and fol'
tile formation as a whole they appe"r to increase in
number upward,
The Navajo is cut by joints displayed in an in-
teresting manner. The dominant joints nre vertiCllI,
wide spaced, and al'Fangcd in two systems .. t trend
north,."est and nor,th. In aome places they are all
, much as liOO feet apart; elsewhere as many os 100
roughly pU'allel joints may be crossed in a distance
of 100 to 800 foet, and zones of joints SO closely packed
that they resemble "sh.tter belts" Qre uncom-
mon, On the surface of the rock joints filled with'
calcite, dololllite, iron, or manganese may appear only
IS markings on a continuously smooth surface, but
the position of many joints is shown by cnslll'Lels, and
severo I gulches and narrow cha,nnels owe their posi-
tion to joint zones. On unyon walls the joints and
ioint zones outline blocks and sheetl of rock prepara-
tory to their removal by frost and assist the cross-
bedding structure in determining the shape and posi-
tion of recesses, buttresses, and the open cracks ,that
extend downward from the canyon rim,
The Navajo snndstono is essentially an aggregate of
"hite, cl'ystal-eleor Ip ... ins, loosely held to-
gether by lime cement. Some hand specimen.!! reyeol
no other minerals to the unaided eye, but most of
them show specks of black ond gray. In all thin
sections that Ivere examined , gl-.ius of cloudy ortho-
cIase, rarely plagioclase, appear in· amounts ranging
from 1 to 6 per cent, and I. few of
ite garnet zircon tollrmaline, 11l0t.lte, or muscoVIte
.. r: also 'In 0. few petrographic III
these lCce;sory minerals are present, .nd thin sec-
tion of rock from Pari .. O .. nyon includeil little
knob of biotite and magnetite. Three sizes of gr ..
make up each croSl-bedded laminl. surface: Gr ..
scattered about or arranged as sheets contmg loha-
t:on surfaces, averaging .bout 0.70 millimeter in dia.m-
eter', constitute S to 5 per cent of the rock, grams
rilonging from 0.10 to 0.25 millimeter mal<e up .about
70 per cent; nnd the remaining 2.5 per cent cons'sts of
bits of dust.
In gene, ... 1 the smlUef>t grains and those of inter-
mediute size n.re thoroughly intermingled and form. a
bose over whi ch the largest grains arc strewn, but .n
som" portions of lhe rock exhibit almost per-
fed sOI'Ling ond pel'mit the of four live
short, I hin Illye ... that aro characterized by SIze of
grain. Here nnd there are small pebbles of qUllrt.,
frogment. of .hole, of 81Inds:one, or of limestone, I
nodules and ('Oncret.ions of iron oxides Lhat exceed to
<liometer t.Ile common Ob'.C8, but they conslilute much
thnn 1 pel' cent of tho rock. As a whole, the tex-
IIlte of tile Nnvajo is remarkably uniform. Most of
the gl'l.ins Are impedcctly rounded, but neAl'ly all
thin sections .show round grains, "'Id ill some thin see-
lions sphel'icnl g.'nina predominnte. groins
nl'e not uncommon, und in one specimen from Parin
ennyou lleOl'ly nil the lorger grains show pit. tlnd
liuy fOeets.
1'110 cement of t.ho Nnvajo snndstone ('(Insists of lime
lind dolomite wil.h "n.rying umounts of iron oxides.
Tho iron is mo,' abundant in the fiuest-gnined lilyerS!
from some beds it is nearly nbsent, nnd ill plores even
Ih. mldte cement has diSllppe.ared, lellving only s
pil. of seplll'Qto grains of pure qunrtz. In generlll tho
("mollt is wenk. Even . where iron oxide forms tbo
boud it is not eRSY to obtltin • weU-trimmoo hand
IIl1d much of t.he rock exposed at the SUI'-
{lice is !IO f "inble thnt it cl'ushes under lhe foot, and
:; single blow of the hnmmer moy reduce 0 block of
to I moss of dust. DllISting tI.i. rock ",ith
powder pl'l'SCnts special difficult.ies.
The vlll')'ing omounts Rnd kinds of cement Ore re-
flected ill the color. III general, Ihe white parts of
Ihe Nnvajo .... ndstone have only calcite cement; the
yellow, buff, tan, and red tones indicate the amount
lind chemic. 1 state of the irou, It is ftSSlllned that
tlle sandstone "'HI ol'iginRlly white and ... mented with
white calcite and th.t lime wus progl'essively 'but
irregularly replnced hy iron.
To Ittugelltiol cross-bedding, joint .. , weak cement,
"lid uniformity of groin are l".rgely due the erosion
f('alures tll:lt are of t.he Nofftj.o. The
rock has a tendency to split parallel to cross·beddillc
larninae and in less degree parallel to joint surfil<el.
The usolll erosion fragmel)t is a slab with curved
Thin slices whose length Rnd breadth are measured in
of feet peel off from the cliffs and canyO'n wau.
like bark from a tree. Along the clwyons ore, COOl.
monly formed Illcoves, amphitheaters, and o)'erhallf-
ing e1iffs . . Gashes with c.rescent or semlclrcul ... out.
line-some of them mere "toe holes," othe.'S
to .ccommodate the buildings of cliff dwelltiS-
in most walls, and few surfaces are f"ee from
pits, U "ells:" "water pockets," nnd short-curved :han.o
nels. M.ny bridp:" nrches Ilnd a few complete
add to the inter.,,;t of No.vnjo topogrllphy, (See p.
144..) Mnch of the rock merely disintegrates in pl_
01' is crushed to sand os it drops to the base of a eli!.
Continuously smooth surfaces are common, lahlll
([eposits at the bRse of wolls are
The pre\'"iling colors of t.he Nnmjo of sout.ht.rn
Utah are cream, tan, ond buff. In general, the n-
posures west of Glen Conyon and the WnterporJ..'1!t
Fold sbow li",hter ton<:>s than those about t.lle Henry
o •
Mountains nnd southeast of the Oolorndo R.ver. Some
outerops west of the Parin nro appropriately tb,
White OlifTs, bllt light-red nnd yellow-red tints are
.Iso in evidence. No one color can 00 called
istic. White streab are common, ond two (jr mOn!
colors .ppe .. in every extensive expOsure. Over In
nrea of about 3 .quanl miles near Horris "'nsh, in
the Escalante Valley, the color of the sandstone is dis-
tributed ill fr"yed patches of light red, dRrlc red,
yello"", and white, a few hundred feet long and some
of feet wide, At the wuth end of tbe Woter-
pocket Fold the nearly Navajo is traversed by
ba.nds and potches of red that are distributed olooe
nnd the lom;nae. (See pI. 4, D.) At tbe Burr
t"nil the Navajo is· gray-white; on Sand Wash and
Cottonwood Canyons, tributary to the Parin, 'he rock
h1light yellow, with durk. red streake and bl'otches neAl'
the top.
An interesting color chn.nge w.n. observed in Payia
Canyon. Near ·the mou!.h of Sheep Orook the vertical
wall. of tbe canyon U. cl'ealll-white ahove nnd dark
red below, Ind the sharply drown division line runs
horizontslly without regard to t .. '<ture, sU'atificat.ion,
or cro .. -oodding, as if rrd ba.,l border .bollt 20 feet
hi!!h had been painted with on R white .... 11.
Thi. line marks the top of the allUVium, which at one
t.;D1e covered the ranyol' floor. Within the rock that
was deeply buriM by t.he fill t.he conditions for .ccu-
muluting and retaining tile iron pigment were more
than within the rock th.t was eotpo!ed to
the atmosphere.
A. stud1 of the N n vajo OTer wide areas in Arizona
nd Utah shows that its color has no stratigraphic
Neither vertic.,lly nor horizont.lly is I.he
of color causally relnted to texture, struc-
ture or age. For reconnai"".nce reports such ex-
as White Cl iffs and Vel'milion Cliffs ore use-
rul but such terms os " Kanab , .ndstone " and Colob
.. .dstone," bosed on color and time reln-
lioos, have liltle in tbr ir fnTOI' ." Color is nn enter-
tRinin&r guide in a superficial study of Jurassic strata
b.t unreliable in determining chronology. Its chief
uluelies in the e"idence that it affurds uf conditions
of depa;ition nnd Inter physiogrnpbic history.
In iO for ns colors are significant they call fOI' more
precise definition than usage provides. In
most fiI'Ct.ions of the Nlvajo Ihe col or of the rocl, "s
I ... hole differs from Ihe color of ""me highly tinted
porta, and wenthered Pdl'ts differ from unwenthered
parts. The rock that is wet frQlll rains or that is
.ie ... ed under overcast cl iffeI'. in tone from dry
1'OCk thlt is seen in bright sunlight. Furthermore, the
Issigned to the some exposure c1iffers wit.h each
.bse.ver. It is interesting 10 th4! terms used
uy different field to fXPl'l'SS the color of I.he
Nanjo. In describing 8.ctions nlong the Son JUI1Il
Rhoer )[ib-er spen.ks of the Nanjo IlS "cream-colored
10 yellow," "grny," and" bul," in place of Gregory's
upressions, " light, yellow," and" m,.rly white." For
the Henry Mountain region Longwell described the
Kanja IS" tan" and " Rnd buff" in rocks that ere
If(orded by Gregory as " light red" And" yellow-red."
for u... W.t. rpocket Fold oncl the Escalante region
the lel'Dls U500 by Moore closely pRrallel tllOse used by
Gregory, Ihat different shades of
,.n0lt in certain rocks which GI'cgory describes as
lig\t red.
It nUly be significant Ihat in all the descripuons
lliser, Longwell, Bryan, and Gregory use a
d,trerellt expression for Ihe rolor of the Wingate and
of tho Nanjo where Ihose formations occUr io the
ume.oettion, lind that the Todilto (I) is everywhere
dllCrlbed IS of a color different. from either the Win-
plo or the Navajo.
West of Lees Ferry ond the Paria. Valley the Glen
C.IDYOII group in whole ond in part i, prominently
?U.played. Along a line 200 miles long the charleter·
ISIie features of the Navajo ano perhaps of the Win-
.. are "ell represented, but the Todilto (f) has not
-. l'e<:ognized and in pla.ces is probobl,. absent. The
lIne-gr.ined i.n th,
_ 8 appear to correspond in hthologle, stratigraphic,
" Ellsworth. and Goldthwatt. J . W., TIle BurrlC!aDe r .. 11
"L ... .,...nnJe dlfltrld, Utab : llar"l'Ird Col1. MUll, Compo ZoeJon'
I .. 12, 203,
and topographic character to the Wingate, but the
are mOre thinly bedded thAn typiclll Wingate.
In_ZIOn .C.anyon the lo"er parl of tho Glen Caoyon
IImt exhibits peeulial'ities of jointing and 9eathering
that are characteristic of thll( Wingate but i8 not clearly
sepRrak!d from superjacent sandstone thut very closely
resembles Ihe Navajo. This condition has led to the
practice of describing the maS$ive Jurassic sandstones
west of Ihe Puis as La Plate or 01 undifferentiated
Xavljo and Wingnte. DryuD" CIAS5<'a " 1,100 to 1,200
feet of manive tao,."tlntially cl'oss-bedded red to buff
sand'stone" at Lees Ferry as Navajo· and Wingate.
Reeo.ide and nassIer" apeal\: of the JUl'lISIIic rock that
constitutes Steamboat Mountain as
nl ftESh'e cfOu -bcdded Sflnd»tone tlIDt 19 locnlly aU red but iu
moat rod In lower pl\rt und white obove • • •
(hRdng) A t otal tblckness of 2.100 teoct . DlosUl' lu sheer \VOn.
nVpetl f8 hfre to be nO break of UJll' kind In the .1l00stor.6
wnll; llot (,,'cn n Bingle sort lnyer i8 obsernlble.
In the SImla CiaI'll Valley "the cI'oss-bedding of
I.he upper white pa.rt is g striking feature and resem-
bles that of Na.nia &nndstone forther cllst."
'The Wingote and N .. "uj.o sandston ... have distinc-
t.h' e featu .... , but they also have Dlnny features in
common. As compared with the Wingate, ·the N IIvAjO
more generolly crosS-bedded, its constituent grnins
are less uniform ill size lind somewhat Ie ... th'mly
cemented, it is mOl,\) colcareolls, it includes lenses of
limestone, and it is lighter colored. But in on th_
respects variations within the Wingate and within
the Navajo are considerable; ench feature of the Win-
gote probably is duplicated 8t some plnce in Ihe
NS".jo; and hand specimens of the two sa.lIdstone.
Illight be selected in such It manner 'IS to make im-
possible the determination of their source. Further
difliculdes Ire, first, the prcsance at the top of the
Chinle of bedded sandstones sinoila.r to the Wingate
in lexture lnd composilion-a condition which has
to different interpretations regarding the upper
and lower limits of the Wingate ; second, the expression
of the Wingate in places ns n of Rlrat. .. insteau
of one massive bed; third, t.he p'cat v.riotion in
Totlillo (1) f!'Om limestone and calcareous shale t<>
shale Rnu thin sandstone, not ullcolllmonly CI'OSS- '
be..lded; fourth, the app0l'ent.Iy uninterrupted deposi-
tioll in places of III strata from the top of the Chi nle
10 the base of tile Carmel· formation.
On the buis of present field knowledge the division
plane between the Wingate and the Navajo eRn not
be dra .... n with aSljurance where the Todilto (1), or
I an unconformity representing it, is absent.
The difficulty of distinguishing the Wingate fl'om
the Navajo is illustrated by .the srt'angement and
"Bry", KIrk , 18 C. B .. arid otbll'tl, 01). cit,. p. 18.
J. 8 ., Jr .. uG )1a.IIler, H.r\'er. 8trou"".phle aecflotUI la
MlUt".,estena Uuh •• d Arllon": 0 , 8, Ot()I. BUrTf!1
(,,,,f , p, N.
composition of tlte IItrata in the Paria Canron, .... here I streRm the .walls of Gl en Canyon are built
sandBtones that occupy the 8tratigraphic p06ition of of cross-bedded sn.ndstone, wIthout the
Wingate, 'l'odilto ('), and Navajo form the canyon VlS1ble partmg that on eroded ?hffs usually marks the
waU between the mouths of Deer Creek and Kitchen l'odilto (I). The upper half IS, however, much more
Creek tributaries to tho Paria. Throughout th.is 10· calcareous and includes at intervals many lenses of
mile of canyon tlu-... roughly defined sub· denee gtllY limest?ne, 1 inch to feet thick, each trace_
oJivisionH are present: able along the chI" bees for of few feet
1. Upon typical Ohinle shales lies a series of red to more than GOO feet . . Along Vermlhon Chff between
undstono strata very irregular in thickness and ex- the mouth of the Puna and Jacobs Pools the upper
tent and the thickest and most continuous sandstone IlIIlf of the Glen Canyon group, abo"e scatt.ered lenses
bern: immediately ovnJie the Chinle. In places the of timestone, is distinctly lighter red than the lower
•• ,·il!lJ consist of one massive bed thnt forms '" sheer half.
wall 100 to 200 leet high; more commonly the sand- At Lees Ferry tbe Cbinle is unconformably over·
.tono bed. are 10 to 30 feet thick and are separated lain by aoout 80 feet of orange-red to buff minutely
by discontinuous very dark ted shalelike lenses, cross-bedded sandstone in beds 5 to 30 feet thick; one
surfaces of which are conspicuously marked by 8t1n of these beds, 2G feet thick, which is remarkably per.
crack., WOrm trails, and ripples. The length of the sistent and massive, elltends up the Colorado into tbe
longest lens noted is about 200 feet. Some of them Paria Platenu and .Ioog the Echo Cliffs and retei ...
arc li ttle mOre than short, thick piles of fragments of throughout the texture and structure
shale; others are mere films of slIn-dried mud. The of the Wingate. Above these heavy-bedded sand·
lelll'eft occupy no detinite hOl·izon; tbeir and stones lies a series of sandy shalelike beds 6 inches 10
horizontal distribution appears bapha1.lrd. 6 feet thick. Within the layers of shale are co.ltareolll
2. Above the ,·udely bedded !lIIndstone is a Zone 20 . lenses of flattened clay pellets and limo shale and fine.
to 40 feet thick, witJ,in which the .andstone beds are gnlined cong:lomerute tha.t contains din08aur bones.
lI. nally thin and, AS In No.1, are· separated Or re- The upper two-thirds of the canyon wall is eompoo;ed
placed Iliong tile . trike by lellSCs of V."Y dark red of light-red c,·oss·bedded sandston.e, which begiu,
slindy and conglomerntic mlls.-es I inch to 5 feet with bed. 10 to 40 feet thick and conlinues upward as
thh:k al,d 5 to 100 feet loug composed of lumps of 8(lO feet thick, massive eKcept for the presence
Dud shale. The cement is hi.ghly calCllteolls, oC thin leuses of blue.gl·'.y limestone. When this Re-
and nmny of the shalelike (rllgmentR are essentially tion was measLU·ed in 1916 Gregory hesihted to asign
impure limrstone. This zor.e, with little yu';ation in any part of it to the TodiIto, in view of the facta that
poeition and char.cter, was noted at f·our localities within shOlt distances along the strike the alternating
sep.ratcd by several miles. shale and thin sandstone become thick beds, tbe eal-
3. 'I'he top sc,·c''Il1 hundred feet of the canyon wnll cBreous lenses lie ot no partiCUlar hOI·izon. and locol
is C>llIlnti.lly one mnssi"e bed of white or bulT-wnite uoconformitiea are many. This doubt st.ill remailLl,
sandstone intricately throughout. This for BI·yan Tl has published .. seetion thilt 1,100
is tho" Or .. ,. Clilf .andstone" of Dutt.on so promi. to 1,200 feet of !>IIndstone with no visible po.rtinrrs and
nent.ly displayed between the Paria River 'and Knnab with th" comment that" Ihe Todilto( t) formation is
Creek. apparently absent." Furthermore, Dryan includes in
In this series suWi.i.ion No. 1 differs 1(0111 ,mOdi. the upper pRrt of the Chinle nn unrecorded amount of
.. i,ioB No. a in that its color i. red, its grains are finer . " heavy-bedded sandstono ond red shole," thua giving
its eroos-bedding i. mnch less developed, ita joint the Chinle· a thickness much greatel' than any known
telns IrQ more complex, and ita stratification is entirely eJsewhcI'<l ill this I..,gioll. Recent stud,. of this ooction
ditrel'Cnt. by Moore lends to the conclusion tnilt sandstone beds
In notebooks No.1 w •• designated Wingate, at Lees Feny and . westward .lon" t.he Vermilion
No.3 NaVAJO, and No.2 the equivalent of the Todilto Clia. have Wingote affinily and havo"'been inappropri-
with l'Ct-ognition of tbe fact thal as a whole it ateIy included in the Chinle hy severol authors. A
little lellSClt .i n No. 1 and that if Todilio is pres- short distance west of Johnson Canyon he noted an
ent.ot all It may part. of J:lo, lor p_ibly.1I . uneonfo,·nlit,. at tho of the red sandstone.
of ,t except tI.,e Ihlck cross-bedded strata immediately Brief examinations of many outcrops of lIesotoic
.boyo the Chmle. It wns also recogni<cd that No. 1 formations in no,·thweslerll Arizona, sout.hern Utah,
and No.2 combined lUay be a modified forlU of the nnd Nevada, combined with detoiled study of some of
Wingate.· them, lea,'es no doubt that thc lIlajor put of the
Near the month of tho Paria the threefold division white and red Jurassic (') cliffs, whid,
of the CIIJI!On grollp (Na,·ajo, Todilto (f), Win- ."tend with few interruptions froD! the Paria to SnntA
[.,'Ilte) I. not eVIdent. Here 811d fOJ· n few nules up-
TT c. R .• lIod ,otber.. op. cIt., p. 10.
Clara and the hlollnt.Hins
Spring MountaIns of Nevada, IS composed of N.va)o
.andstone. To what extent t.he Todilto (i) and Win-
Ita are represented remains to be determined. Cer-
these formations, where they are preserved west
of the Pari .. , lack the clear expression familiar to
workers in regions farther east, bllt there i. evidence
Co ,how that the Wingate in less massive form is trll<'e-
Ible from Lees Ferry at least to Kanab, and the
ch.DgG in conditions of sedimentation represented by
Todilto (I) may be demonstrated at several places.
In Johnson Canyon, Utah, heds that al"e tentlllively
,";"ned to the Wingate include thin bed .. in additiofl
to red, massive, intricately cross-bedded, fine-
grained bed more than 200 feet thick, and the Todilto
(t) may be represented by 120 feet of thin calcareous
sand6tone, including thin sheets of resistant limestone,
for the most part slabby and irregula}'_ Erosion has
stripped back the Navajo sandstone from the top of
these beds and left a terrllal more than a mi Ie wide,
abo\'. which rise the impressive White Cliffs. In the
Kannb Vlllley the Chinle cliffs are capped by regulnrly
bedded thin sandstone th8t leads up to heavy beds of
Illassive .andstone. About 240 feet above the Chinle
the sandstone is interrupted by , zone of sandy lime-
st01le and chert, which 111i1Y represent the Todilto (t).
It seems not improbable that 'by taking ca"eflll note
of the features that distinguish the Wingate and the
Na •• jo, Bnd keeping in mind the wide ,'oriotiol) in
aspect of the Todilto (I), the Wingate may be tmced
from the Paria to localities beyond the Virgin River
and ehe Todilto (1) to the Kanab Valley.
The Stln Rafael group is well displayed in the Kai-
parowits region. On the Paria Riv.r A few mile.
below old Paria village and north of the White Clift.
it is very widely exposed. At Cannonville it fonns
the beautiftIUy banded walls which give that village
its picturesque setting. The Dry, Round, and Butler
Valleys are rimmed about with San Ro.1ael sandstones,
and the mounds, mesas, and "chimneys It that rise
from their ftOOI'S are remnants of widely spread friable
sandstone, gypsum, and shale. (See pIs. 11, D; 22, D.)
Along lower Glen Can von the San Rafael is trenched
by Wahweap, 'Warm,- Kalle Springs, Last Chance,
and Rock Creeks, which outline the brilliantly colored
waU of the Kaiparowits Plateau as u crenulated
line of elill. whose carved edges meet abruptly the
wavy red surface at their base. On both sides of the
Colorado River the /Desas a nd towers of San Rafael
beds, capped by MOl'rison and Dakota ('), ri&& high
above th. wide platform of wind-swept Navajo sand-
aWne. (&! pIs. 10, A, 0; 22, A.) .4.t the southeast
end of th. Kaiparowits Plateau the San Rafael bed.
stand high on the cliffs, U IUDSS of color bands that art!
broken by scores of canyons .
In the Valley the San Rafael group forms
an uneven 6001' from 'Willow Crcek to Pine Creek,
where erosion of the upper bed. of the group, which
are involved in the Escalante monocline, has produced
the colored mounds, bench ... , and' ridges that give the
village of Escalante its ottract;',. setting. '1'he
Straight. Cliffs, the northeast front of the KMparowits
Plateau, show San Rafael beds at their base. Bellin-
ning at Alvey Wash with a few fcet of the upper
, strRtn, the thickness gradually increases until at Fifty-
mile Point the whole group is exposed in a terrace
I that is capped by Mon'ison and Dakota (I) and under-
lain by Navajo snndstone. From Escalante the group
Call be tr_oed along the base of the Aquarius Plateau
but gradually thin$ ulltil north of the Circle Cliff. it i5
Cllt out by the Cretaceous-Tertiary erosion iUl·face.
(See p. 116.) On tho east side of the Water pocket
Fold the full thiokness of the San Rafael group iii ex-
posed at the Bittel' Creek divide. South of this point,
"'here its upturned strata form the bed of HilI! C,..,.k, .
the San Rafael is partly concealed, except on the
mesas that stand back 'l'Om tho Wilterpocket Fold.
(See pI. 19, A.)
In all Ihese al'eas the usual topographic expression
consists of brightly colol'ed cliffs that a.re handed on
n huge scale. A sloping base ,that. i. formed by the
Carmel, which rests on the N sVllio sandstone, is suc-
ceeded upward by the ma .. sive, thick cross-bedded
Ent.rado undstone and by steep slop"" of co'lor-banded
rocks (Smnmeryille) leading to green-white Morri-
son, which i8 overlain by a resistant Dakota (1) cop.
As Q unit in the succefsion of great terracell that ex-
I,I..,.S the Mesozoic rocks of the Kaiparowih region,
I the San Rafael beds are not an outstanding fea,tu .. e.
The great cliffs of which they form a part owe theil'
persistence to the 1),,1<otl\ (!) snnrlstone, which pro-
tects the friable bods beneath
The thickness of the San Rafael group dilfers re-
gionally nnd locally to a considerable degree. In the
Poria Valley thicknesses of 640, 700, 880, .10, and
feet were measured i along Glen Canyon, 420,
860, 800, and feet; in the Escalante Valley, 336,
'170, 164, 600, and 380 feet; east of the Waterpocket
Fold, 910, 1,260, and 1,610 feet. These differences in
, thickness are explained in part by the . unequal de-
: velopment of the fOl'mations of the San Rafael group,
in part by the d.lferent amounl8 removed by pre-
Morrison eromon, and also in part by the difficulty
in some loclliues of determining the base of the
Striking small-scale erosion for/IUI are characteristic
of the San Rafael. The g,·eat irregularity of bed-
ding, the different amounts and kinds of cement, and
the rapririons disl ribution of color favor the produc-
tion of moullds, tables, balls, and mushrooms, t.ilted
• t various angles and dceorated with color stripes of
various widths and tones. Especially in the thin-
bedded erosion has left lpoolo, tpindles,
and U stone babies" of {antlStic.shapes, some of which
ha"e smooth surfoces and others ribs and bo"like
.heh-es. With changing light g they assume the ILP-
pellrance of birds and ILnimals and the legendary be-
ings of Piute mythology. Although these figure. are
commonly but. few in"hes Or at most a feet high,
the absence of .,,!:rounding debris make.' them con-
spiellou, .nd givtl6 the effect of g"otesquely cll"ved
surfaces hundreds of squ .. re feet in .rea.
When traced along the strike, the beds thot consti-
tute the San Rofael group re" •• 1 many changes in
thick,n""", texture, ano:l aggreglltc composition. Note-
book sketches of bed. sho\\' cliffs Ind .Iopes
diffe,·.nUy related to each other Md at differeut alti-
tude. obove the Navajo. In t he section at Cannonville
thick IDllssive clilT-mRking beds occur in the middle
and neRl' the bottom. In the corresponding section cn
Cottonwood C''Celc the lil'st clift' maker is nea,. the top.
In some plRCes very soft sandstone Rnd sholelike beds
wnstitut. o. much ns 75 per cellt of B section, but else-
whore the hOJ'izon above the Carmel formation i. oc-
c\!pied in a lorge part by thick fairly hard massive
bcd.. Singlo beds or ... ndston. split. up along the
strike, and their tol' or bottom or middle is replaced
by .hnlc i also tbe continuity of a series of beds of
.h.le O1"y be inte.Tupted by huge lellses of sandstone.
Withill • distonce of 40 feet /l bed measured ncar
Cannonville breaks "l' into six beds seporated by
lumpy shale. III a brood sense the Sun Rafael i. com-
1>06e(\ essentially of sandstone in beds .nd
shaleIike bed. and contains slIbo"diute amounts of
gypsum and limestone, but in detail two exposures
that Ii. less thou 10 mil"" npo.-t m.y be sufficiently
unlike to justify dilTe.loent .ubdi,·isions and descrip-
tioll'" Gyp.llIll1 o..'Curs at several horizons. It ranges
in amount from di. seminuted grains to beds that ex-
ceed 50 feet in thickness and are continnous for sev-
eral miles. Limestone i. inconspicuous at the expo-
Sllre' in the Kaiparowits region, but calcareous
lilyers constitute perhaps aile-sixth of the beds.
Cross-bedding is characteristic of all the oaudstones
of tIle San Rafael gl'0up. III the thicker beds it is
display"" 16 a tracery af curves, rllised in
reliof by weathering, and dOsely resembles that of the
Navajo sandstone. In the thinner appears a.
curves Bnd as truncated series of thOl't parallel lines
te.rminated by othe,' iinel at different degrees
of mdmftt,on. Ccmmonly cross-bedding laminae
Moe separated by a film of scattered groins of la"gel'
size thnn those in the body of the ,rock.
The dominant colo.' of the San Rafael gI'OU,p' and of
Its parts differs from place to place. In the Glen Cia .
yon district prom;lIent bands of dark r ed are Inter_
strlltified with white, and in the upper valley of the
Paria the prevailing tone of the sandstones \9 bright
yello,v-red. In a few places t,he group loses its attrac-
tiYe featUl'es and becomes in general du'll gray. The
color of the San Rafael ""ndstones-massive bccla and
"huly beds Illike-nl'ies directly with the amount and
character of the cement ing material. Rocks frOOl
which cement is prllctically absent are white, as a",
IIlso the crlUllbling surfaces und the dunes that have
immediately resulted from the "emo"al of uncon..,li_
dllted matel·ial. The groins that compose ti,e white
J'ocks, the dunes, Bnd also the hand specimens after
the cement bas been eliminated are composed of clear
quartz, n£sociated with some white ieldspol', very small
dmOtlrit. of biotite, and rare mugnetite. Where pres-
ent, the cement of the white and green-white rocks is
or cllcite und ferrolls iroll, or calcite Rnd gyp-
SUJll , Qr o&ld te, fel'rous iron, and gypsum; the grains
of rocks thnt .how dominant yellow tonea ore held to-
gether by calcite and limonite, and the distinctly red
<ock. have for cemellt calcite and fe"rie iron. The
deeply colored red rocks .,·e those thut hBVe the fiues!;
grains. In some of them the iron between and around
the quartz graillS equals in amount 'the grllillS them-
The patches and streaks and large continuous areas
of color are distributed without r eference to any
known controlling facioI'. In general, it that
I!niformly yel!O\v 01' li ght-red tones chamctedze Iftrgll
rock masses of uniform texture, and that di scontinuous
Itrens of dark red, g"een, und white characterize masses
of vorying texture. Also in geneI'm, white bands lIS-
socillted with yellow and light red are most common It
01' near foliation surfaces and ulong cross-beddin,
laminae. But there a"e many exceptions. Disk, of
white stand out conspicuously on un otherwise red
wall, and frayed ribbons and streamers of eros
.nd recross dill fIlces, seemingly regardl.."a of
ture or texture, .s if .. hit., paint had been capriciously
applied by human h. nds.
Observntion seem. to wal'l .. nt tIle snggestion that the
.... hite qUR.tz SInd of the San Rafael sandstones ,..85
converted into rock by the infilt.ration of calcite and
thnt the calcite cemeut was progressively replaced by
irou. On this assumption part of the wldte rock ,..-
moins as originally formed lind part doubtless owes it.
whiteness to the blMl' hing of all or part of the cement·
ir.g material. That the cement from the interior of the
rock is in proeess of removal to the surface is indicated
by " casehal·dening." The surfoce of mQny outcropa,
of beds, cOMisf.li of a shell of tightly
cemented material , bacle of which the rock is merely aD
aggregation of loose SIInd groins. Waters from tile
t." small sprinlP that i.sue frolll the red and yellow
rooks aDd Ihe ro.inwnsb o\'er their surfaces hl\' e very
little calcium sulphate but hold greater amounts of
... \ciuro earbonate and iror' oxides than the waters
trom the white rocks or even f,'om th& brown rocks of
toe overlying Cretaceous. The efflorescence about some
suips III,., a reddish tone,
An unconformity appears to exist locally at the base
of the SIlD Rafael, and there is 8 widespread erosional
break at its top i in some places nn unconformity mny
b<! demonstl'llted in beds thot imlllediately overlie the
loweB! thick cross-bedded sandstone (Entrada), But
iu mnny places those relations &1'0 by no meaDS clear,
.Dd conel .. tions between meAsured section. al'8 mnde
IIlOre difficult by the presence of mftny local uncon-
tormities tbat perhaps have regional significance.
Certainly some IJf them hoyc only loe"l manninA', for
it i. unreasonable to Q8SUme thAt sHch unlike beds as
alike up the San Rafael hlll' e resulted from uriform
conditions of deposition.
on the well-defined lithologic w,its established by
Cross," who chose the term "McElmo formation"
for beds that" correspond closely to the Morrison and
Como beds and thQ Flaming Gorge group of Powell "
olld concluded that" it is probable that the marine
Juraosic horizon belonga between the La Plota and
the McEhno formations." Lnpton" followed Cross in
trenting th. strata between the IA Plata sandstone
and the Dakota aa a single form .. tion, the "McElmo,"
but outlined" members" that have widely divergent
I f ... tures and history and made the significant remark:
"It is possible that th. bad contohung thi. [marine
Jurasoie] fauna is oldor thin th. basal beda of the
typiCIII McElmo." Doke" subdivided the" McElmo
formation" into" upper McElmo, Snit Wnsh member,
ond lower McElmo" (fos3iliferoua zone with Sun-
dance founa). The terminology of Cross was adopW
by Grogory;n mapping the counlFy, but satis-
facto,'Y correlation of the beds that ol'erlie the Navajo
with the" MeElmo" at its type locality incrM""d iu
difticulty lIS the series w .... traced northwestward, On
t·he Moenkopi Plateau th. presence of limestone ond
The series of beds tbat overlies the Navajo sand- much CalClU'COUS shale between typical ," McElmo "
stone and is terminll.ted up,,"or.;! by the Ddkota( I) sandstone and Navajo sandstone and the uofanulia<
iIUIdstone presents problems in correlotion and in ' 6xpretioion of the Navojo itself mode it seem desirable
of the conditions of deposition that so ' to describe the beds occupying the general horizon of
fir hQ\'e not been solved, In the plateau country these the marine Jurassic as " undifferentinted Navajo ",nd
bed$ extend from the Zuni Mountains of Nelv Mexico McElmo."
norlhward OCrOSS the Navajo Reservation into western A study of the equivolent strota north of Glen Con-
Colorado and eastel'll Utah and north westwllFd thl'Ougb yon showed that although beds that resemble the
lOuthern Arizona and Utah to points beyong the Vir- " ?fcElmo » sandstone ond shale of McElmo Creek are
gin River. Throughout this ,'ost ",rea the sel'ies has preg()nt, beds quito diffel'ent in composition Ilnd origin
SOllie feutures in common, but these features are not IlJld probably in age occupy the strntigl'opbic position
lontinuously displayed and do not all occupy th. same of the" McElmo" lind led to the belief that a contin-
.. ratigrnphic positions_ The .. ttempts to correlute u.tion of the previous correllLtion is likely to serve 110
tllene diverse beds chiefly on the bltsi. of lithologic uscful purpose, A ne'" claesification was therefore
stuJies "t widely sepal .... ted localities, on the border of adopted for tbe $Odes of !Jedg in southern Utah be-
.n u'ea exceeding lOO;()O(} square mil"", has na.turally , t .... een the top of the Navajo land.tone ond the lower-
led 10 unsatisfactory results, In the Henry Moun- most stratum assigned to the Dakota (t) sandstone,
lains Gilbert" assigned to thQ "Flaming Gorge In this tentative classification three fonnntions with
group" 111 bed. between the White Cli. (Navajo) local nlmes went assigned to a lowe,' group, deter-
sandstone and the and in the Paria Valley mined as of Upper Jurassic age, and the remaining
Rowen" included equivalent beds in a measured lee- rtrata were recognized as the equivalent of the
lion that is difficult to inte''Pret. Of the beds in the KMcElmo" or Morrison, of Jurassic or Lower Creta-
Escalante Basin Dutton" remarks: ceoUI age, While the present report was being pre-
A1'I>1Iud tbe IK't\\'Ork or ClDyona lIihutal'J to tho JCaoaIlDte. pa,-ed, studies by Gilluly and Ree.ide sbowed that
the Tn •• and lur. "'ere IItterl, IJlIIccet8lble, 'Dd Ibe Joeatl.D JurL""ic formations corrt!llponding in general with
ot'be leForO'iD" borl •••• ,,'nl InCerred rrom 'he color or lbe those In the KaiJlClrowito region are '1!presented in the
bod. aU<! 'b. orronK"",eut oC Ibe r"""" led, .. viewed' !ram. Son Rafael Swell. To ovoid duplication of forma·
cn.tllK'e. tion nameo stratigraphiC term. applicable to bolh re-
Moat geologists working in Colorado, Arizona, and !!ions were selected, Beginning .t tbe top of the
Dllh have found it advantageous to base correlations Kavajo th_ fonndions Ille the Carmer, Entrada, Cur-
• CroiUl, WbILasu, ned bed. of .,ut,b1\'ett.ern Colorado .04 tlMlr
eorreJaUoD: QeoL 8oe. America BUill •• 1'01. lB, p. 408. lOOn:.
• Lapooll. C. T .. GeolofQ' &.nil coal retOUfcn oC c..tle 'faller. Utab:
U. S. Cool. Boll 628. pp. 23-20. HUa.
• Dob, C. L .. Horlaon ot tbe lIl.rlpe Jurll .. lc oC Uta": JOIl' , Oeol-
0D. vol. 21, p. &U. 191 ..
tis and Summerville fonnalions, whicb constitute the
Rafae! group. Abo .. them lies the Morrison
formation, wbich is tentl&ively considered Lower Cre-
taceous. The Curtis formation i. _ntially restricte"
to the count"y north of tbe Fremont River. These re-
I.tion. are .hown in Plate 5.
C AJillEL FOJI .... T10N
Powell" noted the presence of -limestone contain-
ing Jurassic foesil." as Q capping of tbe gray clilTs
next Above tho Vermilion Cliffs, and Gilbert" snys:
Upon both torks o( fbe Virgin River ond upon I[nnob Cref'k
I found lurUfile forms (lnducllnl kllf,trwt ...
nnd Peu'ocrffl .. ' .. lui'eM.' In I· cNnm-eolol'e<1 8rt'nneeoWJ
Ind tbEl)' nppart'd (0 be rHlrleted to n brk'( "Tt'r.
tk'!al muse.
8b.l .. with < ... 1.
O)1*lferous IiholH:
Rool li.y """1.______________________ ______ 100
Mit. _"'l . hAle ... lth bo .. 1a of np. um______ roO
RC«lle ({lNIII!upol. n!enreotnl aD(}
1r('Oaceo •• bc<1$ :
Bf"tIde1J llmestoDPI (CQ.,ptoncott,. IRooaa·
.... J------------------------------------ 30
CltlenJ'eoDJ ab .. 1e 'ft'Jtb lome lonIl __ . ________ GO
Cnlf'lrem1l1 lf'Ct:le lIondstone .ba!y
tUWDl'd too (PbIJla)_________________ 00
Solt red "bnle _______ ___________________ _______ ______ 00
MnMlve tro .. ·hctkled
Howell's "section from Last Bluff [Table Cliff]
south-southwest 86 mil .... "" lists WO feet of bfds ftS

&-diolt r,."., To" .. Cliff aCH"' -lJO;I'l-M:f,lwun.. Via"
Pnle·red DlRRVC!' snud. t<llle_______________ 126
Varlecntl'd cn>JJtermw wHh rreen IlDd .ta.te
roJoh ut Ibp tOI'_________ _________ _________________ liG
I'ulr.·ydluw rflkllreoo. IGnd.!ltone________ '1G
Red, rcllow, purple. 8D(1 ,I'll)' 'lItarls 1t..1" DDd foud-
tIotonH ----. ___ - ____________________ .____ ___ _ ___ __ __ 12G
H.owen .. recognized equivalent st.rata on Dirty
DeVil (Fremont) Rh'er, 780 feet thick; "011 the .ollt.h-
weAt aide of EilCAlnnte River," 980 to 11S0 feet thick,
at. Pine ].fountain, 1,200 feet. ' ,
EOltwl.r(l it thin. out rftpldb·. until in eAstern ArizoDIl And
!n Now l[nl<o It dlaapp .. ro o"th..,\f. Bods e.ldonUy
tlPlonlrlna to thitt Rri<"f. were aetoe Dt>ar the Moenkopi, but DO
d@ftnlte III ... nt Ih.lr Ihl.tn ... eould b.
".-.w@ll. J, W., .... ..a.nt .. ., Cel., ... IllfeJ' of tM "'tift d
It. trt.lW;hl.rIH, , . 1 .. , lii&. . JD
"GmwrL, 0. K .. U. 8, Get'll, Geol. SOnr" " . leotll lIer.
Itep .. col. I, p.. 11", 1S'i4.
• • dr., ... liD.
-l:Iow,ll, 10:. R. • .,. 'CIt., ,. HI.
-Ilk-lID, pp. :1:81. 24ii.
Dutton" speaks of the Juraso;ic as
• of brtgbt·red: fossiUferou9 shales - • - beds ........
vary mucb I. quaHty. lOme being calenreouli, BOme gypelfer.
I OU' •• d albers thJnly bedded Mudstone i • - - tbe CI1a.r.-
OU5 Jayers abound 'a typical Jurass, lc fossil •.
In tbe Kanab Valley tbey comprise 500 feet 'of
"calcareous shales, limeston(l$, and gypsiferous shale.."
Walcott" records 960 feet of beds between Whit.
Clift' &andstone and demonstrably Cretaceous beds. In
"cream-colored mBgllesian limestone and snndy mala,"
110 feet above the base, MyaUn<t- (JamptOMcI.,
O. emtenualt>Rf, C. stygfu8, Peat,.. n. Ip.,
ltIyophqria m .. b-i1ineata, A8ta:rtef sp. l, Trig()'ff,ia.l.p.',
Ostrcca ItrigileCtila, and Solu:J-iulTIl.f sp. were collected.
N@ar Glendale, Utab, Stanton" found 1 to 8 feet
of red sbale, 292 feet of fossiliferous limestone and
shale, 135 feet of soft red sandy and 16 to M
feet of gypsum in turn above the Navajo.
In sections measured on the Colob Plateau Let"
includes 4() feet of (ed shale and gypSlIlO Dnd 250 foe!
of brown earthy limestone o\'erlying massh'e Junssie
13ndstone, and Richardson" records 800 feet of vari-
colored shale, sandstone, gypsum, and marine lime.
b10ne bela\\' beds refened by him to the Color.do
Foosiliferous and gypsifcrous marine beds on the
east Allnk of the SaR Rafael Swell were noted by 0;1.
bert," who placed tbem .t the base of his "Flamilll
Gorge group"; by Lupton," who classed them as baSllI
"McElmo "; and by Emery," who considered tbl!m
equivalent to the Todilto of the Navajo country. Near
Loa, in the Fremont Valley, Dake'" measured 859 fe«.
, of shale, saudstone, limestone, nnd gypsum
white cross-bedded Navajo sandstone. From equin-
lent beds a few miles distsnt Pent=rinu81JJhitn Clarl,
Oa:tnptontctt8 plat6Mi!omWl White, and Trigoni.
lJuadrtmgulari8 wel'e collected. From limestone 22
feet above lbe Navajo sandston!) in Capitol Reef Wast.
fossils collected by Gregory in 1918 were identilled by
Stanton o. Ostrea Itrigfl«tJ1a Wbite, Ca:rtUnitJ D. sp.,
OamptO'llecte8 .tygiul Whit.e, and TrapezWm.1 sp_
• DuHo •• C. It , Rc-I'ort OD tbe geolo" of the IIi,b Pl atnUil o.f UUItt
0. Hit , U. S, Ceol. and Get.l. Surv('), Rock)' ne.loo. J8M:
'l'ht liT' bt.wry of Ibe Grand CalJ:J'o:t dhrtrkt: U. S. Q('OI. Iarft)'
'lI01I. 2. p. :lG, lR82.
- W.k'Mt, C. D., 8ec1loD IQC!Qlu"ed In Kon.b VaneT •• U7t, II
CJ'ou. '\\'bUaM.O, .nd. Hllwe, ErD"t, Rf!d bedll of eo..,"'"
anll their correlation : Oeo1. Soe. Atnerlco. Bull .• 1'0}. lIS. ,p. 484-
48.i, 1·90:..
StJ\'bton·, T. W., unptlblhrhcd Dote •.
III'Lee. W. T ., Tbc lroll COUDI)' COI).l field, ut:a.b: U. I, 0801. lurver
lIull. 318, P. 302, 1007.
• Rld ... l"tlMo. O. B .. The B nJ'IOODY. Celob and Raa" eoal I'"
(ltak: O. 8;. OtoL 6 .. "el sf), Po 181. looL
111 Gill· ... rt. Q . K., Re(lOrt 00 tbe IP!OIOU .r tbe Heol'J' 3IICM1Dtalal.
: . U. a. Geo ...... 0<.>01. 9un., Roc:\3' lite. bet:doe. 1880.
Lupton, C. 7., GeologJ altd <:0,,1 rea.ourc:n 0" C .. Ue "aUt, ,.
OIrlloa, 5:me".. end Sc"lf'c CQUDtlES, Utah: U. S. Gear. Buy,," ..
I"", .. •• 9.8.
.. E_.", lV, .. , Ttle GrK-A River Destrl aedion: A.m. 1M!'. lei .•

.r .. Tot. 48. pp. 631-G31, 1918.
nake. c. L., The bor.SOII ot tbe marine Suraq le of utall: loar.
000100'. 1'oL 2i. p. 638. 1919.

r. ::; . (a; O;:'OGI C,'-L SUR" !:: Y
pnOF[S810:-: .... L r" N.: n IG-t r LA'n: 8
:1 , VIEW l.oOKING Non"l1 ACHQSo\ COLORAOO R! \' I·: n "' .. :AU .... :Rlly
T ille.t twndl i:s "'{ld.: 10 )' nl lI",iY'1j ShilinrufIlp ("I)nq:loanr, tllo', llzmrlr..1 'Ioaolopi ,Lr,II :. UIIOOflrc.malil., \1'11"'11 .. It",
CMo!a rormnl iou iu hu"."n.'<II' I)d. •
H. IIt.:Tn; OJ" (: 111 1'\ 1.1-:
, s'r ' F' SOliTIlWESTt'UN I',\ltT
31-1.\1.1:-: C:HPl.;o UY JOI NTEIJ \\J NC; ATF. 5,\:'11 0 ON .. . • . , .
OF f: II\CLI': c:1.1t·· ..
(, , ·.1 l I .jIUJ Iho fl rll in by .t"l
j'\'vle ..,f joint-. 1)11 \\ 1: ... lI, r. rinj{ IJf l h" :.I, Od"h\'... . Thl; . lotI" Ii Cotttl!lt ,. . lItu·:,. ra fl,
A. W"I.I. ew C: OI.OII ... DO nI"F." 0 MIJ.E3 ABOVE MOUTH or TI-It: r.;SC,\LAl'iE
n. 1I 0NI:::\'(:0:-'1I} WK\TIIERI NG IN DLOCK OF ::\ AN DSTON E, slI..n:n
... .-\f'1..S C,-\ NYOi\'
o. s, . GEOLQGlCAL
I',\I'I-;U Jfi.4 PL:\TE 10
A. {jl..t:N CANYON Wt:ST OF KANt::
GUJl"i;;hl Huu(\, shO'l'o'1l in lim VMtw. ill L.'UIII]'IQIiCd 1.,( 11M' MOmlil:lfl, Summ'!f,·m6 Mad Enlmda on n wKjn
of farmatlon. which "\(,llIl" to t.hoo rocqrounJ.
n, W..-.U. UOlWE:n1NG I\ANE Cnr::EK
Conl:\ct (It odSl(I f)(\ .. flo!! Curmd f onn:l. • .ion.
C CI FN Nt·:AR MOUTH 0'" WAlnl Sf'lUNGS Cfn;EK .
" • ..• ". ,', 1'/111 Todilt'l fOr{nul.:on j,. O:> 1pu .... 'J ' W' <r tlu: "n'r ](0 •. 0'1 .
The n.·arl y dilT ill forrm. .. 1 of NIlVlljO ",- ."" ,ld!i(lW\'e.ph I . " I " Ln Bu.'
l -n QIi)fl"J''' ')..... . "
n. s. (;1::0f, OGICM, s un.' EY
pnOI'Es...<;Im'AL PAI'en PT • .\'l'r: I I
" ,' '',' O" ,' l '(J'',' ", " , "I) r.AI r. "IU::OUS SfH,LI:: OF r:AIlMEr. FOHMATlON NEAll A. !lANDED 111·: n ANI) wllrn: ,-,,, ,, ., 'u ,..... "
Tltl;: OF Till:: l",\TIIl!:ns
II. r.I.IFF 0 ).' :\!.\AAI\'.; }O;-:\'TIUO.\ OYimUtN flV (lANDED SUMMEIWILI.l-: 81'\\ .\T.\ AND
C:\l'rEO U\' tU:M:\A-"HI Of S.","OSTO='it-:, I{AU's cnf..p.K ' ·ALI .EY SEAlI n.\KEH ""NCH
1'.\1'EIt 1(,1
A. rHo' SIIALY SAi'ODSTOi'OE l i\' C:\IHlt:L
FUH:\(AT lON. ·to io'!':I=;T A1l0 \' E O}o' NAV.\JO 11\ DRY CA!\'·
YO1\'. Or'
c. cnos.s-Jlf.OOEn r::-.lTJtAD,\ S,\NOSTONE NF.AR
U. S. GEOLOGI CAl. S["rtn: y
rHoYY.SSION.-\T, PAl'EH 1(,; Pf ..... :n; 13
A. . OJ S,\NnSToNE I :'IIIL1=: OF
The 45 to 450 f eet of beds along upper Glen Canyon
d the Waterpocket Fold that lie between the Navajo
• " . f' ",ndstone and a very mllSSlve so t lIght creamy-
white, tan, orange.red cross-bedded sandstone" were
grouped by Longwell a nrl Moore" as "gypsiferous
and sandstones" and placet! at the" horizon of
marine Juntssic "-" Todilto (1) formation of Em-
,ry," "included ill McELmo formation by Lupton."
In the Diamond VlIlley, 15 lIules north of St.
George, Utah, and oVeI-lying undifferentiated Wingnte
ind Nal"Ujo, Reeside and Bossler" ,found about 460
feet of" grecnish-grny, crcllm-colored, and brown fos-
siliferous marine limestone, underlain by brick-red
snndstone, shale, and gypsum." Included fossils" fix
Ibe age as undoubtedly that of the marine Jurassic of
the region,"
Thc ob"ions utility of fossiliferous beds as a horizon
marker in the midst of thousands of feet of unfossil-
iferolls strata led Gregory and Noble' to stndy the
'marine Jnrassic" in the Pnrnnuweap and Kanab
Valleys at loculitics "nere fossiliferous limestones had
been noted by Powell lind Dutton and to trace these
beds or their equivalentg westward to the Diamond
Valley and eastward to Roel, Creek.
In tbe Long Valley (upper Virgin YaUey), begin-
ning at the hend of PlI.runuwenp Canyon, fossiliferous
marine Jurnssic is exposed on the down-thrown side of
the fault that murks the wcst base of the Pnllllsaugunt
Plat.eau- the Sovier fault of Dutton, Near the village
of UOllDt. Cal'lIIel beds that lie betwe.en the NIL,'ajo
"ndstone nnd struta. assigned to t.he Cretaceous form
low cliffs, mesas, ridges, and rounded knobs that are
distributed as foothills lending upward to the in-
h'ie,tely dissected Colob Plateall. lIIeDsul'ed sections
include at. their base n series of limestone, shale,
gypsum, and friable sandstone, for which the lIame
Carmel formotion hilS beeu proposed.
A composite section made "l' of fin partiul sec-
tions at the type locality of the Carmel formution-
all the beds not exposed at anyone place-consists
of the following beds:
S{J(1{Q)l. 01 Cal'mel !annatton. between. "'irgin ,R.iur brl4gc §n'
a p(liJlt about P nJ.-ile.s 1Oe .. of Mount Oarmel -.lllogc. Cltall
by Herbert E. Grf,orrl
Cfetllceons: Feet
23-30, SaDdstone. buD'. brown, coarse, aDd _hale,
with oou1-- _____________________________ 200+
Cr"uccous (7):
Morrison (?) !onno.lioD-
22. Sandstone, white, with greenlsb dbl--
integrates readily i thlcknelS ecUmated__ ®
-LonJ:'lJell, C, n., and othel"8. op. dt.. p. 4.
J. B .. Jr., Bnd BaslIlcr, HDney, dt .• JIP. ,",', eot.
eratory, B. E .• and L. F., '" • po...,;tc .. l l.ra\"en:e
lriIIobo.\·e. Calif.. 10 the mouth or SaD JUAll' Jlf\'u, Ut .. tI: Am.
OUt. Set .. 6t1l a('r., \'01. ri. p. 231. 1023.
SumOltnille: (1) Ft·C't
21. Sandslone. bnn(jKj .. lternatel" lltle red uhd
",bite, thin 'bedded, weakly consoUdated;
is essentially i ('01«:1,1'1(1". Iud C'l"Pllff>tl.lus
sUL_____ _____ _ ___ _ ___ __ __ ____ _ __ _ __ __ _ 130
COI'D'lel tormatlion-
20. Liructltl)ne, gru1, land.)!. o()lLUc in (>art. u 14:"ns
feet IouI': tral'ments' of TriOonla. ond
0811'(."(1. __ __ • ________________ .• ______ __ ___ 1,.J
19. SlIndstone, houded pole rl!;J ond wblte, Hr.e
grained, tdnble __ .. _____________________ 13
IS. Gypsum, wbite. lumpy; ubse-nt 120 feet dis-
tunt nlollr titdke _____ .. __ ... ______________ 3
17. Sandstoue, red and gr("eD. wblte bunded;
in composition l1ke No_ 19______ ________ 12
IG. G)'p:rum" wbltl. .... gret"8, Imeoded lufo muses
like I:rlsde In bo(.-on ... _____________ .. , .. __ _ 16
]G. Shulc. wblte, gJ'pJllferolJtI and
H. GypliUID, wblte aad p'eeo, ' • .-ltb pink
:neat lot): evonl" be(]ded, brea.k., into
obout 1 Inch thick_______________ ·1
]3. uneonrorJuitJ"; pocl(i.-ts [n eroded surtllce
nre ftJled wIth thnt ot peb-
bit' S ond of quortz, treeD lIIud
sbnlc, ulld red sho.Ie.
12. Sanchitoue .. In('bu to e, reet tMe).;.;
30 alternate))" bond(.-d wbite
Illld pnkt red, '1'Uh bJ'lgbt"red aDd
uplJer l)(lrt hns )'ellow C4atj
mnny beds nry unew·'n nud thlu,
short lC1l1C.'i or contorted 1uIJIPJ calcareous
mud. greeD Ilme !!llltlll, nnd buil pluty
Ume6l' onc i beds with streaks
of In eOBl])otdtion iJke No. 19____ OS
11. Lll.Oeston., grO)1 'tl,} CfeuJU-colon-d,
£lenSl"; brittle, hn ro; lower part in oell:"
3 to 5 feet thick; upper part split1'l hHQ
slubs 1 to 3 incttf'S tblck; topmo...,t bed
wade porons by remo\'al DC ('IIlY IlQU-
utes; :."ol1nUon Hur(I\Ce'9 PJ'OfUs,l!Iy
Jllflrke<1; contains 7'rI,()II{a
UnU and Wblt.flehl, Do.dnia. 1/lranica.
Whittle-Id, and uD<letcrmloL"d gO,J(r0{lOds :
forms cops or mesns ______ -:- _____________
IV. Sflole, gray 10 bull', In 1>Il11Cr-lbln O\'er-
Io.pping bellB, calcareous; foliation sur-
.fnces .1Dootb and 'tfstenlng_______ _____ 10
V. Limestone. crellm-cnlored. • • hnrd
, IUi-
wittl thJn leu_'ICa aod sellm.. of
<"Ilel't; bl'eolt. .. NDC!holdul (rli;lllre__ 1%
8. 5hftlc, Iikel No. 0; forms slope on all DleSllS
In ttLll vlelnU"________ _____________ ____ SU
7. buff, eerLhy. one JDossllO'e bed;
top ('t)Dsllt!f lafi!ely ot broken lihells.____ 2
O. Sbille, ealcareou, and lreollcoous, Dod tbin
flIrt,by Iimcstont, Ira7 to cream-colorcd,
lIuky. friable. in dlscontlJmoun beds; fQs-
slls ahundnnt. including OaN-ca IJtrigl-
leCfi14 Wbite Lima Hull
nn4 ____________ .______________ 22
5. SsuditODt. erl)" to butf', Terr
(OP (ewlnches coated wU" beaigtltu11.)' pre-
sen'ed Item Joints Petdcgi,..,. cwterll-
en \feell and. Hlyden, _______ .. .. _________ 4.
Cannel formllli on-Conrjoued.
4. LimeHtone R,od cnlcnrevus in beds.
ieslt tblUI 1 ineb thlck... _________ _____ _
iJ. Llme8t()ne, c:ream"CoJored, earthy at bot ·
toID, tew teet pink, I1ml very HtUu.l y In
cUt! sect ior.s. npparentl y In beds " :0 8
fret lhlck but weathers into t hin
________________________________ _
2. SlIale, hri ck' r(!d, ht'cak.!:l into thin hanl
cbllr.-', CIl1cl1rl'OllS at the top __________ _
1. SalJ(bit olle. ,L;rcen-whlte, In places C'Ou'
gl omerate with reu quurtz ora1o:-s,
:; r(!cn mud pellet:.4 ond shale tral;weuts :
aloog strlkc I hl s bed thll'keus,
or dls.'lppeurg __ _____ ___ _______ ___ . __ ____ 6_
Uucorl t'ol'iu I ty.
,lul'lu,-sle(?) :
CUI'ntetl'Ol'mlltlou _______ _____ _
The complete li st of fossi ls collected from the lowcl'-
nw,t 150 fed of the Cnrmcl formation 0 11 the Virgi n
Ri Hr embraces the following for ms :
Pcntftcrinu... a.stcriltClHl Meek
lIDd Hayden.
Rhynehoncll" lil li , undct ..
1!:u ru.icroUIt ( Hull).
C.'1 rt'inia.! J).. "D·
Cnmptoncctcs :;l.\' gi ul; White?
Modicl u· .subilnbricatn l';{cck.
Modioln ::md
Modioltl undet.
'frigotti;, qUl).drl\nglllnrit4 Hull
nrtd Whitti r,ld.
Astnrtc rmcknrdi White.
j .. ml.ssica. WhiUieid.
Ammonite frognl (,.l1t ?
TrigtllllA amcrlc.all:\
Cllmptoncctes plntc:.'si formis
Scotton, (If Carmol lorI/tatUm at til e head of Par4nuwcap
li. J.iUl('titouc; mal,(>s t wo cHlt i; with a
them :
Llm('slonc, very UltlSRlvl', hlllh' h graf,
lullhm, In bl.>(ls t11Ut rQllge from 2
to 3 !et!t 11_ thickness : forms n strou!;
cli 1t: t'OtittlHt'c rou.-;. but the tossUs 0 re
poorly Drescrvcd_______________________ 8
1.lrnestOl1l\ bUll. cr}' stulline, and
lilutr, cn1t..:n r OOUl:i, In beds;
slope; the limestone
,1 In the shul<- boo!!! ' 1
t'oot__ ______ ___________ _______ _____ ____ 12
Lhllt..'3tOUt', plnty. buil, sOlllewhnt !:'undy. in
bed!l nlllging (rool one- Courth Inch to 4
inches lu thleknl':-;s : (orms n cliIT; COil.
taios SNl lUs or Cll lcitc; ::'omb nrc
crystllutne: tOllIllO!:'t bed, 6 thick,
1s vcrs fo:-L'dllfe1'OUlL___ __ ___________ __ _ 1;:;
G. Sllllle; nHlkes n 8101>\.' :
S.h:lle, tbill b«:'ddcd, burr, upJl('r
bntt' ultuost u IImeSlOl1l' :j::
Sh:1Il", bu£r. sondy; u few
bnrd. hufl, ptnts, in llnpcr-t hill.
wuvy l:l Uli11 ne ... ___ ________ • _________ ___ _
. 3
ii. Shule; a
Clo)' shnle, buf!' tl) smoke-gray; coutalGf
loco I beds ot platy buif cnlcat'eous shale;
n fl'W beds, 1 t o 2 feet tblck, are reddlsb
or ;lurplish _______________ _____________ 23
4. Sbule nnd Ilmc:ttou(!: make 0 \venk cll1l, Ol" :l
steep lC<l;.'Y s lOpe:
I.imestoue, burr: iu mnssive bed tbnt cou'
talus many i t":lgment s ot small shells;
make!:l clHt __________________ '__________
hUrr: :,IOlle___________ 10
suudy, bull, f:lvarinclY i0S3Wfer-
OU8; moke9 SID(l1l cUCf__________________ 3
Sbule, buil, sandy ; mukes slope___________ ;)
calcareoufi, pluty, coutoi l.l in(;
seYeml beds, made up
largely ot' frug,rllcuts ot shells: tile pre-
vailln;; color of tbe sanu:;toue Is bull, but
some beds arc slightly purplis h ; the t'os-
siHferous beds less tbun 4 jnches
In Ule makes 0
"' cak c;iU' ______ __ ___________________ __ .:i
3, SbJ.Jle, salluy, huff: nt:lke$ !:I 1'Jl're : mos t at the
sbut e bl. 1:.1 {Jlliler -thi n laminae ; cOlltu lns locul
beus c f huft ptll! y cakllreou:; shale, of
... hll'h arc h..-'S.'i" than 2 thic!t __________ _
2. Llmest oJ.lc; mnl{cs ellils:
Ltmcstol}(>, snndy, mude up a l most eutlreJy
lIf sm:!!l irub"llieuts of e .... e ry-
where a very CODSplcu,)usly toss!lH'erous
boo __________________________________
Limestone, chel·t.)' No, 4). in beds
that llVCnl ge (; iucllc8 I hlck, alrernating
beds or buil orenat'(.'ous plat.y June-
s t ene (like No.3) Utat Ilvel":1,g"e 4 t'wt
thick; mokc:t It set ot clitts broken I.>y
ledge!:l _________________________________ 11
l.l:ncstollc, pl a ty. buil'. mottleli
witb mallY l' IllnU m:·'tsses ot. '''' bite cha1-
c(!(lou.y or chert; weothered s ur t'l1 ces aTO
r abbl.\"; tut! bedding js wa \'.1. and t he
lou!ill!ll! a,'crago onc-fourth incb tbiel,;
very floorly 1l1'c:::ervecL__________ 1
Lloles tolle, dl;:Jlsc, hurt, somewhat 31'e lla-
crystfllliuc: ( OI'ruS .'i trong cHITs; the
appears mas,sh ' o In many outcrops.,
breaks with a concboidal fracture, and
seemingl y beUJ:i tllllt
(r01u G to 10 feet In tl.>l ekness. but
Wfratllercd e>:tposu res show thnt it i s adu-
ully tblu beullcd ouu platy, beiDg mode
up cl' lamiuae thut runge fl'om oue-tom' WI
to one-bu lf IDeb 10 t ldckue5S ; some l uml-
l1:t e aN as tbin at' cQrdboard; the
G ft'Ct ot' the pur pl isb alld
Is mndl more MUU$' than overlying POT-
liolll:l ____ .______ ________ ________________ 17
1. 81.>n11..'. reddish or llU111lis ll , sort. sond)', and
tblllly hlmlnaLed; tbe upper }\Uro; Is enlcnre-
out\; t'orms u slope __________________ ___ ___ _
'.fotul Ca l'mel t'oroonUoll _______ ______ ____ _

The base of No.1 is a le"el line that t"llneales tit,
indilled wedges of t.he underlying Navajo s:ludst{Jlle .
i.l wbite, fine-gt'ained sl.lndstone thut is ' eroi.'i-beddcd
oD a. huge scale.
In sec'tions of the Carmel formation in the Virgin
Valley and nlso in the Kanab Valley the beds that
include limestone pass upward into banded sandst.one
without clear evidence of change in conditions of
depositi on. The upper limit of the Cnrmd is some·
what nbitral'iJy d""wn to include only
liDicstoUe nnd associated arenaceous shale. Within the
Kaiparowits I'egion, with the possible exception of
heds exposed a.t CannonYille, no such uncertainty ex·
i,ts; shale >.Ind limestone assigned to the Cunuel >.Ire
sharply bound.ed by the Navajo ueueatll and the lIlU"
,il'e c .. o>s-bedded Entrada sandstone abo\-e. (Sec !'1.
22, A.)
The arrangement of beds in the Pari" Valley, along
Glen Canyon, in the Esca.lante Valley, ""d in the
Hull Valley is shown in the following sections:
8ccthm Dru Cl.myon (Ror:k Spriugll Gf41ch, Cel/.(1I"
1100111 mile,. abo ve Iunotio). ·wi.'I&. P'"'!U Rit;cr
IM\.!fumrctl by L. F .
Elltrada sULHi'.i tone- Fed
23, Sandstone, yeliow-\Vhitc, m:.l ssiYe, eros:;-
beddctJ _________________________ ______ II!)
22. S hale. n.-d, sundy, "ery ullc"cnly t>cdded__ 2
Carlliel (orwatioo-
21. Limestone, g ray, weathcrill;; bua, massi"e,
fine grained, cryswlltlle. prouably
s uudy; contains obscure (osslls _______ _
20, Shale. red _______________ __ ___________ _
10. Ltmc:--;tone. like No. 12 ________________ _ _
18, Slla Ie, red _____________________________ _
17. Lbu€'s.tolle, llke No, J2 _________________ _
16, Shu Ie. bufl' to ,vbiti!:lh, cnlcureous; forms
11 "'cak eUIl' _________________________ _
Hi, Bed of porous travertinelike calcareous
llJlIt€l'iut; a horizon ot w!.lich
Issue; forms Ull alco\'e _________ ______ _
H , Cloy hull' to hrown; 8
layer of l:' bnle ncar the
top _____________ • ___________________ _
13, CklY shale-, relit with cref'nl'sb t,loJchCii:
includes a few greenl;Jb boo. at Irregu-
llll' intPl" 'ais __ ________ ... _____________ _
12. red, sondy _____ ________________ _ _
11. gre-eui::lh, sll udy, c3lcureous. In
wQ.\""y. luin mnnr lamillae liS
th!n as purer; [oHatton 5urfnce-s ripple
marked; worm troils and [llRL'klugs
comnlon; some bcds3e''"eru.l Inches thick
are practicallY Ji.mcstOI:lC' ; they appear-
in nlan)' hut
weat.he r-cd l.)utcro1l8 sbaw tbln Lahl1na-
tl,)n _____________ _____________ _ -- __ ---
J ui'Pl SSl c-{'omi II UL'l.
Carll .. "
]1). •. c.rt"'e ui sh nnd bUll',
IIII S; mUll)" ued.") 11::; thin 11:'1 cHrdboard,
ns mnr h os ::In im'h thick; the
thicke,' beds ure the tU:UllCl'
____ __ _ __ ____ _____ _ _____ _ _ _
9. CI:IY .-; llule. l)1'ownisl:, In lami nae ( hot
)':\111:;"(' in thicknL' l:I8 1'1'nUI tbH of [mper
t\J that of card bon I'd : SOme outcrops
a! u('ri blucli: ____ _______ ___ ___ _______ _
S. Cln>' "hule, iu 11Ilpcr-thiu Ituuluae_
I. ('; Iuy ;,;hule. sondr. not so thinly buni-
Hal ed Il!\ No. HL ______ _______ ________ _
G. sl tndy ___ _______ _______ _
;:; , Shah'. hllll::;h, soft. exhi1Jlttl
lIl:lrkt.:l1 ('ollcrcliUllftry tltl'uclurt.'; 1:.1 rgely
,"011 ('('0 l('cI ________ __ ___ _____ ________ _
-I. Shalf', In pitH' t' .':;
hd'o OPIICllr!J; to form a
. ..; ingle beel. bllt wenthered 1:1 111' -
i a('t.'S "cry thin lamination: ill
places the lnmlu:te nr(l as thin as rOpel';
of (h<'m I\l'e sli ghtl;v WU\'y,
to mnrklng; a few o..'tl-;
II.' ]' nncly try:.;t.ll.ll iJll' UUl e,
uud cO'ltnin HIlY oi
(' I I alt'('dony _____ ... ____________________ _
". g"[()(·llis h. SHft; hc:cull1es in-
.. dr lIllWtlt' d nnrJ
nt the top info p:uty CltlCtlrt.'ou.'i 8uud-
:stOllf! _ _ __________ _ _________ _ _ , ___ _ __ _ _
:!, Limc,,,,"oJ.lc, lu'own, fel'ruA"loout>; contnlut'
:;t.'utterN.l of Q,UJtrtl, most or
which lire less tilall G mllllu)ct('r'l:! In
lIlnlll('tL"' __ ___________ _______________ _
1. Slllidstu.ll c. ond ,\'",I1owlsll. tine·
grllilleti; ill l'el')' thin WlI'-Y luminal" h u t
wClllberio;;- us n bcd _________ _
T()tui Cn rmel formntloll____ _________ 89
.J ul'Ilssic ( ?).
NIHOJO :-Illndstone, whltl'; its IncJJned wedgel:i are t r uncated
hy Xo, 1.
Noble tltis sediOIl, ol!gillning at top, into
limestone that forms " c1ilf (beds 21-17); shale thut
f0l'l11S a slope (beds 16--12) ; ripple-marked calclll"eous
shale that forms a weuk cliff (bed 11); shnle that
forms a slope (beds 10-5); sh"le that forms a weak
cliff (bed J) ; ,wd sandstone that fonus a slope (heds
:, -1) .
Ded 11 is a prominent feature of the lowermost 40
leet or the Carmel formation in the Poria Valley. At
all the outcrops studied the rippl e mn.rks ure pel.,; ist-
and the resistance of the rock to weathering JavoI'S
the accumulation or rippie-nlarl<ed slabs on talus slopes
und canyon floors. (See pI. 12, Lt.) Curerul seal'eh
for fossils in c.!careons beds of the Curmel resulted in
finding indeterrnilluble fragments and irnperfeel casts
that. strollgly identity with the mUl'ine Jurassic
faunn of t.he Virgin River. \-Vorm trails boring ...
al'e common.
S,;clicm fit Ourmd formation about 2 miles of Oar,
Colorado Blur, Utah
by Jh F. :Soble)
('flrmel turmotion: Fed
fl . 811otlstone, :reddlsb, lluE. ... gralned; ft diU.
hut beddro ; bn:<tll 2
feet h"rd nlld ealr.areolls_____________________ U
.1. Shule, reu: forms a Sif1J)C-
Shale, soft, red, snndy; In paper-tbin
In m in Ile _____ ________ • _. __ . ___ ___ ___ ___ _ 2:{
Shale, fro, ·floe-g,rnlned, SlIudy; UppCl' 1 fO(Jt
Jrllls,"i\'c'. but frlnble. __ _ .. __ __ ______ ______ 0
:l. 6HUtlStOtte. tomlln: a dHt-
Sandstolil', pink, mlc81'(,ous; in
pJaces pradieul ly It ___________ _
8lloihrtoDe. I.hlt. CA.lenr('ous : In pJllces
vradlcally a h llUII1I1(': os thin
ae c.rdbo3rd __________________________
C'Ofag,(licDOus;ly rl'11pl'e' mnrk(:d,
greeDwb wblle, calcll1'eou.s; pr:1 tllcn II)' n
tltln-Iwdue(] thin
cardl)(lruti; tills bed nwl the two
lJcd!l (,1 nnd G) form just obo\'e t.be
top (d the clifT formed by i..lcd 2 __________ _
redtlisb, compact, ill
two runs81ve he.lIs, (oeh 2% feet tulck,
scparntcd b;r 1 fOfJt of red shnlc:
mucb cnlclte pl'escnt along crnt:ks ________ _
rc<ldl,b, soft; forms 1\ sIOf,Q-
Snmllitone, red, shall'; II cOl lsolidnt ed
mUll ___________________________________ 2
Snlldstone, mllssive, coruptlct , red; pJobabl)·
___ _ 1
Snu(l$tonc, red, shuly; like No. :i__ ___ _______ !!
Sand.!1t(]llC, In ;;narll' bed,
red .______________ __ ____ ________ ________ 2
red, shaly; like Nn, 0___________ :i
1, 8undstollc, pinkish or reddish, Ycrr bnrd. ('OUl-
1)1Jt't, qurH'tzltlc; prrr ctically n
qunrt7.lte; torm1l n very rlersltHeut cliff
nt tIll' sUUlmlt 01" the Nnv<l jo the
roek 1s ripple Dlnrkcd In fllIc\ its 8ur-
fncl"S cgn.t.ed with black desert
t uuges fI'l11U 4 inche-s to 2 feel:
It beds III the Cambrlun
or the Gl"3nd __ __ 2
Totu} Carmel (ormnthin
No\"njo white, tiJ
Neal' the Crossing of the Fnthers the sandstone .nn
shille thnt. up the lowel'Jno,t ;]5 fect of the Cnr-
mel formatIOn nre calcal'''ous and include a bd f
blll'd pink 3 inches thick "ud seye;.
of hmestone wlthm ripple-marked shaly sandstone,
(Sec pis. 10, B, 11, A.) At the mouth of Rock Creek
the only hmest()ne noted within 30 feet f d I
'0 re umpy,
irregularly bedded calenreous shale is a bed 2 inch
tllick made up of paper-thin laminae almost as har:
and as brittle porcelain.
Section 01 Ctlnnc1 !M1IWti<l'tt. <.bout Z milc.'l ea.d of EICal."jt

[:\j('il:-;ur('u by IJ'!rUcl·t F.. Grt',i;"ory]
Eutrada snnastone, yt'J1Qw-red, ma8slv('; in texture re-
Carmel formntioll:
10. Gy[ISlllll nntl sbale, wIth subordlnat<!
sundstolle: red, purple, and nsl.!-
co!on?-dI; forms II pln lD uptu r.ad .strllta;
lar.gel), concealed j ... __ _
9, Snnd::!.tone. thi::t·bedded, or snDdy $hale ..
calcareous, ltnbrlcftted; gHstenJcI 10-
Iiution surfaccs covel'(>cI with l'ipple marl,s nnd
patehes of hardened !$norJ; n:,l'y irret;"ulm" in
Ihickn(;ss, COJnIJosition, and extent of IJeds ___ _
Shale, C'aicnr(,{)lJs, ftlld t.hin :mndy ___ _
Gypsum, white, lUnss lvc. wiUI fe,,," lel!ses nDd
stringers or wl'lite sandv shule· forms gulch·
PR itly l:()nCeH ItJrJ _______ ______ ____________
Sundstone, rcd-yellow, massive, cl'oss-bedded ___ _
Shale, red, saudy, t:nc\'enly bedc1ed ___________ _
Sandstol1l', buft, [eguIO)'I), bedded; Que betl 4 fe-e.t
thlek: other beds tbifl ___ .. ___ _______________ _
Sh::llc, sandy, or shal,)" standstolle, pink, with iI'-
regulal' )". plneed patches of red, eftlcareolls;
tbln lenoos (rt limestone;' !ollatIon. .Burfnccs sun
driEd, ritJI)le marked, and dotted mutl
lumps ______________________ :_ -- ____________ _
Z. Lillll"Stcme, p:nk. brittle, o:Jd paper-thIn
shale, Iml>ricate<1. r ipple mllrked ____________ _
1. Sandst one, red, ebnly, calcnreous, witb patcl]es
of conrs('> snod O"rnllls ______________________ _
'.rotal Cnrwei fOl'II:atlon __________________ _
SC'c.tiG1t 01 CUI1I1C/ formatlo1/., i,1- Balbi Valley ncal" Burr- ,,,!lit
IMCfll:'urC'd by E. Gr('gory]
Entradn sandstone, ,,,,hile to yello,,"-l'c(l, mnssivc______ G'.)) 3:
Cannel forrnntioll:
7. Shale, light red, brown, greenish
while; includes beds of gypsum 3 to 8 feet
thick, thin white sandy reel
.s.balCl!!, and pnrtly concca led____________ 230
G. Limestone. brown, sandy. ond lenses of
s:hale; very irregularly bedded, mUDy Intern1
unconformiti es ; sOlUe foliation surf:lc(.'>S rIpple
lnarke-d _______ ____________________________ Co
G. ShlIle. white, calcareous, Cv<!n beddoo_____ 12
4_ Ltmestone, billY, __ --------------- ---
3. Shale. briS'ht reO, culcurt."Ou5 :md
\'ery uneve-nly bedded; resembles compacted'
slIt; nnd gray no(]ulnr 1100estOJle, lellticuIQr__
2. Sand.stone. grny, nnd red sbule__ ______________ 5
1. Snm1stone, brown, lumpy, imbrlC'Oted, leutlcn-
lar; lDdudes lenses ::md pockets of ql:lQrtz
pebbles; rests on uneven surface ot under-
lying saudstone; al'er:lS'e thlckness ______ .. ___ 4
Totnl Cnrmel fOI·J1lfltioD _____________ _
Navajo sandstone.
Near the mouth of Halls Ci'eck the limestone that
is associated with the Carmel formation is
inconspicuous, but from the Bu .... trail north\vard to
Ihe east flank of the San Rafael Swell an increasino-
brilt.ie siliceous limestone, earthy limeston;
and hlgnly cale'Heous shale appear in measr.red sec-
tIOn:; find the fo::sil fnuna likewi se increases in abun-
donei! and va I'iety,
The Bntrudlt sandstone is conspicuous alike for
color, ,lIlassivenc£s, und boldness of sculpture. On
[,olh sides of Glen Canyon between 'Vahweap and
Rock Cre<) ks the sandstone rises abo I'e an intricately
d,,!<)ct ed badland tloor of Carllld strata as high, un-
sulobk walls of projecting spurs all d <If detached
mef<lS, whi ch stund in front of promontori es th.Jt ex-
tend outward from the Kaiparowils Plateall. (See
[II. 10, I I, B.) East of Rock Creek thcse wall s COll -
tiuue :u'ollnd the cnd of the I(nipafowib Plateau and
thence northwestwnl'd for 30 miles alono- the SLruin-ht
Cliffs and reappear near the village of Escalilllte. "In
tho upper Paria Valley they are prol:tinently dis-
l·lnyed and along (ho east side of Hall. Cl'eck COll-
nitute an outsl.l1ndillg topographic form. (See pI. 11,
II.) The sandsLone is trnced northward onto the coun-
t,y .bouL the San Rafael Swell , from n poillt in which
indeed, the name is derived.' The tlliclmess
from 20 feet to more thnn 600 feet.
The Ent.rada sandstone is included in sections of
")IeElmo" measured by Lupton and is readily reeo«-
. d 0
r. lze 3S t he lower part of the Jurassic " "arieolored
s:lndslOllcs llnd slmles" of Longwell , :\1i",l', Moore,
and Paige. EJncry 3 ltlld Lee i correlated the
Enlrada with the Navajo,
The Entrada is essentially 11 nile, even-grained sand-
that L'Outains sllboruinatc amounts of shule.
Some exposures consist of a sint:Ilc mfl8'si \"c !:mudstone
ledge thnt has inconspicllol1s il'loeglllal' bedding plnnes;
olhm'S show a series of heavy-bedded slIud,tones 01'
sandstones with interbedded shales. The Entl'ada in-
cludes cor.glomel'utic mfl sses of shale [l,W] sandstone
?03gmellts and lenses of grecn-gray sandstone, which
1U some pl:lees stan,l out like shell'''s on slopes thaL
uthel'wise weather ns shale. CI'OS3-bcdding is COUl-
lI1on; in some sect ions cross-bedded and horizontally
Ltdd •. d st1'A.tu alt ernate, but neadv ulllhe rock of some
great cliffs is cross-bedded, with tangenti"1 sweeps
Ih.t simulate the NIlvajo, Within the beds nre local
unconformities; broken ftugmen!s lie ii, pocket s ; nnd
fOllltll!, And Rei·.liidc. J. D., Jr .• Q( the
SolD Rd""l and lome In e.1Jjtel'1l Utab : n. S.
G.,'Ol S'Jr'Vt'y Prot . Ptlper 100, liP. Til-iS, ioo2S.
W. D., 01'. cit .. pp. 1I'1'1J....51.2.
W. T., Early )feiO;tok pb)'!lIC)gt':lllb,. of the MutlH!I' n Ilo('kr
UO'll'lla1[1!1: SIIIlt1.lsooltlQ IOld. lillie, ColI.. vol. 6"J, p. 1')I9.
short, fat It"",;es of ol'edIlppino- shale and tiny
. . 0 conel'e-
lIons are dtstt'lhuted unevenly over eroded su f
I K ' " races.
In tie alp"rowlts reO-IOn t.he l>rel' lIilinn' col f'
. 0 ors 0
the Enl.rllda al'e tan, I",ht red and l)rOWII S
o , • . orne out-
c:ops .lU'e gray or. even blllc-gl'ny, and in the Dry
"ail e), the tone IS yellow-white t.o lemon-yellow.
Patches and ribbons of white of irreglllllr thickness
and lenglh apP,ear on t.be cliff f:.H..'es in n seemin,yly
haphazard fnsI11011.
Jlicro$copic study of selected specimens shows thIlt
the ,andstone COI",sts of clOlu' "rains of qual'I' (b t
n au
0;, pCI' :Cllt.) un(1 fragments of clouded orthoclase
(about 0 I' (' r, .""nl.). Some biotit.e is present ill all
SPCCHlICll S. ZjIX per cent of the. O'l'nms nvera« 0 1
., " 0
mIlIIlueter I U dlan",ter 90 per c.cnt wei"'"'' 008 '11i , 0..... tnt -
Ill eter, :md + per cent mako "l' " powdor-like silt that
Oakes of, biotite arl'nngcd ill Inyers. There i.
li.nIe ent.il.!llce 01 sort-illg. of the grain8, cspc-
l'l ally tll(; slllllllcr OJh:lS, Ilrc ulIgu)n.l'. The cement con-
si, t.s of "uleite and ferri c iron, The whito blotches llnd
bonds in the ro"k ure identical with the red in COI11-
position t.hat' the di scontinuous cemcnt is
wbolly cal cite. A specimen of white rock from equiv-
,·.Ient beds on the crest <>f the Echo CliU's Ileal' Tuba
AI'iz.} consists likewi se of qlllll'tz und ort.hoclase, bu;'
96 pel' cellI. of tl," gruins nrc "bout 0.10 millimeter in
diameter ulld relllarimbly \I'ell rounded, nnd ubout 2;,
pel' cent of them urc wind etch.,d. All cement hus
di sappearcd. _'\s compared wit.h the Navajo, the En-
trada. has filler, mOl'e uniIorm, less sorted
gl'a.ills and more silt, uud appea rs to be laclrinO' in
.• 0
magnetlte, garllet, Zircon, and toul'maline.
Becnuse of the wctlk the ma!!si ve. Elltl'l1du
sandstone is friable and weathers into dome-shaped
and round-edged cliffs generlllly grooved
t edutng pia nes.
In southeastern Utah many meusured scctions in-
clude a I'Ul' iable thickness of thin-bedded or rarely
thick-bedded sandstone, interstratified with slIndy
.Mhu le Hud conta.ining some conglomerate und u small
amount of gypsum nnd limestone- a hi ghly vnrinble
:l ssemblage of strata. resting ull conformably on the
EnlI'adu a.nel terminated upward by 1L surface of ero-
s,on at the base oi the Morrison. The sediments that
OCCUpy this interval at the SUlI Rafnel Swell huve been
divided into the Curtis forrnllLion, whi ch consists of
gl'cenish-gray conglomcrate, shalc, Llnd gray heavy-
bedded sandstone, 76 to 253 f eet thick, and the
merville iormation, which consists of thin-bedded
chocolate-colored sandstone, earthy red-brown sand-
btonc, aud shale, with some gypslIm and a little lime-
stone in surne sections, 12:; to 331 feet thic!" From
the Curtis formation, which immediateh' ovedies the
. eel t.hus
Entrada f06sils of Sundance age ... ere am,
moking ;he relation between the Entrada and the Cur-
tis similar 10 that between the Nu.jo and the Carme.1.
In the Kaiparowits re,;ion beds tbot occupy the post-
tion of the Summerville are generally present, but
,.Rry widely in thickness ond lithologic .. nd
flO fO>.1lili ferous beds comparable to t,he CurtIS forma-
tion hove been recorded. Correlation therefore can
flot bo made with assurance, especially at
tho IIsLlully thick, mRAAive Entrada los •• It.
where . he Summerville-Morrison IS
poorly marked, or ,.here the It:elf IS meon-
KpiCU01l8 or absent. Gilluly and Reeslde have fou?d
thaI Ihe Curtis formation thins soutbward from II!
type loc.litY in ti,e s.on Rofael Swell ond disoppean
before reach in" 1I1uley Twist Creek, on the Woter-
pock.t Fold. "It seems I'ensonabl.c to to the
Sunllnerville formation bed. at thIS bOrlzon on Halls
Crook_ in Ihe E.caIon:. and Poria ValleY8, and nlong
(;Iell C.n\,on. A. tbus interpreted, th" Summerville
fOl'lllRtion" averages about 100 ioot thick along HuU
Crook, 100 fcct in the &""I.nt .. Villey, 250 feet in the
Pari" Vulley, an,! 150 feet sout.h of the Kaiparowits
A. /I topogrlphic feuture t,hl' Summ"'\'iIIe of the
KAiparowits region appears 8S strikin;ly colored rocks
that slop •. steeply outward from th., bnse of "erticil
cliff.. Horizontal color bands of alternat-
red nnd white, .0 lIal'l'OW IS 10 appcor like lines,
are chnl'Uctel'istie. They mal,e the Summerville one
of the most nttl'Rcthe formations in the plateau
llro"illte. Where not protected by cops of Morrison
or Dakota (1), Ihe ,trnta crumbl., re.<Ii1y, formillg
lniniolure me."., buttes, And canyon ",oUs, lin-
."rnly painted with tonl.,. of whit •. red, bl'own, yellow,
'I'h",'o are muny lent.icular heds and beds th. t in-
tlude I.n""" of h ... dened mud lumps and of shale frag-
ment.. Unconformities ... ithiu format ion are com-
mon. Substnntiolly th .. formalion ronsists of poorly
<'elJlcnted sllnd4<>ne, arranged in thin beds. Gypsum
form. pnrt of most sections, but bed. of limertone Are
rOI·f . The few bcd, of clay 8bale noted ha\'e rippled
foliation surfaces that Irt' coated with groins of sand.
MicrOS<'Opic enminntion of "b.nded .bale" at Can-
nonvill. revealed the p...,..nce of clear quart., 90 prr
rent: clouded orthoclase and Ilbite, 10 per cent.
About 20 per eent of the ha\'e average diameters
of 0.2 to 0,8 millimet.er; 80 pel' cent range from grains
0.2 in diRmeter to du..<t. About 15 per cent
of grams t.hot "xreed 0,2 millimeter in diameter ftre
rounded nnd wind etched; the ,mailer grains are
• OUltlJ.r. J4w.u. J, D .. Jr., RedlmfDtarr f'OC-kI ot flHo
Ian Jtatlw.1 ."'t'lt lind soz •• Il'e.". I. talt«n 0 I
(:,..1. SIII""f')' rn.1. J"aper Hm. p. 192!. • • ,
The cement bf the shlLles .is ferric_
and calcite, ond.that of th.e whIte parts IS calcite OIJl,
or in a few spccunens calcIte and gypsum.
Ulf RAfABL GllOUP ARD JlOllRISOlf J'o •• arlo.
In most of the Kaiparowits region strata of the
San Rafnel group and the Morrison formation COli-
bine to ma.ke a topographic and color unit, in 1I'hieD
brightly J·orieg.t ed slopes ,cliffs rise.abo"e a MIl.
defined floor of lIniionnly colored N 8.l'ajo •• ndstollt
Dnd are protecte,d from el'",,;on on top by 0 1'e5;alllt
platform of dull-colored D,.kota (1) .. ndstone. In
measuring sect.ions and studying stl'lltig,rophic IIld
lithologic features it WaS found cOllv"nient to tmttbt
Snn Rafael and ){orrison together and to d ... ribt
t.heir combinoo features as they are represented i.
four arens-the Halls Creek Va.lley, the EscaIan!6
Basin, the PMi" Valley, and the Glen 1'''1/;''.
Along H.lls Creek (Hoxie Creek) the San Rafael
ond Mo .... ,isoR no ,veil displa.yed bel ween tb. Navajo
S&l\dstonc, which forms for long distances the enor-
mou. roll of the Waterpocket flexure, and the UPP'l'
Crataeeolls beds. ",hicn are built as a gillnt &l:air"'1
thot lends lip the base of the Henry MountaillS.
Halls Creek at its mouth is sunk in the Nanjo _d-
.(one, and as tbe winding conrse of the stream is fol-
lowed nort,hwestwlrd progressi"ely higber beds ap-
pear. At I,he head of the creek the San Rafael IDd
:Mol'rison ocenpy the middle portion of a series of
Dlagnificent cliffs and slopes, including, as meuund
by "{oore,' .11 fomlstiolls from the base of the Moo·
kopi to Ihe top of the Ma8nk sandstone-7,460 feet
of stfsta Rrranged in huge bands of color.
At, lhe norlh end of the Wate-rpocket Fold, bet"eoa
Notom alld Bown'8 n.nch, the land surfaa is deW·
oped in tile limestone and powdery .hale beds of •
formotion tlla t contai ns morinG Jurassic foaill.
Abo\'e it rise cliffs that include 00 feet of maasive aad
shaly, earthy gypsnm !Lnd 160 feet of banded Ligbt·reG
and dill'k-brown sbale and gypsiferoUs "marl,"
Assigned 10 the Carmel formation_ The Enh .. da u
bere represented by about 200 feet of fine and eWII
grained light-roo andstorie, the lower one-third m ..
sive. The GOO feet of arenaceous shlLle in thin alter-
: lIoting beds of light-red and the "'etof
impure gypsum, and the 36 feet of
dark-red, and greenish nodular limestone, intenDJll"
gled wilh red sandy shllle, which overue the
are Probably equivalent to tbe combined Curbl pd
Summerville formotions .
• t.apell. C It .. aud otberA. Rock forINt too ... tb. c.l-:!
Pl.ttcl. of Hut'btoaltf'll 't,llab ODd oOl,tbel'. •• : U. S.
Sune,. Prot, U:l, pp, 21-22, U)!?3.
1Ieaz the mouth of HaIls Creek the base of the Sail ston. whirh l"$ts in hollows and on rounded surfaces
Jafad groUp consists of 3 to 12 feet. of hard, gritty of the Navajo, here Inore tlull 1,200 feet. thi ck. Above
ilDdatone that has clean-w:l, hed, white subangullLr this sandstone lie 75 to 100 fcet of strata which include
,aartl lr""ins nnd of sondstone intermingled with red six beds of limestone, the thickest me:.sllrina 5 feet
lfIIIaceouS, ealCal"eOllS shale, which rest on an uneven· interbedded with thin gray sandstone and bright-red
.. rfare of N a vnio sandstone that forms the ,nils of snndy imbricated CIIloareolls shale. Some of the lime-
!he Colorado Canyon. Above this bed lies about 130 stone beds 01''' composed of' white pllper-thin layers
Ifet of lumpy arenaceous and CRlcareoas sho.le that is that bave smooth glistening surfaces; others ore brown,
JQterbedded with red, gray, and white fine-gr"ined sandy, and nodul", pre intel'mingled capriciously with
sandstone in irregular bcds of different thiclmesses. It:mps of shale and accumulntions of clean sand, and
Gypaum is disseminated throughout and forms t.hin, show mnny Intoral unl'Onformiti.es and arens of ripple
silod lenses in the uppermost 20 feet- The space be- ma.rks. The uppermost limestone bed is overlain by
'ween tbese gypsiferous beds .nd the thin stratum of about, 100 foot of impure gypsum and gypsiferous
red lrenlCCOUS shale that immediately underlies t·he shale, abo¥. which comes a massi \'e cross-bedded yel-
IJIkota (t) sandstone is occupied by towering clift's of low-red to white .... ndstolle aUout 500 feet thick, and
red massive cI'oss-bedded Entnd. sandstone, some- thi.;11 turn is followed by about an equal thickness of
.. lid like the Navajo in composition, structure, and hedded friabl0 sandstone (Entrada formation). The
color, in having n di\'i, ion plane th.t is mllde tllP of ea,· h section consists of .bout 300 feet of inter-
hl'thin-bedded sandst.one "bOllt feet fl'Om the bose bedded yellow-red alld green-white sandstone and red
of the 1,OOO'-foot wnll. (Sce pIs. 11, B, and 19, .d..) sundy shale. One of these sandstone beds 120 feet
At the naker ranch, 7 miles from the mouth of Halls below the 01]> rock of Dnkot .. (!) s&ndi;tone is very
Creek, the broad subdi";sions of t.he Sun Rafael and coarse and strongly and· includes
tlIe Morl'ison, beginning ot the bU5e, are (1) sandstone small pebbles of chert, agate, jasper, and quartzite
arit, red, gl'Oly, and white sandstone, and red ."n .. - from which water emerges as seeps. Two miles south
teOIIS, cnlclreous shale, with gypsum (Carme.l form!l- of the Burr tmil this bed is 25 feet tbick and consists
lion); (2) red massive cross-bedded SIIDdstone that of a scl-jes of lenses of CUICU'OOllS sandstone, calcareous
int.o smooth, rounded knobs, on the sides of shale, lnd limestone conglomerate, 'within which is a
... hi<b nrc mlUlY pits and miniature caverns, and forms s!!'atum thnt contains masses ris Illrge os 2 by III teet
• prominent heavy-bedded, unevenly bedded terrace of IUrlcti¥ely colored red, yellow, "ml pink chert thot
(Entrada sandstone); (3) red thin-bedded slUldstone, resembles jasper.
together with sOllle arenaceoUs shale, sparingly gypsif- In all the sections studied south !lnd east of the
(Summer ville format.ion); (4) red and lil:ht linker ranch no continuous bed of gypsum more than
p .. n-gray massi \'e cross-bedded fri"Me sundstone, ill f foot ill thicknef;s was but the 'prevalence of
plateS gl'Rined and lenticular, which is irregu- slumping suggest.. the pl' esence of sucb a bed. Six
lorly streaked wiLh wbite and includes willte beds miles to the nOl't.h 15 feet of mnssh'e gypsllm lies 60
(Morrison formation); .snd {5) arenaceous shllle, feet .!xlve the Nanjo sandstone, and from Muley
banded lighe red .. nd green-whitA> (Morriwn formll- Twist, Creek to the Bitter C"eek divide gypsum ap-
lion). In places tbe lower roo,si"e sAncIstone (No. 2) )lellrs IS one or mOl'e bed. within the lowermost 100
i. " 'en redder th.n the typic:\l Nal'ajo, but within It. f.et of the San Rafael grollp. Farther north., at Tan-
l .... ·miles· its color becomes light yellow-red, brown, or Iolus Creek and along the e.st flank of the San Rafael
red streaked horizontally nnd di.gonnlly with broad Swell, gypsum is persistent. in the lowermost 200 feet
bt"d. of white. The upper sandstone· (No.4) like- appears dEo at horizons .00"0 ,the I;Ilnssive cr068-
.. ille uries in color and .. long t.he strike breaks up bedded Entrada sandstone. the limestone
into thin friable beds, which are eroded into badlanll thot i., commonly present at or neilr the base of the
Ilesa. Ind buttes that are c.'()ssed and capped by lenses ' t'armel formation i. inconspicuous along tower Hills
.1 conglonlel'atic sondst.one. In plnces beds 4 and I Creek, and no limestone beds were in " section
lII1ite to form one JDass of banded snnd.tone; elsewhere measured on lower Hanson Creek (Pille Alcove Creek).
bed 5 is absent or becomes massive and the upper J!'rom the BUIT trail northward brittle siliceous lime-
beveled .Ul'f"ce of tllick-bedde<l green-white or' light- slone and highly calcareous male appear in all sec-
... d sandstone into contact with the Dakota (1) tions. No determinable fossils wert) found along the
.. ndstone. Water pocket 8exure, but from TanbJus Cl'eek north-
InleTeral sections that were measured in the vicinitl ",ard fossiliferous Jurassic limestone th.t contains
of tbe Burr tl' .. il, where a large part of the Mesozoic gypsum and red' .h .. le forms the base of tbe San Rafael
is exposed in beds that dip 5°-50
E., tbe base of group. A heavy bed o! sandstone.
Ille San Rafnel is marked by 4 to 11 feet of brown. above and another one (N ovalo) below thIS hmeel.one
,",y nodul .. r, lenticular, \'ery irregular col\l'5e !SI1nd- give .. series of bed's similar in color and arrangemont
fl' I ':'
and to a less degree in structure and composition to
the Olen Canyon group. This remarkable similarity
appears to have Jed Emery' to correlate the foosilifer.
ous limestone and gyp,mm beds .... ith the Todilto of the
Yavajo country.
The variation Dnd arrangement of beds eomprising
the San Rafael and Morrison in • distance of about 35
miles along Halls Creek is sho,!n in the following oec·
tions: •
11.. SOC'IOM ./>ou, 8 ..ul<l .""',. of 11011. c ••• le, Ut ••
UI-t:lJJUte1l bt •• )'1MD' C. },fOOte ]
Creta"""us' 1) :
tornl8.tJOH- Feet
G. 8allds"..one. reddlaJb broWD and U.ht lTeen-
W1 ,ra" mlSJd"o. hard. IrreaularlJ'
bedded : conglomeratic, fonM prominent
etCllrpment; tble-ll nea reduced by era-
81,," _____________ __ a __ • ____ _ _ _ a ._______ 76+
JUf lhlllc:
Summenille turmaUOD-
4. Sandoton., thin beddc<l, r.d ••••••••• ____ 123
• IIIlndstooe--
3. Sandstone. tan and brown, :wn.
croaa-beddcd___________________________ sao
Cume) forml tLon-
2. Shllle, light red Ru(l G'l'P.ftnttllb, 1000)'; COO-
t.1M' bedl of whHo . randlitone lad c)'p-
om ... _________________________ ... _______ 80.
1. Shale, mlroon; and hurd dDlf-«t'slne4
qURl'tzltle Nloostone; forlll .. HeQrpmenL 00
: XlvaJo lOadstone at base.
B. Sr.atioll 3 ",ik. belou; .1O .. o( Jltllffll ']t1L;,t Creek, Uta"
[)(eluured br •• ,-mood C. )(.oI"ot)
Cretaeeous(1) :
)lorrlf:lon fonnation-
:So Shale, greeotlfb red ond PUl'I.-le, __ __ _
oJ. Conglomemte, red and , 1"11, mnSlI"ve.
alarly l.Ie4lded : wearhen bro'C\' n; ;radetl
to COIlTs('! gritt.y sandstono _____________ _
Jurnsalc :
Summenlile {ofmatloD-
, 3. Rc<IIIb.I •••• thln·bedded l aadit ... ___ ._. 13
£ntt'ftda BIlndstono Ilwl Corutel t0l'lb8t10D-
2. Sindstoueo. 1I1 •• aott,
"'bit e' : p-ndCli downward to tan·browD'
1\'otbet'1l iu e .. ooth rouoded .Ioptl: dta:
Inte,l'atCli readll, oDd: In (lftrt Is eo ...
.,..01 : IIYpsU.ruus lI,ht·rc<l oand, ahole
at b ..... mOlll, <o ..... led __ • __ ••• _._ •• __ 1,:!20
1. Shnle, dark·red to mal'OOD, .. nd1; Clpped
b)' bord qult'tzttlc sand.tone____________ 40

1 £_1'1. W. n" 'l"Iw Rh'tr Diliert aecll .
4t! 1'01. "6. P1). 1918. OQ . A • . J.ur. let,
L .. I ... C. R,. aud oth., yl, ... dt - "'" _,
Of .. p ... -... RC"OIlI .""" OJ ,
C. Bef:f.iI;ft til BIU'T frail, 1 "tile, 111)01:6 ,uouth. 01 Al.,., f'
Cr6'!k, Utal, IIiII
by RIl),mond C. Moore)
CretaceoUS( 1) :
Morrlsoll fOl'mntlon-
J. Shal. , soft, sandy, lJght blulsb, .. itb thla r.,.
band. ot red __ • • __ .______________________ ZlO
4. Sandstone and snndy slltda 1n fh-e
Saodstone, yel10wlsh brown, COn-
glomeratic __________________ •• 1>-1
Shale, bluish drub and red, saody _ 20
Sandstone, redtliHb brown to light
gl'Ceoisb, coarse gl-ained lnd
ID8.3SI\'e______________________ ,
Shale, yellowish brown, sa.ndy ____ 11
Conglomerote acd coarse grit, re(1·
dish and light , r""nlsh gra)',
hnrd, ,.ery lrre,ulArly
bedded; form. promilleot bog"
back__________________________ 80 Dl
formation ond Entrada. snndstODe-
3. 8;!ndston ... roo , t.hln bedded, 80ft, IUlrtlJ eon •
eelled ; aud sond"tone, PlRSfih'e, 10ft, ere.·
bedded. l\'l,1te; (lades downward to tin'
brown: wentbel" rcnd.il,J: portl,. eonC!eBttd_ .....
carmel fornlJltlon-
8hal., light I"ed nnd grcanlsh, llY{>SiferolU:
('olltalDl some beds of bard wbIte 8.'lncbitone
anti IYP8UO} ___ __ _______________ __ .______ 111
1. Shah!. II.l.roon ond ll£"bt greenish, 1&1141 i
CDI)pcd by hard. dco8e slUeeou!;: lDlssl\'e to
1Ia£1Y Ihnestone • ________ • _____ • ____ ___ •• •
.Juruaic{ 1) : Na9"QJo sOlldlltone at bnsc.
D. S.c/"'B .1 lJilt., C.eck divide, /v:all 0' Cred. V, ..
[ lCe4ltured b7 naytllood C_ )[GOt'e]
Cretaoeous ( 1) :
Morrison lormatlou- ,.
S. Sh3le, grayi sh blue, mal'oon, nnd purple
banded, soft, sandy; weat.bers In
and badland. _________ • _________ ._._._.__ ill
1. Illld .andstone, grayish whIte
to Htrb! blul.h greo.: contains pebbl.s 13
II mI.X:h u 2 inches Ln ill.mete,,; cousIJfs
In palrt ot tblck bed. ond' len ... ot "" ....
contllOlllerate a.nd In P.G·rt of CORrie Il'ttty
""Y IlTerulorl, booded ... ndswne_. __ • __ • 110
Sum.menUIe formntlou-
I\. Shale, roo ond grol banded, anod)": ,udea to
soft tWo·bedded snnd.tone __ • ____ •• _. ___ •• ..
Entrada Nlndstone-
5. Sandstone, t:l:u·brown, m088i-;e, lott, erCII·
bedded i weo.tbers 1.11 smooth rounded sur-
1 .... _____ • ____ • ______ • ____ • __ •• ___ •• _.. all
f . SnndstOD', reddlsb brown ond bluish grI1.
•• ..,. 80tt, shaly; w.athen readUy, formlne
.atley: partly oo<e1"oo. __ • ________ _ • __ ••• fit
Entrada I8Ddstonl'--(;()utlnIINl. }reel
5. SandBtone, tan-brown. mn58l'le, soft. cross-
bedded, Jlne pamed; wentbers. 1n smootb
rounded surfnces ----____________________ SolO
carmel ( 1) (orma!:ion-
2. Shale' Ind sandstone, light red and bluI8h
gray; gray to white snndstone In atteruut-
iug beds; contnins seY('rAl of blub,:h
to wbite gypsum ns much 0.8 3 feet thick;
tbe g)'1lsom occurs also tn numerous tbln
_________________________ 7---------- 400
1. Shale, dark to Ught rcd, nn<ly; contains two
beds of very bard reddish a1.ld light-green
mottled dense sJliC'£ons lllnssi'-e nnd fI:1GGY
Umetitone thnt form rpmenfs_________ 00
In,w!C(!) :
NanJo sBD(lstone at bose.
Tho :&calante Valley is essentially a great amphi-
that has been developed by the remov!!1 of Up-
ptr lura.sic, Cretaceous,. and Tert.inry rocks. Its floor
of Navajo €andstonc is continuously exposed for many
mil .. back f'-OIn the Colorudo River and along both
lide. of the Escalnnte River and is w.rped UpwIN!
to fonn the Escalanto monoclino_ Elsewhere th..i. floor
is wholly Or partly concealed by beds of the ovedying
Son Rafael group, which are displayed as areas of flat.
lying or tilted rocks 0 nd os me ... lS, buttes, and detached
IlOUnds_ The southwest wall of the amphitheater is
the steep, straight escarpment of the Kaiparowits
Plateau, at the base of which the Sal] Rllf",,1 and Mot-
rison strata appear for a. dishnc. of more than 40
mil .. , .tanding as a terrace in front of the Upper
Cretaccous ditrs_ From the flank of the Waterpocket
Fold, which bounds the Escalante VIJley on the north-
east, tbe Upper Jurassic beds have been stripped, but
!.bey reappear along streams that issue from the
Aquarius Plateau_ At the head of the ampl\itheater
lround the village of Escalante lie erosion remnants
tllat have been CIl.rved from folded beds of green, red,
and I"Y sandstone, shale, and gypo;UJD, which uldude
III the Itrota assigned to the San Rafael and the
MOlTi80n_ .
. A mile west ot Escalante the topmost Morrison bed
IS 18 feet thick and is oornpored of white and green-
white fine-grained friable sandstone_ Below this bed
in lie 28 foot of shaly, lumpy .. ndstone in thin
"nokled and curved bed. lhi't alternate dark red And
duH white and about 50 feet of white massive sand·
slone with cross-bedding displayed in sweeping curves.
At Teomile Point, beneath an extensive flat devel-
oped on Dakota (1) sandstone, lie in .tuf)l 80 feet of
ltd irregularly bedded sandy 60 feet
of whIte f,.jabre in port massi,-.; 15 feet of
. dark·red uuevenly bedded sandy .hale,: and 120 feet
'?f white sandstone, in' part ma!!8ive,
1ft pa.t thin bedded.
At the mouth of Collett Canyon the Morrison 15
compooed of green-white intl-;cntely cross-bedded
I'entieulsr snndstone that inc.\ud.s " conspicuous
serIes of lenses in horizontal and dillgond positions
of green poorly compocted mud, wbich taper to lringle
layers of conCl-etionory btllls and angular lumps_ In
fonn and composition this material is identicnl with
lumps and sheets <>f mud strewn along the bed of a
near-b,. wasb by a rec<'nt shower_
As expo..ced at Fiftymile Point., t.he Moi'rison and
t.he uppe'- p"rt of the Sail Rafael group contain more
.hnlelike beds and fewer massive sondstone beds than
at most other exposures in the Escalante Volley_ They
closely resemble the beds thot o'-e charneteristic of the
"McElmo formntiol> " at its type locality in Colorado_
Near Bouldel-, whel"C the )!orrison is absent nnd
mO£t. exposures of the Snn Ullfael are less than 150
feet thick, It meosured section of the beds that overlie
the Nnnjo shows gritt,y buff sandstone Rnd yello,,.
sondy shale, 10 feet; limestone Rnd roo colcareou.
sh&le, 25 feet; yellow-white cross-bedded mnssive sand-
stone, feet ired cftlcnrcous and gypsiferous shnle, 8
feet i gYPSUni, 20 feet_
Throughout the BEenlant. Valley gypsum is abun-
dnnt !leor the base of the San Rafael gronp. In sev-
eral measured section. it constitutes as much as 20 per
cent of t.he lowermost' 100 feet of st}"Qto and is dis-
played as Q single bed with green-reel shal" pa,-t.ings
or as two to five beds that· nre separated by shale_
Near Egcalante a gypsum bed thut "Ye'-llges 45 feet
in thicknces with Ofsociatcd gypo;iferous shale has bee I>
effective in guiding erosion. It hus produced much
of the rough country immediately north of Escnlante
and on both sides of the E.colonte monocline_ Lower
Pine Creek has estnblished its course in gypsum, nnd
at Tenmile Spring the banks of Huris Wash
include ne.rly 100 feet of gypsulll nnd gypsiferons
sh,lo intel-bedded with l"ed limCl'tone nnd sandstone_
Gypsum and gypsiferous shale are involved in the
intricately dissected surfQce .bout the mout,h of
Collett Canyon and below Ponthe,r Seeps, and
. for .bout 10 miles west of Willow Creek gypsum
, beds ha,'e been eroded to form, trough in which runs
I the old trail to the Hole in the Rock crossing of
Colorado. Along the northenst fnce of the KnipR-
11l",its Platesu the gypsiferous .trata of the
formation stand at or below the 6.oor of Esc,,-
Illnte Valley from its to the vicinity of Collelt
Canyon, concealing the Nanjo benellth_ Southeast
of Collett Canyon these beds are exposed increosingly
nenr the plateau front, and at Fiftymile Point and at
the heads of the short steep conyons that enter the
Colorado opposite the mouth of ahe. San uan the
gypsum forma pan of the Kaiparowlta CIt/Fa, from.
which extends the profoundly lrenched ftoor of
Navajo sandstone..
Along the baee of the Aquariua Plateau the gypslf-
.rous lower beds of the SilO Rafael group are cut by
the western branches of Pine Creek and by Deadman,
Sand and Mamie· Creeks. On upper Boulder Creek
these \ed. ace only p.'rt ef the group present;
they consist of thin lenticulnr, irregular beds between
Tertiary sandy limestone and lavn above and strongly
developed N. va.jo sandstone below. (See p. 116.)
Sill' JW,.(ael I/T()UP an' Jlol1'iBt)n. (1) forn&t:ltiotJ .8
mite' ca.d of E.caku&.tB, Ulfl·h
(lfen.ared by Herbert Il. Gt'Ql;Ory J
CretLl('CflUS :
Dnkota (1) .$Ilndstooo at tOll.
(?) :
i\'1orrltWD (1) formntlon- Feet
H. Snndstonc, gray and fE!d. nnd reel areuilceouS
"hale, il'I'cgll.lori), de[losited ; por lly oon-
ceuled__________________ ________ ________ 48
Eut ru(Ja
13. Sandstone, ]reJlow, In l,laooil l'Ybi te or green-
white and red, fiue grained, w'ltb' coarse
grams on lamination surtoces: eontslJHI
SOll1C Iron concretloD8 j triable, crumbling
renlllly to dust: UIJPCl' part Illlulsh;e, in-
tricately Ct085-bedded i lower 40 feet
evenly bedded i shows smooth foliation
forrus cU!r: thlcknOlUl 130
12, Snollr!tone, red, fioe grained. tbin bedded,
nud 8flndy red shnle: crossed by bands and
Jllltchea at greeb-white: friable: calcare.-
OU8 and gyps\!crous; very irregular In
bedding And structure___________________ 60
II , ,.ellow-red, wllsal"e, cross..lJcdded,
Doe trDlncd; resembles NI.I'Vajo sod-
stolle - _________ ________________________ 22
Toto} Entrada sandstone______________ 212
Curmel (?) fonnn tiou-
11>, Gypsum One! IYJlsfterous shale. with subordi-
nnte sunds.toue j rray. red, pnrple,
and 19h-colorcd; torlUs a pla.lD aeron up-
tUI"lIed atrntn: hU'gely cODecaled: thlck-
Ill'8S ei!i Ums ted _________________________ _
9, Sandstone, thin bedded, or sRndy s.hale, gray.
highly cnlenreoos. Imbrlcnted: glistening
tolhttiOll surfaces covered witb rlipple
umrks and patcbcs ot hardened sand:
vcry irregular Ju thlck.ness. composition,
ond extent of 1Jed2t _____________________ _
8, Shnlc, caleareous,. Rud thlD SODdy IIroestoo8.
7. GnlSUUI, ",·hlte. DlMsh·c, with tew ICllses
And stringers ot white MOdy shale' forml
sweh: partly concenled. ______ • __ ___ __
6. Sandstone, red·yellow, wuslve. cross-
bcddcd _______ : ________________________ _
5. Shnte. red, sandy, unevenls bedded._. ____ ...
JUrasslc-CoDUnued. .
Carmel (7) formation-Contiuued,
4. Sandstone, buff', regularly bedded i Oot Hd
4 feet tbick, other beds thin __________ _
3, Shale, sandy, or shaly sandstone, '1)luk with
irregularly placed patches of flilta.
reous; tbin lenses 01' lImestone; CoUatloa
surfnces sun dried, ripple mar'ked, aDd
dotted with mud lumps ______________ _
2. Limestone, pink, brittle, and Pftper.t.h1a
sandy sbule, -imbricated, ripple mnrQcL
I, Saudstone, roo, shaly. cnlC"JreouR, with
[)D.tches of coarse sund I;l'aIO'<I _________ _

- Total C::t rmel(?) formntioD _________ .... a

Totnl Morrison formation Rnd San
Rafnel gl"OUp __________ ____________ _
Jur ... Ic( 1) :
Navlljo f;oodstollCy yellow·white.
of San Rafact uroup a"d Morri.son lormatioa., .......
eQ8t bUJC of Ka;pa,yo-toits Platea·u, abaut 16 ao.!l ...
of liJ_caJa.ntc, Utah
(lfcllSlIr<!d by E. Grc;:orl1
Cretaceous :
Dakota (1) .. ndstone-
Uncontormlty I hown ht eros-tall surEaee covered
with ('Or- glomerate composed eblen,. of etay pel-
lett, chunkl of shole :lnd white ! llnd:stolMt, and
pebblel of red', !:YRY, and black quarts nnd ellert.
CrelJleeous (7) ;
lforrlson fotmatJ01.1-
8. Sandstone. ;yellow-white, witb. lenses ot. )'ft-
Il)w, ,reeu, ,and dr-ob mul.! :ahale __________ _
7. Saud'dtorr.e, tbin-bedded, arenaceous shale,
ond hl,"hl,r en!i.'l1i'eous ami !Sandy eartbJr
limestone; alternating band'. or dark red
aud eral, ,-orl nne,'enly bedded; lentle.-
lar ________ _________
_____________ ______ _
6. S,mdstone, yeIlOW·gl·U1, pa rt
part f'cJlutill' I)" lJL'ddetl;. incluoes leD.iQII
strlnp, and isoln.ted or ,fellow,
grecn·white, aud daJ Ium.p.;
two Jeuse!J of' .. te wIth pebbles
of sbnle, and quurtlillte ; IDa,
be sePftl'oteit into four bed, but ex.posure
0llpettI ..... Bing-le hed wIth remftrioble
vorlutlon. In texture and. In detailed st.rve-
ture j Ifmllar mot"erials in the bank of •
wasb i poorl,. consoUdRted, crumbHnl read-
Ily to sand' _____________________________ _
Total Monlsoa tormotlon _____________ _
Jurassic :
Summervllle( 1) tormatlon-
6. Sandstone, rello\Y-Wblle, In re,ulur bed., I
to 10 inchetl thick; ,'er'1 nne c-ralned _____ _
4. ShnlCy dark red, very calcareous ,; 80me tblA
liruestofies; thIn imbricated larers, wltb
!!tubby lenses Qr red anil Kr." cnIco_
8RDdaton·e ___ . ________________________ .. _ ...
3. Sandstone, banded. gl'een, ond red.
thin bedded; w •• the .. to powder, d"-


Total SumUle .... llle( 7) !ormatloD ______ _
IDtrada &Il-UdStoDe- Feet
2. Sandstone, crenm-colored and yeJlow-Sl'een,
in plnces bright gTeen, cross-
beaded, uniformly ftne grained except tor
slightly coarser grains on lamination sur-
Wel1.tbel"S In sruooth rounded knobs:
. cl'umbles under tIle feet; n terrace;
thickness estlmated______________________ 240
Carmel (1) t'onnat!on-
1. SbnlIJ, red, gypslfcl'ous, thin gTay silleeoa"
limestone, und thill red amI bl'ay calcnreous
Kandltonc; only top exposed____________ 8
Totul Morrison formation find San Ra-
rael group___________________________
An unusual feature of this section is the amount of
lime in beds 4 Ind 7 ond the mingling of colors and
tertures in bed 6. The olmost abrupt. v.,·intion in
terture and arrangement of beds characteristic of the
San Rafael group and Morrison formation is indicoted
in. section measured by Moore' at a near-by locality,
"here calcareous beds firo absent and the bedding is
mtlCh more regulor. .
I8CHn'" of Entrada. and CO,'llw! (",.,,,,altoIiS _ea.I' O!vl 00-1)6
on Rarr;" Welsh, about 20 mi.re. Ct-'lJt of Eswtante
lMcRIiUr(!d by Unymond C. )l'ooNI
Iall"8do. sandstone:
3. Sandstone, tan·hrowll, massive, s.ott: weathers
rendlly to IJUDd that tOl'IDS aunes; thlcknes:s
.. ,Imltea ___________________________________ 300+
Ctrmel formation: =
2. Shule. plnkisb red ond blull!h croy, sandy; con-
talus beib ot gypsum -4 teet 01' less in tblcknc;\8 :
outcrops ore 1'erylrregutar O.Q aecouot or Slump-
1n,; )enLicular (;-rur beds 3 feet or
Ic:@s In tbickneils ____________________________ 120
L Saudstone and shale. dork moroon,
c:natned; tbe shale yet'S sandy and grading to
shol)· s:ondstonc_-;___________________________ 60
ToWl Carmel CorllloUoD ___________________ 180
'r.!ioo< .f 8a" Rafael anll Morriso,. (1) be/!4 at F!ItIl'Ni/e
Po:",d, c4UI. e"d of KaipaJ'ofclt8 Pfa.tetJ.It, UIGII
[Meollurec1 by Herbert E. GL"CjOrrJ
Dakota (1. IIndstone.
1l00000on. (7) formAtion and Son Rafael p'oup: Feet
13. Sandstone, rcd-yellow, massive, cl"Oss-bedded,
full o'f Cft\"CS and pits i weathers into rounded
knob. j very .8oft i single ledge i thlckne3s
ntimlted _______________________________ ___ to
1.2. Shalt, arenBceOus. or tllio sDndstone,
creeD, l'u\'ender, (lod sbades: of red; Irregu-
larly bed'l.'L _________________________ ·_____ SO
11. 8DDdltoo(!. wWtc, 90ft, mottled________________ 8
10. Shale or thiD I8ndstooe, red. imbricated. Dodular,
talcareou8, ond gypslferoos_________________ sa
8. SlDtlstooe, greeD-white or white mottled, lumpy,
Irlablc _________ _________________ - --------- ,
8. Ibal. or Mudstoue, like No. 10________________ 2!1
't..", .. u, C. R .• and otber'S. op. eSt.. p. 21.
Morrison (1) torwnUQu aud SAn group-Culi.
7. Sandawue, white, !rlable _____________________ _
6. Sbale. Uk. No. 10 ____________________ : ______ _
15, Sandstone, wbite, calcareous, ripple JDlll'ked ___ _
4. Grosum, dark red, white spotted, lumpy, and
('81coreous sand,. sbale ____________________ _
3. Saod:rtone, It'regularly beddccL _______________ _
!!. red, sand" colcttreous ________________ _
1. red Iud groy, "er, 8ond" lumpy,
tlnel bedded ______________________ _
Navajo iuudstone.
P.-\RIA VAI..:L.&T
The flnt 1,1IIe! thQt immediately sun'ounds Cannoll-
ville, extends .down tho Patin for about 6 mile& is
del'doped in the lower beds of the San Raful group,
and the sLeep-faced meso. that fOMn a cl'euulated wall
for t.ho irJ'igutcd lands about Henrieville are composed
of Summerville .,lId :Uorrison (!> strat.a aro PI"'-
vented hom crumbling by' A resistant cap of DakotA
sandslone. The Dry Butler Valleys like-
wise have been formed by the removBl of friable San
Hnfael beds. (Sec pl. 22, B.l· The exceptional
roughness of the country .tllat extends fl'om the head
of Cottonwood Creek westward Dcross Hackb.rl·Y
Creek to and beyond the Pal'ifi is the expression of
the extent to which streams have succeeded in st.rip-
ping the Navajo sandstooe of the overlying beds,
which aro highly voriable in composit.ion, texture, and
arrangement. The relations of the Upper Jllrassic
100'mations in this aret!. buye not been satisfactorily
determined. West and north of Cottonwood CI'eek
no complete section is eXpoSed, ond the incomplete sec-
tions which a.re IiIlparated by several miles, reqnire
more study before correlation in detail can be made
with confidence. If the 120 feet of yellow crOss-
bedded sandstone t.hat forms a mal<8ive stl'atum
at Dry Ganyon is nssigned to the Entnda formation,
the Carmel formation, with i,t. charactel'istic lime-
stone and ripple-mll'ked shale, is unusually thin at
this locality and contains no gypsum. If tbe yellow-
red sandstone cliff. at CannonviUe, which lie between
thin, banded .andstone above and gypsum bel(}w, are
correlated with the Entrada, the Cumel in tho upper
Pari .. Valley Utcludes prominent members that are
not oboerved elsewhere in this formation. The assign-
ment of bed. to different formations is mode more
difticult by the absence of 1I[0l'l'isoll strato.-at least of
beds thal show the chAracteristic features of the Mor-
rison. (See p. 91.) The present tentative inter·
pretiltion restricts the )forrison (t) to feet of white
sa.ndstone at the top of the banded Cannon"ille clitIs
and treats all beds between U'lat horizon mnd the yellow
sandstone on Dry Creek as one fOf'mation about 800
feet thick, which occupies the position of the Summer-
ville. (See pt. IS, A.) In fll.vor of this vic" is tile
observation th .. t the red strata in t.he banded ,,-bite
.and red slopes beneath the 88sumed M01'l'ison gradually
rHI: Jl:AIl'AaOWm PGIO/<
il1crease in num!ll!r downward alld thicken until the
nllo,,-red .. andstone constitutes Ihe walls.
l'h.se massive red !lI!d$ are lithologit1l11y much like the
!lI!ds abo"e and are mlrkedly dissimilor to the shale
and gyJl5um undernealb.
.o\s shown in the section !lI!lo'll', these maSl'ive sand.
stones include dark-red .h.le IS lenticlllar pal-tin:;s.
In the Dry Valley abo\'6 t he 119 foot of shale Rnd
gyp.um thn resu. on sandstone Rssigued to the En-
tradn f()l"llll.tion (S<.'C section, p, 85) lies obout 400
feet of intrictlOOly eroded beds that form the much
broken floor of the \"olley. They appear IS rounded
knobs of b"nderl and "sriegated .. marl," flat· topped
on<l buttes that rise obove a surface deeply
blll·ie<1 in Illuvium. (See pI. 22, B.) . The !lI!ds pres-
ont include yellow, red, dark-red, Ind white b.nded
f.·jable snndstone, c!l lcnreous and gypsiferous sh.le,
ond at lellst six thin bed. of gypsum, one of them cut
hy bnnd. of pinl< chaleedon)·. all the beds
are expo.oo on the floor are I1ne.enly bedded Ind
chnnge their eharacter within short distances. At one
place R bed of yellow.red sandstone, lJIllSSi<e ncept
fOI' inconspicuous lenses of red shale, nppea .. na I huge
moss obout half n mile long and 180 feet thick, shod-
ing in llao midst of thin red .'!8ndstone Ind variegated
shu Ie, (See pI. 12, B, C,) nle north wall of the Dry
Valley consi..u of about 200 f(let of San Roflel And
Morrison (1) beds thnt underlie Cretaceous sediments,
At R di stonce these lowel' clilfs resemble one great bed
of white sRndstone th.t i. crossed byse\'ernl dark-red
bands. On clOS('r view, the lowest 200 feet is seen to
be composed of a "e";ee of thin, uneven beds of wbiOO
consolida.tedsnndy mud wieh two dark-red bnnda near
Ihe top like thc border 011 WILli popel'. Above these
beds comes a heel of white cI'oss-bedded gritty 9.nd-
stone, 4 fe"t thick, which is I'esistont enough to form
" project.ing bench, Still higher lies !)() feet of white
shnle and sandstone cl"Obsed by severR! red bands
'.he l?wer holf and succeede.d upward by 60 feet of
mconsPlcuously bedded white sand. All the motoriol
in t,he volley woll i. poorly cOllsolidnOOd And crl1mble '
'dl' • "'pl ' Y to ,'cry fmo snnd. Where it is protccted b
the Dakota (!) so.ndstone it otnnds along cliff
ont f\"Om Ihe wulls.s needles And of which
Rock (pI. 28, A) ;. a conspicuous eumple,
At t.he h?gbnck th.1. i. trenched by the P"' ia River
brIo,. POI'," seUlement the upturned strata of the
San Rufn:el group olld the Morrison (I') fonnut.ion are
re" ealed ln the bed and immedi.te banks of Cotton.
w.oo,d . . They here constitute essentially three
clistmct d.vll;aons. The uppermost division, whi ch lies
nneonfoMllubly below t·he Dakota(t) .. ndstone, in-
.. more thall . 600 feet of medium·grained vel'Y
frIable sandstone lD massh'e ,,'hit- bed th t
' • • ne aep·
by beds of dnrk-red and green· white 83ndstollc
3 lOehes to 1 foct thick, ",hi,'" thus produce tile op-
I pearanee of a white cliff unevenly banded with I!d.
In the lOwest 20 feet the banding i9 regular and the
contrast between dark red Bnd white is unusually
strong. 'rhe middle division, which is correlated with
t.he EntrAda sandstone, is substantially a bed of IIlII-
sive white to blue-gray friable sondstone that is eJab.
orately cross-be,lc\ed ancl has a thickne.«s of about 110
feet.. The division, about 250 feet th.ick, cea.
sists of thin, ulleYellly bedded friable sandstone thlt
Faries in textu re from fiJli! mud to co"'''e sandstoo
a.nd includes fl.t lensr. and oblong mosses of 1DJa1l
angular pebbles. Its geneml color tone is marOOll,
but bands of w!t:te of different thicknesses, lengths
"nd positions trn,'erse the surface in a seem.illg!!
haph.u,rd fashion, and thin beds of light-guy snd.
&lonc form shehes on slopes that otherwise weather
like shale. Beds of gypsum, if present, are concealed
by swfnce debris, but gypsum forms port of tI:.
material. Towa.rd the base of this IfOU)
hme cement is increasingly eommon, and tbin lime.
stones inOOrlaycred with deep-red thin sandstolle OR
pla£OOred O\'er the uneven surfllce of the NOVijo.
Near the abandoned of Adairville, on the Pan.
RiTer, the beds above t.he Carrnel formation consis
of two thick massive sandstones sepa.I'ROOd by .boat
70 feet of thin, alterndely bedded red and white
snndstones thAt weather like shale. The lower, a
white sudstone bed, is pel'sistent for several miles;
the upper, n yeUow-white bed, changes along the staib
to a of thin-bedded, banded sandstone.
Scoti.on €If Jlorrj.stm, (') f orm(t t ion and upper ".,., of 8n
Ba.rltcl g"oup at CaN1Itnwil1e, Utah.
()I£'olOurro hy f(('rbcrt E. Gregory. See pl. 13, ")
Dakota (?)
Unconformity ShOWD by ercsion.
Morrison (1) formntlon and San Rofael group: fHt
42. Sandstone. white, stalued with yellow; fel')"
une\"enly bedd(>(]; top 1 foot composed ot lD-
tel'ln('ed bands ot dnrk-brown DDd Yellow
I!nnd; 1111 crmnNes readily to 1'oriegate4
snnd_ _______ ________ ______ __ ___ _ ___ ________ 4.i
41_ SnlJdstone. red: highest red bed Jo tlle
"We I
40, SRndstolle like No_ 42 __________________ 18
30, SDudst one. yellow, concretionAl'Y, ns if 'tfhfte
were Impl'egnoled with Iron •
38. SandstoD(" friable. 1 toot white, 1 toot
ff{·t white, 3 feet red _________________ .______ ,
, 37. Snndstone. white. gylJslfel·ous ___ ? _ _ _ _ ___ D
86.. Snlldstone, Orm; th ree honds ot red sepllro.ttd
""blle i forms Hlep all slopes ond CtllllJ of
Dear-by JS
3:;. S:JJIt:b:tone. whife, lenticular, witb 22
tftlcontiDuous bands of l'ed In lower ha.lt; ,.
red JIl8t.f"rlol OCCllr nnd ECottered Ira,..
lI')eDt.@ of greeo-whlte Cllly ______________ 146
Sol. Sandstone. wblte, cross-bedded, very Ana
,rained. le.nti<:ulnr, reJ:ltst8Dt; forJBI
1Ien(:b 011 F.lope Dnd cops ot ncat-by towerS
nnd Dlesns ______________________ ______ , ____ • S
.(1) forDHttioD nod Srtn Rtlfuel , grotlp-Couto.
-: S8odstonc, light red, in pluL'es du}'¥ H'(t. \'Cry
beddetl, poorly t'ousolldllled _____ _
32. S<lIl<1.to
e like No. 3; _______ ______ • __________ _
1 like No. 3.'1 _______________________ _
;,: SaI)d8tone. buff·yellow: a
rtlo;;e in ___________ ______________ _
:!9. Snndstone Uke No. 33. __ ___ ____ ___________ __ _
?JI. Send"too
like No. 34 _______________________ _
2i. Snndstone x,o. ___ - - --------- - -------
sundstone like 34 _________ __ _ ..... _________ _
25. Sandstone like No. :t3 ___________ ___________ ..,..
M. Sandstone, white; three ueds rtiylded b, rcd
sandstone; nocJulor. cODcrNloUlr,y; !o.)rmg
beDcb _________________________ _____ . _______ _
lIke 33. _____ _________________ _
22. Saodlltone like No. 3-1 ________________________ _
21. Sondstone, burtt sbulrt thi ll beth1ed, ,·cry HO-
o,enly be<lded__ ___ ___ ______________________ 12
20. Sandstone, {lnrk rcd, i'Tinblc____________
10, Snodstone, reel, thin bedtled. cross-bcdde<L 5
18. Sandstone, ligbt rell, thin hooded. and dark-reel
remurkably irregutur in tt.'xture. struc-
aud eontinu1ty uud arrangement ot
bcrls: the shal e l li S:Uldy lUud lu beds as mnch
08 1 toot thick nnd 10 to 100 teet long :lnd In
oblong mud chunks cmlJcdded lu -s.lnfJ or
weathered to form" toe hole" cavities; sund-
atone strata t nnl:;cntll\l ly crossebeddcd; wbite
Itrcn.ks nppe:u' at on Coliation llinnes,
and o.ton,; laminae And olttHne
IOnlO Dlud ell unks; fontlS uneven top of me&a..- 45
11. dUl';t rei!. hTegularly .tatued ____ _ 4
16. 8o.r.-dltone, ligllt red, mnti$l.vc, cross-bedded... ___ 13
lG. Sandstonc Dnd sll1'lle like 1'\0. 18___ ___________ IS
14. Snndstooe, TI.;!ht red, trregularly
atreoks of whUe ___ ____ ______ ___ _________ __ _
18. S. ... ndRtoue, Iigl1 t red, wnD)' "hlte rl)unll blotches
at basc; very il'l'egular; Indudcs oue per-
.lttent Ulln bed or white SSlfldstooe _________ _
12. Shale, 411rk red, a series ot' ofel'la.pplllg sandy
Inod nakes; rests in nu')st plncc1 on white
Orm Sftndf'toue shelf ubout 1 tnell thlck _____ _
11. Sandstone, red. cro .... bed<led ___ • ________ _
10. Shale, Ilark red _____________________________ _
O. Sandstone, Jig-ht rect, uneveo, hlIDVY, cross-
, bedded; eontnlns smnll Qunrtz-Hued geode8___ 12
.. Sandstone, nnd butY, it) beds 1 to S
teet thiel:, discontlnuoul, cross-bedded: crotnl
ot translucent (IUartz toa;-ether wlth .ome red
Ind hlack ;"l'oins; contains Quutz-lIoed geodes
II lel1.lCS and tiS SClttteted indivldllUl .. ; Cftrrles
I dlnRonnlly plnccd bed: ot white aandstone
bordered by dart-red I!mlc thllt rao:;ea v.ith-
In 100 teet {ro... 10 I""h.. to n feet In
thlckneol ______________________ ____________ 16
7. ShAle, daJit red; snlHIJ" uncvellly be:!det1; cnr-
rlea JengeS ot yeltow-I'ed sandstone: wetlthel's
as I groove or strina- of rectangular Ctl. \'I.ties
on clltr roce__ ______________________________ 10
t Sandstone, light rellow·'I'ed runBSlve j breakS liP
ltoo" .trlke Into c_foss·beddin£"; laminae
notely l-ed and white; thickness ranges WIth·
In 200 teet from 36 to S fcet________________ 28
!I. San<ll!tone. light red. CI" .... l>cddcd: wbite
streAks along lllntlnne _______ _ :-____________ 20
to Shale. dark red; luwpy; forms l:rOOvO______ 2
llorrlsun 0) fOnlltttloll and San Rafael group-CoUld, Feet
3. ,,·bite: very dna grained: bed ditrers
much 10 thickness from ptnce to place_______
2. Sandstone. )'CIlOW·l-ed, streaked o.nd dotted with
whlte; nlils.!tlY8 bods, 6 teet thick, flepornted
by very uueven)J' bedded ahate i weath,en as
knobs onrJ hoodoos; at 0. pluce 2 runes di,t:lllt
Ix."tls rOt'ltl a cHit about ";0 feet hlgh____ _ 2G
1. CytHSUU\ oDd sbRle. white, yellOW. dark red,
rarely greenish i Cypsum io ftve or more beds
1 t () 5 teet tldek. lnrgely couccolC<l___________ -I;:;

neds totaling 180 feet ill thickness below No. 1
appeal' on the east bank of the Pal'in_, but the base
of the SaIl Rafael group is Dot exposed.
Section. Of par t of nUJ San. Rafael qroN'p ,,, D"1I Va-Hey (Rock
Spring Gulch. Ccdrz.r Walla), Utah, abQI.t 2 ""He3 atuwe ftJl
IUllction. toW&. Pm'to Creet
pCeBiured by Horbert It Oregorll
·t-!l.ltro.dR SRIld8tOUC and Suwmcl",·tllo (?) romHl.Uon :
9. 1Uossl\·e bed: cops l.Ilgbelit hill In tbis
ylcinifY _____________________ __ _____ ___ _
8. Shale. (llnkJsb, stludy, In l'el'Y irregular bed::c__ ___ ij..'3
7. GYPSUID, mussIve bcd__________________________ 1
6. Shote, pinkish, snndr. with lunny thin titrlngers
of gypsum; tollutlou RurfaeclJ ripple Illfu'ked;
together with No. G CorUlS l ow rounded hills___ 32
5. Shale, al'ecnlsb And red, sAnd),: UlallY tb!.n
strlnG'crs of Vpsum__________________________ 11
4. GypgUDI, whIte, mS:$81\'e bed : summit ot: bed forms
a tcrrace____________________________________ 13
3.. OldY l:iilnte, sott, ,·cry thlo1, laminated; soute
gl't"eclsh laminae : nodulnr. concr£>tlonnry:
(orlUs nn nloo.e__________ __________________ _ ;j
2. SDJld,tone, pole yellowl8h ",' bile to le-monMyello\'f.
1l10SBl\'c but loft nnd very poorly
cemented: got'ains trnuspol·ent ond uniformly
smnll; outcrops of the rock resemble tbo.t4e ot
the Navajo IRlld:Jtone; most ot It Is cross·
bsdlle:d 01' obacul'ely bedded: tOl'ma u Ill!
1. Sbule, red. 2
Curmel fOl'lnntlon,

Sectioll Df J[o,'f";.so,. (f) !ornloHoa a.nd San. ncur
Ilead of Collort.u:004 Creek. Ka.-n.o COUll/ll, Utalt
by S erb,,-" E. Grcaory1
Dakota ('1) aandstollo witb lenael of course collgloUl·
erate and of coal.
It(orrison tOl'IDlltlon uud San Rafael group :
28. Sandstone, reUow 8ml burt, Dln:mlfe. fine,
grained; torms cUtt-_____________________ _
21. tn alternotJol' bed. ot ycllow wblte
ond dark red, fine, nan ;ralned: thlckllesS
.. ,tlnale<! _______________________ -- - --------
26. Sandstone, light rCd to yellow. l'cry trlot.le,
moasl\-e, strongly cr083-beddoo; tortna verU- cal ___ ________________________________ _
25 SaodaLOue, aboJ)" pink and green·wblte i unl-
, formly vcry .6.ne grolned except for pock.ets:
that cauteln (ra,ments of. relatively reslqt·
unt greell shnle; forint' enp tor No. 24 ______ _
1tlorrllKlD (1) formatioD aDd San Rafael grfJup-Contd.
24. G.TDBum. wbU(!. JtpeCked w1th &TeeD; includel
some gyp!'{iicroos sbale __ _________________ _
23. S$ndJJtooe, wblte ____________________________ _
22, GYllsnm. like No. 24 ______________________ _ · __
21. Sa.ndstoll@o, white. booded w"lth red i "ery fiDe
v;ralned _____________ - - --- - - -- - --- ----------
20. Gypsum, and plnk _____________________ _
. .. ,
11). SandHtonC', pink, green-wbite, and light red, In
discontinuou!J beds: 1 to .. teet tbIck: appcfl.rs
us variogated cll1r._______________________ &S
1& Shnl{", drub, hlgllly cnlcnrooufI, 1D beds less than
1 Inch thick; weathers to • rounded knoIL___ 45
11. Sandstone, white, ____ - --- - - - --------- 4
]6. Sandstone. red: In nve IrreJUlar b2d!f, folltHlon
wavy, f1rm; tortnttl 11l'oJectlnj; Jedgc __
1iJ, Shale. reel. lumpy. tD bt'ds; In-
clades ICIlS('S m:tde of porou. ftlu:rccatetl or
chunks or white ood red clay witb MllDe smnll
fX,!uble. and frftgmt"nht ot phmt. ______ p______ 4G
H, Sandl'lfooe. grny, burrt. made of pehbles of sbale.
qunrt .. and quurtzlte 8"feragl'ng about one-
r-Ightb Incb lu diometer, set In coarse send___ 1
, 13, S:m<l.stooe, In (bin bed1\. and very thin ahale,
dftl'k-red, specked with wbLte Ind yellow;
uDe'fen1r bedded, crou-bedded ; Inc1udel IeMCA
composed ot red nD(1 I:'l1l1 ftottened mud
lump.; ODI winy surtllce of No. 12 __ ...... ":'"... 28
J2. S,,!ul!1tone, yellow-whIle,; ..cpllratt'd
by ooscure
follntlon Into beds tbRt Ave.t'ap about reet
In t.hlcknc89; Dlllltslve, sott, weakl,. cementc..>d
by lime uno Iron: grains ver)' SIDIlU, mOlit of
tlit"m trnnspnreut quartz; cross-bedded thr<lUl'h-
out; Dellr the top 18 Q hord dnrk·browD caflrRe
cross-betided JUYCI"; forms promlmmt cIID' _ _ 110
11. Slinle or tllln red__________________ 4
10, Snndatone, white, flnc-gl1llIlt.'(l, cross-bedded;
('rumbl es road1Jy to SROfL __ ... _ ... _____ ...... _______ ]G
9, Shnle. 8undy, red nnd butr, UJle\"eJlly betlded____ 7
S, Sondstone, (Chair, green-groy, In bed .. less tban
1 lneb tblck; nil blghly cnfcoreou.!', SODle l>cds.
siliceous l.hncstone; OD roBnUon surfnces 0:
romarknble dl,ijplny of ripple mot'klJ. and worOI
t.rHlIs; reststnnt to wettthetlnc ...... _ ... ______ ......... 12
7, Shnle, red, sundy, ('olcUl'('Ous_ ... ___ ... ___________ ... 2
U. Llllleatone, grny, thin bedded, siliceous, smooth,
folliltion sul'facC'S ______ ... ___ ... ___ ... __ %
:l. Simle, red, allndy; Includes' two bcds of
limc8tone like N:o. 6___________________ 2%
4, Shole, red, very unevenly bedded, blghly cnl-
coreou!:! ____________________________________ 8
3, drnb or lilulsh; foUation plones iucoDspic-
\lOllS but went hera Into tbiD hord chillS; In-
ciud('8 Inycn of: !hi.tIe (!alcareous
nud of dene:e IImt'frtonc. in whicb nrc em-
fropienlary f08.111._ ...... ______________
2, S:lUdstonc. gfll." i Interbedded Willi rcddltlb and
green-tinted shale In tbl.D W'a\'y and crumpled
lamInae; weaUle'rs at one latd... __ ... ___________ 10
1. Snnlli>.tonc, grny-greeG, coo.rse, dl.continuoutl; In
plnet's represt'nted onl}' by scattered lund
grainS', In other places by • Inyep of SIlD<I an
Inch or less thIck, or by nec·ulftulftllons of
In hoUo,,'! or joint <!:nlas In tbt andet·-
lying rock - ... _______________________________ 1
Navajo snndstona, yellow-white top, base stnln('o(} dark brown.
Secl"", 1 mile '01/.th of 1M n.cuth. of OoUon1<OotI Crt.1r, ....
ll:tell.llured by n(lywond C_
Dakotn ('!) snndstone.
San Rafnel group-- J'tft
Sandstone, Ugbt gray, massive, uDtrorm In
color and texture, in part rutber bard. Illd.
projecting fl.S a ledge but mostly verr '10ft
aDd ea.slly 1M
Snndstone. :mll'oon, \'cry sort, bUDded with UIlIl
beds of ligbt blUish grny _______________ .-___ 111
Sandstone, light bluish gray, very soft; cont.ina
a few thin bnuds of maroon sundstooo_____ 11)
Sandstone, mnroon, ' -cry soft, with some baads
of ligbt-gTuy hard !!:1ndstonc as much a. 2 feet
in thiclme:o:s; soft sr.'.,s sandstone increase.
upwn rd____ ___ ____ ____ ____ _________________ 2tO
J ura5Slc ( 1) :

Sondstone, gmy to nearly white, massin, c:r_
bedded; forms prominent hogback to west
The southwest front of the Kaiparowits Plateau
consists essentially of two enormous escllrpment& 'fie
lower one, which rises above the Navajo snndstOtle
nnd hus been stripped back from the walls of Glell
Canyon, is built of San Rllfacl and Morrison stnta;
the upper one is formed of Cretaccous sh,,:le ILnd sand.
stone, The Tropic shaLe, which separates the tlro
escarpments, has been rcmo,·ed to such all extent that
tbe capped by the Dal<ota ('), fonDS a
bench many m:!es wide, which is separated into mes85
by the deeply trenched sh'e.ms tha t flow south to
join the Colorado. The traiL from Wllhweap to
Roel< Creek winds about the ends of these mesa. Iftd
into the vulleys between, like the course of a ship
that is making its way along the bays and pronJOl)-
torios of an intricately broken coast line. (&8 pl.
10, A.)
From the Parin River the old Indian trail tbet
lends from the Kanab and Virgin Valleys to the Cr05l-
ing of the FRthers runs almost continuously
walls or around buttresses of Upper .Jurassic sand·
stone. Little White Rock GuLch, a western tributary
to Wahweap Creek, is cut in Morrison strata
150 feet thick and almost as white as flour. AlooI
Coyote Creek the next Lower beds appear-a banded
series of cross·bodded white or buff sandstone u4
dark·red or brown shale that is correlated with the
Summerville formation. Some of thesQ s&ndl!toa'
beds are marl{ed by parallel sets of straight cross-
beddina laminae; others are evenly bedded and dis-
play surfaces co .... red with sun &od
patches of mud. They consist of very fine grains 01
white quartz and some blllCk, green, grtIini
and contain also flnkes of green-white consolidated
Jllud. The red shale consists of irregular wavy im·
bricated beds, 3 to 8 inches thick, the lowest heds
Jllarked ilt places by patches and nodular lenses of
manganese. For 6 miles abQye Lone Rock the im·
..witte banks of Wahweap Creek are mude up of
.. bite and light"'ed sandstolle (Entrada) that forms
cliffs 200 feet a'· more high. Southeastward the Cur·
DI61 beds appear, and beyond 'Yarm Creek, on the trail
through Gunsight Po,s, the entire Mon'ison forma·
tioe and San R'lfael group are exposed. (See pI.
Although they differ widely in color, style of bed.
ding, Dnd thickness from place to place, the beds above
the 011 both sides of Glen Canyon eastward
hl the mouth of the San Juan present !l similar ap·
a variegated baslil slope leads to a red wall
of m ... ive cross·bedded sandstone thut is cop.tinued
upwlrd by 8 ser:es of banded red and white so.ndstone
lid green. white sandstone. The lower red sandstone,
the dominating fenlure, forms II wnll of ntt.ractively
Rnd IJea,,(ifully decorated rock, in some ways
remarkably like the Nanjo sandstone but marked by
slllall differences that are easily recognized
in ,h. field.
Along Glen Canyon the Canuel formation is ex·
posed to \!iew Over lnrge are.as, and innumerable shal-
109 canyons make it possible to study its ,·ariable
{",[ures in detail. (See pI. 10, B.) In most pluces
the Entrada, Summerville, and Morri"on combine to
moire unseala.!::I. cliffs, but :n canyons tributary to the
Colorado the edges of ull beds nre successively ex·
posed. Ou a branch of Kane Springs Creek the Mor·
risoo consists of approximately 100 feet of banded red
ODd green.white thin sandstone that overlies 200 feet
of gray and brown sanastone whose bas" l-ests 00 the
..... d.d surface of lumpy purple slrlll.. In pl.ces
.long Last Chance Crcel, the top of the Morrison is
·irre::ularly bedded, cross· bedded, and promjnently
&nd closely jointed and includes lellses and stringers
of conglomemte that carries pebbles more than 2
in.hes in The horizon between tbese beds
and the Ent,·ada is represented by only 20 to 50 feet
"t baoded maroon nnd light·gray sandy shale, which
grades nlong the strike into soft SAndstone, nnd in
outIying buttes west of Rock Creek. the EntNlda and
Uorrison make a continuous escarpment, the usual
intervening shale and sandstone thnt represent the
SlUIUnerv:Ue being absent. .
Near the mouth of Rock Creek the lower beds of
lb, San Rafael group are well displayed. Immedi·
ltely above the N<lvujo lies 35 feet of red crumbly
fer, unevenly bedded cnlcareous sandy shale lhat
illcludes patches of lumpy sandstone. Thf$ beds are
lliecteded upward by 94 feet of red sandstone, mottled
1Iilh white, alternating wiih unevenly bedded !landy
ttd shale that presents mimy smood, and rippled
foliation surfaces. Toward the top these beds become
illcrensingly irregular in thickness snd extent, and
highest beds are merely short overhlpping lenses
that -are slightly channeled and together form an
uneven surfuce on which rests the massive Entrada
sandstone. This evidence of unconformaMe eont.ct
with tile enrmel to,·mation is st.rengthened by the fact
that both the shole and the massh'e Sandstone thicken
and ,thin oIong tbe strike to '" eonsidernble. degree.
Sec/iolt o( J/orr-ilOft. (OJ"PCIJHoo. «'M Sa,.. R,o,{ael IIro-IiP near
or W • . ,.".. Creek. uttrh
Dakota (:) I8nd!:ltol1(,: cnp,a buttea Ind meAAI.
UnconCormlty sOOwa by eroslou cbnnnels.
Morrison and Summ@rTllIc(7) t orWtltlonl: (it. in.
Sbille. .rennceous, or Fbal,. t;I\UdMtone, 'wll ·b
Ientleu}u bouds ot gypsum, dark red;
t.hlns" tblckells, ctlnng€s to mas-
li\"e or bedded 6IlndHtone, 01' .
aloJIA" IItrike____________________________ 2S
21, Sandrtone, ",-hlte nud treen-white, very
frinble, even wltE're uDweot.bel-ed; beds 3
to 8 teet thick. by planes roughly
h(JI'(z:(Jutul; JncoDsplcuous tungcuthll croBS-
bcddluIj,j very fine grOins, "Witb
rlJ>StllIl.t lime, and CerrO\Lt(1 Iron; few abort
red .h:lly balU:b Ln dilJ'erent posltloDS;
'C\·ltblu A. tlhdance of 2 milewl Ibis bed Is'
nbout 130 teet thick aDd t'trongly
b</Ided_ ••• _. _ •• __ •••• _ • • _. __ ._ .. _...... 42
2G, sandstone or s.'1ndl' shale, fine grained,
In alteruating 6 illclaes to 2 tbick,
dark red nnd turntl)' s-ret!D-whlte; wavy,
cruruph..l(l. SUD-bilked, lenticula.r all a
minufe scale; Into ,sI)Ools, "rock
babies," and hoodoos. rlutllsllc lu color
ond sllnpe i within 11 mlle 111'ong tbe strike
thts bed is represented b)' at/out ]0 feet" of
red ond whitc nnd "bout 60 fcct: or
massive 6Qlldstoue______________________ 40
Total MorrIson lind Snmmcn'iIle ( 7)
torm:.lt1ous_______________________ 110
Entrnda B3l1dstone:
25, S:md1lt(Jut!t wWte and e'1'een-wbttc. mnssi\'e,
Intrteately cross-bedded witb collsplcuous
Ion, • .fIl1t CUn'e& and smaUer IO(J(ls of tnu-
lentlal '1nmlnal; vcry fine grained, most of
it I.n graiIl8 too swull to be seen wlth the
unaided eye; ,ypsum and lime cement i
contaJns Home unS'ul1u· chuuks nnd fin t
ch1ps or mud shale; about GO feet
from. tbe top Ife Lbree bands, e!leh nbout
4: feet wide, composed of sbaly
Eandstooe, and n few tbln, Bhort bonds of
the same materlnl 8rG Irregularly placed;
thIckne .. estlmnted ••. _._. _ ..• ____ ._. ____ {OO
Carmel formation:
24_ Shale, landy. red, lD tbln, vC!ry uneven
lrNgularly ImbrlcQted: Imall patches ot
BOnd ,row and' ot mUd-shale lumps____ 80
t :urmel
rL 10.
23. Sand,toue. red. Ind 1ense. of red sblile j at
top h' a relatively reallltllDl bed of '.I.-bite
Mndstone 8 tncbes thtck________________ 12
2"l. Shu I •• like :So. 20________________________ 6
21. gr0.7. lrreguhlr, lumpl i In place.
cross-bedded j elsewhere breaks
loto thin slubs corcred with tlny ripple
Ularks _________________________________ _
Shale. durk and bed!J 0' thin elll1 saud-
stone tlIot white at the contftet9:
stratlOcotioo vet y irregulor, lumpy. wovy:
8Qndstooe 1H eU&;btly croM·bedded aad coo-
lallls frag:ncnt$ ot Hbale; calcareous and
ferruginous g)'pautn a8 cement and dis-
semlnatcfl grains; lios appearance of
1 8
udobe and luU'dcDCd playa rouds________ 16 ,
13. Sandstone, In eight bedH, lowest six beds
\vhltc, 6 to 10 Jnches thick. lelUlrated
by paper·tbfo, Imbricated mud shole.
aud folded, suo·bnkc(l; tOP[Host
two bt.'<l8 sondstooe, bonded red aDd block.
wltb tWIl, short lenses at dark-red mud
shale nnd stl'eaks of w!llte; mucb gypsum
lind somo Crngment8 ot tibole Irregularly
dhrtributed: gl'oins are white nnd block
(J'UH· tl', nogular Qlld pool'ly ns."Io1'ted; 00'
mont Is cooopOfi(!d ot I1'0n, lime, ond iJYP-
sum; blnck g.·nIlls nre buncbed In sop at
\\'11\'y surfnces __________________ 20
18. dark rcd, SQDdy, Imbl'lcated, wuvy
loUotlon, [hlu Q:i cnrdboard_____________ 6
17. light red, 01' uneveo.ly
bedded, .slightly cro6s-bedGL'<I i becomes
whHe bhmcWog HeRl' tho top: much
a:ypsum In cl'ystD.ls, grolu8, And small
lenses; some or nodules lime and erystuls
ot snlt_________________________________ 3
16. Shule or shnly sun<ll'itone nnd soudstoDe Uke
No. 11, In tLltll17lathll: beds l)rodllt.'e
11th-activo decornU\"e bllndlng 00 wind-
swept &lopes i the sllale Js lowpy Ilnd 1m·
brlcutcd.1a mottled Wltl1 round, white dOD,
Rnd aVtlMnJ like adobe j $.'\udstoue fits Into
IlOCket. blud'e by wuv,. tolllltion
I)f the shale: both shule aud saudstone
carry ruuch gypsum und llme j In seven
Ft. tu.
Slid Ie ____ _______________ ,
'Sllndiltone __________________ .- 2
Sh.l. ________________________ 6
S:m,dstone _________ • __________ 2
Shale' ________________________ G
&lluJ:;tonc ___________ ""________ 5
S •• I. ________________________ 8
1,'). Strule, 'f'e(y IIlIht rod, In reglllRr bcds as
thtn· tU Cllf'dbonrd i beds folded a.ud
erushed lb j Iypllum, lime, and iron
cewent: Ilk\,) hardened brIttle mud i
Ilt bue !itS white sandlshale, mottled
dark red, 2 luchcJ thick, which coutains
doudl'ltes nud ulnuy seolUs ot 11:lIe and
11 1
K?'D$Um -.----' .. ,--- ...--... --.. --___________ S U
Carmel f0l'oUttion-{:ontluued,
14_ Sandstone, light red, friable, In il'regular
beds 1 to 2 fect thick that lump,..
foUntion Dud nrc separated
by thin lliscontilluous beds of dork.-red
imbricated !Hlndy sbale ________________ _
13. Lhnestor:.e, white, resistant j brcnkl!l with
CODcboldil1 fracture ____________________ _
12. Sandutoce, like No. 1-L _________________ _
11, Sbn!e, durk red, imbricated, lumpy;
beds as thin noS cllrdbonrd; culcareous
and _______________________ _
10. LlmestQDe, Ilke No. 1L __________________ _
9. Sbale. Ilk. NO. 1L _______________________ _
8. SaUdJJtone, light red, massive, cross-bedded;
caniea scattered groins of chert and
quartz the sl7.e of bird shot; n l.xal
ground-water hol'izou __________________ _
7. Sbll!e .. Uk, No, 11 ________________________ _
8. LhllestouC. like No. 13 ___________________ _
G. Shale. at. No. ll ________________________ _
4_ Snndstone, dark I'eel , in'egularly bedded:
conte Ins lenses and strlugcl's at red and at
white fO.bale; ull bighly calcareous;
Weo.thel'S In rounded knobs _________ ...... ___ _
3. Shah!,. red. lumps. Imbricated, In paper-thin
beds' i bl-eoks tuto irregular chips; b1gbly
cOlenreous _________________________ ___ _
2. Sandstone. 'red. llI:tssi vt!, lenticula r, croU-
bedded, {rlahle. calco;eou8 __ ____ ... ------
1_ Conclomerate or coarse sandstone; white to
reddish i lenticular; cow[losed ot
wasbed irre;;ulal'Jy sba[led pebbles of
wb!te quartz, sandstone, nud r81'C IIwe-
stone "9 lill',e <l!j along the
strike ronges ill t hickness from layer ot
1,'TaU:,. to aceun:ulations 8 inches tblck;
coutains a gt'ouud-water !Jol·i7'Oll ________ _
Totnl Cannel t:orInotiou _______________ 128+
Totel section ____ _____________________ 638+
Uneoo!onnlty, Indlcuted by eroded, W8\'y, sUghtly
(:bnnnelcd surrnce ot underlying su[)dstonc. by dif-
ferent thicknesses or Ko_ 1, and by abnllit chonce
In Utbology.
Navajo saudstone, 800 feet; forms wall ot Oleo
8sctw-r. ilt cliff 1I6a·" mo·uth o( Greek, Vt ••
(MClUl1rCDlo!ots by aUdadc by Raymond C. Moo.-e]
Dakota (1) saudslGuo. ,id
Morrison (und Summerville? fOI'matloll) :
3, ·greenis1l. g,rq,.; COUtillnS some p'lJrpHsb
n.ad brown Iloyer:s dod :It..aintng; very mssahe,
dL-;t.lnctli but bedded, verticil I Joints
ratheE: 1)rominent, cr1tty______________________ 381
Entrada sandstone:
2. Sand.st.one, light yeHowisb gra)' or creum-culored
wltll irregular brOwtlish Plltches and layers.
very IUllssive, fl prominent cUrt maker; weathers
III smooth, subl'oudded sDrfaces wJth "ery rQre
j()lnt.i: rather unIfol'1Il 1..u. textul'e, hIghly crass-
bedded, but stratification 1$ Dot strikingly evl.
dent, In the Xl\\':ljO ___ I1tJ1
ClnoeI forwa tiOD :
1. Sabdstoue, mostly in 8bode., of brick-red to
Iloroon but b:1s some thin grayish-blue layers i
tbln bo<.Idcd'. In part contains min beds
of G'JJ)8lJm ; Q weak (OrlUutIoll ,thot runke!i !SlopeS
.lld a.at benebes _____________ ... ________ .. ______ 200
limo aa.odstoue.
Bcd 3 of t.his section is 490 feet thick at a point 5
l1il .. above the mouth of Last Chllnce Creek and is
lacking on. Wahweflp Creek above Wire Grass Spring.
JIed 2 is 611 feet thick at a point l>et.ween Creele
and Wahweap Creek, and bed 3 is 166 feet thick at the
.Duth 01 Rock Creek.
In his " Last Bluff" section Howell'· records 2,560
to 2,650 feet of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the
upplr Pari!!. Valley. These strata include 1,000' feet
of "erM·m sandstones and shale...," 500 feet of "dark
.. gillnceous sllal\!" (Tropic shale), n "coal series"
lhO feet thick, "light-gray sandstone or fine conglom-
erate" 250 feet. thick (Dal<otal), nnd 251 feet of
teds believed to be the eqillwalent ·of the Morrison
ond Summerville 100·mations as these terms are used
in the present. repQrt. Gilbert 11 briefly Iish Creta·
ceous rocks in sections measured 011 the North Fork
of the Vil·gin Riyer and th" West Fork of the Paria
RinT. Both these eady observers express doubt reo
garding the division plane between the Cretaceous
llId Jurassic-a difficulty experienced n1so by more
recent workers.
For arese that lie within or border the High Pla-
teaus Dutton" recognizes the Cretaceous as a widely
"'rilble series of sandstone and nrgillaceous shale that
cllIItllins coo.l Lnd, has conglomel"ltte of undetermined
o"ae at the base. He that" tho upper and lowe,'
divisions can be correlated with. high degree of prob.
ability with the Larnm ie and Dakot& groups of Colo-
l'Ido, respectively," From distant views he reached
the .onelusion that
the Kaiparowits Pla teuu Is n. bl'oahI belt of Cretaceou8 strata
reccl'lln' cut soutbwardly from the Aquarius Plateau Dnd
r_ 'lnble ella <no outlier ot the Aqunrins). At a dis·
tDace ot 60 mlles trorn tbe- hitter the Colorndo River cots
r1cbt .erl)Q the Knlparowits. tormlng the JrNRt ,"orl:e or the
Gis Canyon. South of the, rive.r tlie rJatform reauwes ttl
et.,mcter. lind the Creta<''eOul Ipreada out tnto :reat mesal
deepI, dfs:6ected by t-">flD.10ns tributary to tte S.n Juau. These
CretaeeOo8 Dle$ns COVE'f n Imost tho entire northeastern quarter
(If Arl,ems am) reneh ItldeRnitelY p{lstward."
II L1I'1lD. E. E .• U. S. Oeog. aDd Geol. Sune)'1 W. lOOtb
It,t .. fOI. 3, p. 271. , 181:!'.
to GUIJt.t. G. K.. Idew, liP.
uDattou. C. E .• Report 00 the or tbe BI:::b Plat4!'aWi or
trail. 1'1" lu{-138, U. 8. Goo;:;. and Gt!.ol. Rock, z.rtD. Re;;loD,
• n-tton. C. E .• Tertlnry bltlt()J'Y of the Gnu'" Canyon district:
O. S. C)('OI. Survey Mon. 2. p. 33, 1882.

I,iko }{owa,'d and Gilbert, Dutton expresses unce,··
tainty regarding the Cretaceous-Jurassic boundary,
For the Henry )follnlnins Gilbert H subdivided the
Cretaceolls into sevm formations, ,vhich he named, in
descending order, M.suk sandstone, lIfasuk shale, Blue
Gate sandstone, Blue Gate shale, Tununk sandstone,
TUDunk shnle, and Henrys Fork group, of which the
last consists of yellow fossiliferous sandstone, nn·
derlain in hll-n by arenaceous shale and coarse sand-
stone and conglomernte with silicified trunks of trees.
He remarks:
The three upper Sflud.stOllCS. the Mnsuk. the Gnte, norl
tbe I].'ullunk, are 80 nenrly 1dentical lu tbeir lithologie char-
acters that I wns tlnnblo to discriminate them In rfgions
where their sequence wns unknown - - - there Is nImost
equal cumculty In dlscl' lnllllnting the lUi\8Uk, Blue Gate, ond
Cross" met tbis situation by introducing the term
Mancos for the sholes above tho Dakot:. and adopting
Hohnes's term Mesaverde for lhe series of sandstone.
Two divisions thus became th& substnntill.l equivalent
of the six divisions described bv Gilbert. Beds as·
signed to the :Mnncos nnd have been
mapped at many places in New Mexico, Arizonn, and
Utah. H(n.ever, 09 the distance from their type 10-
I c"lity increa .. s thei,. dillerences increllse In
recognition of this variation it seems desirnblo to estab·
lisl\. for the Kaiparowits region the field ,terms Tropic
shale, of lower Colorado .. ge, rotlghly tho equivalent
of the Mancos, and St.raight Cliffs and W.!l\fCap for-
ruations, which together resemble lithologically the
Mesaverde. A SHies of und soft gritty sand·
stones above the sandstone 9f 'the lVahweap formalion
is here termed the Kaiparowits formation.
The age and correlation of the Morrison formation,
now tentatively as Cretnceous (1), htls lJeen
widely discussed by Berry,'" Lee," I.ull," Mook,1O
Osborn," Stnnton," Simpson," nnd others.
14 Gilbert, G. K., Report on tll O iOO1oQ or tbe Hl":nry MouuttL1D.1J,
PI> 4..-6, U. S. Geog. Dnd Geo1. SUrYrf Rocky Mtn. R.<!lJlon. 1871 .
.. CtOU, Wlillmnn, U. S. OeaL Sorn), Ceol. Atlas. TeIJurlde 10Do
(No. Ill), 1890; La I'lot. foUo (No. 60), 1890 (1001).
Wl2err7. E. W.o hlt' obatuble e\'ldcmce of the IIge ot 'tho Morrh(OD
formatloD : Soc. Amcriea Bull., Y01. 22, IJP. 1911i.
lTlA>.e, W. T., RCUllrona tor N'i::ardlnlt tbe MorrlMD Oil an Introduc·
tor, Cr<!tncooU8 for ma tion: GooI. SoC. AmerlCIl null., Yol. 28. liP.
303-314.., 19115.
)II Lun, n. S., Sauropoda and or the MortlsoD or Nortb
A..-,crlta comp..'l.rtd ""ltb (hOle ot Europe. ond cftstern A1'rl.ca: <kol.
Soc. Boll, vol. 211. pp. 823-33-1, 1913.
• Mool, C. C .• Orlglo aDd distribution ot tbe Morrtso. tormo.f\oD:
Geo!. Soc. Amertf:Q •• 26. (tp. 31il-3Z2. 1010; A .(\Kly o( tbo
tormaUOD: Yor" AOld. Sci. AnuAIIl. voL 21. pp. :JO.-JOI.
.. O"oorn, H. F., CJo!C ot JurassIc .ad ollcolng "t Cr.tnccoull time
ID Yorth. America: Ocol. Soc. 4,rucrtca Dull., ';'01. 26. PP'.
·8unton, T. W., M4M'I*ln rormatlon notl It_ l'elutioDI wtll the
COlDa.nehc IIIc rJea Ilnd the D4koto lormlltjoD: Jour. GeoloQ', vol. 13,
pp. l.U0!> ; .. brtltc! rlluna or tbe MonitIOn forllHlllon:
Geal. 80c. Dull., 20, pp. 343-:MS, 19115.
;II Slm"'n. O. 0 ••• 4.1Je ot tbe MOM'I!'On tOI'watloo: AJu. lou.r. •
5tb aer., "oL 12. I)P. 198-216. 1926.
Beea use of it. economic significance the Upper Cre-
taceous of arcas adjacent to Ihe region
has received much study. F'or the Book Chft's, the
San Rafael region, and lhe eastern Wasll-teh Plateuu
sc"eral papers have been published." For south-
central Utah Richardson's study" includes brief de-
S<' riptions of the coul-bearing Cretaceous of the Kanab
Approximately half of tbe Kaiparowits region is
""cupied by Cretaceous rocks. (Sce pI. 2.) Unlike
the outcrops of lbe older form:>tions, that of UIC
Cretilceous is fairly compo"t. Except the compara-
tively nnr.row wc.tll'ard extcnsicln around the head of
the Pnrill V.lley, the Cretaceous are. forms a roughly
equilateral triangle I li!!Ie, over rIJ miles on each side.
'rho bll.-uc, IowaI'd tho Colol·...:Io l.hwl', is very irregu-
for thel'e are' northwftFd-ruching indentations
along each of the streams and southward extensions
olong each of lhe divides. The bound""y
of ,the triungle is ,'el'y regular, as it is marked by the
appropriately named Straight Cliffs. The west Bide
of the tdangle is also "emarknbly .knigbt from the
southwest corner to the point where the Cretaceous
bods swing westward into the PIIri. V .. lley. This
lin .. is defined by the northward-trending East Kaibab
n1onocline. Except the morginn.l lower benches, tbs
an'" just descl'ibed is an upland and is commonly
designated the Kaipllrowits Plateau.
Southwest of CtHll)lln Peak Bnd the Table Cliff Pla-
teau IInd soutow,,",1 on the west .id. of tho Paria
Ni "er, ulong the enst edge of the P.unsaugunt Platenu,
exten,l. a, somewhat narrow, irregular bond of Cre·
t.ceous exposures' from 2 to 10 miles in width. With
some changes in character, particularly of the lower
members, tbis outcrop continues westward, around the
south end of' 'tlte PannsangulIt and Pla-
,teRIIS, into sallthll'estern Utqh.
ObservIltiolls on the Paunsllugunt Plntenu show that,
contr •• ·y to previolls mu'pping, tho Tertiary cover is
not continuous thcre. ]'or severo I miles along the
EAst, Fork of the Sevier :Hi"Cl' neat the pillce where
it erooscs Ih. Kane-Garfield rounty boundary erosioq
hns reQchcd I,he boise of the .nd in SOIlle
plnC('s hilS expC<'.cd' !I10l'e than 100 feci of the upper
pAri, of the Cretaceoos. This condition prevails also
o.loll.Q !'!I"N'",I of the trilm!"ri .. of t,he East Fork.
• Rh:hnrd:ktn. O. n .• ot the Dook Cillt/f eOlll flclds'
V. e. Geot SUI'W1 Bull. 371. p. U , 1000, CJll I'k, F. n., The Funbnn:
Rlltldloe, Car-boll Coltoll. Utr:ab : U. S. Gool. SUt Y('1 Bull. ill, )Jp.
1-IS, 19Z0. LUVtOD, C. T., GeotOogJ" (!I Dd eoe l l"titoorce. or Cut!t V,,).
I"y In ?rbOo. ,,"d Se."!1f'1' •• n_", h : C. S. Ceol. Surv(>)'
DulL 0 .. 8, UU6: Oil Dod glls ncar G1"I! etl Rlv(!J', Grnot! Count,. Ulll.h '
u. S, GI!01. SUt\·cy Bull. /li oU, pP. 1l tJ-134, lOB. Ii:. M .. aDd
J. B., Jr. , aDd TtrUftry flll'lllnUODI of the Wa-
SAtch rlf:Llt'au, Utnh: Soc:. Arne.rlea BUll, vol 86" .....
1.921:5, ' • ,t·P: .. ... ,
:i Rkbnr..'lslln, G. n .. The EIn'rnwn,., Colob. "tid Kllnnb e.,.t fttldv.
lIoulbcru Ulull: U. S. Oeol. SarY!!)' BlIl!. 3-11. Pl'). Si9-ol00, 1909.
Cretaceous rocks lie between the "'atel'pocket Fold
and the Henry Mountains and e"tend northward,
considerable distunce t oward Castle Valley, forming
a conneclIng link with the CrehLceous of t.he Wasatdi
Plutenu and Book Cliffs.
Differences in hurdncss of the Cretaceous I'ocka,
those in the ot.her rod, formations of the pIateu
country, arc strongly expressed in the topography.
Hard ma •• i". sandstone is the dominant l'OCk tn.
and accordlngly, throughout most of tho CretaceoQl
orelL, arc broad plateau surfaces ,bounded b.
sleep, high cliffs. Valleys c'''''ed in the s"nostone l;t
I1urrow, steep-walled canyons. 'Vhere the sandstOilt
beds are upturned in the East monocline there
.Are long, sharp.Cl'csted serrate hogbacks.
'I'he tbick shale in the lower part of the Cretaceous
seclion commonly forms more or less intricately
sected slopes beneath the overlying sandstone, and ia
places, RS around the head of the Pal' ia Yolley, it;'
eroded to form broad "alleys, The R{)und and Horse
. Valleys ore ra ther striking basins that. have been
! excavated in tbis shale. To the weakness and rom-
p.mti,'o thickness of this shaly pOl·tion of the Cr&.
tJlCOOu.s, is, doubtless due mIlch of the recession of the
Cretaceous cliffs.
The presence of thin beds 0'1 sandy shllle and sbaly
snndstone in the middle portion of the Cretaceol:S
, sandstone accounts for the cl ear-cut topographic divi·
' sion into nn upper and lower plateou bench. The
upper sandstone is ovel'lain by poorly consolidated
grH .nd sandy shale, which in the vi cinity of CRIlIlft
Pellk have been 10cILlly carvcd iulo badlands.

As treated in this report the Lowe,' Cl'etaceolDi is
doubtfully represented in the Kaiparowits region by
the Morrison fOl'mation, and the Upper Cretaceou.
comprises aU strata hetween the Morrison and ihe
:Eocene (Wasatch formation) .
I,ithologically und topographically the Upper Cre-
taceous can be dividcd readil y into five main pSl'\E.
,\'t the bnse of ,the series, resting unconformahly OIl tht
sllbjocent rockS, lies a relatively thin formation tItlt
eonsists of I"regular conglomerate, hard and sofllen'
ticulo,' fnndstone, sandy, more 01' less corbonoce<l1lS
, shale, and thin beds of dirty coal. This bedding, com'
, pOSition, and texture and the prcsence in places of COD-
petrified ,,"ood are features suggesth'e of tilt
, sandstone. In the Paria Valley, hOWever, 11.
marine fossils in sandstone and, thin .bale
between or below some of t.\1e conI bods and the appar·
ent conformi!.,. with t1:e o"C!'lying shale 'su,ggest that
this bosol grit is intimately related to t.hese sllcceedin,
deposits. The conI-bearing baml beds ilre hel'Q termed.
))Ikot. (I) snndstone, with recognition of t.he prob-
obitity thnt they are merely homotaxially eqlli""leut to
Dtkota of other areas.
the Dakot" (1) lies a persistent dark shale
fonnlUOIl that ,·auges in t.hi ckness from 350 to 1,400
IeeL lower part of t.his sl,ale cont"ins a· typical
loci f.,rly abu"dant basal hUIla.. The snme
,.una .nd lithologic cha ... .,cter are found in t.he lowest
shale divi sion of Ihe Helll], l\Iountains
("Tullunk shale" of Gilbert), and there clIn ue no
reason.ble doubt I.hat the lower part of the "hule in
die K.ip .... owits arel!, corresponds to thllt division.
'I1Ie upper purt, whi ch conliLills few fossils, probaul)"
corresponds 10 t.he 'l'l.Inunk sandstone of Gilbert "ud
1110 Carlile horiwn of the lower port of Ihe Muncos
slsale. In the light of present know ledge it seems best
10 apply n local name to the division j list above the
!Jakota (Y), nnd the name Tropic shale has ;,cen
erlteted on account of the typical exposures illld greate ..
tbiclmesa of the shale in t.he vicinity of Tropic·, ill the
northe .. n part of the Paria Valley.
The Io\fer of the two main sandstones ,that overlie
lhe Tropic shale is partly and pa .. tly cont.i-
.utal. The collections 01 fossils thnt have been mnde
indicate thBt it is of uppernlOst Colorado age. FlllInal
eMtDCe indicutes thnt this sandstone corresponds
.pproximately to the lower pu .. t of the" Bille Gate
shale» of Gilbe .. t in the Henry Mountsins. The nUllIe
Stl1ligM Cliff. sandstone is he,·e applied toO it becnuse
of ita typical de,-clopment in the prominent cliffs south
of Esnlllnte.
The upper main sandstone division of the Upper
C:-eiaceoull of the Kaiparowit.. Platenu has yielded
:olmost no fossil evidence, but it probn"l,. c<l ....... ponds
00 the upper put of the" Blne· Gate sh.le" and to
the Blue Ga,te snndstone of Gilbert in the Henry
llountftins. Tl:e name '''ahwe"p sandstone is he,·e
.pplied to Ihis formation on account of typical ex·
POSIfe8 on uppe'· 'Yah weap Creek.
Above the '\Yahwe.p sandstone are coarse but weak
grits and sandy mnds thnt conta.in fresh and br.,ckish
WI/u fossils . These beds, which a,·e very readily
diotinguishable from the underlying formation, are
the Kaiparowits formation, os they are
tXoellently exposed on the highest part of the plateau
of this
Unconformably beneath the lowermost sandstone
assigned to tile Dakota. (Y) are the light-colored
tongloJJ1erate, sandstone, and variegated shale which
ia Utah, south "esoorn Colorado, and northern Arizona
PAeraUy have been mapped as "McElmo formation."
CO .... elation of these beds with Ih01;e !IS
"McElmo" by Cross, no.rton, Gregory, Lupton, Miser,
Moore, and other students of tho geolo"'y of t.he
platean province is mode with confidellce. "'Yith few
slight breaks they II1'Y be traced fro 111 the type
locality, lIIcElmo Creek, Colo., northwestWlII·d to SUIl
Rtlfoel, UtaJ" southwestward to Hopi J3uttes, A .. iz.,
and. westword to the Paria Vnlley. It hns long been
recognized thot the" McEhno " includes both mod"e
and terrestrial sediments alld thnt nn important
(Jurassie-Cretnceous) time b .. euk ma)' lie within its
v"ri.ble beds.
The dcterlr.inntioll by Grego .. y ""d Noble " that the
fossiliferous Uppe'· JII,·"ssic limestones of the Virgin
River Valley occupy the position ot the basal port of
the" MeElmo" of the lhvajo conllt,·y, und tbe dis-
covery by Gilluly lind Reesidc " of a"oLI\.,· .fossilif-
erous formotion in the n.iddle sOlliruents
ch,ssed as «l\fcElmo," have led to " ,·eclllssificat.ion
of t.hese bed. as the San Raillel gmllp, compri sing th"
Carmel, EntradA, Curtis, !lnd Summerville format ions,
of known J ur.ssic ngo, auti the ./1[0 .... i80n fo,·mation,
which is tentatively conside .. ed Lower C,-etnceous.
There i. no doubt t.hllt the lJods here ,,"sigl:ed to t.he
:Morrison find equivIlI.nt" ill the llPper purt of most
" McElm(l " &celions Ilnd thllt pn rts of the SIlII Ra facl
. group are also represented. Tho J\for,·ison forlDation
, of this ru"ea consists or thG saID" kind of sandstoue,
conglomerate. and variegllted shale that ch.moterize
this form.tion in nort.hern and Colorado. It
includes undetermined alllounts of the npper port
of the" McElmo formlLtion," us that formation hIlS
been defined in papers Ihnt deal with the geology of
southwesterr, Utah, northeust.ern Arizona, north-
western New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.
In the Kaiparowits region the f ormation
is well represented along Glen Can)'ou, the Escalante
Valley, and Holls Valley. It Oppel"·. also inpor\.
of the Poria Valley. 'rhe Little White Rock Valley,
u western tributary of the 'Vo.hwe.p, derives its name
from the white Morrison ... ndstoneS H,nt fQnn its
WAils, .. nd combined ,,-ith the DakotR (I) and the
Summenillo the :Morlison stllnds in cliffs t:hot extend
frolll • point near Wahweap Valley to the south-
eastern extremity of the Kaiparowits Platenu. (See
pI. 10, A.) Along the Strni"ht Cliffs, tho southwest-
. '"
,,' all of the ElICOlnnte VaUey, tho formation is
cont.inuous for nearly .0 miles. (&e pI. 21, A.) On
Hall. Creek it formo nearly vertical westward-fudng
cliffs from the Bitter Creek di,-ide Dearly to the Colo-
rndo River.
B. X., and Noble, L. r-.. Of!. cit ., p. 237.
.GIII1I1,. and Hf'(·l&lde. J, D" Jr .• op. cit ., 1'1),
In tllickness the Morrison shows .. great fl.nge.,
From a maximum of about 500 feet on Halls Creek
and Rock Creek it decreases generally westward and
seems to disappear in the upper Poria, Valley. It
also thickens and tbins within short dlstances. In
m08t places inaccessihle cliffs and extreme irregul.ar-
ity of bedding make it ditlicult to trace tbe formatlOn
bound.ries, hut the general lithologic character and
topography are so different from those of beds above
and below that instrumental me.suremento are prac-
ticable. Thus a section that was carefully measured
with alidade at the mouth of Last Chance Creek shows
393 feet of beds above mllS.i ve En trada sandstone
(see p. 88), which is here 600 feet thick. About 3
miles above the mouth of Last Chance Creek a meas-
urement on the cast side of the Co.nyoll abows 830
feet of Monison. At a point near the mouth of tho
Croton Bl'lnclt of'Last Chane.., Creelt, where the top
of the Entradn sandstone is only .. short distance
above the bottom of the canyon, the 1rlorrison beds
(with pO&1IiLIG Summerville) are 490 feet thick. Oil
Rock Cl'eck, where the general charoeter and thick-
ness of the Morrison beds 01'11 very similar to those on
Last Chance Crej)k, a mea.surement gave 450 feet ill
this division. .
Westwud the thickness of the Morrison grwuaUy
decrellSl'8, ns is re.wily ascertained by inspection of
the sandstone cliffs between Wllhweap and Warm
Creeks. Ncar the Crossing of the Fathef1l, wltich i.
8 ntilea east of Warm Creek, tm.. fo,mation is about
280 feet thick. Nenr Costle Butte, between Warm
and Wllhwellp Creeks, it is 140 feet thick. On Wllh-
weLp Creek, just eost of Lone Rock, the Entrwo
sondstono is co,'ered by a thin conglomerate that ap-
parently belongs to the Dakota (I) rather than tbe
MOfl'ison, and farther Mrth on Wahweap Cl...ek tbe
DRlcot. (') so,ndstone rests directly on an eroded sur.
fnce that is carved in the Entrada sandstone. (See
pI. 13, e.) Likewise at ploces in the upper Paria Val-
ley lind fllrther west the Dakota (') a"pears to rest
unconfol'mably on t.he SUDlmel'ViIle. If the MOfl'isOll
ever existed in Lhis purt of the plote"u pl'O\'ince it
wes wholly or Ilt least lal'gely removed before the
D.koto (t) .and.tone wnll deposited. In the Esea-
lRnte Vulley thc Morrison formation nn!!:es in tbick-
ness from less than 20 feet to more than 300 feet.
In mnpping the 'beds between the Navajo sandstone
Mnd Dakota ( ') sandstone field oubdivisions were made
that do not co]'fe!;poud wholly with those adopted
for the preseut report. Equh'alents of the Carmel
forml1.f.ion and the Entrada .andstone were every,,-here
recognized, alld also the massive SIl-ndstone phase of
the Morrison where it was present. But the pl'l!Senee
of many unconformities within t.he stuta above the
Entrada made it difficult to set, the upper limit 01
the series of "lifiegated hllnded sandstone J1Id alat.
that OCCUpy the geneml position of the SumllleniD.
formation in the San Rafael Swell. Some ol the fol.
lowing descriptions of the Morrison therefore dOOh\.
less inclUde beds tha t further study would pl!1C9 in the
In mlny places the Morrison appellrs as one DJassi"
bed, gray, -wbite, g,reen-white, yellowish brown, or
reddish brown. In weatbering, the formation elllll.
, monly pl'esents a single massive unit that forlll8 III
, essentially vert!cal cliff. Instead of the smoothly
I rounded, slightly sloping surfaces that 6nracterize tilt
Entrada numerous angular projecting joint
planes and fra.cLure faces, combined with s:ight oYer-
banging narrow shelves or depressions along bedding
pllnes give the cliff sllrfa.ce a markedly uneven texture.
'l'l'acing the beds along t.he stril,. mile by mile, ho".
ever, reveals an irl'egularity of stratification not sug.
gested by the general views, In tile Escalante Valley
the mBssive .andstone that corresponds to the Morri-
son becomes in places It series of shalelike beds of tilt
same composition; at Fiflymile Point only shale repre-
sents this bed. Al the Burr trail and at places along
Olen Canyon thll massi"e thick white bed that is so
conspicuous along parts of Halls Creelt and at the Sa.
Rafael Swell is broken up into beds S to 10 feet thick.
Elsewhere the bed1! are 80 to 40 feet thick.
In places shale that is REsigned to the Morrison hOI
mo"sive conglomeratic sandstone; at othel' places
similol' sbn.la lies above the sandstone and is terminated
upward by the Dakota (I). In different places and at
severa! horizons lie thin beds and lenBeR of red shale
2 to 3 feet ill tl:ickness. 'fhi. shale is commonly
suncracked, the crevices being filled with bluish-gray
Mod t.hnt .hows very plainly on the edges of the bed
01' on sandstone surfaoes above the bed!. In t.he portioo
of the Warm Creek Canyon that is carved in the Mor-
rison some of these interbedded I'lld mnds show veI'J
clearly tbe form of broad sa,ncer pans. The sun-
cracked red -mud is only a, few inches thick and has a
11IIiform thickness for a horizontal distance of 10 til
50 yards; the edges of the mud bed! thin obruptly aDd
tllrn slightly upward. Cl'oss-bedded sandstones in·
close these mud POIl1l D'bove and below.
Along the Straight Cliffs, southeast ()f Escalante,
the conglomeratic Dakota (f) sandstone is underlaiD
tll1con!ornlably by variegated maroon and gray sondy
shale, cross-bedded sendstone, and conglomerate. Mas'
sive, hard, cliff-forming grits, such as those t.ltat occur
nlong the Colorado River, are not prominent in lbe
vicinity of Escalante but _ are present on the northeas!
side of tbo Kaiparowits Plateau, farther sontheast.
Along tbe Watet'pocket Fold the general chlracler
of these beds seems closely to ,..,semble the beds aloug
the CoIOl·odo ,",uth of the Kaiparowits Plateau.
In the Morrison is p"ominently cross-bedded
IfI!l consists in large part of coarsc grit and conglom-
fI1lle that contain pebbles 4 inches or le"s in diameter.
The .:ollglomerate appears in verv massive beds thut
&fide into coarse grit 01' cross-bedded sand Rnd in
Ienots Ind st reaks. The 10l\'er part of the formati on is
(ClllllllOnly somewhat finer g"uined, though in plnces
theJe .re prominent ueds of conglomerate in lhe upp"r
In Rock Creek Valley an unweathered surface of
JlIIS>-i ... sandstone f rom which an enormous slab had
rtffilUy been broken by fros t action was examined in
IIIIllC detail. 'I'he 40 feet of "ock consists of (our lenses
01 conglomerate, one horizontal, the others inclined at
MIles of 6°, 13° and 28°, aml th.roo neady
Ieaoes of sandstone. It is rusty browD throughout and
contains iron nodules iron coating on some
The pebbles in the conglomerate, DInned in
order of abuDdance, lire yellow-buff shale, red, green-
Var, and white sandstone, chert, quart'l..ite, and quartz.
All grt:ns and pebbles orc pool'ly rounded, and thin,
lit chips of shaJe nLlnin lengths of more than 10
me;. With varying degrees of weuthe"ing the chips
IIld irregular pebbles of friable sandsLone nnd clay
"Ie are 6rm or crumbling masses or entirely absent,
'llhere the rock has a porous appearance. In talus
blocks some of the spnccs left by the removal of tbese
Iw resistant fragments are liS much 8S 2 feet long
an4 t inches in diam.,ter.
A Ducroscopic analysis of massive wbite Morrison
.adstone 50 f eet below the D.koto(¥) at Little White
.Rock Canyon revellied cIe"r quartz 97 per cent, decom-
posed feldspar 1 per cent, biotite and tourmal ine 1 per
ceol, calcite fragments (from the cement) 1 per cent.
TIle gr&ins are poorly sorted; ubout 35 per cent range
in diameter from 0.30 to millimeter; the remain-
iac &lI per cent grade downward to powder. The
larger irains are welll'ounded, the smaller ones angu·
lar. The cement is nnd some ferrous il·on.
Hand specimens show 8m ,,11 flattened lozenges of deep-
!!d ferrous clayey materia!. The pale-green color of
llIDeapecimens comes from ferrous iron, whidl is geIl-
nlly .ssoci.ted wit.h the gypsum that forms the
_ nt.
The following sections show the arl'llngement of
beds in the Morrison and the relations of the forma-
lion to the Dakota (?) sandstone above and the San
id'e! group below. Other sections are given on
pages gO-SS.
SeoUolt. of Dakota (') . 'Id ,llom8OM formation, ncAr liN
.f __ 4. 7 . ., !! .• /l. , 11., ." __ , .'d<: 0' LUll. 1«-4 Valle/l,
JrQ.1l 6 Cou .. UtaA.
(Mt4lJUred b1 R"flOOud C. Moore1
Dakot a ( 1) sandtltooc:
40. Shale, brown. Btl n (}, (at t op),
3\). ConL __ ______ _________________ ________ _
38. Bone ______ __ _____________________ _
37. COOI ____ _________ __ _________________ _ _
36. Sbale, lIlack, C81'bOlln('COUS nod bouc __ ___ _
3J. SandBtODf!, cul'bonnceous __ _____________ __ _ _
34. S'bille, rcd _____ ______________ .. ___ _____ _
sa. Conglomerate. gray to nendy white,
locully brown, ferruginous; upper purt
conto Ions abundant !ragmentli of pctrUled
wood 8od.loga us mueh as -1 t eet lu dlom-
eter, more or less cross-bedded wit h white
Mod 1l1nkbb s:wdstooc. __________ __ ____ ... 20
32. CO[)G"lomcrate, coa1'SC pebblu a JncilCti or
leiS In diamet er: contains sOlue )aye['1 of
cros&-bedded coarse snndatone___________ 00
Tutul Ddmtu (1) S'lmdslolle____ _______ S8
Morl' hlou formation:
31. Shale, green. 6'0. 00)" _______ _________ _ ·
80. SondstoDc, recl. shaly ____________________ _
20. red, with green bonds ______________ _
28. Sandstone. white, liOft. coorse-gralued, wa9-
sl "'e __ _______ _______ -_______ _________ _
Soodjtoue, gray, Bott ; eoo ina bunda ot
croon Hhale-______ - ________ - - - ----- - __ _
26. SondldOlle, cootse'Sfalned, whtte _ ____ _ _
Sandstone, ]Icbt·bt-own. 8 art i coutoms
streaks of ________ _______________ _
24. Silale, ;Teen, witb red iStreakll ___ .... ________ _
Sandstone, brown, bard ________ ___ ___ ____ _
22. Shl\le. __ ______________________ ___ . __ _
21. Snndstone, It.;ht-co1ored, eoarse-grQlned ___ _ 11
20- Sbolc, cree.--------------------- -- ------
19. Sandstone, sbol,v ___ ______________________ _
18. Shale, rro _____ ___ __________ ___________ _
17. Sandstone and Ihalc __ ________________ _ _
16. Shale, rreen ___________________________ .. __
15. Sandstone aDd sbale ____________________ _
14. Shale. creen __ __________________________ _
13. SandstQne und conglomerate, coo.rac _______ _ )0
12. Shate and sandstone, r ed ______ __________ _

11. Sandstone, brown, cont'ae-grolnoo to
___ _________________________ _
10. Sandstone nnd "hato, red. witb creenlsh
bonds _______________ _________________ __
9. rcd ______________ ___ __ __ __________ _
S. Sandstone, eotnse to coDgloDlcrotic. m08ll1.,e_
1. Sandstone and greenish 8bole _________ ____ _
6. Sbtlle and 8ond8tone, red ___ ________ ____ _
5. Sondlrtooe, coorse-gralnP.d., w1tb ca·olul·bcd<.led
coDgloInerate ______ ______________ _____ _ _
4. S.ndstone, with tbIn beds of red I':Ihale ___ _ 1;;

l1orl"lttoo (QtRIII !on- ConUJI,ued. n· III.
a. 8o.uc:J.tooe, c04na-SMltoed raua1,·c. c<:JDJ:lODl-
erotic, with thla band ot CraeD "bale at
top____________________________________ SO 10
2. Shule, red _________ ____________________ _
1. SandJitone, COlrse. with fl •• COlI,..,IDerate;
wcalhers In clur ...... _____________________ 2G
Total tormutloo ____________ 8
Duse covered.
8evfi{)B 01 tho J/orJ'wcm /Qf'rft.5tUm 03 OrQlO'ft. C,""" Fort af
L." OIuJ_ (J,· .. k,
O. Sa.ntlHtoneo, bard, tJlIn·bc!ddcd, Ilcbl ;,eUowlsb Sra,.-- -.. 70
It So.na"tone. Ukc bed but more PI • • ln___ _______ ro
.... SODwtone. )'oUowi.9h. 80ft. SORe"A'hat
tthtl ly j tonDS slope or weak cli1f.i_________________ 90
8. SundatDnl!, yuriegated (klrk red a.cd era7 j leullcular
mntlSCtl. IrreGula.r!1 a,edded ___ _____ ____________ .. IUS
2. 8RndHtone, whIte, maaal\'.L ________ _________________ ".. 10
1. Sandstone, white j irrec'.JJart7 bedded: ba.-:3 DOt apused_ 80

S.ml ... 0' Ore/"""",.. bert. '" ,r",,/ ., Kalpororcll. 1'111 ....
0' T.,.",U. SprlRq, ." .. , JS ",110. IOlOIh." Of EICOo
Garfield O0f4.nr.II, Uta", tit ,If" of ,eo. 4,
T . .!1 8., 11:. li.
[MewlUre:d bl IIIYIIIOGd. C. lIIoonJ
CretRcpoulf,: i'eel
TI'oIIIc libnl!!: Shale, 1JluWI. and,. Il'DdCl down-
WOl'd to 50ft tosfililiteroul 9O.ndalooe________ ____
Dakota (1) .a.elston.: Sa.dllton., .."gIomerntlc,
butt to almOit ""bite, the iRlld.to:ae rolrM to me-
dtuw-grQlned,. eontntntoQ' lenaee ot conrlomerate
,,'Ith (lObbl .. up to 3 1DCf1 .. d( .... Irrqularll
.... aa-bedded; rorma dill oud prominent 90
Oretaceous (7) aod Ju", .. 1c ( I) :
lIorrllOD aod SUlntnervlll e (ll fonuaUou-
Shule, n!<l 0,,<1 IIgbt brow .. . 'd7, IDlerl>edclod
with 8lIndstoue limHar 111' color, forlD.l Ilope
portly collcea1td___________ __________________ l5G
ligbt bro"ft·o and 7 .. 1I0w, tiDe Irllned,
crosa-bed(led In part, OCCUR In mllsh'''' .17efS
and tonus lw-U<.'I1 ___________________________ iO
Sbnle nod ,...doton., n!d und ,r87, Intcrbedd«l,
mostly 12
Sondstone an<l shalt-, nd, CTII1 and dra!). lJl
thl.o alternatlog beda, cunatde rob1c TDr1atlon
In color and. texture.._______________________ 00

Total &loc ... o. on4 197
Jura@tilc: Eutradu and Cermel lormntlOll8 _____________ 1,210
Inraft6; lc( 7) : YOl'.,., "Iad. lone.
Socllo. Of ",cIU up .. OIl I. ,.".,.,. ,.. ..... _ ,,"'lie .. ,
of Te.""I. Sprln!1 ... Wild, _1li<0ii Of _...,1 ... ",
Gsrftol4 COllnty, UIII1& I
t,;retHceoU8 :
l'roI'I. shALe- r
7. SaDdstone. ltgbt yeUowl8b brown i rather
80ft hilt torms ledge : eontatnl 01'''- " and
olber fO .. 118 _______________ _____________ 11).12
Cretaceou.-con Un ued.
Tropic sbaJe--Coutlilued. 10'.
6. Sandstone. brown, Oa.u;y ______________ ---- 1-2
G. Sbale, bluiSh drnb ___ .. ___________ _______ -_ •
Dakota (?) BOnds tone-
4. Sandstone, l i@ht bl ubh g1'&y to yelloWl1b
brO\\'D i tlnel' and I!'orter in lower port;
coarser, ha rder, and nllgs: y at top j middle
part conglomeratic ______________________ •
CretRCeous (7) nnd Jurassic ('r ) :
Morrison aDd Sommerville ( 1') formatlon8-
3. Sbale, nltcrnntine; baods or 'l"oodlwh broW'D
and groy, s andy, SQCL .. __________________ •
2. Snnd.stone, li ght creamy yeUow, sutt; in PIA&-
olve be<l. 2 to 10 feet Wick; upper 22 reet
coarse .c;:rnlned und' CRrriei lenses of tIDe
co.'lG'lo01Grotc; l oculi.)' I IUUlpa: dOWD to ,oft
snod___________ _________________________ &
L Shale, reddish br own tlnd light gray, Jo alter-
nating bands, SODdy, 8ofL_______________ •
Total 1t[orrl,.'1o n !fi nd Summenillo
t1oos_ _____ ___ ____ __ _________________ •
Entrada base not exr1osed_____________ !2t
Throughout the Kaiparowits region the Dakota(l)
sandstone rests with 010)'6 or less mal·ked unconfOl'lDil!
on the MOl'l'ison or on Upper Jurassic sandstones. II
some places th.is unconformity is indicated by l1li
wedgin: out of beds beneath the Dokota (1), in 111'111
places also by marked irregularities in the ,urlt ..
covered hy the Dakota (') sediments, and, in
.Iso by a marked change in the character of aedillltll-
tation nt the base of the Dukotll (Y) sandstone,
At severol places along WAhweap Creek the surflet
of the line-grained gl'een-wbite or white friable sud-
sOOne is cut by narrow channels and swales 5 to 15 feel
deep; immedia lely above the sandstone and lillinJ the
depressions in ilg surfuce lie massive beds of firm gny,
brown conglomerate that is composed of pebbles u
Illuch as .. inches in diameter.
Most of the initial Dakota (f) deposits consist 01
(oarse well-rounded gravel I-hat is now tiplly
cemented and forms a pl'Ominent bed.
It ill clenr that tbe deposition of Upper Q'eI;eCIIDis
oedimenh in this region was preceded by a fairly tri4e·
.pread interval of erosion. $orne of tbe phen()llltlll
observed require for their explanation no great chi'"
in conditions of deposition, but in general it IW
the materials of the Morrison and the Dalcola (1) haft
been derived from different sourcea and laid don
nnder diffel'ent conditions. The impression ,u_
from a stndy of numel'ous exposures in the CoI0n4o
plateau province is thnt along period of erosion which
involved the removal of n considerable tblcbea of
IItl'ata, pl'eceded the deposition of the Dakol .• (I) .. 1Il-
The stratigraphic divi sion (hat is here d";igJlUled
the Dakota ( 'I) sl1ndstolle is marked by rathe,' per-
sistent peculiarities l n lithologic charllcter", topographic
espre$Sior.. a.nd stra.tigl'll phic relations to Ildj oining
rock divisions. The irregularly bedded sandstone in-
cludes sandy and carbonuceous shalc, poor COlli, and
!<cally conglome.rnte, The pebbles ill t1:e cOllglomernte
consist mainly of quartz, quartzite, and chert of val'i-
011.<; colors i sandstone, hard limestone, vein quartz, and
ironttone ore not uncommon; und ill 'Some places there
are rather numerous picees of compact clay, most of
them well l'Ot:nded, though some Imve only rounded
.:ornen and edges_ :Most of these pieces of clay are
smaller th .. n a hen's egg, but n. few !lre 4 to 6 inches
in diameter,
The .andstone is commonly C0.9.·rs6 to medium
groined, brown 01' buff, und more or less cross-bedded,
Some beds are thick !lnd massive, but most of the
individual layers n.re irregularly lenticular, Some
beds are soft, shaly, n.nd rather fine grained and
.. eather readily, but others are tightly cemented and
form project:ng ledges or rim rocks, The shale is
unifonnJy sandy, and in many places it is dark from
i.duded carbonaceous matter,
Thin coil! beds, interbedded with streaks and lenses
of bone, are very chamcteristic. lIfost of them range
i. thickness from a few inches to "bout 2 feet. In a
vary few places the coal is of good quality and forms
beds IS much as 3 feet thick. Macerated plunt ma-
tlrial, poorly preserved leu yes, lignite, and silicified
wood are common, North of Lust Chance Creek the
UlOllnt of petrified wood in the conglomern.te at the
btse of the Dakota (1) is very lmusu,,!. In add:tion
to abundant trn.gments, mlmy logs 2 to 4 feet in
diameter 1'6 ~ a t t e r e d here and ther,,- The exposed
portion of one log measured 90 feet. in. length, No
lOOI.s were found in place, and probably the logs that
Ib&ke up this petrified forest drifteif to this place· and
lI'er. bm;ed in the gravel of an ancient stream,
The Dakota ( ?) west of Cannonville includes chunks
If shJl. 4 t() 8 inches in diometer and long thin lenses
If ueeedingly fine gr"ined green-white sandstone
lI'ithin which are embedded pieces of ligftt-green mud
lillie. These materials &ore -identicn.1 in composition
lit ,t,'ucture with the marly parts of the ·)fcElmo
blllation" along the San Juan Rivet but are unlike
those of the rocks beneath the Dakot.a ( 1) along the
Pari& River.
In most parts of southem Utnh the Dakota (1)
sandstone and (.he Tropic shal e are reudily 6epuraled,
1Il spite of the fuct that they ,,,'e conformable and that
both include sandstone, The C\'en-bedded yellowiRh-
brown friobl" rock that contains more 01' less abun-
dant mal1nc fossils, whi ch commonly forms the bn,",
of the Tropic, is unlike most of the sumlstone in the
Dukota (1) formation, nut in purts of the upper
Puria Valley alte:j:nuting brown sandstone and sUlIdy
shule together with impl1l'e coal heds extend upward
more thall 200 feet froll! the busal zone of coarse sand
und conglomerate that corresponds to " purt ot'the
Dakota (1) salldst'Onc of other localities, A number
of the beds, some of them ,L1most at the base of the
series, con lain abundant murine fos>ils that are typi-
cnl of the Tropic shlll e, The elasti c lignitiferolls de-
posits evidently represent merely a busal phase of
Colorado deposition in this "rea-nn oscillating
chauge from neur shore continental depoEition to mu-
rine sedimentutioll_ In !.Ius urea 0. rather arbitrary
division of Il,e lowermost Upper Cretaceous strutu has
been mnde; the saud stone, conI, und shale below the
lowest marine fossil-bearing beds a,'e classed as Dukotn
(1), nnd the beds above them, including sandstone
a.nd coal, are referred to the T,'opic shulo. (See sec-
tion, p, 99_)
In the C,'etaocous beds on "'illis Crcek a few miles
southwest of Cannonville, where Mancos fossils were
found below tbe lowest eoal, only 6 feet of sandy con-
glomerate seems referable to the Dakota (1) formn-
tion, (See section, p, 99,)
At the hend of Rock Creele the beds nssigned to the
Dakota (1) include 33 feet of cross-bedded co!u'.e
sandstone arranged in lenses, above whi ch lie in suc-
<lession 23 feet of light-gmy "renaceous shale that car-
"ies scattered quartzite pebbles and thin lenses of
sandstone, and at the top 7 feet 8 inches of very im-
pure coal and carbonaceous shale. The carbonaceous
shule is conformably overlain by 6 feet of yellow-buff
couse sandstone tbnt contains plllnt impressions and
ab',md&llt marine fossils like those Ul the basal part
of tbe overlying Tropic shale. This fossiliferous "and-
stone is accordingly referred to the Tropic,
Along Ln.sl Chance Creek excellent exposures of the
Dakota (t) sandstone show a number of thin beds
<if lignjte, The. average' thickness of the formati on
is .bout 50 feet, but the lithologic subdivisions are very
discontinuous; sections less than a mile apart show
larg& differences in detail, The section given on page
96 i$ fairly typical of a dozen or more measured sec-
tions in this vicinitv.
On the northeast -branch of Croton Creek the con-
glomerate at the base of the Dakota (1) sandstone hRS
locally a thickne.s of nearly 100 feet. The pebbles are
unusually large, Dnd lens of conglomerate has
e"ery appearance of occupying tbe ellonllel of a large
Dnd vigorol1'i stream.
On the D.kota{!)-capped plateau benches north of
'Varm C,·.ek sandy shale and aandsto ...
are underlain by mossi,," conglomerate that appears to
re.'It unconformably on thick beds belonging to the
However, the up!"'r part of the formation
hos been stripped back a considernble distance, 60 that,
os in the vicinity of Rock and Croton the baSllI
conglomerate of tha Dakota( ') undstone is united
with the underlying massive Morrison beds to form an
extended bench, from which the O"erlying weaker
upper Dakota (!) rocks have been stripped.
On W.II weap Cr""k good exposures of the Dakota
(') and of adjoining stl'1ltjgraphic divisions oppcar in
the "icinity of Cottonwood Spring. In general char-
octer the formations Ire like thoso on Warm Creek and
on the Puia, " fe", miles farther ,,·est. The basal con-
glomerato of (he Dnkota( I) sandstone ii locally as
n1l1ch as 50 fcet thick and consists of well-rounded
pebbles that have on average diamoter of' 1 to 2 inches.
It. rests on an irregulor surface carved in Morrison
sandstone, ond the contatL of the dark conglomerate
with the nearly .. "}tite sandstone is ,'ery striking_
On the Puda River, about 6 miles below th"mouthof
Cottonwood CI'\!ck, t.he Dakota (') sandstone fonns a
prominent bench that overlooks lowlands carved in
soft Upper Jura.sic rocks to the sout.h. Some of the
tbin sandstone divisions here are hard a.nd platy and
form strong rim rocks. Near the top there is approxi-
motely G feet of coal, about h"lf of which i. of fairly
good quoJity_ The basal conglomerote of the Dakota
(I) here is similnr to that on Wohweap Creek, except
thnt it is much t,hinner.
On the northeast face of the Kaiparowits Plateau, in
lhe vicinity of Escalante, the Dakota (I) sandstone con-
sists dominantly of hard massi"e sandstone and oon-
glomerate, which form prominent benches thnt extend
a mile or two outw.l·d from the rntLin line of the
Straight Cliff.. (See •• ct,ioll on p. 94.)
Along the Waterpocket Fold the Dakota(l) sand-
stone is well developed in most places and exhibits
characters more or Ie .. similar to those described for
other parts of t.he I<ltiparowits region. Coal bed.
that are found in parts of the outcrops ncar the Bitter
Creek divide are Itot preserved and it
appears that in some plnces the Dakot. (I) missing
altogether. The section on pnge 98 .lto\\,8 t.h. chur.
Deter of these beds near tile Burr tn ii, 7 mile. north
of the mouth of Muley Twist Creek.
The following sections of the Dakota (') snndslone
are representat.ive of mnny that wera measured in the
Kaiparowits region:
OK Mrlh .i4e 0' lAut Chance Creel: in Nlf· '" "-
·f, T • .f2 8., R. 5 B. (a-pprozim.!Jtc, un-kurvellcd). KG" COAl)".
{Me-oll ured b)' RalDlond C.
CretaC'!Qu. :
TrOpic 8hal<>--- PL ...
22. Shale. blui sh d"fib to nearly black.
clayey. 60lt i weathers 10 slope; Joeo.IJ7
fossiliferous in lower [lIlrL _________ tmO
Dakota (7) sandatoD<>---
21. Shnle, grayfsh b .. OWD_________________ S
20. Cool. faIrly Cood ,,·.d •. bright luoter -_ 4\1
19. SandattlDe. carbonnceoul!______________ 1
18. Shale, era)" to dark, earboDoceQus_____ 3
17. S:.udstone, yetlowl!Jb brown, sbaly.
rather ,ott but mukes sUght project-
Ing <1m; aile ¥rnlned______________ I I
16. Shole, browl1 to ,my. cloyey_________ G
15. Coal, 1'cry poor Quality, dull Inster,
dlrt7 i cant"jns thin streaks ot HgJlt
IIrnlto _. __ > ___ _________ __________ ._ •
14. Coul. fnlrly 600d <I""l1t1. bright lust ...
hlocky trnetut"____________________ 4"
18. Shale, dark 'gra;)', cnrbollaceous, bnrd__ 1
12. Saodtitooe, bl"OwD, medium gToined.
cross·bedded, Irregulur; weathers in
borel [llat)' trogmt"nt9 tbat rnak2 8
rlm______ __________ ____________ ____ 1-2
11. Shale, browoi&!l gray, ver, M.od)" i COD·
lnlnl thin beds of .nndstone ond
.I.reaka ot brown iro:Jstone_________ a
10. SnndHtonc, IIlht yellowish brown.
medJum ,ra.ined, maSsive, soft at top;
makes a ledge; 330 yards tbi,s
landstone 1& 8 to 10 reet thick nnd,
very mO$sh'e _______________________ 5 •
9. Coa1, fery poor; grades into booe____ S
8. Shale, dark ,ra, or dull blnck, car·
bonoceous; upper 4 (eet \'ery bo rd 0 ud
de,"", •• ____________________________ •
7. C-()nl •. POOr qUQUt,v, dull luster i 8 tew
thin strenks- of bright cooL_________ 7
6. Coal. good Qunllty. sh.1ny luster. rubeoD-
choldol f rActUl"e, blocky 11
ts. Shule, dart drab to nenrly blnck, \·er".
hard; brea.ks wlth fHlbconcholdaJ. frac·
ture; 'Very dense Dud flne grn.ined i
near top grodes into Yer)'
acc()U8 bard rock t hat resembles bone;
contains fragmenti of pluots at top
nnd thin hTe"nlnr aenms of coaL __ _
.fl. 8hol@, brown, 'tery saud.f ____________ _
e. Sandat.D •• bright ,ellowl8b gray to 01-
DlOfI;t 1\·htte. bedded, sort,
f •
(rluble_____________________________ 1
2. ConglollIerflte, ver, conrse and
with sma)!. Ilmouut ot cementlnc ma·
terlal nnd slllld; pebble!! 3 Incb .. or
lea In dl •. meter, averftle alze about
three-Q,ulrtera {ocb; • l'lngle IDIlsslve
hro«"o hard ledge i weothen lome·
wbat read!l,. nnd makes 100s8 ""To.yeI- 1-1
Totol Dakota ( 1) .. ndstone_______ t6
c .. to ..... (?):
Morrison (1) fOfmntion-
1. Sandstone. ydlowhih gray. medIum to
grnincc1, il'l'cg-ul:lt'ty bedded,
\'e; 1n IJurt conglomeratic but
tIoe. not contain large or numcl'Ous
pebbles i in part irl'egulnl'ly cross'
bedded, fairly hard weathers ill
eli.t:rs; top exposed; tbls bed forms
tbe box canyon 01' Lost Cbnncc Cl'eek
below this point.
'"'!tI" 01 Dakota. (t) 8a-l!li.'t /.(rtIC a·tlti a"8ociat c([. /'Qck, about
Smile. a.l.lo-ve »torlth of Warm Creek, Utall
[It'eusurcd by IIel'llcrt E. G.ejlo.yl

TropIc ahal¢- Feet
O. Snnd8tolle. thi1l bedded, grlty, :euticular,
,vllh stratum 1 foot thick chiefly of
eoqulIHl., shells of Or1l1lh(J(!a nnd Otltrea.-
tho" oy:::tet' " _______ ... ______________ "
I)akota (?)
8. Coal, nbout baJt 0:' good qua llty____________ 2
7. Shale, drab, calcareous; plant Impresslons__ "
8. Coal; lower 2 fect good qun.lity_____________ oJ.
3. SbAle, like No. L _________________________ 2
4. Snndt;tone, brown, eonrBe; D. tew quUrti ,eb·
bl", and mud balls Irregulart)' placed;
cross-bedded: stub-cnded Dnd· web ...
lenl'es; of a few shale
ripple marked, sun dried, BDd with
root prints; SOme Iron concretionll nt the
bose 19 a lens S feet tblck Dnd ftbout 80
teet lOng ot dork-l"f:d ahale witb wa .. y
lower surfllcc __ __ ___ ....__ ... . ... ______________ 13
3. Conglomerate lind sandstone. a:ray-yellow i
essentially n series of leuses ot coarse
sondstone tbat Is· trft'-ented lr·te&ulorly by
strings subangular 1'ihlte qUDrtz pebbles
ond sbortlcnscs' al much III " lnebes
thick of quartzite. chert, uooRt,oue, and
Ume.ston.e pebble's; full ot unconformities,
Is (l .. vater-bearing bed____________ 1G
Tobll Dakota (1) sOlldstODC___________ "0
Cretoceou. (1) : =
!d<>rrl90D (1) tormatloo-
2. Shnle, green-yellow Ilnd red-browD; Brenn·
ceous and Irregqla,rl,. bedded,
!ollntloo IUrfOceS SUD dried and uackcd__ 10
1. Conglomerate aDd C'oarse lIandstonc, illl crotl'-
bedded, ond some nne. Mlndstone, yellow-
brown ; nrraoG'ed as thlcJ( lense. that
tend tor sevel'ol hundred feel Ind abort
stubby jllD9ge!l: man, unconformHles; In
conglomerate teases o«ur pebbles of Quam
and quartzite ot 'farlous rot Drs. 'fed chert,
8D.l1ds;tone, limestone" and wood.
os much o.s 3 'Inches 1n otometer, smooth
but not well .rounded i bed. of .tine
atODe. ripple ftl1uked; rock paroull, Vr'ob-
Bb17 trom wcatberlna ot clar lumps aod
balls of triable some hnpres-
slOllS or pIIlDts__________________________ 120
u.. •• f.rmlty.
Total Morrison (?) fOl'mo.tloD__________ 180
&'Jldstone, Green·whlte, friable, In beds 6 to Hi feet thIck,
01 part fJf Dakot(J (1) santtslone ClH ea.,t .ide of Porta
Ri!ler 6 tnil.e!J belolo mot,UI o( Cotton,1cood Ofeck, SlY_ *
sec. £1, 7'. ,fl S., R. J W" Km18 Oountu, Vtall.
(ta(ClUiored b1 Raymond, C. Wllore)
'l'roplc !:bule--
Ft. tn.
8, Salldstone, yellowi sh brown,
bedded, very fossiliferous;
a",phaCfl. nnd Oalrca.

Dakota (1) •• ndJ;rooe-
0. Snndstone, brown, grncles downward Into
bluish drab; thin bedded, !liJnl)·: eou-
taiDs n few zones ot clay shale with
abundllDt fibrous Cypsuru in Irregulnr
se"Dl8 _____________
4.. Sandstone, btown. Dodullll", Irregulllrly
bedded. strongly llYrltlte.rous__________ 6
3. Conl and bone-
Cool, tolr quality, brlgbt t. dun
luster, but eon t III n II 'nr),
Dumerou!! Ihlt nooulea ot p)' rite
nnd lenses of Buodl lis much tjll
4 Iocbe. In tblckne .. __________ 18
Coal, good quullty. brr,ht 'lultel',
bard, subcublc CICIlY:lre, middle
port (6 inches) 3Qme",hnt hony_ 19
llone___________________________ S
Coni, fair grade but contaluing
thin streaki And lensea ot boDe 13
BOD0.__________________________ 6
G 8
2. Sbale, dark, carbonaceous and 80nd
stone at bose_________________________ 3u
1. Co\·ered_______________________________ 20
Total Dakota (1) ... I\dslono________ 81 8
o( 100cermod arclaceOt(4 Htrat-a on wed side Of Paria
River /" BE. 14 oe.:. 12, T. iJ7 B., R. 3 W., (>bout 11', mil ..
MI' ,,,, fJl ClluoHville, Gal'flel4 Coun-l'lI, Uta-II.
by Rnrmoud. C. lfoorc)
Cl'etaceous :
Troplc shAle- l"t. ID.
19: Sbale. bluish drab, sort i thickness :rev-
era} hundred feet, Dot ml\fisured.
18. Sandstone, 1cllowtsh brown, bani, ID1lS-
tdve: tormll capping ledGe ot proml-
neot beocb ________________________ 8-10
17. Sandstone, brown to Dearly 'block. cor-
bouaccoUB__________________________ 6
lB. Sbule, carbon.aceoO.iJ. apvcor part eray.
mldd!e and lower portions neurly
black ______________________________ 8
10. Sbale. sondy, bluish groy. ruther htlrd_ G
H. Sbale, clayey, extranei)' tosslHtel"QulI;
In plkces composed wbolly of
the partIr brouD rema1na or cysterll_ 3
13. SnDdttt'ODC. bluIsh to brownish 1'1'11,
carbon.cecu.11 DlOMln but weathers
shaly _________ ".,__________________ 2
12. Sbale. brown, cftrbonoce-ou!I, Audy,
rather" bardl _______ ...... --- --------- ---
11. Coal, impure, poor crodc ______________ _
10. ShAle, "Iock, CArbonaceous; lo''''er part
In placc •• earOOJl8CCOuH. SOndl<tO'lML_ 'l
Ti"ople !-'hnle-Conllnued.
n . In.
9, Shale, bluish tray; In places CDutalo.
!nu;mcllts" or Iibe!l8 ________________ _
8. Sandstone, hlulsh gnlY, bud; erades
lou'! beds above and below _________ _
7. Shale, blu!ah gray. bord, BO:Ddy, very
tOfUfIUferous; concnios chiefly oysters
1 e
1 B
Total TropIc shale ____________ 40+
Dakotn (' 1) Iillnd8tonc-
6, Coal, horrl, ImllUre, but rother e'en In
t exture; breaklJ iu angular !ng-
lDentl:l: bllt highly escept in
tew lhln strenks___________________ 1 1)
I). Shale, blulsh gruf. Inndy_____ ________ 8
1. ,iSlndHtone, brown, UJo1!'91ve, ! rreGLllllrly
beddcd _____________________ _______ 8-10
3. Cool, J.IOor qutlllty____________________ 6-S
2. 8hole, yellowlsb, sandy, sort__________ 20
1. SIlDdtitone, yelJ.owlsh. Sl·ft, partly cOl"-
cretl; contaluH !!.baly portions an<1
Irregular dl!JContinuolls tbIr., !Urcnki or
L"OIII _________ _______________ _______ 2J+
Totfll Dukotn(1) f(8ndstonc _______ ti8+
Sr.clio1l- of 1)a1.:ola ('> aa-nlilltonc near Burr trail, on tM
Waterl)Q('kt t } 'r;ld, (' i CUi tVJrt1r. of tlw mouth, of Mutey
TtDfse O,'ctlc
MUJlcos shllle: Lncludftl '" Ol'l'ter bed' " o:.! feet nhove
the bnsc,
Dnl(otu (J)
U. Conglomcrntc, brown : conLalns three thlD
of 8:.ln,lls:tone; pebbles,
mnloly chert, noll quart? .. wblch
threc -toorlhi Inch In llinmeter____ 10
4, Shale, nrenQceous, McJ tbln ycllow-
browll, cross-bedded. lenUculnr j C'ontnlmt
IOlpressl,)nlJ ot, plnnt.!____________________ 10
3, SundiOtone, Caorlle, In onrlopplng lenses:
quortz ond chert grains well but not
rot:.ud: contains scnUered pebbles one-bolt
Ineb or les8 In <1Inruetel' ond. 0 lew Iron
__ __ _______________________ t4
2. Shu Ie, soudy, lind th!n sandst-on ..... rcd-brown i
(oUation surfoces Hun Ct'H.eked and ripple
marked; some Worm tt'llcks; abundant 1:-00
lu gi"alns ond block putcbes______________ 15
1. Conglomel'nte pet' cent) ' .Dd vel'Y coarse
(26 per cent), A ot .bort
thick lonses and thin Irregular beds, all
sU'uugly cl"ot)s-bedded: Jlebblcs ODI.clshtb
Illeh to 2 inches In dlometer or w-bitl!, red,
nnd blnck ChCI·t, l!M'Ser Amouot ot qnart.He,
Quartz. RJ\d Jasper, some ('0; BODM!
ehunlo,s Hnd' balls Qr eO'\l-
lJ.ft<:t ii'!C'(In-whlre cia)' n.nd or cnlcureo",
SIIDd, Irre:rulAro' ',reDtlleriu&,
o! "'bleb roek Ii porous ftp[)enrftnee;
h'ou ooncl'etlons. iu form or piIIUet1kts"
Ifl'/.eo,J;eti, nnd bolt hend::) __________________ 38
'rotnl Dakotu (1) smllIstouc ____________ ---;;
Shale IUld ShlldRtone, red Ilnd greeu..g1'8Y.
The stratigraphic division that is here desig:na1td
the Tropic shale consists predominantly of uniforll
dark-drab clayey , hale and fine-t""tured sand)' lillie,
thinly laminated lind soft, which breaks down readily
to form slopes ar,d brond, gently ,mdulating flat..
(Sec pI. 14, B.) The upper thi,·d of the formll.tioo is
more or less sandy and in places contains thin bedsof
.anclstone. Gypsum is uncommon, but crystal's of
. e1enire occur in many places on the weathered lower
Except in steep cliffs the shale is generally covered
by a thin luyer of "ery fine, 100Eo porous debris, whicII
supports a scanty cover of vegetation, Hud in many
pilices the shale sudllce is quite bure. In t .... Yenine
the outcrop a horse may sink above the feHooks or .VeG
to the knees or muy firm footing.
Becau&! this weuk formati on ranges in th:ckOOll
from about 600 to J ,400 feet it exerts 11 profound in-
fluence OQ topogruphy in the area where it ill
exposed. Everywhe,·e it has been stripped rock 10 U
to form a broad bench, which is underlain by the hard
rocks of the nakot.,( 1), lIforrison, and San Rafael
formations. The sha Ie com poses the moderately steep
Illopes thut lend from the bench to the overlying sand-
stone cEffs, nnd in places it forms broad saucerlike
valleys. The severn I hundred feet of uniformly soft
durk shale between persistent prom:nent ,alld;rtoneo,
which are dist.inguished by very uniform nnd rather
.triking lithologic ehnrncters, by topograp·hic exp ... ·
sion, Ilnd by distinctive fossils, muke this stratigraphie
division one I.hat can not be. confused wieh any oth."
in t.he region.
The bn.se of the Tropic shale is charncteristicoll,
sandy and highly fossiliferous. In most places, ..
/llong the southe,·n !bench of the Cretaceous plateaus
anll along the Straight Cliffs, this basal sandstone
ra-fige. in thickness from 1 to 15 feet. It is yellowis/l
brown, friable, and mther evenly bedded anti ia ia
most places readily disti:nguished by ih
character and its faunn from the undcl"iying sand·
!!tones of the Dakot4 (1) formntion. Along the WI-
, terpocket 1Il0nociine also thB basal sand of the corre-
sponding shale division is very weI! developed.
In the upper Parill Valley the lower part of tbe
TPopic consists of fOEsiliferous shale alld sandstone
which Ire some,vhat simila,' to the beds seen elsewhere
but which conbin alternating beds, of coni that e.,,-wnd
llpwu·d as much as 200 feet from the base of III.
formation. The following on lowel' Willis
Creek, sout.hwest of Cannonville, shows clea'·lv
eharucter of the lower part of the Tropic a; here
lid"'" 01 lo-wer lJQ,rt, of th.c; CrcluceotU on WiW" Creek neat'
".W of ICC. lit 7
• 38 S ., R . .} Woo Gar/kid. a'JlWrV, Ufo,"
(1l91Wrtd 1t7 HUlmu",1 C. lIoord

froplc .bale- F1. in.
14.. SOtldl:!tone, fne to medium grnined, OIRS-
sh'e aod tbin bed.o{!(\ i
en I lenses or ldH),le: !ellowlsh but
weatbera brilliant red ill plows; n
middlo bed about 2* tt>et thkk ('011-
tains a bun dAn t rOSlil
chletJ)'< prHlcni'Ja. and n ft,W
otber pelecypo<:l s____ _______________ 75
13. Coal . 3{1[1CIHJ; poor gnlde and
conllttns sho1c Bnd sandy IUoterioL__ 2
12. Sha.!e, gru)'; weathers soH i mnny fru(;-
ruent. or O,'''·"a ____________________ 20
11. yellow-brown, middle part
dark browu, cross-bedded ; contoius
Some fulC cl)llglomornte with l}cre UDO
tl:.{>t C piece'S or charcoa l nnd ooods ot
cOl' bollo<'eous material otle-sb:teellth
to o:lo-(!Ighth inch In thl<.'kness__ ____ 20
10. rOl'boDllceous, upper 6 Inches
1l..s$ile; sowe sulphur_________ 2 0
0, Cool, Impure but blnck and g'UstenJng:
contains mncb sulphur______________ 2
8. Shale. groy, weat her!:! sort. many trog-
mellt, of O'tre4__ _____________ _____ 3
7. Cou!. Yery Jmpure and contains mucll
8ulvbur; Dlost),. a bard vltry cluh<r
6. Sbale-, like No. 14____________________ 8
15. SandstoDC!, Y(."'tow-gray. bard, a 6iD,le
JDossl't'e 1 6
4. Sbale, like No. 1-1____________________ 53
3. eosl-
Ft, In.
Coni, til.lr 2 "
Bone ___ ___ ______________ ..
Coni , 1 10
grti1__________ %
Ooul, {air quollly, cODtoins
S()lIle sU!llbur /tod gyp-
sum ______________ • ___ 1
Saud.tone, 'rRy__________ 1JJ
Cow, (a I r quality;
sulphur and g)'DSUlD___ 10
Siludstoue. hard, clayey.
flue crni:lcd. ,lentlculnr __ 2
Coal. pOOl' qUllllty________ •
0111)' __ _ ________ ___ _______ C;
Coal. fl,c$lIe__ ____ _______ 8
Coal, browD, impure, ):oor
qunUty __ __ ____________ 1 1
Shale., b 1 U 11 b, carbona-
______ ____________ 2 6
2. Silale, ,ro.y; weatbers 10Ct; mQoy 'Mg-
menta ot Ost·rCG____________________ 7G
Total Tropic sbole __________ 2;;1+
wota (1) •• ndstono:
1. SODdstooe congloD1erate, yellow nud
mfll!81v@-_________________ 8
lJ_Onn)t ,.
lIIrIaoIc: San Rafael group.
In the brood, valley thnt lies b<>twccn Ihl}
and Tnble Cliff Plateaus ond surrounds
. the village of from which t.he formation is
t:amed, exposures of the shole nrc excellent:. The
maximuln obs.",ved thickness is about 1,450 feet. How-
eyer, much of the shnle in thi s "rel\ is cO\'ered by
ngricultural soil, by gl'uYel deposits, aud by scrub
timber. Soul.lnvest of Tropic the outCI'OP af shale
is marked by gently sloping bonches that extend
toward the Pa"i" from tho bnse of the sand"toncs on
the CQat /lnnl!: of tho P,ullIsaugllllt Plnt"uu, b;,t the
width of I.his belt is dC<'reased by fanlling. South-
enst of Tropic Ihe Tropic sllllle is well exposed neSlr
HenrieyiIIe alld along the Ellst Kuibnb mOllocliJl" in
the Horse Ilnd Round VuUeys Ilud along Cottonwood
Creek. (See pI. 21, H.) The Round Valley is •
bowl-shoped deprt'SSion carved in the Tropic Shale
where the dip of the bods is .. uther gentle, bnt farther
south it is 0 longitudinnl vaUey thnt is n",dc narrow
by th" steep dip of the rocks.
The, thickn_ of !.IJe Tropic shale ot a point severo.!
miles north of the Purill Rive .. mell sured feet,
but alOllg nlOtit of the ""uth ma .. gin of the Cret"ceou8
area the Dveug. thickness is about 600 feet. Ellstward
from tho Paria R(ver Illong the south face of t,be
Kaiparowits Plateau, the Tropi" sll"le is e:):posed as
n fnirly brood bench at the bus. of high sllndstone
bluffs. (See pI. 13, B.) Tnvcl al()Dg it is fairly
eogy to Na.v.j,o Point, at the sonth lip, cust of
lCnipnrowits Plateau, where the bench is too n",.row
to follo\.. Benenth the Straight Cliffs t,he thickness
of t.he Tropic shale "Ilnges from nbont 550 to 700
feet. Though tho ",idt,h of the exposure is not grcllt
the sandy beds It the base extend outward distnnce
of 1 to 3 miles IL ... capping for the mnsoivoDakot& (1)
and Morrison <') beds. (Sec pI. 21, A.) In the
valley of H.lIs Creek and eastward the Cretaceous
shale that corresponds to t,he Tropic sh.le is t.hicker
thnn in the Kaip8l'owits Plateau.
Marilla fOtisils arc common in the lower part of
the Tropic shale put rare or absent in the middle and
upper part.. Locally the bn .. l >!lnclstone is especially
rich in fossils. Oyste,'S and Gryphnens oollstitut.e
nearly alI the organic remaius in the shnly beds, but
in the sandstone they may be Accompanied by ot.her
An oyster bed nearly 3 feet thi ck crops out neltr·
the bose of the TI'opic on the west side of the Paria
River north of CannonviUe and together with other
iossil-be.ring beds is found beneath coal beds. Parts
of the OYstH bed con.i st of shale with abundant fos-
sila, but commonly thert i. little mud between tbe
shells, and the ro(:k Illigh t be cn lied a limestone. Tbe
species identified are O&t1'tla sp., probably O •• o161lia-
CU4 Meek Grgplwea MWlien-yi Stanton, and s.ryula
sp. undct:, probably new. The common fossil. of the'
basal sandstone of the Tropic shale are O.trea f11'U"
ae..tia, O. and GryphaM. -MtDlierryi, and
numerous specimens of tbese forIllll are found in most
eXpo!<ures at this horizon. .
Some sandy layers in the upper third of the forma-
tioll contain abundllnt plant remaill".
Invertebrate fossils collected from tbe Tropic shale
at several localities have been identified by John B.
Uec..idc, j ... , .ho has submitted tbe following report:
Tropic shale. 3 mUee Dorth of Henrieville, 100 feet above
bA6e.. Lower Ulncoa fauna:
Trootl.ocyo.\hul'l or Pamcya.
&hllO D. &p.
Oryphac. newborryl Stanton.
Exosyr" oolumbeU" .. k.
aft. E. ponderoea
BacuJitoa amcilll Shumard.
Ra.,al at tho Tropic .hale. from aee. 11. T. t2 S ..
n. 1 K. Appurently a Colorado, tnuna, brackllb-water bobltot:
AnemiA propatoril WhLte. I Corbloola't &p. undct.
Modlol.. mult.iUnJgcr" Mook. Phy .... p. undel.
J'08¥lIlterou!l sandstone at 01 Tropic .bale Jo tee.
10. T. 42 S., R. 1 E. Lower Kancoa fSIUDO;
o.trea prudOllt.lo. White.
Oryph.... newberr,!.
ExolYra all'. E. lae\'fu.cul0
Ka.!lt tace ot Kalparowlll Plateau .outb of TeomUe Sprlnc
ODd 14 miles lIOutheft8t of Escalante, Ulab. SanUf.one In
TroAle .ba 1. 30 toct abo.e Dakota (?) .and.toDe. Lownr
VOftcoe fauna:
OIl_ lolenl .. u. Meek. 18moll ... tropod ...... uDdet.
1:108)'" aft. E. pooderoflll
Same loc:a.lltJ lUI lut above, but In abale loon tbo sand.
stolle. Lower .r10C08 fanna:
OryphGeA nElwberry' Stonton. ( Tclltna modest. Meek?
""th! Creek. east ot Burr Ot"ft'k, Garfteld CoUDQ', Utah.
SandAtone 1n basol ("Tununk abole") 1)01't at Monco. abale:
PteriA Rwrodos (Meek).
EXOi..,ra alf. E. ponderosa
Oetroa lUlubria Conrad.
Oatroa prudeutia. White.
C.rdluM trlt.> Wllit.>.
C.lli.ta orhlcullota (HsIl and
.. k).
Tellin"r .p.
SitiqulL hucrf8lnena. Stanton?
Madra. utahcnl!. Meek.
Gyrode. dcprMst. Mort.oD.
Meaolltoma ocddentali. StRD ...
Baou1i&.cl .p.
Durr traIl, WaterpO(!'lIft Fold, Utah, .. ()rltter Ret" nboye
Dotola (') .... ndatoDf. Lower DoIorndo tauna:
Darbati. mlcronema (Meek). I Boculitcl Ip. undet.
Pinna .p. undetermined. Cardium l.rit.e White.
Oetrea .alc:nilcua Meek. I Cyrena accurie Meek.
OEttroa prudcntia Tetlin.? sp.
8iliqu:I. huertSllenBia Stanton. Spironom .. l Ip.
DllInJ BfllldstODI! ot Tropic wale Debr the bead. ot Rodr
Oreek. A launa known Itt a numlx'r ot loealltlea tn t.be
lower part of the Colorado group In Utnb:
EXOQ:yra laevlW!C'ula ROPIner. I CucUum trite White.
Pllcatula h,drot.heell Whlte. ClllIIsto 81). undet.
IfJ.scellAlle()UI IJ;eCimeu¥ (rorn ftnc-grn1ued' U"M-era1 cal-
careous andstoDei In Troptc I!bale alonc Last Cbance Creek,
Tbe8e species are (bJeJi, those characterIstIc of the baaal
t.lO.rt of the lCanco. shole In New llexJco and Colorado,. lIDIl1
of them ha\'e recently been rouod at the top ot the Grl.DerQl
sIlal. 01 the Black Hill. "'l:lou .• auCeelUoD tb.t [be begt •.
Din, ot. marine sedimentation WOI appreciably lnter In Utab
than In lbe Bills reJioo.
Serpula .p. C.llI.taT .p.
InoceramuS! sp., frBlments. Corbuls. neDlAtophora Meek.
Gr1phaea,newberryf, Stanton. Lunati" Ii. Ip. L. eondll_
E.ogyro columbeJla Meek. H &11 .. nd Meek.
CaruptODectca plotcosa White. TurrlteU .. whltei Stanton.
Lima ut&henJi5 Anchura n. Ip.
Anomia IlIbquadrafa Stn.nton. Baculites gracilis Shumard.
Modlala n. &p. aff. M. mecki I Acanthoceras kanabenlO Stu_
E •• 1lI and Shumard. too, n. var.
Veniella ,on1ophor. Meek.
All tbe!e tossllal nppear to Indicate the early Colorado or
basol i),flnco. dhfsloD at ttc atn.cdard Cretaceous &eetloo.
InAIGlI'l CLni'1 UlInnOllll
The Tropic shale is conformably overlain by mas-
.ive sandstones that are very clearly different·lith.o.
logically from tile underlying rocks. In some pllOOJ
the drab·colored shale of the Tropic formation is
overlain with rather abrupt change by massive bro.n-
ish or yellow sandstone of the Straight Cliffs form ••
tion, but in generd tbere 8.re 100 to 800 feet of in·
terstratified .hille and thin sandstone which appeu
to represent. transition zone between the Tropic and
Straight Clils formations. (Sec pI. 14, e.) In this
zone the i. very sandy and toward tbe top con-
taiM increasingly numerous thin beds of bard sand·
stone. It also resembles the overlying beds in color.
Because of these features, whicb indicate that tile
from mud to sand begins at the base of this
zone, tbese intermediate beds are classed with tbe
Straight Clift's sandstone rather than with the Tropic
The Stl'8ight Clifa sandstone is chorocleristically
oomposed of very massive beds of ligbt-yellowish or
buf·brown fine to medium·grained sandstone. Most
of the' hard, musive beds are S to 10 feet thick, but
10m. that exceed 60 feet in thickness were noted.
"lhere the formation lies essentially 8at (he sandstone
forms nearly vertical unscillable cliffs that present
110m. what in'egular craggy surfaces. In some places
oItemntioll8 with 90fter strata and birly uniform
bedding give evidence of general uniformity in
deposition. A view of tbe Strllight Clift's from lbe
plain a few miles distant on the northeast shows
rathel' clearly this broadly even bedding of the sand·
stnn.. (See pI. 14, A.) Other exposures show felf
persistent, readily traceable divisions and consid·
irregularity Occurs in both mOlor and min«
dIVISIOns. This high variability in the thicknesa t.IId
_Dluity of indi vidual beds, the size of grains, tbe
aJlDItnt of cross-bedding, the distribution of the fer-
""iDollS cement, the degree of porosity, and the re-
to weathering IUBkes detailed measurement
olsoctiolls especinlly compllrison of parts of the
lorIIlauon in ditl'erent areas rather difficult.
A noteworthy cbaracteristic of the Straight 'Cliffs
o;andstone is the presence in so,eral parts of tbis ·nren
o! "orkabte beds of coal. In some districts there
ue thin .. trenks of carbonaceous shale und poor coni
It horizons that range olmost from the bottom to
!be top tha formation, but in others there is no
coo! at all. 'Fhe chief cO:1l zone is the middle third
of the fOI'mation, and this zone contains individual
beds 13 to 20 feet til ick. Some of the conI beds ap-
pear to be persistent over several square miles but
piocb out in many plnces rather abruptly.
Much of the Cretaceous sandstone al(mg Last Chance
cd Warm Cl"Qeks is altered by the natural burning of
the included coni beds. The sandstone is . altered to
kight red, baked, and hardened, !l.lld tho ,,--<;soeiated
dlale is changed to 11 bricklike dUk hard argillite or
to clinker. Bedding is sO mud, disturbed that in mOlly
pIacea it is impossible to determine, the original atti -
IMde and composition of the str.ta.
In contrast to the underlying shale, the Straight
elitrs sandstone is resistant to erosion, and as the
format.ion is several hundred feet thick it makes a
broad platenu bench that is bordered by high, almost
sheer cliffs. The long line of neu.dy I'ectilinear cliffs
frooting ·toward the Escalante Valley is made by this
diviaion and suggests the name Straight Cliffs, which
hal been applied to it. Along the south margin of the
)(.uparowits Plateau the escarpment formed by the
&rlight Cliffs sa.ndstone is almost as prominent topo-
CAphicoUy, but is vel'y irreg1.lla.r in trend. Along
t_ East K.ibab monocline this sandstone forms the
lrestern of Ihe two high sharp-crested "comb" ridges
tht are made by the uptumed Cretaceous slInd8tone.
The ca.nyons that cut through the sandstone are steep
lralled Lnd in places have vertical sides. (See pIs. 19,
B;20, B.)
lD thickneu the Straight Cliffs Lveragea
Ibout 1,000 fcct_ In the Cliff. eSC1lrpment
it increases from about 900 feet near Esenlln!e to
lbout 1,200 feet at Fortymile Point. Near Wahweap
Creek its measured thickness is 950 feet. At the hend
of Rock Creek it is 1,250 feet. On the east side of
!be raunsaugunt Plateau, wbere its top hIlS been re-
IIIoved by erosion, the remaining portions range in
tbickness from 700 to 1,200 feet ..
Bec&Use of the practically continuous unscalable
erearpment along the' Straight Cliffs it i. very difficult
'0 obtain iletailed information concerning tbe compo-
sition of this .. ndotone in tbis part of the Kaiparowits
Plateau. However, a section measured by Gregory on
Collett Crec!K its cb.racter tbere. (See p. 109.)
At a point on LBot Cbanee Creek where the thi ck-
ness of the Straight Cliff. nndstone is more than 944
feet the formation consist. almost entirely of sand-
lltone witb less thall 10 per cent of sandy sbale and
only two or tll1'oo thin ligllit.e beds in the middle part
of the formation. Marine and brackish-water fossils
lire found at several horizons in t.his orca.
On the main Lnst Cba uce Creek, where the 10weI"
one-third of the t.ransition bed. of the Straight Cliffs
sandstone, including the transition beds at the base,
is accesRible, the middle part of the formation is dis-
tinguished by numel'ous 00ds of lignite,. some of wbich
.... 8 as much as 20 feet thick, a9 nellrly all of
this coal above a few feet from the bottom of the
canyon is burned, and as the associated sandstone and
eondy shale are much altered, neither the quality
of the coal nor the composition of tbe sandsLone could
be •• tisfactorily detel'mined.
011 the CI-oton Ih-anch of Last Chance CI-eek some
of the very thin coals QI-e now burning.
On Warm CNek the middle part of the Strllight
Cliffs "andstone contains thick coals which appenr to
correspond with those observed on Last Chance Creek.
In this 81'ea as well as in the 8 rca to the east and
north, all the cool i. burned down to the bed. that lie
within a few feet of the bottom of the presll.llt stream
valleys. The name Warm Creek is evidently due to
the npors from burning coal at points along the
Along the upper west branch of W 8.l'm Creek the
Straight Cliffs sandstone presents some features not
shown elsewbere. In 615 foot of beds the thickest bed
('f ma""ive SOlldstone is 60 foot Lhick; in the upper-
most 300 feet only three individual beds exceed 20 feet
in thickness, ll1ld in the 10 ... el·ll)osl 200 feet only one
measurcd bed is thicker than 10 fect. Coal hcd. in
this !ectiol1 begin 182 feet from the top llfld extend
within 50 feet of the bottom. Witllin the intel'vening
378 feet lie 15 beds of coLI of good quality, which have
R total thickness of 28 feet 10 inches, Bnd 12 beds of
earthy lignite and coal mingled with shale.
Along Wahweap Creek excellent exposures of the
Straight Cliffs sandstone reveal very few coal beds,
.. nd the few that ate prescnt 81"1) thin and of' no value.
Marine fossils ore found at eevcral horizons, but the
distinctive zones that were on Croton Creek
were not found beI-e. The earne condition. appear to
persist along the East Kaibab fold, where the s/lnd-
stone il very well expoeed in the westernmost of the
two main Cretaceous hogbacks. .
Along Henrieville Creek of the. of
Henric)Tille the entire Strnight Cliffs formntlO? IS well
exposed in a tilted position above the TrOPIC shale.
Deginning at the base, its large subdivisions and th.ir
e>timnted thicknesses are (1) buff coor!C sandstone, of
which about holf the bed. ore 6 to 10 feet thick and the
other haH 1 to 3 feet thick, 160 fwtj (2) argilloceous
nnd nren.ceOllS shnle and coal, 60 feet; (3) sand.-tone,
a series or sholy or thin beds within which are two or
mOl'e strat" of maosive sllndston" 10 to 30 feet thick,
120 feet; (4) sandstone, buff, co,,_, irregularly
bedded, in port cross-bedded and lenticulnl', in beds 15
to 80 feet in thickness, sepa .... ted by discontinuous beds
of shslelike .andftone, 4S0 feet. Except for the coal
and assOciated shllle of No.2 and some thin coal be<l$
in No. 3, the entire ..,ction, approximately 800 feet,
coltsists subtitantiolly of sundstone, highly ... riuble in
thiclme.<;s and conl.inuity of beds, in size of groins, in
amount of cl'OSS-bcdding, in amount nnd position of
iron as cement ond t'Ollcretiolls, in degree of porosity,
dnd in resistance to weithcl·;ng. Tlte shale, especially
tlta.t in the uppermost 400 occurs essentially in
I,mses of thin-lJcdded sandstone, some of them 8S mueh
as 10 feet thick and persistent for more than a mile; in
other pl .. ces the shale ocelli'" in mere patches pn t:oeven
of IIlIlS!livo slIlIdstone beus. Argillaceous shale
where present is inconspicuous. It OC<!urs sporadically
ill thin sandstone and .s il'l'egular m. 8Ses of hardened
cluy ,vithin the thick beds. The weathering of tit ....
mn!'8CS has given some beds n cavernous appenl'8nce
aud provided exit for ground water.
A pl.ne-table tI'8V<lr86 along this creek shows, total
thickn .. s of the Cretuccous SCtndstone abo,'. tlte Tropic
shnle of 1,700 feet, but the Strnight Cliffs sandstone
\VIIS not dill'erentinted ·from the ovel'lying Wah\\'eop
The following selected sect.iODS show tbe composition
Dud arraugement of beds in tho Straight Cliffs forma-
tion of the Kaiparowits region:
Seelio,. of O,-e'tlCBO,,, IIlrottl Cut .oruh ,-.1m Of KalfXI''OlcU.
Plato""" "fUr 01 tce,t b"a.llch or LaM' OfWHCtJ Creek
by n ..... with Ibe IUIIUII IIIUCO or J, III. Dont':,1111
,sh'l.I.lght CUifli sRndat.one:
30. SundSltllll'. Illflt-:lIh'l', wltb JUall,)' IrOD (.'(IDcre-
tiona and some Iron cement: "'COlliers to
gellernl red tone ot bo.ae ot if'UlnU knoblJ RDd
coutlth.," "))Ark teeth: top ot
F't, In,
platcou____________________ _______________
38. couriW grained. llldf-rellow, COD-
formable beds 0 (nebes to S teet thick: wltb-
out $lillIe! unrtlug!C________________________ 55 10
3T. ShRill wlt.h Intel'bedcled yodatono___________ 16 ..
30. D\.....,rl8-co"ered slOllC, eOUlJ.WltIed ht rgcl,y or Ir·
regularly bedded 88Ddstone_______________ 61 a
36.. SnuiJlftone, floe, anl:u\llr
.mIDi'd; C!aicurcons cerullot: torm. ant
bench ,,·ttll Tcrth. .. l elias tnt by vtrong nr.
tI.al jolnto____________________ _________ __ 83 il
34. Sandstone lu thin e\'en beds with strat.um of
cllk."Ureou8 alt.ale 8 lur.l\e:l tbl('k ut bo.se __ 6 S
Strol,ht cwts sandl!!t'ODe--ContilJucd. "L Ia.
33. S01lds!ooe, WR.SSln"!, of clean angular
quartz 7
32. Shnle, arenDCeOUs. with tbla. lenses ot dark
8O.0dstoDe and of earthy «:oaL_____________ G ..
31. Shale, arenaceous aDd orsillaccollS; coot:lins
lmpreSf!!ons ot pJaot1)_____________________ 2 ..
30. Sandstone, coorse ,rained, porous, ill even
beds 6 luehet! to 1 foot thick; contains DlUclt
iroD In concretious ami nOIJlll es; wenther'3
red ___________________ ___________________ 27 10
20. Sondstone. massive, buff-yellow; un-
gular JrI1ltus______ ________________________ 11 2
2S. Sandstone ,,··ltl1 .hole pllrUugs_______________ 1 1
27. Sandlttoue. bulT-ye'llow, massh·e ______________ 38 T
26. Sondstone,. bun:. in resulnr beds 1 to 2 teet
10terlJedded with CQICilreOufi sllnle___ 17 IS
25, Sandstone, llve bed!f____________ 27 10
24. Shale, arenaceous', .vriukled with Iron grnhls_ S
23. Snodstone, tlno gl'lIfu!-I, l'c; ullH'ly bcthled_____ 2 1
2'1, Sbnle, like No. 24___________________________ G
21. Sandstone, boll, co)careoulJ ADtJ irOD
ct'-!l1cnt; collrser gl"ftiM OJlguht', sll);bUy
er"' .. bedded ______________________ .________ 41 I
20. Shale. yellow, arenaceoas and al'£Ulnceous;
eontnJns streDk. of c:ulcareoua material nnd
D few trlllgmenta ot eorbonbed wood______ 3 ..
19. Sondstone, buff. COlD{>06ed ot tiDe eratn. of
qunrla, of tbem augular: cnll'oreouB
cement i ma.uh'C!, re,dslont except tor an !r·
l"eIlDlor bed or le!Ja ot sbale 8 IDebe. 1I11ef<
De ...... ________________________________ 18 I
18. Sandstooe anll .. bole to olternatlng be<hs 3
fnclie9 to 2 teet thlek; .. Ieb 10 organic· mo.t·
Wi'; fneludee • tew tllin seilms of conl ____ 28 I
11. CMl; thin lenUrulor bt:.'f.1s InlerstrutUled with
CIlrbQnaceoul uDle ______________________ _
16. Sn.lldiloDe. tbill, and sho1e liku No, 18 _______ _
2 6
14 8
15. Sbale and coal:
Shale, Drt'Dnceous: contllJns impres·
J' t. )n.
slons ot plnnL:l.______ __________ G
Eartb1 lignlte ond leu"". ot ... nd-
atone Rod Bbale__________ ______ G 4
good quoUty________________ 10
14. white, In thln eveQ beds,
graIn. or pure- quart.., poorly ccmented with
lime; n few parHnp of sl)ale__ 9
13, Sandstont, ..-bite, mass1ve; I'eli li tant, -sU,hU)'
.root"bodded, oomJ)O .. d ot •• ry wblte
Coarse gratn8 i no b'on and no organIc
mntter ______ _________ ____________________ 29
12. Sbale, arenaceous. and tbtD-be<'lded f!lndstone_ "
lL So DdstoDC. bu(t •• lIgbtly .rosa-bedded; mBS- .
st"t. tor :s Inches ot sbn Je 22 feet
from the top; ft.ne angular wblte quarts
gralns ar-d SOme larler red
gretna; celllent comPDsed of Iron, Ume, and
Cpsum (1); porou8 aDd gives to seeps
at woter at plncea wbere rocks are conted
with 79
10.. Sbale, gray, Dod Inndetor.e, unevenly strntilled
In be"" nnd lenseo 1 Ineb to 1 toot thIef<:
sboles rIch 1n cnrbonlzed plaut rerullLns;
tragments and hnpressions ot plnnts also In
D Sb BDDdstone ____________________ .. ___________ 11
, ale, biDe-gray. and eartby UgDIIe_________ 2

!IfIICI1t Cllll', 88.Dd$ton<."-Cootluued.
PI. tn.
S. SandStone, bu![·sray. in wo.vellke beds but not
rroSt.beddcd; texture; groins pre-
nllingl.}" n.nguI8t, by lime; few
Jroll nodnlcs _________ __________ _____ -----
T. 8b81e lod sl>nly Sl\'Udl;toue, G,'ay. in lJeds less
t,haa 10 ('xcepltonnlly l'eeulUl';
eontnio$ ruUdl iron, also lime und g)'llsum
.. cement 8m) ns dissemlnnted pnrticles:
tOfllbl sIope co'{"cred by :and::;lides__ _ 23
t. SandJitone. lmfr, in frlul>lc beds 1 to G inch..::s
thick: contains mUl'b crystalllne gypsum;
bottom, 3 feet l'ed pOl'OUS crolis·bcdded
Jand.stonc tbnmgll w11kb water seeps______ 10 {)
.. SaDdaitone, gray, massive, hard, l'esistant;
bottom 10 feet s tl'oll gl y cro&;-bedded; grains
'IOOn. wbite, l'ouuded, and weB 8ol'ted;
COIltntu (Ichbl es as ulu<:h ns 1 lnch in diam-
eter ol'r.)ugoo. in porous leol;{'s and ns
Ill"l.ttered inlllvil!uahi ______________________ 41
l. Sandstone, Imff-yellow, complld. clll! maker;
(l'.tns well worn and i includes O'iC
beda: .
1-'1. 1n.
Sand!:o1one. ill vertil'al din', sepu-
rated into beds uy thin
0( 8llody shal e nod lenses or
ironstone containing \.} I' (l ken
frngmeuts or ["oce"ramu3 11m!
Prkmoh·opis________ __ ________ ZJ 2
Sandstone, t h tn- bcUlled. even
S 10
Sandstone or conglomerate, com-
posed ot illtel'lenvJn" ICIl1'Je6 of
wblte qunl'tz pebbles 1% Inches
or less In dlomelcl'____________ US 4
SO.ndstone, Hnl;! grained, t h I 0
bedded. even bedded, with scot,
tered lorge pebules____________ u
Sondstone. mnsslye, cross-bedded,
weatbcrs porous, solutioll haa
produced .. toe holes" 8 n d
minl.uture l'Q,'crns ____________ 22
---112 4
a. IIondstolle, bulf-yellow, cross·bedded; beds 1 to
a reet thlck______ _________________________ 20
l sandstone. yellow-grny, irregularly separnted
IIIto 4 bed. _______________________________ _
16 10
Total Stralgbt CUlls 8Illldston"- __________ 11M 2
TofIo ... 1.:
1 Sbftle, (ray aud slate-colored. QDd flnndstone in
beds h:.'8H than G thick; sbnle lucre ...
Inrly more ar&llluceons, more abundant, and
In thinner beds to,\\"ill'd the bottom, surfaces
Df bed!l decorated wltb minute concretionary
lozenges, plant tJu[lresslon:o::, 8ud fossil sbeUs_ 22
8ba10, slate-colored, abunuunt Mancos
Through on a.ccident to the pack train fOS>oils col-
lected from t.he beds Il.nnlyzed in this section were lost.
A IOtable feature of the section is the small amount of
.. I. At a place less than 2 miles distant the equiva.-
lim of beds Nos, 9 to 20 contains nine beds of coal, the
Ilic:k. mcflSul'ing 23 inches, and more tha.n half of
ooU is of good quality.
• .or''\' of acetft b''fJItcA o( Or-utem Creek Fm'k, ot LQ..8'
CMJ"" Cncl:, trot" tee. 10 10 ftOrtha1f. of ,eo. ?:I.
'1' . 408., .2. i E., Kfltle COlmtU. Utfl'"
(llusured b1 Raymo •• C.
C1i1rll snndstone : Pcet
9 . . SandlJtone. llgbt yello""llJb vcr,. mo.ssivc.
'-ard. somewhat tM!dded; forms
prmnlDcnt clilt nod upholds the, maio Straight
cl:rra escorillnent; shnl)' sane 2i5 teet (l'om the
top rontalus ao IlbundllDt Illorlol! !aunn-
oysters, p.tropodt!l, nod other forllls ________ 300
S, SandstoDe, rellowl.sll brown. lIOn. more Ot- less
Illal,., trresulll11y beaded i slope bellentll
clUJ: above ________________________ __ ___ ____ 110
7'. Suudstone, browD, uU\sIJlve, bmd; ' torllls proml,
nent rIUl____________________________________ 2U
G. Sonl\oto.e, »on, ,hall', yellowish brow"_________ 20
5. Snndstone, lIght yellow. mediwn to Ul usslve
bedded, Dlodero.tely Boft 1 wentbcl's In lnrge
blocks ond 1n rou!lded _______________ 160
4. Sond.toae, lIgbt creoDll yellow, Yer)' ma"s\vc.
bard; tonn box C:II.nj'l.,)lUj; locally contn:ns very
Jlurueroul large lcocerunJi: n Uluker ____ lUi
3. SlludstoDe, 11,ht 'yellowkfb gray to light brown,
10ft. cntcnro'!OUlf. n)("(liunl lwdded.; weathers in
Ineular blocks _____________________________ 220
2. Sandstone, brow., soCt, Ihnlr ___________________ 30
Tilt.1 Su .. l,ht OI1ll's saudstone _____________ USO
Tropic .hale:
1. Shale, dart drab to nearly blnck. tlUICOnll
tt'xture ___________ __ _______________________ rrl>O+
SecHan on. north. wan Of n,.ycc Canyoll, nort·n part
of .eo. 5, T. 37 S., R. lV., Gu"!i el cl C01mJV, Uwh
[MCf\KUrctl by Rrlymond C. MoOre]
Tel'ti tlr1 :
'V.sateh !orlDation-
1.t. BolldstoJle, brown to pink, cal-
careDUI; weathers In massive eliit's !lnd
fautru,t-ie erosion forms, very Irregu-
lar1)' bedded; rests on
allghtl,. uneven SUl'fflCC of underlying
CretnceoU8 :
StraIght O1urs sandstone-
IS. Sandstone, yellOW, coon;c and gritty, soft;
Interbedded wltb 8:lDd:r shole Ilnd
grades loto sbal,. sandstone; in places
weatbers lD .Iopes; el8ewhcre occurs In
slopes and 1eclgcs _______________ __ • __ _
12, SaDdatone. yellow, mar.tlve. medluID tine
grolDed j tonna vertical tedge _________ _
11 Shale" bl".1c, clo1ey to IJ8ndy i rather 80ft
. but In pillces forma vcrUenl cl!tr booeuth
Mnd.stOne; contain. fragments
or pt.nt. poorly presorvcd. ___________ _
10. Sa.nd!ltone, yellow and Ugbl erenm1, flnc
grawed, mnss1,'e ; forms' prtllDlnent
9. Shale, landy, nnd ,.eIlOWIIdI
form elope with Irregulnr d Icon uons
lodges _______________________________ _
StrulGbt Clilfs I8..Ddstof\ie--Coolinued.
8. yeUO\y. vcry massb,"e. lOme-
"'bat lI're:ulnly t;trnUfled: weatben In
lorl.'e blocu ODd more OJ' Jess IImootbl1
rounded Hurr"ce; • I'romlnent clift·
mokln, cU'hdoo______________________ V6
1. Shale, yellowish brown, .. Dd,.; ,I .. des tnto
yc.r1 !--Ott shalr forms I
slope_________________________________ 28
6. SOImlsOOne, sellow, ma.B8lve, medium to
nne .. rnlor.t1I. folrly bnrd i fOnDfoJ led:;-t,
Irreaularly bedded____________________ 32
ri. Show., hondy. dr ... b to yellow i forma slope!_
4. Sandstone, yellow, hlo41ye; Irre;:olul1
bf'ddcd alld with Irregular eontDct wltb
lIub,o.cent (ltyhllon, into It &'rodes_ 16-20
3, Conglomerate, MDd,.. brown., ferruginous j
oontllina mlny pwbletills Dluch 81tloch
In dIameter i rmrt .. stained vert bright
red __________________________________ 21--30
2. 80Ddstont", eream)' yi:lIoW', .,erl 11.)(1 and
poDrly eemcntctl i weo.thcr. rcadll, to
1001*) sand, mnwsl\"c__________________ 00
1. Ironltollc conl'Iomerate. browD, yerr bard,
• Ilromlucut lodCe____________________ 1-12
'toln.! Straight CUllll sondstone_____ 635+
Oorcred to creek botto"" teet more or leas.
DORe ot HCCUon undetermined but 100 feet wore or len
above Tropic: ..
Marino and brackish-water fossils ne found in many
port. of the Straight Cliffs sandstone, and according to
identifications by J ohl! ll. Reeside, i r., aU belong to
the fRuna of the upper (Niobur .. ) part of tbe
Colorado group.
/\. very mos.ive fine-grained S4ndstone about 250
feet. hove the base of the formatiOIl in the southeastern
port of tile Kniparowits PI.tellu contains large num-
bers of big, thick-shelled 11IOcera11l'1U tIIIwonalu« Meek
and Hayden, which colTesponds to I. inlloluttu
Sowerby of the Europoan Emscher and Coniaciall
nnd in the western interior region is strictly limited
to the Niohram hodzon.
A zone about 170 feet nbove tho Inccermll",-bening
ledge contains f.i,·ly abUlldunt specimens of Oltrea
lolen;.< .... , Ba:rbatia.mhT07tClIla (Meek), Modiola mm-
tilinigm-a .nd O.trea sp. IIndet., which also
inuicate Colorado age.
About 275 rcet Lelow the top of the formation on
Croton Branch ft mnrine fuuna containing Se'7"Ma
sp. undet., Af .'1l1b"4niporo sp. undet., Or/rea .ole-nit"",
Meek, M odiola 1,,,,dtilildge,YJ )leek, and T...,.."uella or
cJhe.".nitzia .p. was found in seVO'r" place.s. This as-
semblage is indicated by Rec",ide as belonging to tbe
On tho trAil to the top of the KAIparowits
at the head of Rock Creek, from .. bed in the .. ndstone
180 feet above the tOJl of the Tropic shale, NvcWo
cowradoe.n8 StAnton, 0811'ea prudcntia White,
Modiolo. sp. f, Card-itllm cu.·tum Meek and Hayden, and
Gyrode4 Ikpreuu.o Meek we.re collected, and from
about the middle of the Stralg,ht Cliffs at
the Coyote Holes trail TwrriteUa W'itt .. Stanton,
O,trea sp, undetermined, Cordiu.m poupercul;u.m. Meek,
PlicaJula "ydrotMca Wh.itel, and .MtUJtra arerollli4
Meek. lloth of these tots are rete ned by Reeside to
the uppermost , .
On the summit of the Kll,parow,ts Plateau, about 10
I miles from the south end and within 100 feet of the
(op of the Straight Cliffs SRndstone, pelecypod
menls and specimens of Corbula per>mdata Meek
and Hayelen were ga thered. This species occurs in
both the Colorado and 1II0ntana gI'oups and is
The distribution of m$rine fossils and coal beds
seems c1enrly to suggest the geneml position, probably
• varying one, of sen and land during t.he time of
deposition of the sandstone in this P.re.n.
where coal i. well developed no martne fOSSlls Ire
found in the sandstone, but elsewhere, especially to-
ward the eost and northeast, marine invertebrates
ClCCur at &everal horizons.
The term Wahweap sandstone designates a series
of sandy shale and massive sandstone that conform-
ably overlies the Strnight Cliffs sandstone and under-
lies the distinctive Kaiparowits formation. As a
strntigraphio div;,;io" the Wahweap is ch .. racterized
by its topographic expression, tho absence, so f .. r u
observed, of coRI beds, and the scarcity of fossils.
The lower and middle ports of the Wahweftp for-
mation consist of alternating groups of sona.y shal.
and sandstone. Toward the tl>pthe amount of Band-
stone and the thickness of sa.ndstone beds increase, .. ad
the upper third consists almost entirely of sandstone.
I In places the topmost bed forl1U! a massive unbrokea
ledge 100 to 200 reet thick. This A,,·.ngement of rela-
, tively weak lnd thin beds underlying resistant thick
beds has permitted. recession of cliffs on .. large &e&le;
the huge clifT. developod in the Wahwenp stand sef-
eral miles back of those in the Straight Cliffs fonna-
lion, Where the beds are steeply inclined, lUi along
the East K'ibab monocline, the relatively weak beds
in the lower Wohweap mark the position of a longi-
tudinal \"QUey between two hogback ridges.
the south margin of the Kaiparowits Plntel-U lnd In
the CIJIyons that dissect its surface tbe massive upper
sandstenes form almost vertical cliffs; the capping
ledge in particular is an ullEcalable cliff. The lo,"r
sandstones make weak cliffs and benches separated
by slopes formed of sandy shale.
..... STRAIGHT CUrt--S SAI"Hl.'nONE ON ESCAL."-NTf: RIVER WEST 01-' I\$CAl .... :'IiTE
B. Tl\OPIC SHALE BY Sl'lUIGHT CUffS S ..... ;· ....OSTUi'iE. WAl-nn:AI' cnF.EK
Lithologically the sandst.one and shale of the Wah.
ap forlDotion resemble those of the underlying
Cliffs formation. In .color the sandstone is
fiIb' creamy yel"ow or brownish buff ; the shale is
",JW1 to greerush brown. In general the bedding,
that of the large units, is raLher even, but
... , of tbe sandstone are notably lenticular,
.. the gradation from massive ledges to thin·bedded
.,dIIooe and on to very sandy shale is highly irreg.
alIr. (See pI. 14, 0.) Some of the sandstone is
In texture most of tho materials are
..mum to fine grained, but in some places neal' the
bat of the iO"mation lenses of conglomera!ie snnd·
..... ere obser\'ed, some of which contain fragments
" .ertebratell.
)lelSUrements of the thickness of the W.hweap
.. dttooe at more thun n score of places along the
easrpmeot from the East Knibab monocline to Last
(ltanee Creek show an a vernge thickness of about
1,960 feet. In the Pal"ia Valley nnd also north of
Henrieville, where the \Vnhweap sandstone is exposed
ia a DlODoclinal fold, the thickness seems to be con·
liderahly less.
The following section shows the gene,·nt charneter
.: the Wahweap formation:
..,,.. If WaA.-rcca.p .a1ttUlone a.I e,carptM111 loK!luce,I of
l.at Cknoe aMI/on, ide. 7, T. ,.Q 8., R. 4' E., Kalle Co."tll.
", ..
().(ea.ured by Raymond C. Moore]
WIhw'"ll tDudstone: .
11. S;u&tooo, light ycllowl8h brown, very maw l"e,
tomllng sheer ella; cap. pllltenu ______ .:. __
18. Shole. bro\vn, Sllndy ____ • __ .. ______ ___________ _
'Vobweap l!:AodstOlle--Coutlnued.
2, Snodlitone No, 14 ________ _____________ ___ _
I . SL.le like No.7 with 5-1 teet at Iblo bord Mnd·
.taue In middle parI; 10 . Iobby
sandstone nenr bnH' • fish wal! collet.' tc<L
Straight CJlm. sllDd!ltone.
Gcnel'alk"ccl "eollon (JI th-e U'alnceap .sQlld"toPle: OJI. upper
Creek; 2'. ott S., R. 1 E., Ka.,c OOUlltV, Uta1&.
by nnrwood C. Moore)
Wahweop sandstone:
G. Sand!4toDe brown to yellowh.h. Dum1 thin
nnl l lI.wssh'e beds wUh amull amounts of
shale; 81011('8 are In In rge p.nrt (ormed
at soft snndstone rllther tllo.n shale ; series
Is cupped by a mas!\ive, reslstnnt sandstone
.bout 60 feet thick, which ",enthers In
.... t
"crtlcnl \\'::1118 _____________________ 800--400
.. Sbllte, brown In 10\\"er port, with SOluO a:rny
In mlddlo and uppel' lxu'fli, sDDdy nnd cross·
bedded; contains many lenses of SQnd·
stone thot occur Terl' Irreclllo.rty ________ SOO-SOO
3. Sand8tone., brown, slmilnr t.o otber berls In
tbe HectiOD i occurs In two beds with sbQ,le
bet"'eeu ______________________________ __ _
2. Shale. GTn),isb brown.. ______ ______________ _
1. SD.udstone, brown to gl'RY, fine grulned j
exposed _________________ _______________ _
In sec. 83, T. 89 S., R. S E., a fragment of a croco·
dile or turtle bone not certoinly determinnble wos
found about 600 feet below the top of the Wohweap
sandstone. No fossil invertebra.tes were collected. In
stratigraphic positio,! the formation probably repre-
sents uppermost Mancos.
11. SandaleDe, butt, med1um to ·fAlt°I, enn
baddinl with thin I!baly 11orUngs; torms
broken clltr, procUeall)' continuous with that
01 the c:oppl.ug __________________ _
It II/fht bro'i\'n, mediuJQ to mossive bed-
dine. with 81lerruttlug thin sboly snndsto.e
dlmlOQ8; Carma ateep aJope witb weak e,UJfs_
II. SIlQ,dstone, brown. sott, silOty: fOrIDS slope ____ _
In the northern part of the Paria Valley, along the
00 Enst l{aibab monocl-ine north of the "Gut," on the
cast slope of the Paunsftugunt Plateau, nnd in the val·
130 ley of the ERSt Fork of the Be\'ier River and along
GO some of its·tributories 011 the wp of the plateau the
It. SilQ{L'itone, yellowish brown, massive; lorms
clIU ___ •• ___ • __ ._ •••• _. ______ • ___ •• ___ ••••• _
U. Sandstone, brown, soft, with Irrecu1ar thin
herder lJads; weathers in slope _____________ _
It. Sindstone like No. 14 _________________________ •
11. Sandstone and SODdy sbaJe; resemble No. 16_
lQ. San<L"Ctone, light burr, mediuln bedded j torms
weak cUll' _____ • __ •• _ .. _ ••• • ___ . ___ • ___ . _._
9. Sandstone ODd sbn1e, mostly cO\·ered _______ _
8. Solnd.wae like No. 14-_. ______ • __ •• _· ______ _
T, 8hil.te. Kreeni,sU 'li'rown, very sond,.,.. groding to
10ft lI1adstone and COlltRfuing th in hnrd
lIl J)ClatoDe IItreakl j COI'ms rslope _______ _____ _
II. SandltoDe like No. ·14-____ •••• _" __ . __ ••• _· __ _
So Shu .. like No. 7 • •• ___ . __ ._. __ . _ • • ·_· · · · · __
.. SaDdstone llk.e No. 14 ________ ____ ______ __ __ _ _
I. Sbale like 'No. :1 u1th t1 few more vromlnent
anndatone beds ' forming weok clitrs __ _____ _ _
Cretaceous sandstones include the Straight Cliffs lind
20 Wahweap formations. Southcast of Table.Cliff a ve,'y
complete section of the two sandstones is exposed.
They were nof separated in mapping, but plane·table
measurements Bnd of dips and trigonomet-
ric computation indicate a. combined thickness of
1,700 feet. Similarly, .. oomplete but unstudied section
of the sandstoJies lies south of Widtsoe, but f.rther
west pre-Tertiary erosion has removed the upper part
of tho Cretaceous so that the Eocene now rests on
14l different parts of the Wahweap and Straight Cliffs
so sandstones. In Bryce Canyon only It little over 000
12;; feet of the sandstone remnins bet,,'een the top of the
GO " Tropic shale and the base of the Tertia,·y. Where
185 erosion has so largely reduced the originnl thickness
of these sandy parts of the Cretaceous, the :-emalning
rocks presumably beloog chiefly to the Straight Chffs
sandstone, but no attempt .... as made to distinguish Ihe
formations, whi t b are so clearly differentiated 00 ,tbe
KaiplIrowits PI.teau, Howe"er, most of the study of
the Cretaceous bed. in the northern Puia Valley was
ulldertaken before the mapping of the rocks on the
Kaiparowits Plateau, and it is probable t,h.t mOl'e
dchiled field work would result in a separation of the
tWI) formations in th.is l'egion.
On tho Escalante-Widtsoe road in sandstone that
corr ... ponds to one of tl:e two formations above the
Tropic shale occurs. t.hick bed of well-rounded peb-
LIes of qunrtzite and chert tbat range in di.meter from
half nn inch 10 5 inches aod are of many colors.
As.'iOciated with the conglomerates 8re thin, short
gruvel le.nses, shale bull., .fld sandstones on the sur-
face of which occur impre •• jons of I.wigs and of a
log ncady 3 feet in di'llnctcr. The signiJitKnce of
these ollservatior.s .... ith relation to studies farther
south has not been determined,
)Iost published soctions of Cretuceous st ... ta in
r.orthel'll New nOl,thern Ariwnn, and southern
Utah include representatives of the Dakota (i),
MancOO!, ond Mesaverde formutions of southw .. -teI'D
Colorodo, Whel'ever present, the lIIesavcl'do or in
romo thick beds of sandstone in the l\fancos
give risc 10 prominent clilTs ond form the surfaces of
plale1lul tha't are Hanked by slopes of Mancos shale
und rise high above surrounding pliltfortnll of Jurassic
sandston., At most places tho latest Montana Creto-
('llOUS strata hav. beeo swept away by erosion or re-
main os il1COnspicuous hills .nd ridges. Along the
heudwaters of the Pllria Hiver, Wahweap C1'eeli:, and
the west hranch of Collett Creek beds appear that are
younger th311 the Wahwcap s.ndstone, At Koiparo-
Peak and TobIe CUft' these beds OCtUpy the posi-
tlO11 between Wahwen!> snndston. and the massive
W •• oteh lo,mation, About 2,000 feet of the beds
lin been presefl'cd where they ore protectod fr OlD
Cr<>""Oll Ileal' the 'fable Cliff Plntean, For these beds
which cOllst.itllte lhe topmost Cretac"<>us of
ern the Kaiparowits formotion is proposed.
. As viewed III the field, the Kaiparowits formation
IS strongly contrasted wit h adjoining formations,
Tho,Wahweap sandstone below is buff nnd resistant to
eroSion, and ,the outcropping edges of its constituent
form cl1ft's that are difficult of ascent. The Ter-
t'lnr)" nbove nre a brilliant pink
like" form practically unscalable clift's, The
Kalparowl!i<, which lies between, presents tones 80
durk that they appellr in some lights almost black
Ilnd except for inlXlnspicuous shelf-like benches
forms 0 scries of inclined sudaces that unite on inter_
nlley spaces t o form a gener:1l slope fwm tile I<lp
to the bottom of the formation, The rock is 10 fri-
.. blo thllt the water from the infrequent storms hIS
cut a tongle of gullies aud canyons, r emarkable for
their number and for the sleepuess of their aida,
In dry weather the gentl .. ' slopes "lid the interhllgled
ridS"s may be traversed by carefully selected rOt:teo,
but during showers the whole surface seems to roove
downward, nnd travel with horses is dangerous.
At. distance the Kaiparowit s "ppeurs to cons;"t of
shale beds witD here and there (hin lenses of &and-
stone, but on closer exami nat.ion the predominllnt rock
proves to be fine-grained drab arkose sandstone, com.
posed of quartz, orthoclase, albite, and biotite cemenl-
ed by lime, of I.he feldspar grains are kaolin-
ized lind in contrast with the ubundunt biotite give
the rock tho appetlrance of a mixture of coaf1le pepper'
.. nd suIt. Most of the individm,1 beds al'. less than
5 feet thick die out within n few hundred feel
The few that were trllC<Jd for a greater distance diller
in thickness and in the .arrangement of the pre"alent
cross-bedding, Within and between tho sandstone
beds lie thin, flat lenses and stub-ended len..-es of
slightly more firmly cemented snnd grains, whieh are
commonly of lighter color, some of them buft' or
In addition (0 the sandstone, the Kaiparowits for,
mation contains lenses, pancllkes, flattened balls, and
beds, some traceable for as much as 100 feet,
of brown, gray-green, aud whit.e sandy limestone.
Some thin lenses are composed of nearly pure lime-
atone-hardened calcareous silt sprinkled with sand
loove and below, The formation includes also len ...
, of limestone conglomerate composed of concretionary
balls utd irregular chunks of limestone, mingled with
snnd, From these lenses fossil sbells and fragmenl.i
of' bone were obtained at several horizons. At Tlble
Cliff the topmost .trata of the Kaiparowits formation
are less friable than those benetlth; they ioclude beds
of coors. brown sandstone, lenses of sand firmly ce'
mented by iron, and lenses of conglomerate composed
of pellets of hardened limy mud and chips of arena,
eeous shole.
upper tributaries of Wah\Veap Creek the
formlltioo is widely expoSed to'view and
constitutes rough btldlalld slopes that are intricately
cut by gullies aod Bhallow canyons, At the e4St end
the narrow p.,os through the East Kaibab mono-
cline, locally known liS the" Gut" the followin" sec-
' I , ..
Ion 0 t h., IOTer pnrt of the formation was measur.d:
lin of lower lJart of lioipu
owit.'1 /ormatioll in tlpper
ltd lVaJl.tCclZ.l' Valli 'll
ria. of trca, N. 10· E, ; dip. 2' E. l\f(-usutP.ll by R crwrt E.
I Gt'l'gory J

formntion- Fl!t!t
17. Sandstoue. gellel'lll color drub or dork
brown but uuweuthercd flU\'!::> .)rc '! rrcgll A
July sl}cck,lcd duri< nllll Ught,
D m!:dure of pepPN' and salt; IlUUlt?rous
len.ses of ot uueven oegree:f ot
fineT\ess, oe burdened mud, und ot sand
nnd limestone lnterrupt the reguJarlty
ot: beddlug'; some beds conloiu cnvitles
trom which gruY-f,p'celi mud lump...; huyc
been weathered ; Sfalns are compoSed
o( qUUl'lz. Ol'tbocio!!c, c.lblte, IlUd blotHe
ond ure held together weakly by colclte
Gnd g)'psum cemenL___________________ SO
18. Con,;loDlcfate composecl of clay lump:;, bortl
calcareous bullets, piece:; ot lime-
stone and s mull bUs ot petrified wood In
n Stlodstt)ne mattls; rontulus impres.sions
of plants nnd broken fo::;sll 2
10:. Somlstooc, brown, cnlcllrt.'OuS'. massi-re;
semhl es the limy mud walls ot preseut
vulleys; bed nbout 300 feet_____ I;';
14. &Dd.tone, like No. 17______________ _____ 20
13. Sandstone, like No. 16___________________ __ 12
12. Llmestonc, brown, lIm'd, sondy____________ 2
11. So.ntlstone. br own, drab, und 1.JUIY, -rery UD-
evenly bedded, beterogeneous composition;
two secLions l.Ja If a mlle npart s-llow dlt·
te.rent {UTungCttn!llt oC beds: entire e:s:po-
SUl'C aPllears as sllole slopes tbat nre
f..elllll'O ted by cutts 6 t o 10 feet
hIgh. but the II shnle" thicken. and I.hlM
Rncl in plates oppcnnJ t o sweep cllJlloooll1
across horlzoutal t-l:1ndstoDc beds; essen·
tlally the outcrop Is iormcd by a series ot
Sft.nll"wne bl'1lS, which couti.Due for a lew
hunlIl'cd fcet to a few wllcs and D..re ittlel'-
ruptecl and HlterS})llt.'cd "'ltll leusel or lJutT.
SpOtted, QDd brown snodHtooe, ISOme tri-
able, IODl6 resi stttllt ; Inclucles leDfes ot
hlr..lOY dny. ot snnlly llmetltone. and ot
. coni:h:nuerutc (.·t:nnpose<.! or Ume 'boll.!!; DO
continuous or.;illot'eol1s bed&- we-re teen;
Iroo-cemeoted thAt resemble los-
pnocnk('$, ond lumos occur
In D)QlI, positions, olso plant Impl"£NlolDO,
uusbed al'lells, and IrRa-menta ot boue ___ _
10. buff ond areuaceoml
ood etllcltreous, nod Dlud f'oote, tn
lor 1 tu S feet tbiCk. frl/lble and
slia): tty concretiona l'T ________ - ----------
9. Sandstone, brown i OOD8e, cI'OIS-bedded i re-
s18tant, with D few lenses ot blotJle IOnd·
atone __________________ _ p __ ------------
8. "Sbale." compaett«J mud, and BODd 10
poorly deftned bed. 4 to 8 feet thlek tbot
alternnte with l>ed's ot triable broWll Mud-
stone 1 to 6 t""t thick; CODtalnS a thin
leD' of •• rthy llllDlte __________________ _
7. Snndstone, Hke No. 9 ____________________ _
e. .. Shole:' like No. 8 ______________________ _
Kaiporowlts t ormo.t1\)O-CoutlllIlCd. l,'ect
5. Suutbitoue, like No. S_________________ ____ 6
4. Snod$t\)ue. Irregulnrly bcdlllxl ; contuins
of thinly laDliuutcd gl'uy mull witb
patches or 1mpure lignite, like
No. 11_________________________________ 3;:;
3. SOlldsto •• , brown, rewl.lnut to "'''athorlng;
contnina lenses of ('onG"loDlcrIlte
of bardened mud forms promiucnt
bcucb _______ ____ ______ ._______ __________ (j
2. Sund8tone, like No. lL___________________ 4t)
1. Shale, like No. 8_________________________ 16
Sandstone, bUIT, cross-bed<j( .. '(). \..vn-
silIetcLl tOJ) of Wlthweap {orm.UOll.
The equivalent of the Kaiparowits formation be-
neath Table Clil! was described by Howell" as 1,200
to 1,500 feet of " gray lreullceous (anLi Ill'gillaceous)
shales contnitling on dOI1g1\tod form of Physa, Limea,
nnd two species of Yi'oiparus, a single specimen of
a small oyst.er, lInd some fl'agnlents of large bones."
He assigned th .. e beds to the Tertiary but reco!,rnizcLi
the dimculty of correlating them with olher Tertiary
deposits in Utah.
Fossils collected neal' Canaan Peak were studied by
Reesido, who submits the following report:
Uulo sp., Interuul cast of muclJ eloIlgllte<l sl:ecies like
U. dUl1uC Meek nod Hnydeu.
Uoio il1tcrl1ul cast ot short trluJlGulur torm like
U. brilchyol)lljthus WlJ.1tc.
Unlo nl1. U. neolttc-xi<:anus Stnnton.
Phyt:Kl sp., eRst at IUl'ge like P. reesillci Stanton.
Vh'11Ntrus P(USlUitcbeDJU Wbite.
Vil'ilJllru.s .p., CBst ot iurge rounded torm like Y. leldyI
llHk and
ytvipurul or Cilmpelowa sp., smull Jutcl'Onl costs,
Goulobaela lubtortuO$l Meek nl1d Hayden.
Goolob .. lo ap.
i'bis tauDa teem. to me to be [Jcftrest the tnuno of the
fruiUoud fOnouUOD at New Mexico; It Is probalily Dot older
thna middle •• ontaoa .
At • borlzou about 100 teet ubove the busc or the Kai-
luarow'tI tornJutloo, In ttle northeastern pnrt ot sec. 21, T.
i 3S S., R. 1 E. (unGuneyed):
GoulobuL'!7 .lulJtorluoSQ lCet!k aud Huyden.
YlviporDI courodl )(eck nDd. Ho.)·dcn'
Bullous lobclonglltulJ Meek ':loti IIa.ytlen?
('<tImpe-lomil Ip.
Vh-Ipar .. ! .p.
Sur.ests Jud1th Rl-rer taunu or perltups FnllUllnd; tresll -
.... ter babltat.
In tb. lower 'port of the Kolpnr(lwits formation 111 the
CODtral part of see. 1T. T. SO 8., R. 2 E. (ulls ur,'cyed):
Unto sp., apparent.., 8 smooth oval species sugges ting
11. donee Meek ancf Bayden.
Uolo sp.. npparently a trlnngular spccles slIg-
g .. tlng U. brnchYOf'lstJ\u. White.
II' Bowell. F.. J; . • U. 8. Oeoc'. Ind Gcol. Sllfvt'fli W. I<JOtb )1'er. Rl.'l't.,
yol. 8, p. 211. 18TlS_
Are uDdeterraltwble. These maJ' be u :.te 1D Ige II!
the Fruitland ( o rJRAtioD or tbe SliD luan Basin, wbleb 11 upper
Montini, nnd arlt probably not older thlD middle Koatana.
Fragmentary vertebrate material examined by Prof.
H. S. Loll include. the following forms:
Part ot 0 larUe ahell. Bmen. ap. Bunge: lu(lir;.b River
to vlnta.
Vertebra or eerato[J8lQD dlnMllu.r, re. Trloeratops 6p.
Larce TrachodoD-like dinosaur. Dlstfll end ot left
humerua oud .rtJculor end ot !Scapula.
OfiltoJ ena oC ri,ht tibra about two·thlrds the slu ot
'IrachodoD ADD«tena.
Ungual, proboblr T.aellOlloll.
Two or three uuldeDtUJuble bODe trogments.
DloOHftOfS probnbl, In aGe; turtle Dot debarred.
In addition to the sections describing the character
of different subdivisions of the Cretaceous which have
been presented above, measurements of two or more
of the Cretaceous di. i..ions ,,'ere mllde Ilt .. number
of placeR. For convenience, some of these combined
sections, whioh afford basis fol' eomp.uison of the
Cretaceous of the Kaiparowits Plateau with forma-
tions of that Ilge in surrounding regions, "1'e presented
here. A section measured by Moore at the Bitter
Creek divide, between the Circle Cliffs the Henry
Mountains, has boon published.'"
Seotlm .. nero" , Wflicrt)O(Jkct Fold at D1trr fraU, 7 mile. nort1l
01 the 1nlltll" o( Mr,lcII 7'to/,1 Creek, M.d Hde of Circle
Cllffl, a.rpeid Co.,,/V,
[¥clulurtd by Daymood C. )foore)
CrotaceoUR :
Blue Gate Mndstooe membor-
17. Stmdstoce. rcllo\\'lsb brown. massive i
(01'018 prominent escnrpmeut tbat
terminates In vertiCfll ____ _
H Bille Gnte Bhnle" or
16. Sbolc, blulsb drub, SQody, very unf.
(orm texture nnd color. sott,
wcothc11nl: In _________ _
Tl1l1unk m@D.lber-
15. SnndH10De, white, Cfllcnreous, eros&-
bedded. .radlo, to 1ellow ftaCIll'
sandstone, &ott aud ruRMh'e below;
tl: ln IIgnlto b<d 23 Ceet .bove 00"'_
f'Tubunk shnle" of Gilhert-
H. Sbnle, durk bluish to green.l8b drab.
8H.ody: contAins 8C'}enlte crystals i
two thin sandstones. 8 inches to 1
root thick. dnrk brown, bord.,
ISY, sepe.rnted by IS feet of shnle,
occur 300 feet below tOl); near Dltd-
die flOft OCchl'8 thin soft sandstone
tbat contains hard dark-brown COD-
cretlons i 0. t bftse lle!t 6 to 8 feoet
of sort bro,,-n calcareous 8tl.odstooc
with abnndaut morine iuV<.'rb .....
bratcs ______________ ____________ _ _
Dotohl (1) .. ndstone-
lS, SOUt]a:tone, U;:bt CretlJll.,J' ye1lo\v, soft,
\'(' ---________________________ w __
• L(ln, weU, C. R., nnd op. cit .. pp. 21-22.
Cret..,.., .. (1) :
lIocrtson forDlHtlon-
12. Sbale, ligbt bl uIsh, witb thin blinds ot red,
sandy, soft ____ ______________________ _
11. Sandstone, &'haJe. and congiom-
erate-- Feet
Sandstone, b l' 0 W U;
conglomeraUc ______________ 5-7
Shole, blu.lsh drab nnd red,
.andy______________________ 20
Sacdstonc, -reddish browD to
light greonLsh, coarse "rained,
mnssl'-e_______ _____________ ts
Sbale. yellowisb brown. aandy_ 15
Conglome-I .. Ind eo;lrse pit,
reddiJ;h aDd light gr ... lob
gray. DlOSIiii!ve, bnr4, very
Irregularl,. bedded i for m I
promInent hoglJlck___ _ _____ 80
So!]. Rafael group-
SummervU!e ftnd {ormoUona-
10. SruldstoDe, red. ,thin beddoo. OOtt,
portly and wblte sed.
stone. .rnding downward to. taD-
brown, massh'e, ao!t, ctou-bedded.
weatherlll.l readily. perU, con·
cealed __ . _______________________ _
Cumel fonna tlOD-
9. Shole, llght red ond greeD Ish, ImIsl!-
eroU3 i contains SOCle beds ot hard
\vhite SDDd:stone and C'YptiUln _____ _
8. Sbole, marOOD nod light IreenJsh.
san<lJ', capped b1 bard, de.se llU-
reaDS IlmestOnC', massl\'e to Duggy_
Ju .... 81.(1) :
Glen CanyoD C.roup-
Navajo IIbdstone-
7. Sandstone., light yello",' to White,
medimu grained. very massive,
bighly cross-bedded; tbe bedding
etched In reUef by weatberlng i
crops out 1::1 higb ridge or ,t reet " i
nenr top 1s thin cotree-colored SIlnd·
stone ___________________________ _
Todllto (?) !ormoUoc-
6. Sandstone. bl'le.k-red; contalos .. lew
thIn wblte aud Ilgbt-blue 101ero and
lelll!es, tbln bedded, cross-bedded,
bn:-d a.nd soft i forms valley between
Navajo and Wingate escol'pments
OCCll'))i ed by headwuters or Mules
Twist Oreelc _________ _______ ____ _
WIngRte sondstone-
Trlo .. lc:
IS. SQndstone, red. massive. rother floe
grained, hard, promlnentl, jointed;
CrOll! out as single massive ledge
that forms sbeer eli a i cross-
bedde<l __________________________ _
Chinle (ormatioo_
{. Rnd calcareous sbale, UJ;ht
brue, mottled wltb . ln1"euder, In nIr
per port; 8O.ody shale nod SAndstone
In lower lHl:ft. darker colored,
bro\\.n, purple, nnd blue _________ _

.... rUJDP Feet
8. li ght blui sb; grades to
solJdy s hale; does not
form prominent escarrmenL______ 4.0
"opl tormntion-
2. Sondstone a nd sondy !:i hll ie, chocolnte-
brown nnd light yellow, thin bed-
ded; in POl't esUmnted__ 500
1. Llmelttone, nrennceous, yell ow\ dolo-
mi tic. flne grained, dense: bottom
ot exposure - - ____________________ 70+
__ •• CoUeU Cmr!J()Jt, be!Jfnn(1I g witil. lorc;ellt beds ne!lT
.,." of can.you (dip 4° S. ) a.nd €:.Dtcmding 5 -miCe.! aouth
,., .... '1· S.)
(Aleasuted br flerbcrt E. Gregory)

Itrallht OUtts sandstone-
11. SaiJdstone in fiue beds, Dot studied 111
detail, thicknesses cstt.wated-
Ft. Jo't. 10,
SAndstone in beds 2 to a feet
thick, lenttcular: contains
tron concretions; l\'eo.thera
red ________________________ 30
Sondstone. mas I' ... C,
.lIghtly rross-bedded; con-
t ains lenses ot 60
Sandstone, thin bedded, lrregu-
haly bedded, Dnd nrenllceous
shole, bntt _________________ 60
Sandstone, butt, mnsslve______ 40
thin bedded, Dud
arenaceous __ _________ 40
10. Sandstone, butt, massive ; he quartz
cra(nl cemented by (roo aDd Om. and
lOme I'ypsuro; include! a lew lenses
ot thln·bedded /lne Sllndstone, ot con-
clomerllte '9t' lth pebbles 89 mUCh Is 1
Ineh 10 diameter, and or oren8ce<1US
abale, wi th lllnnt Impressions and
eBBonlzet1 frngments ______ -.-_______ 83
211. Cool Dnd sbale- n. In.
Sbole. drab, 9rgllloceou8;
Burface strewn with
sllDd Iru1n.8_____ 10
Cool. eartby __ __________ 8
Sbalo___________ ___ ____ __ 1
Sondstone, bulf, lInbrl-
.oted, lentlcnlor________ 2
Shale, arenaceOu8_________ 4
Cool; coDtala. ,bole pOrt-
illg"- _____ ____ ____ ___ ,, _ 2 1
Shale, dn,b ______________ 4
Coni, I;ood qaaJlty________ 2 ,
Shale, drab, contaI1l8 hn·
pl' essions of ptnnt9______ 2
Sandstone, buff; coDtoins
leaves, stems, and sbelLL 1
Sbale, dl'\\b______________ 8
<:<>01, Il'ood Quol1ty________ 1 1
Oretaceouo-<Jontlnued .
StnlS'ht Olim. •• ndstone--Contlnued.
29. Colll and I.bale-Contillued. i't, In. Ft, In,
Sbole, drab, and thl,n sand-
stone ____________________ 3
<:<>.1_______________________ G
Sbnle, nrenaceoui, 8 n d
enrthy cool i IUOllY fosslls __ S
Shale. drab. argIUaceous____ 10
Coal, good Q.uDlily __________ 2
Shale, drnb, argiIJleeouiI ____ 5
Coal, Good qunlity ___ _______ :; 1
Sha.le, drilb _______ ... ________ 2 2
00111, ,ood Q.uaUty __________ 4 2
Shale, drab________________ 6
Coal, lood qunlitf. with 8
lew thin shale portlag6 ___ 7
28, Sno.dstone, hull', mossive, cross-bedded' :
nesr top are strinl:'lt disconnected lemrel,
76 5
and ChUDh ot black "bale ananaed In
CDIlrlcioul'l mooner____________________ 7G
27. Sandstone, buff, In beds 1 to S
thick __________ ______________________ 1G 8
26. Sbale, ,ray-block i cODsists of bardened
.oody mod, plant tragwento, and eartby
COIlL _________ ,________________ _______ S 0
:/!S. SftndBtone, butt, thlu bedded : C'QutainlJ n
leW' t'ery lensci of blue--blnek
abole: londstoae t. crou-bedd'ed (lnd
sha ... ripple IIUIrka and tnCD.. _______ 17 7
14_ SalXletooe, bofl', In ceuernl mABIIlve, essen-
tially one bed, but Include. lenses ot
thin-bedded .sandstone IDd • few of
drab shale, aud IG feet from Ute bottom
strings of qUlllt.1te pebblC'S bait aD tnch
or less 10 diameter extend tor severnl
bundred. teet, also .. few )eDSe8 ot
eoo.1"8el' grllvell tblclEne. tSUmo.ted____ 80
23. Sandstone, butr, In bed. 2 to f toet thick,
.. para ted hI heda a fe ... It",,,,", tblck;
C(lntaina few )enaes of butt arenAceous
aut! ,001cal"eoUI sbi,le Qod two of blue
arctUaeeoas ahale, mauy Cracrucutary
plant ond shell t0813118________________ 22
22. Shale, blu.·bloci<, arglll.ceoWl aad
erous: makes a ,lens tho t extends for
about bolt D mile; (orlll&' Impervlou8
bed above wh1<;b water emerrel_______ 13
21. Sandstooe, Cl"I.r·butr, IDlaa:ITe, I Ughtl,
crOlla-bedded, line quartl itolb8, cal-
coreoua remcut: Includell a few IcnlCl
of tl!1.D·bedded: .n(fstone nod atreab
or cl11 shnle_______________________ G2
20. Sandstone, gro,. in IrreplQr bc(18 8
Inebes to 2 teet tblclL______________ B 6
19. S.1ndstoDe, bu1t-grIlY, nl l8.IVC' ________ '" 10
18. bull', sandy, lenticular j Ineludes
nbundftDt lmpresslons and ftbera ot
plants aDd tbree thin lenlell of im-
pore COIII__________________________ 9 f
17. Sandstone, brown, ImbricDted, arm),. ce-
mented bI Iroo and lime, .tronGly
croSl-bedded i at bleb IDgies reets on
locally eroded IUd.cu ot No. 16____ 10 7
Stro.lg'ht CliJld i!ftDW,100e----C0otJDueti
16. Sandstone, gray-bua, medluJIl ,reined,
some titreoll:. ot ane ,ra.'t"el. lDo8lli1'e,
croaa-bcdde4 except to.. coneNtloDIrY
nodules ot Iron ood of Ume ________ _
FL to.
19 10
'£otal Straight Cliffs und.tone ___ .. 721 8
'.fropic shnh.'--
II), Shale (lnd slUld8tooe; at baM .tate-col-
ored !jbule that corrieN Iral sand-
!:Itono lenses; In the mllJdlo l eD&'B ot
Bnndl!ltonc and ot sbale,about equal
nmouuhi i at. t he top .sond.f!toDC bC1ls
2 to 4. t(.'Ct th Ick, I ocludJ D: some
chuuh lind .trlngers or buIY argUla-
ceous ., bole i III beds dlftl'r widely In
thlcknC!!lS IDd composItion wltlll n
.hurt d l.oitnncCH ____________________ _
14, Shale, blue-blnck, blne-It'IIY, or slatc-col-
or\!d, except tor two red )ron·atnloed
beds neRr tlle top Dud two IIght·gray
thin c8!eorcoUlot beds Dear the bOBe i
moatly thin beddt'd. unHQrml)' nrbl1-
lo(.'Cous, extept tor three thin bede ot
IlDC clean-wAsbed Q.uartz: aondstone
ODd tbe colcoreooN bea, "'b:eb mn;e
trom OlnU)8t pure UmeJltone to eal-
careous Clay IbnJo; IJme Itl probobly
preeeot tJl roughout; e\'en densest
blue-b!ock speclmcus witll.
h)'drocfJlorlc sel(l : ",' paunl abundant,
e-spcclnlly In the Upfter 11. :t. wbere It
UPl)Cllnl 1t8 Cl'Yfltnls ot a.elenite, ILS
cootlng on toUation surtaces ond
Joint crockv, oml a.
il'l1llnH; many (OliutioD RUl-tnces ore
IUIll)1Y, Dud Brunll concretlounry
of lime 81"0 ll're,;:ulo.rly dls-
trlbutro; wbere Protl'Cted by sand-
stone cope forms (Juk cllirlJ, else-
where bndhlnd Si(IPCSI, coated with
SpaD!:,. ,ypslferous 01 mnrl" i lUell&
ured 320 teet, C$timRted On nddi.
tiool11 220 feet _______ .. ____________ _
18. Sunllslono, butr, thIn-bedded, trlnble;
qlU11'l:c b'l'DlnS, mostly angulnr, ce-
mented by gypsUDl, n.ud Irou ;
lit tbe tOl) n browu lenUcular cup ot
conrse sulldstonc thnt includes chert
pebbl .............................. .
12. Snndstone, buff, ahnl,y, trioble, b14bly
COh. ... reoU5; Illciu(lcs 2 teet o.f coquina
eMc-uUnU, composed of fragments of
O, trca., EzogVrfl.-, and UrtfPMetr ____ _
18 10
Total Tropic sIl.I •••••••••••••••
n. Shftlc. bulf·Croy. or tbln-bedlled .. "d.
8t00e8 __________
__________________ _
Dakota (!) 8ft.d.lou. :
10. Sandstone, butt. ulnu), angulor qUllrb
,",Ina; at the top porUy carboul7.ed
IJI,oot froglDents form a In1er 1 toot
Ihlck • ••••••••••••• • __ • ••••••••••••
9, Shole, gruy-blnek, \10C\' /ltl. lenHculnr __ _
G99 10
8 4
6 9
Dakota (?) gudstouc---Cuut!uuecl, Ft. I,
8. eoat, earthy, uppel' 8 incbes ot lCOd
QunUty --- - ----------- ------ --- ---_ 2 I
7. Shale oc shalS gray. lecticu-
Inr_________________________________ 8
8, Sandstone nnd conglomerate, grny-yel-
low, cross-bedded, in lenses tbnt llirrer
widely Ln thIc: knes:3' , extent, acd tex-
ture ,j pebbles in conglomerate ehiefly
quartzltc, chcrt, and h[l!'dl'!ned green
ell,..; mOSt. IJet..bles llDSUIIll' and bo\'e
smoothly worn surfaces ; nverage long
dllmeter of pet..blcs about 1 inch;
abollt 10 pel' l'ent " Inches., nod
0; Cew G G
Crel.oceous( 1) :
lIonison t ormntl o[}-
5, Sbol e, purplish, unevenly bcd(! eu; lo-
ciu<ietf three lectIculur beds , cuell
abDul: 2 reet thiCK, of .. ery l'eslstnnt
ITIt'm JilDi1litone; fcl1ution surfaces
Inmpl, sun drled __________________ _
4. Sondstone, &r.'-J'ello,,·, cross-bedded;
contains Q few lcD€c! of conc1omcrnte
lind ICflttcred. pebble. ; much Uke
6 _____________________________ _
8. SbaJe, gray-£,reen IlI,ut red, Qrgllloceoua:
and ___ ________________ _
2. Soft(htooc (00 per ccut)r coorsc, len-
t:ieulnr, crOl's-bedded, a nd conglomer-
ate (40 J)er cent) composed of oDJ:U·
lor Iud S Incbes
or IHlm dlimeter ; IlcbbJesa occur also
lu .trlnes nDd 89 tudt\"iduoll In tbe
88.Dd8tooc; cooto'ins trOD concretions;
pebbles are of (t8lt, white, yello,.,
brO\l'R, and red Quartll. SOlDe a ttrae-
til-ciT trQDsluccnt ; graJ. red, mottled.
Dud bonded' Qunrtl.lte ; CTay Itlld black
cbert; anndstooe; creeD complct ctal
trap:enlo; granIte ( 1); rhyollte(?);
lIII bord: torms reslstoot cap for
No, 1, above which it Is unevenly
lA!d _______________________________ _
1. Sandstone, bu1r-crar to creen..grnl, !.ott,
crumbly, ver, unevenly deP06lted. lit
part e • .,..bedd.d; bed. 0.1 I ueb 10 4
Ceel, DlQUl ftat nnd Itub-ended lenaes
at COIIrse with pebbles of
quarts1to and: cbert; .trlngs ot pebblel
nod lsole. ted pebble" In sand.toue :
1t'n6e8. .'ngle balls, lI oel aggl'ecotei
of GreeD rom[)ftct cia,. lumps are
cobsplcuous j ,retembles Jteterogeneoul
materlil l depOSited by present st-reams
in nea r-by ",'asb ; coarser materllll at
18 I
5 t
toP......... ................ ... . ... IS
Sbaletl, red and green; boae not erposed_______ 20+
Fossils from the drab shale that contltins impres·
sions of plants and the arenaceous shale and COil ill
the coal·bearing POl'tion of this section (bed '29) were
dIIeJ1Ilined by Reeside as ill odiol.a laHcostata White,
AJII/inIJ D. sp" Corbula; 6wtrigonaHs Meek, Mew,nia
.. AmLl'/Nrops;s n. sp., Mytilust sp.-
'species which occm abundantly in the Mesaverde of
Book C1iJTs" (uppel' lIIontana). Fl'om bed 23 /1J,O-
6rect1<8 Meek, Os/r'ea sp. undet., Canl;:'"."
«¢om Meek Qnd Huyden, Calli.ta sp. llnd"t., SiliqVft
sp., CorIJula nematvpllOra. Meek, Gyrode.1 depres6'!JS
y..k, and VObuto(ic>'I'7lla a fl'. V. amoig",a Stanton were
!OlIecled-"species whose afllnities a" e with t.bose of
I!IeColorado group and which charncterize u wne noW
betieved 10 be. the uppel' part of t.he Colorado gl'OUP,
• • • considerably oldel' Ihan I.he lIfes:IVerde of the
Book Cliffs region Ol' than the typical lIIesavel'de of
Ihe SIIn Juan region." In l'esponse to queries con-
corning SO)me of these fossils and theil' stratigraphic
lignificlnce, Ur. Recside subsequently reeslltnined tbe
!Olleetions and repol'ts:
IIlPd tblt In Some lDlUlnCl' ·somo mixIng of lots nppe:urs to
:.re c«urred, ond one lot 1'l'om Collett bod in it two
W'f d14erent lithologic Cncles-(I) a Ih;ht-G'rtly One-grained
_lMh-ioDe contftlnl!lg n Caullu of the ."la rue uGe tbnt ot your
b llllt Cl ift's Sft!ldstone but with 1ll01'e mnrine Sp('Clel;; ; (2)
sundy shale or "ery tlne-grolncd scodstone
fir. rOhlll. thet) IdentiOed as ap .. Nodiola ia.ticosla
We, AMtina n, •• Corlmla Meek and
In. J/ellJRifJ Cnleulpta I\(ct!k, nnd Amaw'opli,J n, 'l'bls ]Lst
lliupported by a second lot Crom Collett Canyon, wltb Identical
and without any :msplcion of mlxtc.f'C, :xow this Itst,
01 Ole taee of It. is 0 good Book Assemblnge,
Tft It 1:1&7 not meen nil tbat it 8eCll).S to menD, Tbe JlytlJiU,
Jllta" IDeI .ima .... l'op.tis may be urOIlPed out of cOllt'lcleration,
n. Carkla. I find b£1S been recol'deu (with question)
tM:a a ColorndD The .1fodiola onu lI(em to
l:egood IdfDtUkatlons. Ilnd ] hu\'e no previous reeol'd of their
1ftIt&ee lD beds. N"evcrtJleless, i( there 18 good
rea.- to believe that Ule 1\:1 tJ.e some Q.9
tl!at or the lou with Ostl'ca 8OitnMC1UJ, Modiola
ltd fJropa.tod.a, I would Drefel' to soy that the I pecles
liited at Collett Creek Ore longer rongir.s tbnn has been
anu tbat tbe beds belong Bracklsh
ar.d species do seem, Cor some l'ealOD, to h.ye
-,a_Ill' long rongcs, or pm'hsJ)S it is better to "1 that
tuJ: IIl.Uar species seem to occur at qulte dilIereut borizons,
rfCIil>ll 0( Cretaceotu at rata .u J&.e.a.d. o( /UJck Creek, t«..!tern.
Karle uta.1I.
(Weasured bJ' RaJ'lDood C. Moore]
lllaipt ella. Ft<t
T. Sandstone, yellow. tUIe to medium graJ,ned,
miSSive, In Irreluln[' thick Iedges _________ __ 1,000
t ilandsto." yellowIsh dr. b, .halY In opper part.
.4.881\'9 i:1 middle port nnd near .bnse______ 200
Ittplt *"'Ie :
S. Shale, bluish drab, cluyeJ" f!;ott i weathers in
slope, {osaJls In low-er pa.rL________________ 6]0
t 8ancIstone. ycUQYf·ish brown, mBssive, forms
rim, toss UlCerous; contains Gry[,hneos,
oysters, and otber {orm..'t,.. __________ ---------- 5-6
Dako,," (1) saDdstoDe :
3, Bone and black. curoonaceous sllale; con-
. tDlns one or t .. ,o Tery thln streaks llt coo1- __
2, Sand.stone, sray to Dearly white-, with yellowish
to gn.oenl$b cast. lWet: J;mdes dow[I-
ward into sundy shall", bonded Imrple and
gray i border sundstooc Iu Ibet.1s 6 lucbl?s to 2
fed Iblc'k j reddi:'f;b at bUM",
1, Sand.!:ltODC, [orllls ,rerUcal ell it, red-
di sh brown at out<'TOD (st.alned fl'OIU wasb
:lbo"td, 'l'n) , mur{, ot ('oHg'li1lllel'v.tiC:
tbJekoes. uut
As indicated by the use of iocn1 names in descl'ib-
ing the divisions of the Creloceous Ul the Kaipnl' owits
region, con-elnlion witb adjucen.t "rells of descl'ibed
Cretaceous rocks CAll not be mode ,viti, nssUl'fillce.
A comparison with stundurd sections in southwestern
Colorado, ill northwestern New Mexico, lind in the
Book Cliffs anel the Wasatch PI .. in
Utah shows thut the Cretaceous beds of southern nnd
SQutJ.westem U,lnh were dep""ited much neare,· the
oscillating shore line rtf .. btlsin of depositioll than
t.hose so bl'oadly di sh'ibulcd to t.he eust. and nOl'th.
Accordingly not.able diffel'ences Inay be expected be-
tween t.he deposits of this lIeur-shore ZOlle and those
farther out in the basin. The 'Cretaceous in the Kai-
parowits Plalenu consisls dominantly or slmelstone nnd
has apPI'oximately hnlf t.he thickness of the Cretaceous
in tbe Wasatch Plateau, where the rocks ·of this age,
as also in regions farlhe.r nortf, east, consist domi-
nantly of dark biuish-dl'ab shale, so well exemplified
by the Mancos shale.
Careful study of the Cretneeolls in many widely
separllted areas has shown that the sandy divisions
are by no means restricted to definite zones with equiv-
time nlues. Where a sandstone has been
Iraced laterany it not only differs ill thickness from
place to plnce by !!Cores or hundreds. of feet, but
parts of it intcrgrocle nnd in·terton.gue with the con-
tiguous shale, and in many places. the whole sand,
body wedges <lut to nothing. It many pinces marine
fossih U'e nbllndu.nt i elsewhere they are rare or are
not di.gnOl>I.ic. These assembl!lg!l8 of invertebrate
forms indicute the presence of muddy sell· bottoms Rnd
sandy sell. bottoms and show repenled changes later-
ally and vertically from marine· to brackish Rnd fresh-
water sediments. Because of these conditions the
correiation of tbe sand bodies in tbe Cretaceous pre-
senls many difficulties.
Plate 5 presents typical sections of the Crelaceous in
aiijacent ...-eos for comparison with the Cretaceous
sections 01 the l\:aiparowits [·eginn. This comparison
shows thnt even the Cretaceous rocks of the exposures

nearest to the Kaiparowits region are in many respects
strikingly different, Thus in the Straight Clitfs there
is lea tban 1 000 teet of shale, and &pproximately
, . f
thre<:-fourths of the Cretaceous section COnsIst. 0
sandstone. But in the Henry Mountains, only a little
over miles distant, there is nearly 3,000 feet of sbale,
and tho interbedded sandstones constitute only B minor
pRrt of the
As shown ,by RiclllU'dson •• equally great difTerences
mnrk the Cretaceous 01 the Virgin River region.
The fossils obtained from tbe Tropic and Straight
Cliff. formations show that these divisions are of Colo-
rado age lind represent a large part of MancOl! time.
The oyerlying Wahweap sandstone has yielded no
satisfactorily determinable fossil evidence, but on
account of its position beneath the Kaiparowits forma-
tion, of ve,.y lute Montano age, it probably eorresponds
to the lower pllrt of the Montana group of other loeali-
ties, It is also possible thllt the Wohlfeap rept'Cllenta a
continuntioo of sandy deposition in Colorado time.
The Kaiparowits formation obviously belongs to a vel'y
late part of the Upper Cretaceous, and as indict.tcd by
iti vel·teL,'ote and invertebrate faosil remains it appears
to "orre_pond to tbo Fruitland formation ot the San
Juan tegion.
As there are two main scarp-makin,g sandstones in
tho Hem'y lI[ountains area, the Masuk sandstone above
and the Dloo Gate Rand.tone below, it is natural to
regal'd them as equivalent to the two main scarp-
Dlaking sandstones o'f the Kaiparowits Plateau, tbo
Wahweap nbove and the Straight Clift's below. (See I
pI. 18.) The Tununk sandstone of the Henry Moun-
tnins section i. relatively less noteworthy, but with
modet'Bte certainty it represents the aUenuated part
of the Fenon sandstone of areas farthor north, even
though the Fort'on II thickness of BOO feet,
The Tununk sandstone is underlnin by 1,000 feet of
shale, which col'responds to !l pllrt of tho Tropic shale.
The upper purt of tbe Tropic shale i9 represented in
the Henry Monntains by fhe Tununk sandstone ond
Possibly U small pRrt of the" Blue Gnte shale." The
uppor (O() feet of the" Blue Gille shale" yields a fauna
of Telegraph Creek (early )[ontana) age and ill thel'e-
fore distinctly younger than the Strlight Cliffs und-
stone, from lI' hich Niobl·.ra fossils are obtaiued. It
folio,,' . that the Straight Cliffs sandstone in the Kai-
parowits PlatC1lu lII.tches no "lIl1ds(.one in the Henry
Mount.ins but corresponds to the lower port of the
"Bluo Gate shoJe." The Blue Gate standstone is of
lower Montun" age. The stratigrAphic position and
• RtebndIMm, O. n., The UPIM"r CrC!taeeeu I('(tloo In the Ce1ondo
Platella, Utab: Wublnl\on ACU4l. I!k!l. JOII... "'01' IT P'
44H-n5, lD2T. • . • .
• Rct'llld\', 8.. ,r., tJliPlJr Crehu.'eouw and Tert1ar, tor-•• tlotdl .t
tbe Wedt'tD I,ut of t.be SIIn JUII" Balli, C\lJo. aad N 11,., U 8.
Oc-ol. Burn1 Prot. Papc'r 13 •• p. 2{' 1924. . . .
apparent general correspondence of the Henry MOIII\_
tail)8 section with that of' tIle Wasatch Plateau led
Spieker and Reeside 11 tentatively to correlate the Bille
Gate 8&Ildstone witb the mnssive Emery snndatoUe,
which occurs SOO\l! 1,100 feet above the top of tilt
Ferl'on sandstone and, the Blue Onte sandston .. ;.
sepJrated by • shale interval from the Upper Cft.
tacoous Mesnerde formation, which in the Wasatcb
Plateau is extensively coal bearing. The Emery sand-
stone contains Montana fossil s."
Although definite evidence is not nvnilable, it is VO?
probable that the Mllsuk sandstone belongs to the
lofesaverde formation, nnd it is so classified in reporlil
on areas to the etut and north. The shale beneat.h the
slIJldstone is \'ery sandy in the Henry Mountaillll, and
there i. an almost imperceptible gradation hom the
shale into the sandstone. In general lithologic cbar-
acter and thickness the Wahweap sandstone suggests
equivalence to the shpJe and sandstone abo,'e tho Blue
Gate sandstone of the Henry Mountains. The .hlle
in the Wahweap is more sRndy than the "lfasuc
shalo "of tbe Henry Mountains and contains nUJ/lerous
sandstone beds. Definitive fOllBil. have not been found
in the Wahweap, and its correlation is thus, somewhlt
uncertain. Because the formation immediately fol-
lowl the ,upper Colorado Straight Clift's sandstone it
probably belongs in the lower part of the Montanl
Ilroup and accordingly should be approximately cor-
relative with the upper part of the" DIlle Gate shale·
and probably the Blue sandstone. On this
interpretation no strata that correspond to till
"Masuk shale" and lIIasuk sandstone appear to be
present in the Kaiparowits Plateau. Evidence of un·
conformities at the base, and top of the Wahweap
make this.correlation, which is shown in Figure 6, 1..-
certain than for other parts of tho section,
According to fossil evidence the forml-
tion appoars to correspond to the Fruitland formatioll
of the San Juan Basin and evidently belongs very lala
in the Montana.
In two recent papers Spieker Ilnd Ree£ide II hln
recorded existing knowledge of the age and correla- '
lion of the Cretaceoul formntion. of Utah. With
particular reference to the Kaiparowits regioo }fr.
Reeside has kindly written the following notes:
AD examination ot !(Ime coUeetions mode by Spieker o. thI
westem aIde o! tbe WUQtcb Plnteeu, near Ibo,", tllat
tl\e3 aupplMDeDt tlte eolleetioDit that be ADd I made lut Jear
in Salina Canyon In such fnshlou os to ,l",e UB aD interest'"
• Spieker, &. :W,o and Rt'e!.ltle, 1. B., JI'" Creinceoul aDd
tonueliorlti ot Ult Wasatch Pllllc.o.u, Utah: Soc. Ameri<.. JIIIL
\'oJ, 30" . ' -4;38,
• Idem, P. -tat.
M Spieker, .. :Y' I lind Re"Ide, 3. 8., Jr., Cr('t'('tOUI ood Ttrtl."
r.t1IaUoD. tI. Ute Waaat('b Plateau, Utah: Geot. Soe. A.etta 8d.
1"01. $8. pp. U:J-...4a4, 192i1: Upper Crebl.e&oua .bote Uno lJI Utalll
Idom. 1'01. 81, pp. 429--1:38, 1028.
ot Ihe relations betwecD the section in that region,
tbe CoaI,"me section to the nOl'tll, oDd the Kllirurowlts aDd
cea"b _doDS to the south. l!lut b res:lou hns a bns..'1l unIt of
nDd t'Ooglomernte thnt <:ontains the same vre-Car-
Jlt fI.-. lat ludinl' r:ool Dear ConIl"iUe, in the Golob, pud In
c,e gatpl.ro,·.l ta. Abore tbta b.'1S41 unH lil each regton lin •
_ t1Dt .... Ie Wltll 11 tuuno or Carlile age. aod next In eacb I
.aa of .odltoll.e nnd shale wah n (auna of hne Colorado
) p*rtlJ" martne DlId portly brackish water. In
\tie Cek>b tbe DU:t blgllcr unit bJ ttle fresh-waler nnll with
ttl bunn. It begin!lli. with a cOllglomernte. In
1tt Qtber fe,loDS the WIlQ with this ),,·ruiUand-Uke fauna II

.. y
W.:u.a. t.c.h
W.ualch WaAatch
DlClUbcrt) of the (:l81('[n Plateau tbe unit ot
Atoue And II lb'
". 1& It • OTe the mD.rlne sbale ot the weaLern
aMtcb Plateaa aDd Coolt"iUe, the slmURr Qult nbol'e the
Dlarhae In t.be C.Jlob region. and the Straight Clitr.
und.stl,ne III the Kaiparowits Plateau contnll} a late Colorado
(Nfohra l'a) fnuns. We not round th19 fnuno III t.he
He or)' MOQuto.h .. arell, but it certaInly (.'orne In the
It>wer of the W Blue 00.10 shllle." 'I'he l.Icds immedtatel,.
above thlS zoue of Klobroro o.ge ho.vu yielded fc'O\T or DO
paleontologic da ta lu tbe western Wasntch Plat eau (wbere
form u. SCl"iC8 of l.'onglomerate. snndatope, etc,) and In
t Ie Kaiparowits oren, Rnd their equlYnlent Is appareutly mise.
I Abs.,.,t
1- .?
Covered f-----
I Kirtland


I- 5 ... ,.
I • """"''''''
FLot;RJl 6,-Co("relatlon ot Cretaceoue (orll1atJona aDd dJstrlbuUOA or l3.unlll In Utab aDd adjaccDt rcjJlOll.
-PIrated trom the zone with the Nlobrara fauna by ather
MdI, "hleb Ire prooobl1 ot Monto"", age. I would .ot IDsl,t
riIhD,. 00 the:e correlations or elaitn o.b80lute equl'nlence ot
the IIIl.ftI cited, but. the 8lmllnrltip.s In the sectiODS are much
... IIrtkl .. thnn the dJ.fferences.
'l'ht lower &11\11<"01 (pre-.Ferron) or the eastern WnMtch
:Su. .he bus) port ( .. ndstone IDd C;ooglomerate) 9t th_e
:-1" ItrOUD ot the ,,·etltern Wasatch PlateAU: a04 CoAlvlUe,
....... 1 [l&rt of' the C<Jlob seetloD, ·the "Tununll .hole" of
... Bar, Mountains, nnd the lowel' part. of the T'rop\c ,bale
Kaiparowits regiou contain the i=ame t.una-a
r. Ile 111emblnge--ocd ore nearly at the tnme8l
. The
:::: III.ndstoDC ot the enstern Wasatch Plateau, the marine
Lht ott ot the Wusatch Plntenu •• d Coolville.
of .. rlne shale of tbe Colob region, tbe Tunonk gDdl:ttODe
Ibt 1lIe aen,'Y •• nnd tile pnrt or'.t/le TropiC
1\ 1. 01 the Katpo.l'owits region contain 0 Carlile faunA.
• tllddle l[o.ncos (betweC'n Ferron and Emery iandatoa9
log In the Colob region. In the eastern 'Ya_tch Plnteau the
Emery Madstone cootaLns a basal Montanl (a.una, I. dOl'l
.boo tbe uPIJCl' Pll't ot the U Blue Gille I would !X,pect
t.o Aad it also lu the Blue Gate SZlndstone and believe tbot
thla IBDdstooe and the Emery are more or leaa equi.,aleol
It seem, likely also that some part of lb. Wahwcap sand ..
.tODe woold belong bere. The \Vttbweap would alto """CD
to loC!lude an of the .. ala5uk HhQlo" a.nd the
)faluk I I1DdHtOlHl of tbe Henry Mountains lind 801M part
ot the late Mancos ond e:trly Mesliverde at the eastern Wa·
.. tela Plateau. The Kolparowjt. formaUon aeeml to dDd
its equlnleDt til the highest bCt18 under the 'YnSDtcb forma·
Uon ot the Colob I"eKloo,. tIle ;beda of tbe
lVasatr.:h Plateau nod Coalville, region. and the higher Mesa·
.. erda at the eastern Wasatch PI3tcnu (Price RiveI;' forma·
fte ETalllton ",100 Sn southwe1Jtern Wyoming may alao
be .compared with tbe areas cited above. AS shown In J'lpre 6.
Beds of early Tertial'Y (F..oeene) age anl continu-
ously displayed in the magnificent escarpments that
border the Paunsaugunt, Table CliO', and Aquanus
PI.teaus. They appear aL'lO in the broken sl?pes of
Canaan Mountain an outlier of the Table ClilY Pla-
teau. For many around the heads of the Pllri.-
"nd Escalante V alleys they stand as an upper tier of a
great •. mphit!\eater- -a bi-oken wall composed of
flut ed columna of high proportions. From below the'
Table Cliff Platea.u ,they are seen to consist of a mas..
of limestone 1,000 fcet thick with lIat top and v?rticRI
sides resting on • sloping clull-color04 base. It IS sUr'
pI'ising to find so enormous R block SO symmetrically
carved and so delicately colored, hut similar large.
scale erosion fentu.ell OC.cuv wherever Ihese limestones
nre e:.:poscd-&ll n!\out the Pnonsaugunt PIIlIeau, in
I.hc wall. of the Aqll11riU8 Pint e.", and at Conaon
PCllk. Detailcd erosion features aN likewite striking
."d ulIusulll. The mo."" of columns, pilUluclcs, and
tables splashed with color thot mok"" Bryce Cnnyon
atlmetive' i. repeR-ted mnny times in the eroded wall.
of the southern High Plateaus, (See 1'1. 1i1.) All
the 'Ii'ertinry beds Ihat oro rec<lgni'zed in this region
ore now assigned to the Wllsatch formatioll.
Dutton" describes tho Paunsougunt as a "tahular
block of lower Eocene beds, "".eeedingly simple in
its st.1-ucture," which aside from its " m;l.l:Vclou. color
and sculptural forms prcsents liWe mlltter for special
remark." He mapped the top of the Pnun."Ugllllt
and also j.hat of tho Aquarius and T.ble Cliff Plateaus
And of Cannan Peok (Kaiparowits Peak) lime.
stono of 1'ertiory age, hel .. llnd tllel'e overlain by
I'LVa, In Dutton'. view" the l'ertiory system of the
pllltuu country is Inellstr!'ne throughout, with thn e".
ception of n Inyers near the bose of the
whi ch hllve yielded estnal'ine fossils." From 11 nlll:<i -
lUUIll thickness of more than 8,000 feet in the vicinity
of the Wasdcb .nd Uinta Mount ... ins " Ule deposits
originully I'aid down in all enormous Eocene lake
. ,
WlllCb must 1I.I\'·e had un .rea more than twice that of
Lake Superior nnd moy even have that of
the Jive great Conacunn lakes combined," decreased in
thickness souj,heastwRI'd and southwestward to shore
lines in New Mexico n.nd Nevndo,
IDuttou noted tllllt the Eocene beds of the southel'll
pla.tenus, Markagunt and Paunsnugunj" were to be
... Dutton. C. Po .. R('putt on tbe KeoloK1 at It\e H!ab Plal@au. of
trtnh, pp. 12, 2:il- ::!GO. 1l5S--U9, U. 8. Geor. and
Sunc,. RockJ' MI., 1880.
correlated }Vith the" nit.ter Cree.k group ". of
but that these sout.hern plateaus included only part of
the series exposed in (he Uinta ;\{ountains. The com.
position IlIld thicknc$s of the component members of
t,he "so\lthern Bitter Creek" were recognized by
Dutton AS shown below:
UrJper ... ·blte llmestouc and Cah!lll'C-OU.s marl (summit of
""rl .. ) -------------------------------------------- soo
Pfnk cnJcnrcQus __________ _____________ Si)J
Pink conglomerate (base of the .series) --- -------- - ____ 500
'llbe Pi nk Cllfi's • 'II • are exposures of the nne-c:rntned
culcul'eo'US .l!nn dstone forming the middle meulber of the
Blttor Creek.
The following generalized section he considered
representati ve of .the Tertil1 ry sediments in the clifi
of "the eastern and southem margins" of the Paun.
, EaUgllllt Plateau :
Gray CIl)Ni.reoua, i8.ntlstone____________________________ 180
White limestolle______________________________________ UIO
Rad marl)T l1meatoo8 and caJcltl'L'Ous ' !thale____________ 3GO
Red plnldsh Umeslollc ___________________
___________ ,GO
.CoaglOOlertlte. with amall pebbles ot gravelly &O.ndstooe_ 190
. 1,281
During his nlconnaissance of 1872 Howell" exnm·
ined thc Tertiary at Lnst Bluff (Table Cliff Plateau).
His published section, "measured in part and in
part estimated," is quoled below:
4. White to·cra, fresh·water limestone, contaiu-
ing an<l Phl/Ia lIri-d.g"-renJti.s _________ _
8. Pink Umestone with bonds or blue
to,,-ar<1 the bllOO
containing PhllSU _________ _
2. Purple and IJ&:ht-COloFed marls witll conslomer-
nte toward bMe . .. _____________________ _
1. Gray arenaceous and con-
t.'IhUnc aD fOl'm of Phyaa. rln tlle
lower part) Utttea nnd two species of
V·I17iP*"'&e.1, a single specimen of a sman
OYltcr. were leen, lind some fnlgmeuts ot
larce bon .. ________________________________ 1, 2OI)-1,!IOO
Total thickness ot Ttrthny beds ______ 2. s;,o....s.400
As treated in ,the present tepol't subdivisions Nos,
2, 3, BlId 4 of Howell'. section are Tertiary; subdivi·
sion No.1 is
Howell remarks n the Terlia .. y beds "to the
north 0 0 0 are mostly soft calcareous shale and
marls" and th.t "southward there is an increase in
the limestone, and at the most southeastern exposure,
the I.ost Bluff, there "1'& over 1,200 feet of more or
less compact limestone."
• POll"OlI, J. W .• &!putt on Ih., or portion. oilY
Uinta )(ountolol, p. 162, U. I . Geol. !Iud Ceog. Survey Iferr., lS10.
• RO';\o'cll, E. E., op. cit_. PI'I. 270-2TJi.
ff Idt' fl), p. 26f"
Sections of Tel,tiary beds, here classed as Wasatch
fonDAtion were measured at a number of places, In
btoad the lhree subdivisions outlined by Dutton
loci Howell IlIBy be recogni1,ed, but the features of the
I bers are not persistent, and the .thickness or t.he
:vidunl beds und of t,he entire series eli/fers widely
b'OIII place to place, At the sout.h point of the P"un-
ugunt PJatenu tho Wasatch measures 735 fcet, at
Canyon about 1,300 and at Tuble Cliff ubout
feet. At Callann Pcuk only about 300 feet
nmaialL Where it is not protected by h,,,U the upper
beds are much r educed by e1'0510n, No two exposures
III alike in orl'llngement of beds Hnu resistance to
!fIIIion. Vadation in color, composition, texture, and
1i!1le£UN is chul'IIctel'istic, Common relltures include
prominent, narrowly spaced vertical joints; irrel,,'lliarly
pllced leme9 of reloti\'ely resistant muteri"ls that give
1M appearance of cross-bedding; brecciated masses;
.... misses of limestone embedded in calclneous
,bIt; lnd strings of conglomerate, (See pI. 15,) At
ill plaeM the of the unweathered rock is white 01'
pd. pink, but on wellthering a strong pink tone is pro-
in, giving at a distance the l'emarkable appeanncc
'MI has mode these exposures fanlous, To the olJserv-
iIc Piute, they are Unt-saw-nl' Mu-kwun-kuut-
standing rocks thut shine," In general each
Ilriesof beds in the southern Utah Wasatch has, a top
If "hite limestone, lumpy, slightly breceiated, and
ktee! "ith ca\'ities tined with calcite crystals, At
Cullin Peak this cnp bed includes smooth egg-sbaped
pebbles of limestone and scattered grains of basdtic
ash. At eoch exposure, but in di fferent stratigraphic
positions, stRnd bcds 10 to 30 feet thick of dense faintly
piak limestone that, makes a solid wall 100 to 300 feet
.i,h in wbich OCCur lens;'" of firm, dense grny limo-
!loot 2 to 6 feet thick and 10 to 100 teet long, Also
.e each expoSure a series of shalelike limestones that
have a total thickness of as much lIS 150 ieet appear
"lVenly bedded silts mottled with dark-red, pink, "nd.
white b1ot.:hes.
At Ute base {If the Wasatch section lies a conglom-
....... quite unlike Rny otber stratum in southelUitern
\jIg, It consists of unusually well'rounded and
-.tbed pebbles of pink, gray, white, ond ted quartz-
ite, lOme minutely banded and cro.s-bedded, black
rhyolite, porphyry, and many kinds of dense
Ipeous roclu. About 50 pel' cent of the pebblei exceed
• illehes in diallleter' a few exceed 10 inches. Because
, - - .
of eoneealin,g talus tbis conglomerate b<)d waS seen III
PGlition only on tile west slope of the
Plateau, where it consists of 6 feet of quartz"quartzlle,
Ild rhyolite pebbles arranged in lenses
t.d held together with caleureous cement, LIme sb .. le
co.,," its uneven' surface and its bose is plastered
on the irregularly eroded friable drab sandstone of the
Kaiparowits f ormation, Doubtless because of its weak
<:ement Ihis conglolllel'Ute is not a cliff mal,er, Its
characteristic boulders and pebbles covel' the slopes lit
the base of limestone dilfs, To judge from (his debris,
the thickness and coorseness of the conglon<crnt.e differ
con.idol'Rbly ill different plaC<!s,
The SOUl'C. of the igneous and metamorphic pebbles
th.t make uI'> this conglomerllte is unknown, Theil'
distl'ibution in the Kaipal'owits region suggests the
jlresenCl) of a land rnns.i in centrul Utah that WIlS ex-
posed and eroded during vel'y lote Cretaceous time
and then buried during Wasatch time, At pluces the
pebbles are few or are represented by lille gravel; else-
where the slopes al'll so coated with loose uoulders as
to mAke travel difficult, and the banks of the Little
Hiver, nenr its head in Callalln Peak, nre composed of
boulders that are Ililed to heights or 20 to 4.0 feet,
lIon, miles farther south along the PRrill River lind
\Vnhv.'eap Creek pebbles from tbis bed nre seen, and
they are readily recognized in the gravel beds of the
Escalante Valley,
At the divide between tbo Escalnnte and Seviet,
Rivers the lowermost Wasutch beds consist of Q bllsal
conglomerate thot is composed chieOy ot pebbles of
2 to 6 Inches in diameter, embedded in II
matrix of sundy lime; pink limestone interbedded with
whit., calcareous sandstone; and IL massive bcd of
white limestone exceeding 100 feet in thlckness, Fos-
sils in th. dull-colol'ed £I'iable sandstono beds, below the
conglOlnemto arc tbose tbat nre chaructoristic of the
Kaiparowits The Wasatch beds lit " the
dump" near ,the head ,of ,the Poria are eroded into
tapering pillars and irregular columns thnt nrc crossed
by broad bftnds of pink and cream-yellow, The
material Is ehlelly limestone but includes a lens of
conglQnleroto Rnd thin hcels of calcareous sandstone
whose surfnces al'e covered with plant impressions,
Fossils lFe distributed spora.dically throughout the
dense and the brecciated limestone, but none were
found in the shalelike beels, They occur chiefly in
lenses Ind irregular maEses of crushed or \\'Ol'n bits
of shells or as shell fOl'llls filled in witb calcite, All
_reh resulted in finding only impedect
specimens, among whicb Dall" recognized" P1<ysa
pleuromati.Y probably PAy,a briaqel'c-Mi8, anel a small
discoid sheil which rony be a Yalvata or possibly a
PlaMr!>u,'" He states: "There is little doubt of the
F..ocene character of the deposit."
At few places ,on the Pauns3ugunt Platenu ILnd
Table Clilf doeli 'he thickness of the limestono exeeed
500 feet, Ind at Cannan Peak it is about 200 feet.
So far as known the beds t.h"t cap the south.elLstern
e:stensions of the High Platp-ftus are of upprol<)mately
tbe eame age as th""" farther north and northeast,
and they are thorefore III referred to the Wasatch.
The difference in thickne..& is possibly the result of
surface erosion and of the relief of the underlying
CretaceoUl! beds, but the lowest bed> are not lithologic
equivalents, and the great differe"""s in sequence, in
composition, ond in tbe proportionate amounts of lime-
stone, shale, sandstone, and lignite make it p<l6si bl.
that the Te,'tiary strata of Utah were deposited in
several basi"" with bere Dod tbere o"erlnppiJlg rims.
It seems UDnecel!Sary to follow Dutton in assuming
that sucb widely separated and unlike sediments as
the elrbonaceolls sh.le and sandstor.e of the Price
Ri"er, the der.se purl> limebtone of Table Cliff, and
the qullrlZ sandstone and cloy shale of Chuska Moun-
tain in the Navajo country were laid down contem-
porlUloously in a single Inrge depression.
The well-known unconformity at the blse of tht
Eocene beds in northern and central Utah hilS been
troced to t he Knipu.rowits region along the face of
tho Paull.nngunt, Table Cliff, und Aquarius :Platealls.
In places the bed. above and below are parallel, and
tbeit· separation is mlu·ked only by accumulations of
g"a"el and by abrupt chonge from dull-colored ma-
rine shnle .lId aalldst.one to pink or white fresh-water
limeBtone. Elsewhere the unconformity is R mature
slIrfneo of erosion that is de"eloped bdiscriminately
on flnt-Iying, tilted, and folded strata of differerit age
Rnd different composition. At Cnnaan Peak the Eo-
cene beds horizontally ovel'l ie tbe upturned strata
of the East Knibab fold, in "'hi cb the youngClSt Cre-
taceous sedimcnts nre involl'ed. Northward along tbe
AqUArius PIlltcau the, Eocene rests on progressively
lower subdivisions of the Cretaceous and truncates the
D.k<>t.(I) and San Rllinel beds that are lIp
in the Pine Creek fold. Between Sand Creek and
Boulder Creek only the lOwest beds of the San Rafao!
group relDain, Ind on ·the west flank of the Water_
pocket Fold the Eocene rests on the NAVajo &.ndstor.e.
, During tbe time intel'val thus indicated more than
i 000 feet of sediments were locally removed.
The sediments in the Kaiparowits region that dale
from Quaternary time ore chiefly alluvial <leposits i.
valleys, on slopes, and on top of the bigher plateau
The accumulations of eolian sand are small and 10.
cnlized (p. 145), Rnd incipient glaciation on the Paun_
S!lUgunt ond Aqunrills Plateaus has left only scattel'l!d
boulders and inconspicuous remains. Swamp deposita
appear along the nart.hern headwaters of the Escalaott
Ril'er and about glacial lakes on the Aquarius
Plateau. During the last half .century the alluvial
fill of mn.ny volleys has been scoured out by the
Unlike other luge parts of the plateau province, the
Klliparowits region is remarkably free from igneolll
rocks. lIo deep-selted nOo dikes, and no vol-
canic CODes have been found. The only products of
ignoous activity are lavn flows on the Table Clill' and
, Paunsaugunt Plateaus-remnant outliers of mucb
greater 1Iows on t.he l-Iarkagunt Aquarius PI ..
tea.us. .A,., described by Dutton •• these Inas are basalt
and "ere erupted from widely distributed vents at dif-
fel'tnt periods during Tertiary and more recent tim ...
A How in Johnson Cn.nyon overlies alluvial deposita
ond has interfered with the course of tho stream.
• c. a . OtolClp of (be Hlgb Plntean of Utah, pp. 197-toI.
295, O. 8, Geo,. aDd Grol. Sar .. " nodi)' "In. 11'0. .
On his memorable voyage down the Colorado
Powell' Doted the broad fo:d croEsed by the river
.bo..e lIle mouth of Trachyte Creek. He describes a
_ocIinal fold in Gl en Canyon a few miles below the
IIOOth 01 the San Juan , s follows:
.... Lew .ilea below the ::J]outh ot the 8 • .-" Juan River ,,'e COOle
IUD lDtertstl
: DlODoclinHl fold, where Ute dip ot the rocks la
III dlreet:.OD fl IJttlc norte of E'as t-tlJat is, the bed. are
down on tte sJde ot the Iioo_. ,...b1cb (rend.
LfI2r17 DOrtb. and Bouth, not broken oft and dropPed. down but
Aued, bcot. so that the beds on rae ",'eltern aide ot the lice
Mf'tound ot an nltltnde mauy hundteds ot feet above those
tIM! ellt, nDd tarther down t t)(! rtn'l the rocks eXpOsed at
••• ter edGe o.re ot a;e tban thOse above.
The Echo monocl ine was also observed:
M tbe toot ot this [Gleu] CIUllon another ll.lODOcllnlll told is
ten. witb Ole tla'ow, or also 00 the ellst side, or tbe up·
R(t, I( ODe is 80 pleused to term It, on the west sh!e; nDd this
bthg's up .pln CDl"oonlferOI,lIl ,sudstones Dud I1mestones.
A.. R Thompson' described the Waterpocket mono-
dine IS. «cliff forming the rint of Escalante B •• in "
ad said of the Esclllante monocline: • At the end of
I!) miles this canyon valIey was abruptly ended by a
IiDa of cliff. that stood directly across its course."
A n!CCn.,aissftnce by Howell' along the east base of the
Tible eli' and Aquarius Plateaus included a brief
Ihldyof the major structurd featurcs. 'rhe East Kaj.
llab fold wa. traced northward from Kaibnb Plateau.
It WCI last seeD a few ml1el to the eAst or Lost Blua
(TIbIo CUIf Platoou) and do .. not .",Iend much
fart_ In thnt dtrecUou. lts drop at Pario II not t'or trom
I.Q !ett. • • • Between the Lost Blurt oDd the Henry
1Ioot.IDII the rocks nre folded llDd thrown Into WO?CS OD Il
lfelter ICnIe than elsewhere seen.
'l\e uplift thllt underlies the 'Henry Mountains and
ita 'Ontinuation northward into the San Rafael Swell
is shown in section, and the Waterpocket flexure is
tleauibed as two folds. He says:
fte tutern told, A., trends south·southeast, t:eeplnc ao lpo.
JIIOJtaateb .tl'8.Jght course tor 100 roUe. to the Colorildo
N •• ojo Mountain. • • • The fold B (about 12
.... "0It of told A) approaches Ibe told .... In oce pia.,.
• elese17 that the two form a perfect 8nUclinol. It »pl-eodl
.: r..n. I. w., Explor'atlon ot the Colorado Rhu ot tb, lV'lit PD."
'"' ........ pp. 17T. ITS. I8T5.
"Gna. "" 1S1, 140.
'Bnrll, IE, .• U, S. Oeoi;'. Gf1ol. SUr\"f1' W, 100tb 1I'e:r. Rept.,
fOL lIP. 201_20ii. 187Ci.
out rapidly aJ!::aiu to the 80utbwnrd nDd lOoon atterward 1I0t.
tena out und dhmppeors.
From a point on the south end of the Aquarius Pla-
teau a third anticlinal fold about g miles west of fold
B was r.oted. Between the mouth of Birch Creek
and Last Bluff (Table Cliff Plateau) Howell records
lwo other folds, as follows:
Tbe Orst ot thesc, D, is a monocllnul. wllb n throw ot' a
tew bundrel! feet only to the west. FroiD this rold the beds
rise )It In lagte ot trom 2'" to 4" to the west-Sr. UU1West, until
too point 11 Is renched, when t hey dip Ziud.dcnly to the west
.galn. at an ftu,"re 8!1 hleb tn some IJlaccs as 80
• After droP'"
pJOZ about 1,000 (eet the,. assume" nearly hol'lY.ontul posltl\)D
IDd apparentl1 continue to the Last Blntt with 110 tarther
df.IJturbunce. Tbese tolds are botb DloDocUnnla • • • nnd
were traced t'or 20 01' ao mlies.
Fold D, or perhnp8 folds· D Rnd E combined, is
the Escalunte .monocline, but the locations and dimen-
sions given are (00 generalized to lollow with assllr-
ance in tbe field. Howell mentions a.lso the "Poria"
(Echo monocline) and "Eastern Kaihab" folds,
which were measured "just n little south of their
point of inter.ection, where the combined throw of
the two folds is about 4,000 feet." But his section,
which extends from the Kaibab Plateau eastward,
across the Echo Cliffs and Kaiparowits Plateau bears
little relation to lhe actual structure.
From ohserl'ation points oil the slopes ..of the Henry
Mountain! Gilbe,·t· traced the course ()f the Wntcr-
pocket Fold and d&cribed and illustrated the inajor
.tructur.l features of the portion north of the Musuk
Plateau as folIows:
It 1s far tl'om tollowing Q. strnlght line but, lIko most
lines ot orograpblc dlsh:rhnnce., swcrV9 to the right nnd
left, whlle maintaining 1 geDeral trend. The amouDt ot Its
"tbrow," Or tlIe dllrerence In level beh\'een Eldjaceot parts ot'
tbe two blocks whlc:b. it divides, Is inconlltoot, ita maximum
be.lng 1,000 feet. At some poJnts tbe tlexed 8trata. are Inellne<l
. at OD angle ot 50
, while at others their greatest dip J8 but
16-, Towanl the north the lIexure twice divides. One ot
Its branches, the Blue Gate fie-xure, bna a throw to tb\! !mUle
direction Bod by its separation Jncreascs the throw ot the
main llexure,
Gilbert' also briefly described the PAri .. fold (Ecbo
monocline) and directed attention to its stratigraphic
significance .
• Gllhr:rt. G. K., Report on the of Ibe BCD..,. MouutIlID.1.
pp. 12-1-1. 18$0.
• GlIllert, O. K, U. S. Ocol, Sunt,.. W. lOOlb Mer. RUflt.. vol. 8,
pp. Gl-ll2. 1873.
"'" I
Dutton' has much to say the structure of the
Escalante Bosin and the Kaiparowits Plateau IS seen
from distant viewpoints on the Aquarius Plateau.
The Waterpocket Fold a.nd the Escalante monocline
are vividly described. He says:
The b' tl'ucturc or tbe plateau 18 best atudled UPOD the south-
ern slopc!t (ot the Aquori Wl Plateau}. Here the most sulk·
IIlI: i'eat uru f\ JQrge mODoc1 wOI, already RlIulied to as a.
companion to the Waterpot'ket Fo)(], It comes up from the
6(lutbcnstl crotl lll ng lhn lower end of Pot oto Valley. and t rend.
nlollp t he KlopCR northwestwArdly. beneutb the
111va cup. '!'he throw ot tbe monocline Is to the wcsl\'s.ru.
Upon Ill' Ihe Cl'otuecoulS I.s turned up and dips
wC14tward beneath tbe 8outhwC'Btwtlro or til e gl! D-
erul pJlltf!nu mOil!. Tbe ot Its str{&tll arc tru[)(!llted by-
cl'oSlon, nIH! o\"cr lltt:nll li es uDcouformably the Tertiary. Tb"
lIpthrow or tho Dlnnocllnc bea.ves Ill) tbe lUI'oliBlc whIte suod·
st ODC. wblcb 1..8 roiling up In a huge wave 1,200 to 1,800
teet hlgb ucross the lower end of Putolo Valley. 'I'he position
or thiN flu' ure relntlvoly to the plntenu mo" l!i vecul1::lr and
Indeed, at flr.!4t bight It a ppeQ.l'8 ftltogether
nnoD'lulou8, We nre nCf!Ul,-tolned 10 the welltern reg100s to
t1CO the all'uta rolk'tl up On Lhe flanks of D. mouDtAl n lIDi;e
l ike n grent Wtlt'C urged ollward toword D COllst And brenkint;'
nKftlD:ll Ibt rocky bnt t len.:. But the Escalnnte ficxnrc 1:5 like
a wove IIWN!I)lug alnDG' partdlel to the .;:oatit, the creflt Hue of
Ibe wu\'c lIeluG' [ICIT1endlculur to tbc trend ot the tlllore. HII
line or strike ru,ns up Lhe .slope and disnIIDCOrs beneath tbe
Tortlnry neor the summit or the platenu. A' tine Atream ot
wllter [Pi ne C' rec.k) runs upon this monocline pnfnHel to Its
strike, precisely os Wnterpocket ruDS u.POIl nDd parol-
to thC!. CUUniC ot thot flpXU1"e.
'l'he oge ot the Escnlnute monoclIne hi evidently pre-Tertiary.
It 11ft I betm exhumed hy the geD41ral erosi on dt-e.r bavlng
ooQU burlcc1 benC!o(h JoJoc ue Rtrat.ll, lind pCLer tb4..'SC atr lllt\ had
lK:e n oWl'flowed, In gl"Cat part nl Ieo.at. by m01l1 hundreds
ot reet ot 10 \'R8.
Dutton's viewpoint only the northeast face of
the Kaiparowits Platellu WIU! visible. Accordingly
tho plateau appeared to bo compo9<.-d of strata" quite
horizontol." Tho structural feutures within the rna.;.
were not obsel·ved.
Of the "Enstern Knibnb fault" nnd the "Po.lln-
snuglmt inu1t," Dutton 1 SllYS:
'i'be Enliteru Knlbab fmllt [told] • • • continues Dorth-
word pnst PurlR Orlit north·northoo6t but wraduo.lly
swing-tug In a arountl to the northwest, al WRl's pre-
servin, its true lnollocHnlll rorm. As tt approaches Table CUt!
It os it about to die out; but op{)09lta tllE.' 80Utll\Vetl
Anglo ot Iho Aql1ndu!I Plot(!-Rn It is joined by on Important
tnuJt coming from the This Is tbe Paun.
MUJ.:llllt fault. Which ilcs ucnr the hnse of that
Dutton' thus describes the «Echo Cliff monocline":
It gc.eJ'os proper olso to deK't'ibe brleOy the Clllt mono-
clint', since It Is one or the mrn:;..t IDlportant In that grent Merles
ot t11splnrenlcot$ which t-rnverS('1i the dlltrlct trom south to
north. It ill a truo oHlnOcHn(', It Is known to
• Outron, C. 1I:l ., BcJ}Ql' t on tbo or tb., Blsoh Pbttl.'lUIt or
lltt\b. J\p. n. 8. Gool. and GcoJ:. Surn',. RO(ks Min Re"'lon
' .. ,
t Idptu, pp, 8:!-33 •
• Outlon, C. E .• Tt' rtlftry Itt.tor)' of tbe Grand Clln101l (ItRtrlct:
fl. S. ClOO). SlIr"",. Mort. :. p. !O:i, ISS:!.
el.:rend :uore than a hundred mill'S south of the Colorac!o -lid
c(>.rtainly reaches no miles ItOrUI of the rln-I" .. • " 'l'IIt
lIJt!l1 dowDcbrow ot the Dlonocline varlC:5 greatly rrolD plaet
to place, but al oD; those porUnDs 1Ii'herc It has beeQ wei
(observed, the- toWl from 3,;j()O t o 4.tXlO feet.
I ts age Is Terti ary And probably very ne:ull' l"(lIeY31 wit. l_
East K!llbab monocline-I n olller worus, rather I.to Tertlar,.
'rhe proof at. Tertiary uge Is conclusive, since UUt flexure bead.
the Cretnceou8 betls it apJlI"o:lchcs U1em, and ttl
nortllwnrd continuation jovol\"eli lJle
The Echo monocline has been described by Davis,'
I<ho considered it older tholl Lhe Pliocene; ,by Robin_
son,'· who thought it origillntcd during the Eocene-
Miocene interval; and by Gl'egOl'y,lt who presented
evidence for believing it pl'obably pl'e-Tel·tiary.
PI·ior to the wOl'k on whi ch the present report is
based no structural feature of the Knipnrowits region
had been described on the basis or detailed field 00-
servations. Severol of the features have not been
previously recorded.
As suggested by the wide, sensibly flat plateaua Ind
long, even-crest<!d the rock beds through.
out most of the Kniparowits region are gently inclined
or nenrly horizontal. This simple general attitude
intelTupted in places by sharp monoclinnl tle%-
ures, which trend in a general nOl'lhcrly direction. and
subdivide the regiolk into large gently tilted blocks.
In places minor undulations interrupt the othc .....
regulal'ly inclined beds between the monoclines. W<'II.
nnd northwest of the Kaiparowits regioIl
lI'ending fa.ults divide t.he plateaus into blocks not un-
like those produced by the monoclines. In each or the
three monoclinal folds th.t traverse centl'.l iout.hem
Utah the dip of the beds is eastward, and the rocks on
the west are elevated and thoge on the east depressed ..
Along each of the iaults the movement is in the op·
posite direction, the rock.9 on the east being ele\1lted.
nnd tbose on the west dropped. 'The 1Di'>n
iina! folds
affect all the rocks from the uppel'most eretaCe<lllf.
downward but cl:o not involve the Tertia.ry, 'II'heren.
iuultg displac. the Tertiary beds os well. The
dIsplacements of t.be two 'YllCS are thUJ> of .liferent
geologie 31l'1. Only one of fnults affects the Kai·
parowits region. This, too East iPounsnugunt fault, .
trends northeasllvord 0 long the east border of the
Paunsa.ugunt Plateau.
Aside from the tllnt are due to the moDO-
clinal folds, tbe general inclination of the beds in tbe ·
southern port of the Kniparowits re<>-ion is northward,
for' the rocks he.re constitute the n"orth flank of the
jI1lI<I Grand Cttnyon up""rp in Arizona. Northeast
Tlhle Cliff and Last Ghance Creek-aloll" I.he
and in t.he Escalante
dip of the roel" is gently sout.hwestward fro\l1
:JIcrts& of the prominent 'Vaterpocket Fold . . Thesc
ilGId structural features nrc represented in the struc-
{;I!IlDIpoHh.e region (pI. 16) and are also indicated
iI the strue!ural sections shown on Plute 17,
During the COlll'Se of planc-blble surveys of most of
_}'ariA Valley, the Kaiparowits Plateau, the Circle
Glifs, and Halls VaEey altit.udes of nUnlC\'oas beds
we derennined nt hnndreds of di/rel'ent points. By
of the thid",e" of formations ill the
puu of the urea. tIm. tmvcrse", :t is possible to oon-
a fairly nccurate genera! .tmctlll'lll map on a
IIIecIOO datum plane.
Agrurlure map of the Circle Clifl's (fig. 8) "as pre-
lJ'R'l wit.h t.he top of the Knibao limestone ns a datulU
p/II..,bnt in mukiug tbe map of the Inr!!er area shown
:J Plate 16 it was found that the representation of
.:ractu .... based on 11 stl'utigraphic horizon that in some
;:Iaoo; Wftl niO:'e than 9,000 feeL below the surillce was
.wj,d to considerabie errol', chidly becuuse of un-
ruWD nrilttions in thickness of the formations.
lien"" the top of the Dakota (1) sundstone, or r.ltber
:!IeblSeofthe persistent und highly fossiliferous basal
SIIIdstone of the Tropic Shlllc, which is .. very widely
diltribuled, well exposed, und readily identifiable
mooD, was selected as a more suit:tble datum. It
is approximately in t.he middle of the strllt.igrnph:c
In computing tbe altitude of the Dakota ( 1) sand-
tone ill ..... as where olde!' and younger rocks are
uposed at the surface convergence maps were COil '
a'.IIIttd for each of the main stratigraphic divisions.
r ... uample, an increase in thickness of mom thaD
IlOO feet in the Triassic rocks between the Circle
aifalnd the San Juan River was taken into account.
x-.rements of strike and dip were made in many
JlII1.I of the region. This information, supplemented
I>rlbserv&tiollB of the areal distribution of formations
IIIIIlltitudes obln inca from topograph ic maps, ,vas
lliliad in dl'&fti ng the structural map.
1Q Waterpocket monocl ine is one of t.he domina.nt
.lIIetaral clements in southern Utah, The ridg ...
IrIIed by the shllrply npturned maEsive sandstone
liioi tbe long, Dorrow soft-rock .alley that marks its
may be tr'lCed for a. distance of neo.rly 80 miles
.... \he Colorado River northward to Thousand
r..u Mountain. From Kotom southeastward the
8lDks of the Waterpocket monocline are par-
lieularl}: conspicuous,
The rocks in tbe monocline OI'e steeply inclined to
ihe east, and dips range from 1.)0 at tne south end of
ihe fold 011 the Colorado RiYer to 7';° at some points
east of the Circle Cliffs. (See pI. 19, A.) In severn I
, places a horizontal traverse of a little over 2 miles
all beds from the top of Lhe Permian
i Ka.lbab I.mestone to the Mosuk SIIIHlstone, ncnr the top
of the Cretaceous, a 'stratigraphic sectiou of approxi-
mutely 9,000 fect. (See pI. 18,) Neal' the head of
Hulls Creck the structurol displncerr.ent is nbout 9,000
feet, but, t.o the sonth the eastward inclination of UIC
.'oeks becomes grudnully the 1I1l10uut of the dis-
plllcement diminishes, and 11 short distance soutb of
the Colorndo Rive,' the fold di sappears. Where tho
Colorudo Ri vel' cro,,",'<eS the Water pocket Hexure the
uppermost part of the Moenkopi iormnt,ion is exposed
for a short distance, und the overlying weRk Chinle
shale widens the canyon 10cuUy, (See pI. 26, C.)
Along the enstern ftnnk of the " ' lIterpocket lIIono-
cli"e " longitudiual miley is carved in soft Upper
Jurassic and Cretllceous rocks, ond the moro resistn.l1t
stmtll stand on the floor of the valle), liS low hogbncllS .
Southward from the "icinity of "ruley Twist the
steep west wall of the longitudillal valley consists of
Namj o sandstone, which extends to the cr<l.<;t of the
monocline and continues down its SOllthwestel'll slope
into the Kaiparowits downwarp. Korth of :Mlllcy
Twist the Kllvnjo fOl'ms a high hogback ridge sep-
arated by B narrow longitudinal valley front the shnrp-
angled sandstone ridge formed by the Todillo (1)
Bnd 'Vingate formations. In the middle eastc\'ll
part of the Circle Cliffs the Wingate tends to forlll
a scl'ies oi t.riangular pyramids separated by ellst-
,vo.rd-flowing tributaries of Muley Twi<t Creek, which
flows southward along the contnct of the K a vajo Bnd
Todilto( 1) formations. The weak Trillssic Chinle
and Moenkopi rocks fOI'm It lowlltnd on the west side
of the s.lndstoue ridges, but the underlying hurd Kai-
bab limestone forms a dip slope thut I'ises to the snm-
mit of the anticline, where an ultitude approximately
,;qu!1 10, thAt of the crests of the so.ndstone I'idges of
the plateaus farther east is reached.
'Ehe Wo.tel'poe\,et monoclinc im'olves all the stmti-
fled rocks below the Masuk sandstone, nnd the date
of the deformation is therefore at least as hlt. as
the I&tcr part of the Cretaceous.
The Circle Cliffs upwarp is nn elongated, very asym-
metric anticEne, sOlllewhat more than 50 miles in
length, bordered on the east by the Waterpocket
monocline. The highest part of the upwarp IU1$ a
&! form compreHed from east to west and elon-
gated para1)el to the trend of the monodine. Here
the top of the Kaibab limestone rises to ahout 6,.';00
a.bo"e sea level, at " point neur The Peaks. If
the Dakota (') ""ndstone were &till p ...... nt o,'er thc
summit of the upwarp it "'ould have an altitude of
about 11,300 feet. along the .... is of the
upworp a relati vely shono .. sug lies bet ... een the high
point in the Circle Cliffs ond a second high point
in the Miners Mountain South .... rd the crest
of the up warp plunges graduoUy ·to about 6,500 feet
I short distance aouth of the Colorld., River. South·
westward the dip slopes on the hard Juras.ic sand·
atone form a gcntle descent., interrupted by low anti-
clines and "ynclines, that leads toward the Kaiparowits
downwarp, whose part iQ 30 to 40 miles dis-
hnt. After crossing the belt of weak Upper Jurassic
rocks in the VaHey this clip slope oontinlJ(!S
to the hud sandstone of the K.iparowits Plateau,
Erosion has breaclled the high plrt of the Circle
Cliffs uJlwarp and produced a brond elliptic..1 VAlleT
in the 80ft Tri_ic shale. (See pis. 8, B; 22, B.)
Thi. dcpre8sioD, which is surrounded on all sides
by inw.rel-facing cliffs of msssi"e Jurassic .. ndstono,
is not hollowed .mootllly ·into a basin but contains in
its ccnt.ral pal·t a broad, dome-shaped elevlltiOl) that
i. upheld by the hnl'" Permian limestone and sur·
mounted ill two <Jr three ploces by outliers of hard
Triassic conglomerate (hilt reach an altitude u great
lIB that of the top of th. surrounding sandstone rim. I
Dire<:tly aCI'OES the waU the River has cut.
deep, nanow tl'eneh, the of a continuous
canyon thllt leads to the Colorado R,ver. The changt
in topography from a broad, open .aIley 10 a precipi.
tous-sided trench is abrupt. South of Escalante the
monocline plunges southward And seems to disappear
within a few miles. Northwnrd, however, it» western
flank for a (Ustance of nbout 8 miles is ·exposed in the
banI, of Pine Creek. Farther north, on Sand Creek
the fold has been beveled by pre-Tertiary erosion, IDd
n. a series of truncuted beds it disappear. beneath the
limestone Rnd of the Aqua.riu. Plaleau. Unlike
the beds involved in the Waterpocket flexure the Jur ...
sic beds exposed in the east.ern limb of the Escalante
monocline have gentle clips. that e."tend for but a few
miles before becoming merged witb the gelltnl
But the strnta that form tile
westward flank dip sharply downward-80° to se"
along Pine Creek, Hi o on Deadman Creek-and brine
the Nn>ujo somlstone (Jurassic Y) and the Straight
Cliffs sandstone (Uppel' Cretaceolls) into the sam,
, horizOntal pI nne. The displacement amounts to more
thlUl 2,000 feet within a horizonW distance of about
. 2 miles. In its regional r.lutions the Escalante moIl().
cline is an interruption of the gener.! dip of the beds
bet\Veen the crest of the Watel'pocket llexure and the
base of tho Aquarius and Table Cliff Plilteaus-a h"ll'l
wrinkle in an otherwise continuous westward-dipping
In the ccntral pHrt of T. 36 S., R. (; E., & southwlrd-
trending shallow .-yncline crosses Harris CrtU, a
tributary of the Esenlnnte River. The structure is I
clearly shown in the basal sandy, gypsiferous upper
Jumssio beds that overlie the Navajo sandstone. On
the east side of the syncline the dip is 3° to 10·, bul
on the west it is us much us 20°. The southward
plunge of the syncline is 11\01'" than 150 feet to the mile.
The great southward projection of the Crete_
rocks tbat compose the Kaipa.rowits Plateau is el-
plained by the structural depression of the plateau
area.. Northeastward from the base of tbe platelu
there is an essentially uniform rise of tbe rocks to the
summit of tho Circle Clift's upwarp, and there is 00II'
oequently no real line of division between the treal
designated downwarp and upw.rp. A convenient and
natural clivision, however, may be mode along the line
of. the Cretaceous outcrops marked Ly the Strai«ht
Chff.. On the 80utb Ilnd southeust tbe rock beds rise
gently toward tbe Colorado Rh:.r, Ind the" al"e no
. clearly defined atrllctul'Ol limits of the downwarp ill
The ColleU anticline is a minor elevation of the
beds on the west .ide of' tho. Han'is syncline. It is
locully l' El ther prominent. on nccouut of the control
it e:scrts in the distribution of the roellS al th" surface
havieg pl'oduced a nearly continuous extension of
the NaVAjo sunclstone from tho broad area of its out-
orop north of lInni. Wash to Collett Creek on the
sout.h. As mensur. d ill the st.rnt.ilied rocks that over.
lie tbe NAvajo the inclination of the beds in the ,u:t.i-
cline is 6° to 20° on the enst flonk aud 4° to 5° on the
west flail k.
The Escalante monocline is locally IL very prominent
st·ructural fent,III'O. As viewed from Escalante it
stands os IL 11'011 of steeply upturned sandstone "bor.
derod by lower-lying surfaces of gypsum sh.I •. and
alluvium, in tlte midst of which the is pioced
this This part of the downwarp is char-
acterIzed by gentle undulatioDs, whose axes convergo
to\ •• rd the center of the depressed .. ren. Along Wah·
weep Creek t.he nOlth end of the Echo monocline is.
more prominent rock fold th.t ma.rks out ti,e Paria
platfo)'m on west from tbe structurally slightly
IO",el' area to the east. On the west the Kaipllrowir.
down .. is sharply bounded by the Eost Kaibab
mouochne, ... hose ·main axis, marked by the course of
the House Rock Valley and Cottonwood Creek, trends
not·tlt-northeast. North of the "Gnt" tills trend
gradunlly changes to the northwest and tbe dip af
u. " alXlLOG1CAL SURV £Y

, /
.... _- .
I ,
I ! lL
! I

I \
1- /
r )
• •
____ 1 _______ , "-- ___ -
11:.. --00'



- >\
4) &;

' :to

\ I
" \

i '
Structure contours on top
of the Dakota ( 1) landlltone
Duhed Iinl!:1 .ho'A'
approximatll:! location
·:::-:. --------------lll"OO·----·----
- - .. _-- - --
.""",0<.< bOlindni.one
Hf."" RY MTto
VIEW ( ..1 ) "' IW:'1 f: IIE.c:.T OF WATF.npOCKET foLD SIoi.I:.TCII ( Ij ) SII OWIXG SUHF.\ CE DlSTflIBCTI ON 0 1" t 'OIi,I\IATJO:\' S
U. 8. O,.;OI.l)OIC,\L
' "", ia _hI' IU"ofI al the ,iI" .. i3I Nltvl.,jn; dnrk ,.",., of !.hI:! CMIIt,,1 (Ufl1)lIliCJII tlilld "!nIt. Ioar.d,.t;.:,f'.
II p."'ar.,t Illin k-(t, 11"" cliff" In the ,,,ct ,lio.11I1'IOI) arc of Sunuoen'illll, And <:") fO(lRllt km".
N'lIn,jo III hlfl, s.:tnd1lllloe., TroPro llilwt." ulld St,.lIighl ClitrlC ""ndtiIOM, ill order
nnllla.), ::Iol nih.!.
rocb iSnotuoly less steep thun further south. The
northern pll"t of thc c10wnwurpcd urca. has a definitelY
.,-.dinaIE.tructlll·e, with an axis that tl'ends northwest.
AI the &XIS of the syncline trends almost exactly be-
.. th Table Cliff, it is culled the Table Clil syncline,
althougb tho Tertiary rocks of the plateau are not at
all inl'ol
<! in the structure.
In most places the surface of t!:Je Cretllceous sand-
s'.I)D8 platfOrms IIccul'>ltely reflects the rock slructul'e.
From crest of thc Stl'llight Cliffs .. dip slope is
,ntly ulc!lned to the southwest. (See pI. 21, .!t.)
TllLS dip 1$ locally much steepened On approaching
the Table Cliff syncline, as illdicnted topograpbically
.1 the development of hogbacl< ridges on the Wah-
.. elp undstone eust of Table Cliff and Canaan Peak_
A view from any prominent point, such as the
a..t of the Cretaceous hO<Ybncks on tho Enst Kaibab
lIIoaoeline, shows clearly gently "'.sin-like struc-
olthe oontl'al PUTt of the K"i pa.owits downwarp.
The lowest purts o,f the basin iu the vicinity of Canaan
P.lk along the hel ow.tel'S of Wallweap Creek are
OC<:UPJed by soft. rock. of the Klliparowits fOl'm .. tion,
• aC lhe D1nximum thickness of this formation lies
"hre the underlying sandstone is mOBt depressed.
'file dip slope on the top of the Wllhweap SIlndstone
rises I:"ntly but ' in a c1enrly defined manner on the
nonheasl, east, southeast, lind !IOuth. On tho west
lies the steeply upturned sandstone of the East Kai-
bob rnonodine.
The top of the Straight Cliff. sandstone forms &
brood platfonn that extend. outwa.rd from Ihe IAlst
OiaDce Cliffs. Except in part of the a·rea along Last
Cbaoce Creek, where the rocks of this division have
been extens;"ely ' a.ltered by the burning of the in-
<Iuded coals and ha,ve been much dissected, the in.gu-
laritiEs of the platform define the gentle anticlinlll
and synclinal wal'pings that ani superimposed on the
legional structure in this part of the downwarp.
South of the Straight Clift's escarpment the platform
bown 8S the Grand Bench, formed mainly by mas.
live Morrison conglomerate, shows a continuation of
IIrudural features observed in the rocks farther
A. prominent southeastward-trending anticline is
obsened on the headwatel'll of Rock Creek, about 6
Illites north of the Colorado. River, and intersects the
Little R«i Valley, a tributary of Iha Croton' Branch of
Cbance Creek. Unlike mo.ny of the structural
features of the plateau country, tbe Rock Creek anti-
(lillt showS no steep dips, the marimum inclination
being about 8° or 10°. The Ultieline has an elliptical
dome Shape that is striking beca.use of its clear expres_
sion in the dip slopes of the Grind Bench and because
of exposures of N avaje) sandstone on Rock Creek and
"'.hIYelep sandstone in Little Red Valley tbat are

entirely sun'ounded by younger formations. So far
known, the axis of the anticline is only 8 or 10 miles
.The Croton syncline borders the Rock Creel, anti-
cline On the west nnd trends almost due uorth the
Branch of Lnst Chance Crl'('k. On the"'east
Side of the syncline the heds dip 8° or 9°, but on the
we.st they havo ol1ly a slight inclination toward the
.'n8 of the syncline,and within & short distunce t.hey
reassume the regional slope toward the soutitwest
Throughout Ilmost its entire course Lnst Chance
follows Ihe IXis of. gentle but well-defined syn-
chne, the eHst limb of which is formed by tho geneI'll I
l'egional dip ot the rocks, and tha west lill1b by a. gentle
Flse towal:d the crC01t 01 the Smoky Mouutain anti-
(Iille. Locally dips ot as much as 5° Ul'O observed,
bllt jn general I,hey do not exceed 2° 01' 3°, The axis
of the syndine plunges nOI·thwe'Stw,lrd at an ILv.rage
rate of about 65 reet to the mile, the dit' ection of slope .
l>eing opposite to thot of the stream's /low.
Tbe geotly rounded divide on the surface of the
StraigM C1itrs SIIndstone plateau and th" Grand
Bench defines an anticlinal axis tha.t l'Qsses thl'ough
Smoky lfountain. The anticline IDay be desi:;llI.ted
conveniently the Smoky Mountain o,nl.icline. Between
the headwaters of Warm and Last Chance Creeks this
axis is very sharply marked, Ilnd the dip i!'Om
the top of the sandstone is very readily observable
with the eye. F'arther south the axis of the anticline
is less clearly defined. Its trend is parallel to that of
the synclines on each side, and like them it plunges
gently north west ward_
Warm Creek follows the central axis of a gentle
synclinal depression somewhat similar to that of List
Chance Creek but 'broader and, especially to the south,
less clearly defined. It is of int.erest chiefly on ac-
count of its relition to the position of tho stream.
The structurally depressed area on the ea&t side of
the Echo monocline may be desigllllled Ule Wlhweap
syncline. The tl'end of this syncline Is more northerly
titan the structural fe,.tures that been noted
farther east, and tbere is here little structural dif-
ferentiation from the WllrID Creek syncline, which
adjoins it on the cost. For the most part Wah weap
Creek does not follow the uis of the Wahweap syn-
cline but /lows in a course parallel t<> it, a short dis-
t ance to the west.

As defined by steep northeasterly dips at the hew of
the Paria Valley and by similarly steep southwestedy
dips that are marked by the northwestward-trending
hogback ridg .. along the h8l1dwaters of the
the Tllble Cliff syncline mark. the bottom of the ]Cal'
parow ita downwarp. Its aIis north:",estward,
and 18 indicated by a study of the Kaiparowits forma-
tion and the altitude of the top of the Wahweap sand-
stone, there is apparently a gentle plunge to a low
point in the vicinity of Canaan Peak. Th .•
part of the syncline is occupied by the KaiparoWIts
form.tion; The rocks are beveled oj!' rather smoothly
l1y erosion, 80 that abo,'s the axis of the t?e
Tertiary bed. rest on beds high in the KaIparoWits
formation but a short distance to the ea!i; and west
they teat SDIldatone of the Wah-weap formll.tion, and
farther awny on lower beds down to the Nl.vajo sand-
The sharp monocliMI flexure that is called by
Gregol'y the Echo monocline is breached by the Colo·
rado River at Lees Ferry. South of the river it is
readily traceable for lOnny miles in Arizona. North-
ward in Utah, where the flexure is much less promi-
nent, it extends to· the eastern put of R. 2 E., about
midway between the points where the Paria River and
Wohwenp C,-eek cross the boundary. Near the State
line the i. cleorly defined by an eastward
dip slope on the top of the Navaj(l sondstone, where
dips of as much as 30· were The displace-
ment of a.ny particular bed on ti,e two sides of the
monodioe amount. to only about 1,600 feet, which is
much less than at Lees Ferry and points farther50uth.
Where Wahw .. p C,-eek intersects the monocline, 7
miles nOl·th of the StAte boundary, the dips average
12·-15' and the amount of displacement somewhat
less than it i. to the south. Distinct easterly dips may
bo observed in the Cretaceous beds along Wah"eap
Creek as far north as Ty Hntch Creel" a tributary of
Wahweap Creek in the southern part of R. 41 S. In
this vicinity the fold plunges northward. The elect
of the monocline on the distribution of rock forma-
tioM is clearly exhibited on the geologic map of the
area, for the border of the Cretaceous is about 6 miles
farther south on tlle east side of the monoc:line than
on the west side.
. 1'!'e Parill platform is an nrea of gently northward-
Il\clmed beds between the Enst Kaibab And Echo mono-
clines.. It is narrow: at the north and widens gradu-
nUy southward. It l.S structurally continnollS with the
great marble plotfo:", in which the Marble Gorge of
the Grund Callyon IS carved. Its maximum width in
scuthern Utah is obout 18 miles, but 20 miles north
of tbe State boundary, where it passes into the un-
differentiated purt s of the Kaiparowits downwarp,
it is barely 8 miles wide.
'rho genMe northerly dip slope is well defined
on the top 0.£ the Navajo sandstone m the Pit.
Plateuu. East of the Paria Ri ver it. form. the hrou
Clark bench, south of the Straight Cliffs escarpmenL
{;pper Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks overlie and <:un-
ceal the Navajo in most of the portioll of the Paria
platform thnt is included in the .ares here described.
The East Kaibab monocline justly ranks as .. major
structural feature of the plateau country. It extew!i
without interruption from the Colorado River north.
ward to Table Cliff, a distance of about 120 miles,and
defines the eastern' border of the Kaibab Plateau. It
raise. the rocks- on the west several thousand feet
above those on the east, and through its influence in
guiding erosion the present stratigrapbic formation.
are so distributed that beds on the east side of the fold
reach on the average nbont 40 miles farthel' south than
corresponding beds on the west. Unlike the Water-
pocket and Ecbo monoclines, the East Kltibth mollC-
cline trends east of north, but like theirs its steep dips
areenstward. (See pis. 19, B; 21, A, B.)
The structural displacement along tbe East Kaibs!>
monocline in southern Utah amounts to a maximum
of about 5,000 feet. Along Kaibab Gulch it is possible
to pus from the top of the Permian Hermit shalt
tc. the top of the Jurassic ( ') Navajo sandstone in •
ho,,;zolltal distance of about 8 miles at right aneles
to the trend of the fold. The rocks on each side of
the monocline slope gently north, so that successively
younger rock divisions appear at the surface in pIS!!.
mg from south to north. Along Cotton1food Creek
and farther south the average dip of the rocks is about
. 40' E., but in places dipa as steep as 6!i' have been
measured. (800 pI. 19, B.) In most plaees there is
DO observed evidence of' faulting along the monocline,
Lut south. of the point where the Paria. River
lbe fold there are indications ·of considerable fractur-
ing of the massive Navajo sandstone acoompanied by
slipping and shearing. The extreme narrowness of
the House Rock Valley near the point wbere Sand
Wash crosses the sandstone escarpment indicates thit
a strike fault with downthrow on the east cut- out
part of 80ft Triassic beds that normally shonld II.
exposed &t this horizon.
All the stratified rocks of the region up to the very
top of the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits formation
are involved in the folding, and the time of tbe de-
formation must therefore ·be at least very lale in the
Upper Cretaceous. It seems probnble that the defor-
m&tion took place &t the end of Upper CretaceoUll
Ri vcr crosses tbe f",ult Tertiary beds on the \\',,-<t ore
in contact with the Upper Cretaceous sandstones on
the east ILnd the amount of the throw is apparently
only 4.00 or GOO feet, As the foult affects the Wasatch
Tertiary beds its age is post· W osatch, In geologIC
timo and in direction of dislocation of tho rocks this
structural feature is there forB entirely unl'elated to the
monoclines thlll have been noted in other parts of the
orCIL, The space between the PauDsaugunt fuuIt on
the cost ond the Sevier fault on the west, which is
mainly occupied by tho Paunso.ugunt Plateou, may be
designoted the Paunsangunt plQtfol"ll\, As most of
this aroa is covered by Tertiary l'OCks elle structUl"
of the underlying Mesowic and older beds is not defi.
nitely known, Cret,oceous t.hu is expcJ.!ed
on the East Fork of the SevIer R,vel' lies pnctieaUy
flnt, and it is probaule that the olde, beds in this lrea
ha,'e 11 genUe nOl'lhwRrd incliuation simil"r to that
of Klllb.b upwurp east. 'rOpographiuny
this platform has an altItude of somel.hal more than
2,000 feet above the country to the enst, which is a
very interesbng and physiographically significant fet,
(ure, os the ol'iginal effect of the Paunssugunt dia.
plncement must have heon to elevate tbe country on
the eust considel'llbly abo,'o that on the "'est, This
topogrnphic inequalit.y has since been reversed. (See
• I 1
t I
common than the irregulal'ities due to igneous activity,
The Colorado Plateau province, of whi ch the K.i- ,Ire tbe 100,? monoclinul ridges, monyof them sharply
pIN"it! ,regio!"! is 11 SOlidI but typ:cal purt, has long serrate, whICh divide one sect.ion of the plateau coun-
lIeId special attraction for the student of land forms. try from. onotller. Some of these walls extend olmost
For tbe prolince as n whole the topon-raphic ,vithout break and witb little change in direction
1ft disti.nctive. In strongest cOIlt.rast" to tbe gmcoCul for more t.han 100 miles. Though these ridges nre
QOItlmes of humi d the plnt.eau .landscape is 10 general not loity, they rise in places hundreds of
boIdl, rugge(}. The angled out.lines of the land stand feet above the adjacent pllltellus.
Iorts witbout prot"cling cover, but the naked land- . As comp'n;d with other palts of the plntenu prov-
Ie'p. is decked in [1 maze of brilliant, fantastic colors. mce, the strat'graphic se,·ie. of the Kaiparowits region
The plateau provi"ce is eosentially country of are similar and the dinstrophic movements nre not un-
brOid ehfl'-edged more or lesll intricQ.telv like in kind IUld probably in time. The peI"iods of
h ... ched by na .... ow steep-wa.l..l ed canyons. In mnn)' igneous activity throughout the plateull country are
ploees s!ngl.e platforms extend uni nterruptedly for probably ruore or less closely related. The
_ •• of Ollles. Commonly one wide plateau bench ment of the Colorado River drainnge system and the
i .... • bo,'e anoth.,·, and this in turn :s surmounted development of the physiographic feat.III·" that now
by stili athe,'s so ns to £ol'm a series of broad, in-egu- distinguish its basin a,'e chapters in the gl!Ologic
larly outlined steps, ench hundreds or even thousnnds hi stOl·,. of Arizona, Nevada, and Colornd9, as well
of feel in height. However, an outlook :from almost as of $()utheastern Utnh. The evidence from aU these
aft1 "ontage point shows 11 sky line that is essentially regions should 00 eumul at.ive nnd accordant. Although
"riaontalj the brenl{s at the edges of suooessivc the Kaipurowits region furnishes typi<!lll examples of
appeu quit" insignificant, and ths clefts nearly all I.he land forms of the plateuu country nnd
tined by deeply intrenched dr .. inage disappear ,,1- .fords mnny interesting facts of physiographic his-
IlClEt completely. So well does tile plateau surface on lofY, the lICOpe of this study is insufficient to make de-
.. e lid. of a river appear to merge with that on the 'I sirlhle the discu.sion of other t.han salient features.
IIMr that even the p'·ofound gorge of the Colorado Interpl-etation of evidence concerning the physio-
beoome. conspicuous only when its i. closely .p_ graphic history of the region is tentative and when
prolched. At a few points in northern ODd conclated with future obse"vations in this and in
...cern (tab the general smoothness of the horizon adjucent areas will doubtless 00 modified. Because of
is interrupted by laccolith. or volconic pile&-<lone- these considerations, the material presented in this
oIIaped elevations like sb",,, stacks in a brood fie.ld. ('hapter is largely descript.ive.
When viewed close Ilt hand, each of the typical ele- FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE EROSION
llenls of the, plateau landscape is bold and impres-
si ... The surface of 11 pluteau thllt at " distance seems
I brold, smooth platform mo.y prove to 00 intricately
tnnched by canyons hundreds of feet in deplh, which
Il8ke Invel OerO"9 it exceedingly difficult and in places
Ie but impossibfe. The edge of eleh plateau is com-
1l0000y muked by In imposing tlilf, which surmounts
• slope I.hll.t leo.ds down to tile sudaee of the next
Iow.r plattorm. Many of these cliffs more than a
IllollSand feet above the COWl try belm'\"; from the Boor
of tlIe Paria Valley to the top of the Table Cliff
Plateau tller .. is an almost unbroken ascent of more
thin .,000 feet. Unnoticed details of the distant
landscape on nearer approach stand forth as great .
-ties and towers.
Very noteworthy deviations from the normal sub--
lIori20ntal elements of the landscape, and much more
Southeastern Ut.h as a whole is arid. The a vel'oge
Rnnua! rainfall at .is stations belo,. Ille rim of the
High Plateaus is 9.56 inches, and at few pl., .... on the
High Plateau. it e:tceed 12 inch... In ports of
the Kaiparowits region it is probably less than 5
inches. Tho precipitation is subject to wide variation
in time, in amount, ond in place. The rain commonly
ralla In Io<;al torrentiKl showers, and only at infre-
quent intervals Ire t.here general st<>rms accompanied
by widespread precipitation. (See p. 20.)
The sudden violence of the showers in II. country
almost burren of soil Ilnd vegetation results in a
maximum amount of run-off, for littl. of the water
soaks deeply into the ground. The falling rain gathers
.Imost immediately into rivulets and gulleys, which

<:8rry it swiftly intQ the larger draina!:e channels.
During heny storms sheets of water cover much of
the surface and roll along to ..,me depre&llion or plunge
over the cliff. u a nearly continuous waterfall. In
the anyons a turbulent, swollen lload of dirty,
laden water quickly appears, where before there may"
have been not even a trickle, and the waters may rise
several feet in almost II few minutes. In narrow
sectiom of the canyons the water rna,. reach .. height
of 15 or even 20 feet ahove the canyon floor, Ind in
many pllces it is dangerous to be during a
heavy storm. To one not acquainted with the plateau
country it is surprising to see the tumbling, noisy
., wall of water" advance swiftly down a dry w&ter-
course at a time when the immediately surrounding
country is bone-dry.
During the passage of these floods the col'1r of the
chang1!' 85 one tributary after another con-
tributes ita load of waste. With the eeology of the
region in mind it is possible to determine the iource
of the moteriuls, and thll5 the location of the sturm,
though many miles distant. .
The run-off from a local -shower mny be insufficient
in amount to rench one of the larger perennial streams,
so tbat the water may deposit its load along the can-
yon ... it sinks into the porous debris of the canyon
floor. After the IO':g1!r storms Ind during the rainy
season, many ·of the tributary streams become through-
flowing and contribute their mud and coarser land
w ... te to the master stream.
If the rainfall in southern Utah wel'e evenly dis-
tributed through the yelll' the avel'age flow of streams
would be relatively small. It is even Possible that
evaporation and seepage into the materials of the
valley bottom would more than counterbalance the
small averawo 601-face flow; thel'e would be little
erosion. But the distribution of rainfall in sudden --
hard showers, with consequent very rapid run-off'
greatly facilitntes the of
,":,ounts crt I'?"k d"bflS. A lIngle flood. may accom-
phsh ma-ny times the amount of erosion that would
result normally from months or even years of work
by a small stream.
Evaporation tends to diminish the length and vol-
ume of streams, with efeets Oil ltans _
btiOll. nlid dpposition of dtlbris. Gregory I has
,to .tlle !!IlllSOnal and dlily fluctuations of
flow In response to evaporation, and )liser'
ascflbeS some of the cha.llgoS in volume of the S
Juan to I.he periodic PIlSSBg1! of hot dry winds. _ an
IOrelrOl'7. R. E .• The Navajo ceaDIrr--., bk!
,rapbLc or I)Qrh or Arlao.a Nr M P teo IDd h1dro.
U,. 8, Paper ISO: p. • and Utah:
MllOr, H. D., The 81\D 11111.11 CflD,OD, to"theaatern Uta
."pble lind Il1dl'OlJ'llphlc: reeGnnnltallIlDC'(! ' U a. Geol h. • gto-
Supply Papu 1)38, p. 17. IOU, '. , Sunul Wl!ter·
Frost is an active agent_ The mesas and butteatbat
stand above the. surface level of tbe Pallll_
SBl.lgunt and Plateaus are heav,j)y coated
with talus, and blocks pried from sandstone loogea IN
piled at the base of the higher cliffs and here IIId
therll along the ca-nyon walls. Even on tho g.lnt!er
slopes f.rost supplies each spl'ing a thin coat of materia)
ready for removal by the torrential rills of summer.
l'he collection of the rainfall in the stream
of the Kaiparowits region is greatly accelerated by the
genera.lly scanty' vegetation. The upper slopes IIld
summits of the High Plateaus, above an altitude of
about 8,500 feet, are fairly well forested_ In p1aees
between th. tr_ lie meadow-like glades carpeted with
grass and dotled with thickets of shrubs. Hera th.
run-off is retarded, and much of the precipitation sinks
into the soil and underlying The lower slopes
and the broad plateau surfaces at intermediate alti-
tudes, snch as tt,. Kaiparowits Plateau, have a .parser
cove<'ing of rather stunted trees, and the effect of vege-
tation in retaiDing moisture is considerably dimin.
ished. The lowest plateaus and valleys, at an altitude
of around 6,000 feet and less, possess only a very &eat.-
. tcred covering of small twisted cedars and SCi'8ggl.r
with Ii&gebl'ush, gl'easelVood, other planta
IU between them. Ench unit of the scanty ••
tatIOn tends to stand by itself, surrounded by bare soil,
loose stony ,vaste, or bnre rocks. Over wide sp..-
not even a cad.us has estqblished a foothold in these
inhospitable surroundings. Under such conditions 1M
retllrding effect of vegetaijon on active erosiOn is re-
• minimum. For the region as a whol. vega-
tatlOn IS a very subordinate factor in the control of
run-off. .
to the comparatively short distance from the
HIgh Plateaus, where altitudes are 8,000 to n08rl7
11,000 feet, to Glen Canyon, whel" the a.!fitude illess
thM3,500 feet, most streams of the Kaiparowits regioo
have steep gl'uilients. The Paria River descenda 1 fOO
feet in 115 and even exclusive of its steep
water tributaries, the lower ·60 rnile9 of the stream bN
an average fall of 43 feet to the mile. Similarly the
:Escalante River descends a little over 7000 feet ia
Ilbollt 80 miles, ond the Il'erage tht
steep headwaters is about 41 feet to the mile. Wah·
weap Creek, whose headwaters are in soft roclm thai.
are underlain by a resistant sandstone platform, has
an average gradient of 100 feet to the mile a.nd Last
Chanee Crt'Ok, in essentially similar an
average gradient of 10 feet ,to the mile. The shorUr
Warm Creek and Rock hove respectively a_·
age falls of 90 and 285 feet to the mile. In contrast
5ith these sh .. llms the Colorado River in Glen Canyon
bas the exceptionally low gradient of about 2 feet to
There is an evident relation between the gradient
01 the aUeoms and the character of the rock fonnations
ill which the valleys are cllrved. In portions of the
,aDe1" where soft roeltS are exposed ,the stream
is relatively low, but wbere hard tocks are
_unwed the rate of fall is markedly higber.
1bus, along most streams there is a succession of rela-
Ii.ely gentle and relatively steep gradients. The
iJterrupted profiles nnd steep gradients of tbe, streams
an indications of the rapid downward uosion tbat is
ukiDg place along their courses. Rapid erosion is
iadictted also by the characteristically 111'1:0" load
carried by the streams. The flood waters sweep away
.«mons quantities of the finel' sediments and push
forward along the stream channels coarse rock waste ,
iJduding large boulders. Much of the energy of some
IlreIDlS is utilized in transportation, with the result "
that vertieal cutting is impeded, and there is a tend-
IDt"f to cut laternlly and to develop meanders. The
Colorado River in Glen Canyon is barely able to carry
the lead of wuste snpplied by its tributaries,
Plateaus a zone 0<' 1 ,IJ''OI (nato,I" ot continuous
Ilnd many patch ' .'
es vI l 0 ",,_1 ... V1WU are sat-
The efficiency of gt'Ound water 8S a factor
ID erOSIon is further shown by landslides. (See p.145.)
An in .t.he topographic develop-
ment of the KaIparowIts regIOn is the control .xerted
by the composition, structure attitude of the
rocks. It is readily observed that tbe Burface of each
bench or .mesa is upheld by a I'ock mass that is
relnstant to erOSlOO. From most benches tbe overlying
lIel.k rocks ha.ve stripped away 10 that the plU-
ellt surface comcldes closely with the top of the hard
beds. The ch1fed bordea-a of plateaus and of canyons
"'e likewise determined by hInd rocks. In fact the
dominance of clift's in tbe landscllpe is a reflectio'n of
the topographic influence of rock composition. HII'd
beds detel'mine tbe I1I'Oadly level plateau
.. e they ort gently inclined, the surface is similarly
i and where they dip steeply ,topography
19 mamly controlled by the sloping surface of the beds.
Monoc.lines are represented in the topOltI'aphy by hog-
back ridges 01' by prominene lines of clift's that are de-
veloped on the harder rocks. The surface exposures
The predominance of high-lying plateaus and of weak beds are in general characterized by slopes or
....... bordered by lofty dills fuors the emergence gently undulating topography. Where tbe weak
at "'Gund water. Innumerable canyon walls provide formations are disintegrated by weathering and by the
lIIuit for water in bIldding planes and zonet of joint- corrasion of streams they strongly affect configura-
iIc, and much watu seeps through the massive sarid- tion of valleys and position of drainage lines.
iteMS. Many rock .surfaces are damp at night and Tbe relative thickness and position of the hard and
lID cloudy days, but in response to stronger evapora- soft beds involved in the Paunsaugunt fault bas con-
Ii<lI during: clear days only sul'faces t.hat are, trolled the of erosion forms in the upper
Itlth elIIorescence are moist. The loCal conC4lntration Pari a VaJley.
of I"ound wa.1er along laminne (If cross-bedding and The induence of geology on topography, including
• top of impervious bed. has resulted in the produc- . sueh st.ructural features as jointing, stratific.ation, and
lion of rock-roofe<} recesses and alcoves. (See p. 144!.) ' cross-bedding, is shown by the manner of the weather-
walls of N nVlljo sandstone many seeps and ing of dillerent stl'atigl'lphic units. The following
'PnDgs emerge. Although continuous "spring \\;11 ae .. e IS examples:
lllnes" are not conspicuous features, most of the I 'I'he Dakota ( I) sandstone, though of no great thick-
aroud water in the Kaiparowits region reaches the , ness, i& exceptionalll resistant to erosion, and where
IIIrface at the contact of impervious' and pervious I it is combined with the underlying Morrison it makes·
A few springs emerge at top of the mnny prominent plt.tforms that are bordered by high,
I?'inle fonnation, from beds within tbat forma- olmost. verticsl walls and crossed by sbarp-cut narrow
lim, at the top of the Todilto (') formation. The canyons Along much of the southwest /lank of the
1br1J01I-DIIkota (') unconfonnity and base of Plateau a Dakota ( f) .capped bench is
... Morrison is the site of sevilral springs, and the alm06t cont.inuou.s. In it is but a few hundred
sandstone overlying tbe Tropic sbale is in many plaoes feet broad, but In the vlclOlly of .Last Chance and.
at.rated. The most numerous springs and seeps , Rock Creeks rocks th.t overlie Dakota( I)
tIIIerJe at the base of the Tertiary, partly because. the I, have beell stl'lpped bnck •• ve ... 1 mIles and haye,
IlIrfaee water supplied to high-lying formatlona formed GrAnd Bench-:-& broad platform that
" relatil'ely large and plll't11 bec:a_ the Iooeely cOm- southw&l'd 10 chft's nearly a th?usand feet
PIcted conglomerate that marks tbe Cretaceous-Terti- i blgh. The Dakota (I) wrms a hogback 10 the East
ary COnted is a capable .. ater carrier. Along the ! Kaibab (pI. 19, B) nnd caps low
of the Paunsaugunt, Table Cliff, Ind Aquarius I around Hennevllle. On the east faee of the Kalparo-
to!!cl.ber with relatively weak cement, control the
wits Plateau the Dakot.(.) with the underlying Mor· .... phy at ito outcrop. (See pis, 4, D,. 27, C,)
rison forms a persistent bench that rises 200 to 600 Tho dilferences In these three sandstones are \"fry char.
fect above the adjncent lowland and extends 1 to 4 acted.tic and are persistently observable in the
Illites outward from the bGse of the higber cliffs. topography.
Like tho Dakota('), the conglomerate
i!; rep"esented in tho topogl'aphy by DC es ,
reveR led by the strippi"g away of tbo I.ess reslstllJlt The "eologists of the Powell Survey repeatedly
overlying beds. In the J,eos Fel'l'y the con· callcd aUention to the inJluence of rock h .. rdneas On
glomerate serves as the cap for tbe perslsteDt the gradient and fOI'm of ,'nl;e),s in the plnteall provo
kopi Cliff.. (See pI. 8, A.) In the Chffs It ince. This causal relation is indeed so remarklbly
fOI'ms an inward.being escarpment that close that with a geneml knowledge of the stratig.
differentiated f"om the higher cliffs and to It IS due raphy it is p()ilSible to predicL the type of cllnyonin
the preservation of the high mesos that overlook much the area. In crossing one of the great rock platforms
of the surrounding country. (See pI. '1, D.). . the explorer soon learns to select his route with m'-
The Todilto( Y) combined with the Win· erence to the extent, and locntiol! of t hin·bedded and
'!Ute sandstone forms prominent bencnes IU places thick.bedded fOl'mlltions. Even though no .onYOl18
the overlying Navajo s.ndstone has are visible in e. general vicw, experience teaches him
stripped away. In Ihe Cirele Cliffs these formations that areas of Chinle, Carmel, Tropic, ""d !Caipnro"'t.
con.titute a bench that defines the character of the beds offer no serions obstacles to trllvel, that expanses
topogl'llphy on the border of the central depression. of Moenkopi can be traversed without extensive dB'
On the south and north, where the beds are nearly toUI'S, but that few rOlltes ncross Nnvo.jo, D..kot,
horizontal the summit of this bench is nearly level. I (I).capped Morrison, Stmight Cliffs, Wahweap, and
On the wC:St and southwest, where there is Q <listiliCt Wasatch formations are practicuble. To reach the
inclinRtion towllrd the Esc.Jante Rife,', strongly opposite side of • narrow canyon UI the sa.nd.
m&l'kod dip slopes ocenr at the top of the Todilto(l) " stone may require, day of I'oundnbout travel . Acces.I
fOl·mat,ion. (See pI. 22, 0.) Owing to radial dl'lin· to its floor m .. y be impossible e:\:cept by the use of
age, consequent on the structure, spun of' this rock ropes. Where hard rocks fI.!'e exposed the gl'ldient is
bench project along inte!'strenm divides townrd t be steep and the valley is narrowly inclosed by preeij>i-
inner depression and in 1\ number of places where tous wnlls' where soft rocks crop out, the gradient
these SPUrl 11'0 p.,.t1y brol<en down there are isolated is gentle tbe valley is open and bas sides.
buttes and towers. The Kaiparowits region furnishes' many IlIustra-
The hard massive Wingllte sandstone is affected by lione of the m&l'ked contnst in tho readinesa with
vertie&l jointing, which so controls Lhe weathering of which hard rocks and soft rocks yield to the attack
this formation thnt forms uneven but practica.lly of erosion.
continuous pnli •• de.like cliff.. (Sec pI. 8, n.) In
places slender projecting spires or needles of this
l'OCk have been defined by joint plone.. The formation
il crO!;S·bedded, but because of the dense texture of
the rock ond its strong cementation tho croes·bedding
has practically 1)0 effoct on tbe weathering of the
sandstone or on the l",sulting form3. The overlying
'rodiltQ( ') formation is nn irreguhnly lenticular,
rather thin·bedded '.nd'{Qne, which weathers ehOor-
o.cteristieally in wide 81nbby benches. Individual
layol:S 01 this fOrlO:Lt ,ioli are not notably softer than '
the Wingate, but the thinner lIneven bedding associ·
II.ted with a few thin shale zones hos a most strilring
effect on topographic expression a,t the outcrop of this
unit. The succeeding Navnjo sandstone is very mas-
sive Ind is traversed by few joint planes but is ,'ery
prominently cr_·bedded. The formnt.ion ",.athe, ..
characteristically in grellt sh.er clift's, rounded sur-
faces, domes, wigwams, and similar features, in which
the wide·spaced jointing, ext",mely massive bedding,
and irl'egulal'ities of texture incident to crosa·bedding,
The relo.tive hardntss of rocks not only controls the
de"elopment of the main topographic features but
nlso very IIlrgely .ffects the mllnner of erosion by
streams and nccounts for the wide·stripped platfo\"Tlll
tbnt bol'der Glen c"nyoD, the ESC4lante iRiver, and
other streams.. Like th" Tonto platform, wllich is
developed on resistant Cambrian ,beds, and the • Es-
pl.nade," which is developed on the Sup .. i fOrlna-
tion of the Grand C .. n.yon and Kanab Oreek, Glell
Canyon. plntform, which hns made by strippinl
from the Navajo mndstone the 'Reak overlying shale,
is but the expression of the relative strength of the
rocks; no earlier cycle of erosion is involyed. (See pL
21,0.) 'The weaker rocks tend to form slopes and to
hnsten the disintegration of the associated h&rd rOeD;
they also uniformly invite the main attack of stream
erosion in the 'development of lowlands and Vl.lleys.
Practically all exposures of soft rocks are therefore
mal'ked by more or less broo.d lowlands an<i Vl.lleys.

fairly strligbt long valleys Ilrc carved in the up-
fUJIIed weak formations of t.he rock series that is in-
nrlved in monoclinal fOlding. Tbus Halls Creek is
.. teloped ill the wea.k Gpper Jurassic and Creta-
__ shales of the Waterpocket monocline; Pine
in the Upper Jurassic of the Escalante mono-
cIiA. and Cottonwood Creek, in beds of equivalent age
ara involved i" the East Kaibab monocline north
./the ptria River. The House Rock Valley owes its,
poiitioll to the erosion of soft Moenkopi and Chirile,
formations, Where these a.\'e brought to the surface by
!lie Eos& Kaibllb fold.
De form as well as the location of these monoclinlll
nl1eys ill obviously controlled by the structure and
urdness of the rocks. ""l,ere the dip of the rocks
is steepest, and the width of the soft-rock belt cor-
req:GBdingly narrowest, the valley is likewise narrOw-
e&I, Ind where the dip is gentle the width of t.he
nll., or lowland is correspondingly increased. A
aviation in the strike of the rocks is accompanied by
• deftection in the position of the valley.
Where II stream traverses the outcrop of 11 zone of
mtly inclined or essentially flat wenk strata, tbe
l'idtll of thi vlllley nnd the slope or its walls are de-
pendent mainly on the size of the s!.ream. Along
Iii"" dn.inage lines the already wide valley is com-
intllly mnde still more open by the entranc" into the
lOll-rock belt or severul tributary valley.. The Esca-
Int. River above Escalante, the Paria River below
Can.10nville and neal' old Ada.irville, and several othE\r
mtin streams are examples. The sa,,-ccr-like Butler
VoU.y, m.soft. shaly Sun Rufael beds; the Round and
Bone Valleys, in the Tropic shale southeast of Can-
lOIl.ille; a!)d Sheep Flat, southwest ,of Cannonville,
Ire broad, flat. bottomed, round carved in soft
rocb by a fan-shaped drainage system, the component
pArla of which are separated by divides too low to be
loticetble. The brond, flat-floored bowl carved in the
CI!taCOOUli slia.le at the head of the Paria near Tropic
is an •• ceptionally large "round valley."
In pt.rt. of southern Utah 81'009 of soft roek are
<I"ed bv streams into intriede badlands.
In th; Kaiparowits region most of the channels of
tie rtIeams i1l s",ft rocks BFe brQnd, 8ho.1low, fiat-sided
IIId straight. During tbe times of ordi-
Ill, 80w the streains in them ·ba.ve an insignificant
and they commonly wind from side to £ide in
tbannels that are too brOlld fol' thei r needs. Duri.Dg
loads the ,.hole cbannel is o<:cupied by debris-laden
. \'Iter, and the stream i. then much gnater in width
htt shallo",er in depth than in adjoining hard-rock
lecCions. }3eclltlse of the wide cross section, erosion is .
'- eft'ecti "e on the bottom of the channel, but there
is • tendeDoy .to straighten Ihe channel by wearing
'WI, projeeting points. An irregular, highly mean-

dering COUr.;e seems 10 abnormal under tbese
In the Kaiparowits region areas of hard rocks are
aEsociated with narrow, ,'ery ste<lp-sided canyon •.
Tbe width the stream charmel is markedly reduted
I lIS compared with that inn<ljoining stretches of soft
roc.k. The dominance ofvaUey deepening. owr the
gradual wearing down of the canyon sides hn. led ·to
the cutting of' the e,,-tremel,. deep, slitlike chasms that
characterize the landscape of many parts of the pla-
teal! province. Some vaUeys tributary to the U>lo-
rado, t() the Pariu, nnd to the Esc!llante are several
hundreds of foot deep but more than a dozen feet
wide ut the bottom.
Wbere the side waU. of a vaUey consist of alter-
nating hard Rnd soft stutn there a cor.responding
&lternation of strong wit.h weak cliff. and of steep and
Mrrow with wide lind genUe slopes. The sha pe of the
va)ley in cross, section i. determined by the relstive
thickness and position of the hard and soft .trala that
are exp06ed, .nd changes appear systematically iD dif-
ferent parts of a stream COUl"SO, dependent on the
in tbe roeks above the stream channel.
This distinctive physiographic chill'acter in the form
of vaneys of the platean country was very well
described by Powell' and Dutton • and mOl'e recently
by Davis.'
Where local relief is grMt, welk rock •. with inter-
bedded hard layers may he carved into nn amozingly
intricate labyrinth of deep, narrow conyoll8, separated
by irregular, in mlUlY pla.ces grotesquely sculptured
knifelike divides. Where they are tinted vividly by
varied colors, these valleys' present very striking
scenic .attraction.. Bryce Canyon sbows these foo-
tnres in marvelous fashion.
Essentially simil.r topographic features character-
ize .11 the monoclinal folds of th.e Kaiparowits region.
(See p. U8.) ElongatHidges by the hard
ocl,,;· long narrow valleys are excnvllted in the soft
" f" ts
heds' and each of the ridge- ormmg umts presen
an set ttf minor topographic choracters.
Tbe Cretaceous sandstones commonly make very sharp-
&ngled, seITllte hogbacks not
with a projecting narrow comb that 18 lDchned an the
• Powell. I. w., Bxploratlen or tIM Colorado Rbe.r ot tbe '.Vest 104
Itt trlbllt4rt8. Pf. 202-211'. Wd"lUrton, 1915.
I Vutlo_, C. B., TtrtlllI')' kJltorr 0( tile Grand Canyog district: U. B.
Qeol. Son'e, M ••. 2. pp. 2GG-2aQ. laat.
.... 'U A_ excanilml rto the Grnod CJIID10n or the Colorado:
• ...t, n . .... I oS "0 1001
Hanu& CoiL ')ii., Com)). Z001051 Bpll .• va. - , p. .. • •
direct.ion of rock dip. (See pI. 19, B.) The Dlassive
Navajo sandstone forms a lofty ridge with rounded
outlines Dnd irregular t.umid swellings; its bare slop-
ing back is deeply grooved by lateral canyons;
'its upturned edge forms nearly sheer, unbroken
,or weathers with gigantic bouldery in-egularlti<!S.
Tbe Wingate and its Todilto(') cap.. forms .. com-
PIlCt sharp-angled rocky ridge, and the dip slope .of
its upper surface is broadly smooth. The thin Shm·
al'ump conglomerste forms a narrow hogbllCk ridge.
The Waterpocket monocline is marked on its east
side by prominent hogbacks that are developed on the
hard formations and by longitudinal intervening
ValleY". (See VI. 19, 11.) Hall. Creek occupies a
monoclinai' valley that ha. been earved i.J) the weak
rocks of tbe Watcrpocket ftexure and follows Its trend.
Nortb of the low Bitter Creek divide the same struc·
t.ural valley i. used by a 'north''''ard.f!owing tributary
of the Fremont.. The width of the valley depends on
the thickness and angle of inclination of the weak
Upper beds, and as the dip decreases near 'the
Colol·ado River, the valley becomei wider there than
it is ' farther north. In two or three places, most
notobly at a point below the mouth of Muley Twist
Creek, Halls Creek turns aside from its camparatioely
wide, open valley in soft rocks and plunges into •
narro'll', deep canyon in the hard NlLvlLjo sandstone.
These ,departures from tho caay pathway clearly muk
10\:a1 failures of the creek to adjust its COUr1>(! by shift.
ing laterally in the zone of inclined soft rocla. (See
pI. 24.) South of t.he Bitter Creek divide the WAter'
pocket Fold i. proctically unbreached below the top
of tho Navajo sandlltone unt.il t.he locally di86ect.ed area
along the Colorado Ri vel' is reached, and throughout
thia length of nearly 40 miles the upturned sandstones
form II: fopogrnphic barrier that. can be crossed in only
a very few , places. The shoor wall. of the Wingate
6lIudstone clifT. are quite unse.lable, and then. lire few
openinga through the Navajo. Th. only practicable
pllllSllgeway through the fold is afforded by the deep,
narrow canyon of Muley Twist. Creek, .. hicb cuts at
right Ingles acroSll the upturned Navajo in Ii. tortuou.
defile in plnces not much wider than • wagon. (See
pI. 23, D_) ' About 6 and 12 miles, respectively, north
of the Muley Twist Gap it is possible with &orne care to
get a horse down· the st.eep slope on the top of the
Todilto(i) rocks and through narrow, skeam-<!&rved
gaps ' in I,he N anjo sondstone, but these plssage,,·aYll
are bazardous. N eu the Colorado River many short
valleys risa on t,he en.st steep Hank of the fold &lid
extend toHalls Creek. St.reams 011 the gently inclined
west. Bank flow in deep, nat·row gorges to the Escalante
The Circlo Clitl. owe t.heir interesting topograpbic
to weak Triassic rocks and structural dips.
Most of 'the streams flow ill • direction that coincides
wit.h t.he dip !>f fhe rocks, but. some follow the outcropa
of one of the weak forma't.ions parallel to tbe strilll..
The head of the strums al'e open, and tile
diy,idea between them are not prominent, but the 10_
portions u-e MrrO,," , deep canyons .. (See ,pI. 23, .t_)
So clearly is the topography aud dramago of this area
controlled by geologic SbuctUN and r(lck hardness thal
there is no of a possible formel' drainage Ih.&
Wai unrelated to the It.ti t. ude and character of the
Mesozoic rocks. If Tert.iary beds once eovered thi.
area 118 can not be doubted, all vest.ige of streams tlutt
on the Tel1iary surface has disappeared.
The bench tbot. overlooks the Colorado River at the
south end of the Water pocket Fold is developed 011
the Todillo( I) ond Wingate saud stone, at. a pla ..
where the Navajo sandstone hus been sl..-ipped tor a
space of several miles. The surface of this bencb dI-
scend. to the level of the river in harmony with the
eastward-dipping beds of the monocline!!.
The electe of the ;Echo monocline are shown in the
surfAce slopes of the Puria Platenu. In line wilb
this fold the summit of (he plateau descends sharply
I(:veral hundred feet eastword. Sout.h of Cottonwood
Springs, on Wahweap Creek, this broadly roullded
i slope is clearly seen descending along the top of the
Navajo sandstone to a longitudinal vaUey that has
been cut in the softer overlying beds. Northward
along Wahweap Creek (he flexure is marked by bog-
back ridge.. in the Cretaceous sanditone. The IIIr·
(ace of t.he platea.u, inclines generally nOI·thward, and
the bench that, forms tbe top of the White Cli. ia
, but. • continuation of the bench. that has been formed
, by the 8uli.u:e of the Pari .. Plaleau, from whieh it
&oparated by the East Kaibob monocline. Both
these gigsntic platforRll! owe their form and positiOll
to the relative hardness of the Na.vajo sandstone eel
to the regional slopes that have been produced b,
monoclinal fiexlU'el!.
The East Kaibab monocline is represented in die
topography by very conspicnous hogbacks formed by
tho sharply upturned Mesozoic sllndstones a.long Ibe
Paria River and Cottonwood Creek (pI. 19, B), by
the House Rock Valley, which is carved in weaker
rocks, and by the arche<); crest. of the north end of
tho Kaib .. b Plateau. The resistant Koibo'b limestane
rises steeply from tbe House Rock Valley as. brood,
smoothly curved surface and continues westward ...
the enormous Bat arcb of the Kaibab Plateau-6truc-
'the Kaibob upwarp. The surface has the form
, given to it by ,tectonic movements. .
Like tbe other tolds of the Kaipnrowits, region,
Ka!bab monocline ' is a prominent
bamer, Recond only to the deep ca'nyons. Travel-
easy along the subSequent vaileys thnt have been de-
in the soft rocks but is almost lmpcssible at
rIght. angles to the trend of the monocline. The oDly
through the hogbllcks that, presents no special
is nenr the abandoned village of Paria,
,,/Jere the Plria River has cut nn oblique channel
dlrough the upturned hard roel,s, (See pI. 26, B.)
\\1th sorue difficult climbing at one point, it was pos-
sible to crOlls the fold by ascending the canyon of
Sond Wash, Abod 20 miles north of PIlI·ia a cir-
COOslricted passageway, known as "the Gut,"
lillY b,o fOllowed by a saddle borse or pack animal
JDd it used at times by stoclcllcn in t,raveling from
Benrie.me and Cannonville to the Wahweap country.
Year Canlan Penk, whel'. the eroded surface of the
&st Kaibab monodine is ur.conforma,bly overlnin by
the Eocene sediments, the country is particularly
)/OIY SlIldl streams and some IIlrge streams of the
Kaiparowits l'egion are obviously .adjusted to the
stru<ture. Ha Ils, Pine, and Cot.tvnwood Creeks oc-
eupy meys, th.at hl1 ve been developed in weak strata.
01 aonoclinnl folds, In the Circle Cliffs dome the
simi .. lIow radially outward dowll dip slopes, and
CrOlll the crest of the Wllterpocket }'old streams follow
rilttd IIrota to Halls Creek and to the Escalante River.
TIle Eut Fork of the Sevier River flows northwl.rd
i:l accord with the inclination of the beds that toro-
F- the Paunsl\ugllnt Platoou, \Vahweap, Warm, and
Lilt Chlnce Creeks, although they flow in a direction
opposite to the dip of the beds, occupy shallow sYIl·
erllOi. Some streams follow the slope of hard-rock
platforms, and Ola.ny of them have established short
I!lbsequent courses along ,the strike of easily eroded
la-lying or tilted beds or even on the of
diDo! folds.
But much of tho minor drainage is locally
.. 0 adjusted to st.ructure tne larger streams are re-
IllIrhhly independent of st.ructural control. They
Boor in and out of Cliffs, cut through mesas, tl-ansect
lDOr,odines crOSs fuults from the down thrown to the
qplhrown and m:l.ke their way through tilted
_rata regard to the direction of dip.
The Colorado River crosses the Water pocket flex-
williout evident deviation lnd crosses the promi-
cone Echo monocline almost at, right angles and
.. inat the dip of the rocks. Escalante River
p. directly through the Escalante
-oeline lnd flu-thel' QOWll its courso has intrenched
itself midwll.Y lip t.he structural slope thAt extends
Inn the Waterpocket monocline to the cliff, of the
Kaiparowits Plnteau. Paria .River flows south-
Wlrd almost opposite to the regional dip of the rocks
lad then turns slightly eastward and Cl·OSSes at an
""-lqlle angle the sharply upt,urned beds of the East
kaibeb monocline nnd nearer t.he Colorado RIver
I«ain fto ... s practically' ag.inst the inclination of the
'D t C & un tbe P'f:OJot::1 of tbo Rljtb Plat,eauJI ot
Ctllb 1.11 °:S1. 'u. 8. Geog. _.0.4 (kool. Bur\'e, Roclq )(to, 1880.
, p' ... II. 1 W E ....... lot" .. loD of the Color.(!G River 0( the West.
owe. ,,-r '
P. 102, 1875-
• DuttOD, C. E .. Report 0Jl the ceoI0i.Y or tbe HJc h Plareau. of Vtab.
p. 17 U. 8. Oeo«. IWd Gce!. Sun'toy Roc,ky Alt.n. 1880.
I.dr.m. p. 288: W 100," to. ft_ l
10 O. E .• U. S. Qeo!;. aDd O<!OI. SIIrt'II!,.. U IIIICT. m:lI •
vol, 3, p. 16. IS75.
opinion that the courSes of Kanab and Poria Creeks
were in port determined by antecedent folds." In a
note written still Is tel' 10 he said:
The thut forUJ lllu, !a of tlJese repOrb wer!?
hQrt'tet.1 1n tlh..1 c.:dn'mc. The writer, t or Ibe mOil t purt, ac-
(!oUlpanlcd n"Jd llUl'ties which wcr c KJ)t.octaUy equipped tOI'
rOIJluity of mo\'clI:ent nnd crowded to tbe utmost. bIore-
o,' (,'r, In n countr), IJmoiJ t the tlemlDd tor ,eo-
rroJlblcnl lntorruotlon WUI4 thliD for gt·ologlcI11.
(lnu 011 IllnDtc und route:'f nccordingJy. ODd ""Ub
shaped to give tllO topogrlpber tho belJt ol>llortunlties eon-
al81cut with rophllt:r ot movemeDt, ",bite the geologhtt gles1Jetl
,",,' hut be eoulil by the WB)". To study the of D reglou
ioIueh clreurufftHD<."i'i1 wns to rent! n book while Its po;cs
'WUfC quickly 1m'ned by onother. and the result W!lII: n larger
-collection ot I.UJVretlS:ODti tbnn of fact.te, Tbol Dlllny of
bnprl!fls lona should be errOnl'tl\l.1 WfU. Joe\"URblc, ond no Ork!
clln be IIUtI'! l'onscl olls t hon J or t he fallibility of whut I
llQ\'C wri llen, SOil J lim tar (rom eountloc Diy )OOOr lQ:if:
.tor the beat (hnt bo\'c gh' (m ot weaterll
.a:eololQ' ore Dot tree froUi Cl'ror, nnd I certainly h."e mOfH
hononble In my imperfectlou.
Ihun n r enr bas t.'lotmctl s1uce t he my
band", ond In Ihot time J h.,'e oguIn visit ed Utoh, fortly
88 the reBu)t ot W)' wurk, and p;, rtly by t netM which bovc
00c11 tl c\' Clopcd by othrr8, I han bl' !!n Ill ttuced to
some ot my nnd J ll\' ull D1rsclt or thiN occasion to l.I1nke
It fcw retl'UctlOllM,
On Iluge 132, bllslllt Is to occur IleUI'
tbe town of SnUu8, Utnll,
Ou p,1Igi! 44, It J8 stilted thnt an Orui; rD. plll C t1lstul'ulluce oc-
curred In the Ilnrt oJ: tllu Ililltcuu province " be-ton'
. the dtliloliition of r)H) Cl'etnccou:\." 'rho UllcvutOrmity which
J ol>8crvcd J now know to ha\'c al'l!olca "frer lho clCl)()slt lon
ot the Orelnceout4,
On Illl{tU 110, the ollll1JUI.1 ls exvressed tba t urtcslflll wntc)'
might bo ( .1Ullll Alollj;c thp hnJ'c ot the Pllh,·c r HlIllge,
)[r, l'uwell dlsco\'CI't!d n tnult In the titrnln of Ih'?
locaUty whIch Grclll1y IHwlnhihrs the probltbl1i ry,
It a.saertcd on pugeg 120, 130, und Ci2li IlUlt (htl. Sail Frlln-
clb(:O II,,'" fil'ld Is wlLh rhe greAt 1:1\'11 Ilcld ot N'C\\"
Mexico. Tho uotel:« ot Dr, Loew f!how that tbls Is not 80.
'l'berc 18 JIll good J.., '1'otmrJ (UI' nle oJdnluu& nd" (tt)C@ll
76 (Iud 81 (hat the III Knllub and Pllrhl Creeks
In purt duterUltlled by antt..:o.ccdeot iolds and tbu t tho Aubrey
OUrt a wllOg' rallhlenl nutedotcs tbe Gnlnd Clln)·o11"
'l'bo unhuPJ,lly lurge 1t\Wlbel' ot Iypogrltphh!nl errol'8 In Purt
J QI"e due In pllrt to the filet 11ltU 1 nbsunt In UUlb dul'lng
thl! prootrl'fldtllg IIlId did I.ot the flGgCfC nl1l1l tber hUd
bc('u In thet'.Q (t!w that I dh.trlbute
J IlIll'(' ool"rt't:lctl 11Inl1,'" ot tho Cl'l'(Irs In mSl'glu, J hlw\"
restored In j>tH't S01ll0 wurtllf und )Je:ttenCC!4 thot were
In the DlOnu.!rerlllt nrt('r I t posscd my bonds,
f't'rlni n ot til l! I'Ct'tnrc.1 •• nrc to tile ullder.
or thc context, nnd otbef8 are u(!(.'(lc(l to ))renDt the
fmpl'cl1$l(lU thnt 1 dlsrcgardt. ... 1 thrQURh 19norttnce or dl:-teourtesy
tbe ,,"ol"k or other gt"Ologhtbt"
I.t is difficult indeed to the conditions under
"Iuch the observed relatIons of deformed Cretaceous
beds that tlllconformBbly underlie horizontJlI 'fert.inry
cl\n be accommodated to the supposed antecedent
o"'glll of the Colorado drainage system. There is no
u pr .... tutorF Ilot. In ot vol, a d)lilrlbuc 'tl b
Mr, GIlbert, I 1
reason to doubt that Tertiury beds once IU
of the Kaiparowits region and extended far beyond
its and also thut t.IlC greut upwarps nnd man.,..
elinal folds are not only pre-Tertinry but were eroded
to a surface of low relief before the deposition of tbe
Tertiary beds_ The known disturbsnces of the Ter_
ti .. 'Y beds consist of faull s whi eh postdnt e Eocene II<ldi-
mentation and which probably dc'·eloped after Tel'.
tiary nnd perl,"ps Illso C,·etaccous and .Juras.it hI!.
had been remond from some "'·ens north, south. and
east of the Colorado River. The untecedent Ol·igin of
the Colorado drainage syst •. m ns d,:"cribed b.o; the geol.
ogists of the Powell Sun·.), is therefore highly
improbable. It seems more p,·ol>nble t.hat the Colonna
and ils main tributnries were establi shed on a former
yery widespread surf"C,. of Tertiary rock.. If th"
drainage w"" established as a consequent. system on
this old Tertiary surface the Colorado nnd its tribu •
taries, on cutting int.o t he older rocks, would
·ob"iously find themselves sUlierposed indifferently on
whatever tOl"n1ations ond structural fentures chanced
tt' underlie the Tertiary.
Even though the I:u·gcr streams in the Kaiparmdt.
region mllY· in Plut owe their position to superposi.
tion of nn origionl consequent system that was de·
,·eloped Oil Tert.iary beds, t.heir present trtnds .nd
hubits lire adjustment. to one ·or 1lI0re surfacts of
oro$i on of much laler date. RCllll1"nt. peneplains
abandoned meanders indicate an erosion surface of
,'cry low relief tbat bordered the main drainllge Chlll-
nel. nnd extended to some ooyond. (See pp.
18:3-135.) On this erosion surfaee the Colorado River
and its main tri butari es Could hu\"e been retained or
established in .. scntially t.he position tbn t they no"
occupy. If irregula.rities due to dilrerences in rorlt
hard.ness had been oblit.eroted, the drainage lines ....
tablished would be unadjusted to the underlying rock
.tmctu!"c. When subsequent,))' the l·egion lTAS up·
lifted and the s!l"eams begnn netively to deepen th6ir
.. alleys, the small, wenk strroms be guided by
struct ure, but the lorge, strong strenms might retain
their positions across obstacles thflt chanced to lie
ill paths. Such superposition woul d presumably
aecount fOl· the existin,!! discordance of streAm.- And
structure and fa,· the ,·esulLin" p'hysion-ra.phic featdres.
'I' O· 1-.. ., . " --'
o use tluel't's term, (he st.r eUIll S are
by pIn nation."
. The exh·eme mggedness of Kaiparowits reg:0II
,s due primarily to sculpture by streams. Tbe loft,
mesas and buttes have l>een carved out of extensift
high·le,·el plnteaus, not lifted by 10caUy active forces.
'fhe relief is a record of downward departures rather
. t han upward departures from a former general Sdr·
f.ce. fhe amount of mater'.1 rcmo,·ed by streIIn,
however, is enormous; thousands of feet of
rock Uf'e been stripped from 11 region tens of thou-
S$ll ds of square miles in area. nut the purts remai n-
ing Ire I\'en grea te< thun t.he parts removed; the
1II0UDI of denudation yet to be accomplished in the
present cycle far exceedo that already completed.
The present local baEe-level of erosion for stl'eams
iu the Kaipotrowit.s region lies "t the head of Marble
Gorge, where hard lunestorie greatly retards the down-
cutcilll of the Colorado River, necuuse of this bur-
rier the river in Gl en Canyon is no longer act.i"ely
deepening its bed and seems unable to remo"e the rock
nste thot it has accumulated along its margins. The
profile of the Colorado Ri"cr through Glen Canyon
aM Marble Gorge is but a large-scalc illustration of
adjust,ment to rock hardness that is shown by
IIlCstllreall18 of the Kaiparowits region, •
As In aid in producing lnnd w."te, the Colorndo
Riltr in its course between Hite nnd Lees Ferry exerts
small influence, and until its load of waste is signifi-
!'lotiy or ;\-iarble Gorge is deepened, it is
lleIy to remain in that position. nut the tributaries
01 Glen Canyon are not thus handicapped_ Their
arldients aro steep, many of them precipitous; tlle
eccda tbot OCCur many times each year give them
JPtcialotrength, At present they nre not only can,), -
"" tbe enormolls amount of wo.ste bl'ought to them
"r smaller stream", but in many places they are dcep-
lIir., their channels and rcmo,-ing materials that
litre deposited during n formru- period of aggrarla-
rioa. Denudation in lhe Kaiparowits region is prob-
ably proceeding as rapidly as in ony other part of the
plateau province and more rapidly than in most
hWlid regions. If the present favorable climatic
IIlDditions continue these relative rates seem likely to
throughout the present cycle of erosion,
Oa the Uinkaret, Shivwits, Kaibab, and Coconino
Plateaus Dutton discovel'ed .emnanll! Ilf ·old aently
I!'Ided erosion surfllCes which bevel across Permian
Rdo-bard rocks and soft rocks alike-and which
"ve been prescl'Ved by a protecting cap of basalt.
tli. evidence of ancient cycles led to the significant
cenera\ization that before the beginning of the cut-
tiag of the present Grund Canyon and tha other deep
CIlljOIlS of the region the plateau district was reduced
IIseotiaUy to a base-level of erosioQ and that tho pres-
"t cycle of a.ctive canyon sculpture 1\' 8S initiated by
• pronounced uplift that strongly rejuvenated the
ilrealDs. Dutton 10 says:
·bIlU .... c. X,
Tutl ar), bill'or,. of tbe Orand dtillnct:
a l <'*II. Sdf¥O )fOil. 2, pr. 223_22"', 1&82.
At the epoch ,,·heD,. the cui tiD;; or tbe present Grand CanYOQ
begun, DO doubt the d!lItrict ot lor;e presented. n. vel'Y dHrerent
aspect. rrom the modern one. The (act rbJlt the older bAsRlts.
wberc\-er rouDd, r€1:ft upou the sllme horizon, Tis, the
sl1mmlt of tbe PermloD, sUSGe8ts t o us the further In(erence
that the relton near the WtlS then Oat and destltutG ot
deep efi nyom und sudl os uow and thel'efore
ot great hillIS, buttes, ot' UleSOs. 1.'be mettnlng of IblB
Is n ot erosion. 'l'be rl\'ers could not corrade.
becouse they bad reached, tor Ihe time bolog, tbe!J.' Itmlting
dE'pth lu the stmtn. Tbe W01'k: of erms,ton would then be con.
flned to le\Telin& tbe sculptnrAl IOf'qunlltics without the power
to produce new ones or to 8Ugl,l\eot the rellet of old oocs.
In addition to the peneplain remnnnls in the pla-
teau province described by Dutton, other. been
mApped by Huntington Rnd Ooldlhwait,lI Robinson,"
o.nd Gregory" and incidentally mentioned by othel'S.
Some of. these erosion surfaces have been developed in
Permian beds, others in 'fria!'>ie beds, nnd the Hopi
nuttes penepluin btlvcls sucressivcly Cretaceous, Juras:
sic, and Tl'iassic beds. Although they stand at differ-
ent altitudes between i,OOO and 7,000 feet, some of
these frogmentary sudoces are probably comparahle
in age Ind history, In the Kniparowit.. region old-age
Hosion surface. app<>.ur lit severn I places-oonspicuous
fentures in an are .. of vigorous youthful el'osion.
In the upper Pario. Valley the little MOl'mon town of
Cannonville is sbrroundcd by extensive remnants of
nn old erosion surface tbot planes smoothly "cross
hard and soft UPP"" JUl""",ic ond Cretaceous beds. In
moSt places this erosion sul'f1lCO has a pro-
nounced angle to the bedding of the IU'1ltified rocks.
East of Henrieville and northeast of Tropic there 8re
brond, little-dissel ted remna.nts developed on the soft
Tropic shale, (See pI. 25, D.) A mantle of roarse,
well-rounded water-borne materials protects the under-
lyir.g weak rock. and has aided materially in preserv-
ing portions of the graded plain. Nul' Cannonville
the eNsion su.da.ce intersect.. the bUll of Ihe
soh shale and hard Ilndstllne at the bottom ef
the Cretaceous, To the west, Qverwoked by the high
cliff. of the Paun6&ugunt, the divides between the
stfeuns that are· cutting actively hendwr.rd into the
High Plateaus are even-topped and very gently in-
clined Loward the Paria_
i In many plac.,. " lower surface is marked by a
prominent bench tha.t is subparallel to the upper ero-
: sion surface and about 200 feet lower. It is well
developed in the Cretaceous shrue area. east of Tropic_
»l{Qntla,IOIii, Ellnrorth, aDd Goldtbwntt, J . W •• Tbe SUtrlc.DO
(mult I. 1M T04IlWrTlUo d1f.:(rict, Utah: aanlrd con. Mu .. Comp,
1.001011:7 11111 .. ' -0:1'. 42. pp. 1004,
It Robhuoft. \i. i1 .. 'rite Tt'rtiar1 !lr UplllD ot rbe dtltrlct
And C'ellotrl I .. &rl& •• ' lad New Wr:llco: Am. Jour. Sel., 4th
...... ".1,. 2 .. pp, lto1.
1. Gr.COf1. U. B., Oeeklll:1 of tile NII\'lIlo (!Odolr),: U. 8. Oeot Sur-
"'1 Pr.r, Popel' ... pp. 1»-112. 1811.
u-e and tII.tthe erosion repl'eSented by the pre·
W .. tch UlIconformity may be ,efen-ed to early
Eocene time, by the Animas (Eo-
_'), Torrejon, nnd Puerco formations in the
San area, to southenst. Evidenoe pointe
Itlher strongly to a. common age for the disturb·
pCIIfI that llroduced the monoclinnl folds of the
,..ten country. In several places rocks as
,..0, II I'desa verde Cretaceous, which are
ildaded in the folding, nre preserved from sub·
sequent erosion, but in most places the pre·Wa-·
SlId! or SUbsequent denudation has planed the
.race down to rocks thnt are older than the
Kaiparowits beds. Gregory 12 notes that very late
(lttaeeous tocks (the so-called Laramie beds of
!hat Irea) are Included in the deformation ,of the
De4ance monocline in eastern Arizona, whereas
iD southern Utah the beveled Mesozoic beds are
_formably covered by Eocene beds. This in·
dicates, then, that the general period of disturb·
UCI in the plateau country that produeed the
_eline is post-Fruitland in age and sufficiently
elder than the Wasatch to have permitted wide·
JPl6d Ind deep erosion of the underlying rocks.
The Kaibab upwarp includes tbe elevated strata.
oa the west side of the East Kllcibab monocline.
Yo, of the upwarp I.hat is included in soutb.·
m Utab represents the northward·sloping border
of Ihe nplift, which reaches its greatest altitude
far to the south, in the Grand Canyon district.
The Kaibab .limestone is exposed at the 5Urfa.ce
for about 10 miles north of tho Utah·Arizona
IIInmdary, and beyond it successive outcrops of the
]QGDger beds appear in order. The Jurassic sand·
IIoJIe lorlllll the eastward·trending escarpments
knowD IL9 the Vermilion and WhilA! Cliffs. The
Cmaeeous beds occupy the surface at the head·
waters of the Paria. Valley.
On the east side of the Pannsaugunt Pla.teau,
• " a dista.nce of 1 to 3 miles from the Pink
Ili!&, wbich border the plateau, lies a prominent
IOrthward.trending fault with uplift on the east,
knowD aa the East Paunsaugunt fa ult. On ,the
•• side of the fault are Upper Cretaceous sand·
__ that belong to the Wahweap and Straight
Clifs formations, and on the east are Cretaceous
btda that belong to the Tropic sbale and the Da·
irota(1) sandstone, whereas farther south beds of
Upper Jurassic CanneJ forma.tion are found
II toDtect with the Uppep Cretaceous slLIldstone.
fl. plaCeS were observed wbere the total tbrow
of Lbe fault could be determined readily, but
Ol Willis Creek the displacement apparently
IlIIounta to at least 1,500 feeL Where tbe Paria
FIooH 1.-OeDerlllfMd block reprelleaUag .tap 10 tlle ph}'ttlo-
gtaphlc blator, .,t the opper Parlo Valley. ., A abort t Jme .rter dlapJaee-
ot bed. 0100. PaUMIIU;UDt rault 'j ' DOI·tb .... a.rd drain ...
Db the wKt (downtbrowD. Iidfl. ond p""elbl, OD coat ,Ide. Beee.
-Lot.. or Tcrllary rUII. oa tlpthrowa sJd. tbf1lugb headwucl e'Uttill.l 01 till
Pufl .Ift' dn.luaf,." f.voro!(J b1 It«p .. radlent ,t9 nu ColoNdo Blur aQd
11'", .. Cn!.Acro\tf Mknv TIn'U.r,. A. lat<.r abo.ln, tl'Ollloa
0( the .. .. est ot ttlt I' "eO 3., hlrtber rreeh!OQ or cwr. OQ the
IlpthtOWD btedi . 4. prete.t Not mucll lIealhr._rd .. aeetled
101; tH Parla to capture the "lien: o( ttl. u,fK'r Ea.t :Fart. 01 tlle 8e'ller
aber. 1'., W •• tell (orm.Un ; Kk, Kafparowttll t.naAtI .. : Kw .. Wah·
.... p ao4 ... n.kota(f)
Ne .. r Cannonville the erosion surface has IlII altitude
of about 6,000 to 7,500 feet. In it tbe Paria River
and its tributaries have ,arved valleys 300 to 1,000
feet in depth and are npidly cutting deeper, North-
ward and westward along divides that· have not yet
shlll'penca by recellt erosion, the erosion iur-
continues 1\8 a foirly genUe slope that leads up
to summit of Ihe higher plateaus. The borders ot
the 're"tiary plateaus were doubtl ..... lowly ''ec.ding
us t.he erosion suriace wal developing, but the slopes
thot surround the broad \'alley plains to have
been n.ther well though steeply groded, Tbe more
IICtivo cutting, which was due to uplift of the regio:>
and rejuvellation of the streams, has merely served to
bharpen the c:!iff profiles to .ccelerate tbe retrellt
of tbe clift's. .
South\yord tb. remno.nt. of the Cannonville erosion
surface merl,"e .. ith the gentle b.ck slope of the mns-
sive •• ndotone ,tbat forms tbe White Clift's. At the
time when tbis surIace formed the floor of tbe upper
Pltria Volley the White Clift'. Meo"pment rose hnn-
,In·d .. of feet above the plain, nnd the P.ria River
cl'O!<oet! tho sandstone in n moderately narrow valley,
probably 1I0t unlike t,he present mnyon escept in
depth, The outline of the White· Clift's hus doubtless
beon soml\whllt bnt there docs not appear
to have been mnch reccE3ion of the cliffs during the
,'ecallt stage of nctive erosion that i. now continuing,
Neul'N' the Colorado River, where traces of an olde,'
topogmphy have been largely obliterated, it is not
possible to recognize with REsuranc. u former eiten-
sioll of the CannollYiIle ourfnce. The gradient of tbe
prcSI'nt Pnl'ia River i. much steeper than that of the
C.,nnollville stoge, .. nd accordillgly, on apprOllching
tho Color.do, I'emnont. of tbis older ero.ion surfuce,
if p"escnt, woulrl .be fit propol'tionntely greater beights
abovo t.be present \'ulley floor, Some of the hard-
rock sudaces of the northeast of the Puriu
Rive,' and of the Juru.s.ic Eondstone ridge along tbe
EllSt ·Koibnb fold cxhibiL suggestive trices of an older
topogl'aphy nbove 5,500 feet. Oll th. Imrd-rock sur-
£n.ca of tbe Kaibab Plateuu the topog,'apby is not.bly
1ll0re maturo thllll tbllt on the lower slopes along tha
HOllse Rock Vlllley, and remnants of erosion surface,
bevel the soft& ,'ooko on the Banks of the East Kllibab '
uplift nnd ext.elld in some ploces far out to\vol'd tho
M.rble Gorge.
In a regional sense U,e Kniparowits PlAtellu is •
thick mass of Jurllssic and Cretnceous i!edimentorv
rocks-the remnllnt of a mass tha.t once extended
throughout sOuUlcastern Ut.ah nnd into neigbboring
11.£ pl'eservation is due to its position in a
shallow syncline and to the "".i.tanee of ita cappin ...
Cretaceous snndstone. III general its surface is con:
formable with the attitude of its component rocka,l..,t
in plate'! it is out of accord w,th the structUl'e, Netr
Can.an Peak, at an altitude of about 6,500 feeL, lie
renulllnts of • smoothly g ..... ded erosion surface de •• I,
oped 011 the inclined beds of the weak ""ndEtono and
sandy shale of tha Kaiparowits formation and cllttiag
across harder and b()d ... like, From thi, sur-
I face gentle slopes lend upwllrd lo the Tertiary
limestone of Canaon PeAle ancl thus dllplicate the
relations nenr Cannonvillc (p. M3). To the ""11th lnd
southeast tbe graded erosion me .. ges with tbe
'broad, smooth slope of the WaI,weap sandstone, .. Moo
here bas little relief. :Migmting divides appelLJ' Ii
several plnces where the b."dwate"s of Last Chanco
and Wahweap Creeks, favored by steep gradicnta,
are .ating l\uy the older topography,
The slIrhce of the southeastern port of the Kaiparo_
wits Plnteau is distinguished topogl'llphically by open
valleya Dnd gentle slopes, together with some sensibly
lid areas, Thougb some of the brond stream chlouels
a,'e deep, none of them reach the bottom of the cappia:
sandstone, The topography os a whole seems dis.
tinctIy more mature in this part than in other parts of
the plateau surface, The up.tream parts of many of
the older valleys ba ve been beheaded and their lower
parts greatly steepened Or cut off by erosion on lit.
Bauk. of the plateau, indicating a conl'ider.ble shrink,
age in the size of tbe fO"mer grnded upland. Ob-
viously these features afford evidence of nn old erosion
The gently graded surfnce near Canaan PeAk ....
cords in general altit'ude ' and topography with tbe
remnants along the Paria. The somewh.t
rugged but maturely diSsected topography of tho
sOQth •• stern part of the Kuiparowits Plateau is prob-
: ably a part of tbe some old topography,' and the mora
strongly developed relief is due to proximity to tho
Colorado, which is the master strcam for both areas,
511l11.&Olt or P.lllii'SA'o'G1INT PLATIlAlI
Th. !urface of the Plateau is gently
concave. The bordering is higher \ball
the central part, and tho 'drainage is radially in .... rd
h, the perennial East· Fork of the Sevier Rivel', which
occupies the aximl position, In direction of lIow the
OIain stream and its' tributaries conform with th. eea-
eral inclination of the rocks, .
In contrast to tbe deeply carved canyons of streams
beneath the Pink Clift's, tbe sutru:nit t<?pography of the
Pauosaugllllt consists of mnture slopes ' and gently
flnts, Land scuLpture, so far 8:
it can be
by the geutly sloping East Fork and ,tl
h'lbutufles, bos advanced fur, "
. Between Red Canyon oind Costro Canyon tertaln of
th,. divi,des that !'epa rate the southeastward-flowing
I trlbut8r1eA of tbe Seviel' have a !!entIe southward slope
thaL appears to murk a former graded erosion surface,
.ad in places weU-defined remnants of u graded slope
lie between this upper one and the bottoms of t.he pres-
tnt SLrePID nlleys. Erosion by Castro Canyon has
beheaded iDa very interesting manner several of these
southward-sloping tributaries and has cut off also the
JDlouth interstream slopes from their continuation on
ti:e north. The southem part of the platea.u, which
rise;! to an altitude of mOre than 9,000 feet, is some-
wltat more rugged thun the northern part, where wide
allutial flats cover the t1anks of projecting hills. This
COBtrast seems to be g,·eater than the normol difference
between the headwaters Ilnd the lower part of a. stream
course, and it is lJOt unlikely thnt II. geologienlly '·ecent,
sflghtly uneven northward tilting of this &rea has
served to accelerate sculpture in the southern part and
to bury 'the northern part of the river valley under
extensive deposits of alluvium.
That the maturely eroded surface of the Paunsau-
Plateau was once more extensive is shown by the
form of tbe upper tribut.ary valleys. Along the rim
of the plateau that overlooks the Paria. Valley the
tributaries of the Sevier, which flow in valleys of very
gtutle gradient, come into competition with those of
the Colorado, which flow in st.eeply inclined va.lJeys.
lfany on the ph,t;eau maintain their broad V
fornl to tile very edge of the Pink Cliffs, where they
a .. cut off by the more favorahly situated south ward-
Jlowi;ng streams. Some streams from the lower lands
lllve even renched the top of the platoou and have
.cVCl·te<l drainnge from the Sevier. Only & small I
lJIIOunt of digging was reIJuired in the construction of
the irrigation ditch that now leads watel' from the
EIst Fork of the Sevier over the plateau rim to the
Selds at Tropic.
A .iew toward the Aquarius Plateau from the high
sondstone cliffs along the Waterrocket Fold shows
1 clearly a. gently graded erosion surface that cuts
aOIiquely and smoothly across the bedding planes of
the hard Navajo sandstone. This slope extends from
th. Upper plateau almost without break to the border
0/ Circle Cliffs. Along Pine Creek and Sand
the beds involved in the Esca.lant8 monocline
have been truncated, ·and three remnant peneplains
have been mapped. Tributaries of the Escalante are
now cutting VigOl·QusIy into the edges of the. Aquarius
and are gradually" obliterating this slope,
rem .... ins only on the divides. Probably the
1Ill.erstreftm .topography corresponds to similal· fea-
tuns along the Paunsaugunt and Table Cliff Plateaus
lJld represent the subdued outline ·01 the Tertiary pla-
t .. a during the stage· of erosion thaL preceded the
cycle of (;Inyon cuttinit: ' . ":.
A continuat.ion of the profile from
the A:quarlUs Plateau iudicates that probahly the ex-
Covlltl.on of the great howl that is no\'( hounded by
the Circle ChITs had begun aL this time, but ero-
sJOn eould hardl, have ad\'unced much farther than
to establish the courses of the consequent streams tbat
now cany part, of the wat.ers of ihis telTitory to the
Escalante and Halls C,,,ek.
Along parts of the Waterpocket Fold and on some
of the that border t.he Henry Mountains clearly
determmable remnants of old erosion· surfaces now
stand at altitudes between 5,000 and S,OOO feet. Some
of the intcrstrelllD erosion ,,,muan!s bevel smoothly
Dcross a number of hard and soft C,,,tuCeous and Up-
per Jurassic rock formations, As in the northern
l;art of tbe Kaibab Plateau, SOme of the valleys of
the Waterpocket Fold have a notahly more open and
mOl·e mature topograpby near their h"nds than farther
downstream, where the valleys, though carved in the
SRme formation, are extremely nnrrow and deep.
Remnants of old erosion surfaces appear in the Paria
Valley (pI. 27, OJ, in the E8C.illlllte Valley, and along
Glen Canyon.
Prominent too.tures of many valleys in tile Klliparo-
wit.s region are their tortuo'lsly winding courses .
They appear in 8 few "alleys carved in soft rock and
8l'e charactC\ristic of valleys in hArd rock. The high
rock wolls of big valleys and of IiUle vaneys follow
each bend and turn in tlie stream course. (See pI.
· 21, D.} Through Glen Canyon the Colorado winds
southwe..otward in and out around buttresses like a
gigantic snuke. Its tributll.l)' are eVen more
sinuous. In the lower reaches of the Puill. and Ellca-
Iante Rivers and W·ahw,"p, Warm, JASt. Chllnce, and
Rock Creeks and in tbe canyons that enter the Colo-
rado f,"Om the north and from the south closely
· pressed curves !lnd almost right-angled turns mark
the course of parallel canyon walls; straight sections
are ,·ore, and -io fcw places i" it possible to see both
walls for half a mile ahead. Along the Virgin River,
Kanab Creek, the San Juan River, and elsewhere in
the plateau province the same phenomenA occur.
Of the canyons in the Novajo country, Gregory 11
· says:
All the conyons Dre alnuoua to a degree. VHf much greater
thin 1ndicated on topographic maps. Close-set meanders wltb
bol'Setihoe cutV-e3 and goosen'ecu Dre common, an(] the troyerse
or maDY, a canyon Involves Pll88lng tu right Ind lett about
· buttresses ",·ltb turus appro8cblng ISO".
-Grtgor1. H. E .• op. ell. ' p. 124.
The pI'evalence of these meanders along canyon
courses is directly related to the kind of rock that
forms the canyon wall. In the /:eavy beds, porticu.
massive sandstone, they are preserved j in shale
lind th.in, sandstone they nre absent or at least
poorly represented.
The Escalante River presents lIO unusual features ill
its upper CaUl' s" through Cretaceous strata, but from
Escalante to its mouth the river follows a very sinuous
COllrsa that is e/lrved in sandstone of the Glen Cllnyon
IP·ouP. Wahweup Warm Creek, and other
streams thut drain the south side of the Kaiparowits
• Pbtcau Irow inclosed meanders in Cretkeeolls sand·
sl'one lI Cn l' their hcods, but downstrellm they enter
opcn valleys, and still farther downstrellm they again
flow between high, closely spaced, intricately meander.
ing wilils. Where Pine Cre.ek and Halls Creek flow
through the Navajo sandstone they run in tortuous
grooves t.hot a ra difficult to follow j in the beds of the
Son RlLlnel group these valleys provide wide, open
road ways.
The size and form of the inclosed mea.nders ore I'e·
Io.ted tu the width of the canyon nnd tho strength of
the streo.m tlint occupies it. The mennders of Glen
ClLnyoll oro broodly open curves with small arc and
lurge radius. 1\o[0st of t.he grout swings ore se\'el'al
mil"" in length, and tbeir limbs Ilre widely separated,
but ot Meskin Bur the river, after £lowing 5 miles,
returns to 0. point less I.hon three-fourths of a mile
from its former position, and at I.ees Fel'fY a tunnel
4,000 feet long across a meander neck would eliminllte
6 miles of eha.nnel. The smaller streams show many
campI'essed loops thllt are made np of arcs of different
degrees of curvature. Some .turns aro short, fin' curves
bel.Woo11 nearly .tmight stretchesa.nd give the op-
pea.ronco of streams flowing al'Ound square corners.
Some moonder loopo nre eo closely pressed that theil'
boses are separoted by less tbnn 100 feet of rock, and
the limbs of others hnve become united by tbe de-
struct.ion of tbe intervening wall, which leaves an Oll-
bow vaIley stlLnding to one side. Meandering adds
much to the length of tbe streams and thus decrotlSes
their average gradient and their power to erode. The
longth of Glen Cnnyon fronl Hite to Lees Fer.y is 162
miles, MId the wllter that passes throngh it falls 2 feet
to the mile. If its meanders were eliminated the
length would be 100 miles and the fall 3.2 feet to the
The lower Escnlonte maintlLins a n unusually
straIght generol course, beclluse of its Oleanders
within a bolt only about tltree-fourths of a mile wide
it tlows 28 miles to oover I distance of 14 miles. Wah.
wcap Creek lIow8 3.6 miles in a tortuous ·course to
cover 2 milos, and Warm Creek Oows 6.2 miles from
Wornl Creek Cobill to Glen ClIJlyon, a distance over-
land of 2.8 miles.
An esamination of the cunyon walls thnt incIoe..
the meander loops shows t.hat some ha ve Ilndergon,
considerllble cltanges and that others arc in process
of change but that man.", especially those along Gler.
ellnYOll, probably bnve maintained both position Rnd
form dUl'ing the whole period o.f t.renching.
In other ",oros, some of the CXlstlfl,g meanders are
the result of normal stre.1m development within tile
prescnt cycle, but others have in!:tel'itcd their pottenl
from a previous cycle of cl'Osioll. The chief chllrncter.
istics of the inclosed mcanders thot a.re developed or
[·he strenm nre the gradual slope-the "slip.off;'
slope-which appears toword the cnd and along th"
downstre.'n margin of the Spill'S project ia' J
the lUelLnder bendS, nnd the well·defined stcepening of
the vdley sides along the outer and downstream parts
of the meunde>' ·bends. Downward corm.ion, conl-
bined with laternl corrasion, may so enbrge tho minor
irregularil.ies in tho direction of Ule st ream's courso
t.hot eventu"Uy the pattern is 'rathel' strongly meander.
ing. (See pIs. 2:2, (J j 25, A.) Such ioclosed meander-
ing volleys, whi ch are not inappropriately termed
"ingrown ': meanders by Ri cb,1f UI'O vcry common in
t.he hard-rock formations. of the Ka. ipIII·owit. I·egion.
Their development in the normal eourse o·{ downward
corrllsion appears to be tho rule ,other than the
A traverse of the ilool's of the P8I'io' and Escol.nl.
Rivers and 'Wnhweap, Warm, Last Chance, Collot!,
WiIlow, nnd Halls CrC<'ks shows that mnny meanders
are normal features of lund degradation under
conditions of load, rock hardness, and sudden changes
of I'olume thot prevail in the Kaiparowits region.
Along these streams the intrenchment ·of me:tnders ill
n hurd-rock formation is accompanied by a gradual
obliteratioll of the meanders in portions of' tbe vaUey
whel'e downwa.rd erosion proceeds in weak strata. On
entering the hard rocks. the width of the streAm cha.n-
Ilel is constricted. buring each freshet-and mo. of
the run-off in the plateau country consists of floods
I that ore oocasioned by loco.l torrential downpoul .......
I the sediment-laden watert, which roll cobbles IDd
, omill bouldelil along t.he stream floor, a.re deflected
alternately against the right and left waIls of th.
narrow section of the canyon. The hea,y load of lOR-
terial transpolted by the stream plrtly protecta &he
bottom of tho canvon while tbe rush of the water
Ilgainst the sid. and around the bends accom·
amounts proportionally to ,, "very con-
SIderable SIdeward cutting. The concllYe portion of
meander curve is enlarged and moves progreso
stvely downstream, and slip-olt slopes develop on the
canvell portions. The Pn!sooce of a component in the
"aI4, 1. L.. Certain t'1N!8 ot dream aDd tbelr IDea .... :
J'oor. Geoo1oc1. TOt. 22, p. no, lOB. .
I· .\'·J'; U 1·t. .... ·I· ..
Iluth. ... Vn.lw.y. lit Itwo WI. i" 1' ..1If"" .. d in W"'Jllt IlIlJud bC.'YIJ; i . "",nIL" by M""'i ..... n (n lind Dakola (iI') !i.;md.ston\". Th\" v"II,.,. in It,,, Co ' nlml pUN or tiM' vifr_ u.: cllr..-I!'d ill T,....,..i .... Iullll!'.
"\'of\(: lind W"hweap fIl n..ktl J'!Mmino....,1. riche_ BI the ri"I,I. Uc"ond thew: rid,,1!!0 In",. booI_n K.iPllfO .... ill'O lied>. pnrUy
'fI. e C.IIIYUfI uf W,," ... , ..... Cr,.'.'k ill """II"t It:fllmd),ht· uphrrnrd ,.IUld_l.oQllol III the: TI,is porl'iurJ. ttl Ow PlutO::IIU, u"l.ekt hl' tru, Wnh .... p norlh ... ·urd.
t .... di,l 01 1'CId. .. : 110_ jIOULhw .. rd ill C\'et·<h.-.;'pt·ciu; cnn)"lKt-.. ,
VIEWS FIIO!oI .\ I' o ' ... ·r :\'E.\H Tin: "GI; ""
v. s. Gl:OJ:.DCICAL
. .t . VIEW AI,ONt; Ot' Cll.lt' ....
\i. ... - ':1(" /1 f,,,,,, ;. J."in\. "h .... L I 11Ilil,'" ,-n" t hl'U"," o r "1'1,,,, ri.. Ina ""I!I I!O'J .... .--1 0111,.. .. li1r" is I.h .. l'\1", ... ijlhl ( :IIK" r.,,",'llIri.H1 Tn .. "" , 4oti"", '1'111'
JUlOo"'r he n.lh .
II . ,\IONClCI.INh1. \ ":\I.I.EY Ii\ THtll'lC sa.r"U .\
"11 .. , 1,' I;:),m,J,. riol .... AI ri.I ,L m,' ( I I I . • .,.nll', ry YII .... li ll" III.)' I.h" I-:n .. t K.-.I, r,"'1
C. (.'{)U)HADO lUVEfi 1-'1"\0.\ 1 A l'I """ U GI.i:: AIlO\' l-: . ' EIHH'
(I , oore NI1YlljG :<Il ll d>1tcUI'I; N"lI n tjo in ni,,-nl 1'11(111O<:1in,,1 rold ( l.;.:bo Cmf!.). ", .. ,mire Chink. lIi .....hl. i":n'II,j ... SI,;TI",mup. [lad K '-I; b"h hUnll .. ... ·"'; b.·"d uf
P .\I'Elt l ti l PI •. \·n: :.H
.";Y IN ' J'JHH'IC :mr\u: AI ,:):"\I' t:AS,T 1,.\11-1.\11 :"oWNtlCUNE K'l.ST OF Hurl.lm \.\1.1.1':"
6, SlIR\'EY
.• Itml hullra of "'tll(}:..l oll<! NlnUUe-:vit ..... , ,.1111 MorrillOfl Il ll 11 brc.;tll 111':11:..)1
rorrucd hy cr01;l()1) or w",,.l l'tr.;l., (Cul1od rUI"IDnrlon) IlrYcrlyius: boro IQudswU0 (N(i"l'IUO).
fl , DRY \,;\LI.EY." nOWL-UI\E DEPRESSION CUT IN STI\AT.\ of '!'fIr-: 8.\N IU" AEI.
(;nOUI' !!ND TtlE Monnl SOill' m FOI\:'or"TIOS
'1'),(1 "l.rllUfled r oclo.s l UI: Sur! thfill'! J;r(lUp nod (?) o""TI:.in hy 0,,_10.01 •• (j l;uk,r !M-,I··I·
. Hie I1 lJ(tr co..-eo:d L)' ,[llu\'jlll

u. G£OLOGIC}'L 8'Cn'o't:Y
(It-" DEATII 1I0U..QW Cnr-:EK
' "JllliUII t:lIl ill Il')ruislooo .
. 9. £:,\:\YO:',' 'rnlHUTAIt\' TO TWIST CIH':EK.
inclill",1 Wi \, I I · .
II:" e "'!lll( "\(lU(' U\"crlalll Todi!to hmuoll(lIl.
ti l "
Km '
J .
} ..

r------ .
. ' /

Da. filll_ ,. ___ r.
Kbt!st, Blue Gate laodatone j Kbl"sh . •• Blue Gate eh.aIe I'; Kill, Tnnunk 88ndetone; KI'Sh . . ' Tununk
Entrada eandstone; .)c, Carmel formation ; In, Navajo aandttont ; J1. Todilto
"', Shinarump conglomerate; 'Jim, Moenkopi (ormation ; C
~ = = = = ~ = = = = ~ ~ .. ~ __ ~ .... ~ ~ 2 N l ~ 5
r interval 100 t eet
" i. .......
, ...,
!unuhk .baJe·· ; Kd. Dakota (1) sandetone: Km. Morn.on formation ; Jt", Summerville formation and
: ; J t, Todilto (1) formation; Jw, Wingate aand,tone: lie. Chinle formati on ~
forma tion; Ck. K.ibab limestone and Coconino laod.toDe
PROfE8110NAL PAI"r.. 1.. PLAn: z.
- - ,
11 , r.OLOFUl)O tUVF.rl AT HALLS
Sho wi'O u.Klcrcul clifT. on outer J o .... u"lr ... liIu of rn(':l nJ .... r t"'lIlh. all J .. Iip-olr .,.lof'O'" ... 11 ""IIhj. illio the ... h . OOIIlIvr roo:k izj NlVlljo .... C$\ ... lu"all )' i» "
Cal'md ",tr.,h' .
Jj . C.\ ;\ii'\ON\· II.I.I-: l::n05l0:\ SURr.\ CE FRO:'.I P01>,,[ ::'Ii":.\R HE,\ O Of LI 'rrL";
Th.· C.ull ,,,.,,,· iI!'J p"lM!pl:aill. pmtl,. u.iJ>M!ol,;\cd I,y .)r Ilu' 1"11-;" 11 ;\"' f, ho· ... ·I ... lJ' .. Trnl.ir. :0<1".1" ;11 1<1 III !:twr 1I!..r,iIls.
erosion that tends to laterally is evidently t.he ! Most of the $mallet· streams are removing
.. use of the de"elopment of the meandering course. meundel' spurl!. In many places in soft rock the to.sk
'1his later oj component appears to be due to propor- has been completed, ftnd even in hard rock it is well
Ilooally large side cutting, where, during the acti," advonced. In the lowest H mile-.; of EscaInnte Canyon
erosion of Hoods, the canyon Hoor is mOl'c or less pro- six meander necks ore each los>; than roo teet ac.'Oss
t..ted by