Fig.3.1 A Silcon Atom.

Some materials, such as copper, aluminium and brass pass electric currents very easily. As they conduct electricity readily, their ability to resist the flow of current is low. They therefore have very low resistivity and so are classed as conductors. Other materials such as plastics or glass have extremely high resistivity so do not conduct electricity. These materials are called insulators. Materials that have a resistivity mid-way between the conductors and insulators do conduct current, but very poorly at normal room temperatures, and so these are called semi-conductors. How well or poorly any material conducts electricity depends on the atomic structure of the material. For an explanation of the atomic structure of materials as applied to electronics, see our page on The Atomic Structure of Matter. Silicon and Germanium, as well as a number of other materials and mixtures of materials in the semiconductor group are widely used in the manufacture of transistors and diodes, as well as integrated circuits such as microprocessors. To make such semiconductor materials suitable for use in transistors and diodes the resistivity of the material is modified in a controlled way by first making very pure crystals of the semiconductor material. These crystals contain only atoms of one type (for example silicon) arranged in a regular lattice formation. This very pure material is then "doped" by adding tiny amounts of impurity atoms (about 1 impurity atom in every 10 million). The idea is that pure semiconductors conduct poorly, because the electrons in their lattice structure are mostly bound very tightly to their atoms, leaving only a few electrons free to move, from atom to atom, through the material, so forming a very weak electric current. By adding impurities with different atomic structures either more, or in other cases, less free electrons are added. This controls the ability of the semiconductor to pass current, by effectively changing the resistivity of the material. Some impurities such as Arsenic and Phosphorus add extra free electrons (negative charge carriers) to the material. This is called N type semiconductor. Other impurities such as Aluminium and Boron can be added in order to remove free electrons, so that the resulting material has fewer free electrons than before. Each missing electron within the crystal structure is called a "hole". As free electrons are negative charge carriers, these holes in the structure are really positive charge carriers. Material doped in this way is called P type semiconductor. Putting P type and N type materials next to each other in a circuit creates a PN junction, and makes a useful device that is

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you may see sandpapers that are rated as either "open-coat" or "closedcoat". Grading Sandpaper: There are two primary types of sandpaper: commercial grade and industrial grade. Tip for a Great Finish: In most general woodworking applications. It will not sand wood as quickly as other sandpapers. using water as a lubricant. the better. Industrial grades use higher quality materials for all three components.quicker sanding. The differences lie in a few areas. particularly on plywood and veneers. Types of Abrasives: There are five main types of sandpaper available. where open-coat sandpapers have larger gaps between the particles. namely the material used as the grit. the quicker you can get through with the sanding. but sometimes is used for hand shaping of wood. As almost any experienced woodworker will tell the beginner. Finally. Garnet paper is usually a brownish-red color. but leaves a better finish. As a general rule. the backing material (paper) and the glue used to hold the grit onto the paper. Aluminum Oxide is another common type of sandpaper for woodworking projects. is very lightweight. so exercise care when using Ceramic sandpaper. where it can quickly sand through the finish layer and ruin a piece. Aluminum Oxide is more durable than Garnet paper. and is rarely used for woodworking. Glasspaper. This type of paper is used primarily for finishing metals or for "wet-sanding". Ceramic paper is often used for belt sander belts. you'll likely find that starting with varying coarse-grit Aluminum Oxide papers for the initial sanding steps followed by finer-grit Garnet papers will leave a very smooth finish that will show off your woodworking skills and give you a very nice platform for staining or painting your woodworking project Lab: Calibration of and Measurement with Strain Gages . Garnet is an excellent choice for finish sanding. It is the type of paper most often used in power sanders. Ceramic sandpaper is made of some of the most durable abrasives available. While some advanced finishes use Silicon Carbide paper. It will usually leave a very rough finish. Glasspaper disintegrates easily. The difference is that closed-coat sandpaper has the grit particles grouped more closely together. it is not typically used in woodworking. typically a pale yellow color. but doesn't leave as nice of a finish. as it clogs less often. and can remove considerable amounts of material in a hurry. Silicon Carbide paper is typically a dark gray or even black. also known as flint paper. particularly when working with softwoods that contain more resin. but not all are conducive for woodworking. open-coat is typically better for woodworking. which is commonly used in woodworking. Additionally.

Text p.99 Type of strain gages: 120 W and 350 W strain gages Operation: Battery Operated Readings: Displays strain as micro strain The instrument supports the strain gages to be connected as Quarter.Objective: Calibration and use of Strain gages.Apparatus: Strain gage Specimen bar Bar holder Weight hanger Standard weights (in Newtons) Strain Indicator model P-3500 Multimeter Strain Gage (SG) Links: MM Guide for SG Technology Experimental Stress-Strain HBM products*Appl Notes* Wheatstone Bridge Specification of Strain Indicator used in this experiment Make : Measurements Group . the strain gage wire/film will also elongate or contract with the structure.11. The display can be set normal display (absolute value) or with a magnification factor of 10. Resistance strain gage is based on that phenomenon (see Sec.3 Resistance Strain Gauges.488-494 or similar reference). by design. Every strain gage. has a sensitivity factor called the gage factor which correlates strain and resistance as follows: Gage factor (F) = (D R / R)/ e where: R = Resistance of un-deformed strain gage D R = Change in resistance of strain gage due to strain . and as mentioned above. Half and Full bridge circuits. the resistance of the strain gage changes accordingly. This change of resistance is measured using a strain indicator (with the Wheatstone bridge circuitry). and the strain is displayed by properly converting the change in resistance to strain. due to change in length and/or cross section. If a resistance strain gage is properly attached onto the surface of a structure which strain is to be measured.Instruments division Model : P 3500 Gage factor range: 0. Verify data given in NOTES 1 & 2 Theory: Electrical resistance of a piece of wire is directly proportional to the length and inversely to the area of the cross section.5 to 9.

. Note down the strain indicated (e). Depress the AMP ZERO button and rotate the knob so that the display is set to zero. Procedure: 1. we will also assume that we do not know the gage factor of the strain gage in order to calibrate it. the initial value should be subtracted from the reading value. set the display to a convenient value (zero or any other value). degreasing. 5. ie. burnishing. 3.e. However. it does not make any difference if the initial setting is zero or not as long as it is taken into account. breadth (b) and thickness (t. Since the readings are going to be relative with respect to a point. Set the specimen bar (beam) to the bar holder so that the bar acts as a cantilever beam. Please NOTE: Strain displayed by the strain indicator is in micro-strain (m e). If the initial setting is not zero. 7. Measure the weight of the hanger (WH.e = Strain As specified by the manufacturer of strain indicator. Weight of the beam itself does contribute to the strain and may also be considered.005 for example) and take the measurements. conditioning and neutralizing. We may do so by calculating the theoretical strain using the appropriate formula and adjust the gage factor setting so that we get the theoretical strain value on the display of the indicator. Depress the RUN button and see what the display shows. since we zeroed instrument under the load of the beam weight it is irrelevant for our measurements. see NOTE 1) of the bar.005. see NOTE 2) and convert it into Newtons (SI unit). surface abrading. The set gage factor for which the display coincides with the theoretical strain is the calibrated gage factor of our strain gage as applied on a particular structure (a beam in our case). 6. Measure the span (L). This value is supplied by the strain indicator manufacturer to calibrate strain gages. Repeat the measurements for at least several (8) times and note down the weights and strain. Connect the two ends of the strain gage as a QUARTER bridge as shown on the inner side of the strain indicator’s lid. Make sure the weight of the hanger is included. Depress the GAGE FACTOR button and set the (initial) gage factor to 2. 4. we set the initial gage factor (as 2. Using the BALANCE knob. Attach the strain gage to the bar (beam) surface using five basic steps: i. the strain equals display reading times 10-6 . Add the standard weights (W) to the hanger and hang it from the free end of the beam. Measure the resistance of the strain gage using the multimeter and note it down. In our experiment. 2.

s=E×e NOTE 2: Young’s Modulus E = 200 × 109 N/m2 for steel. M is the moment applied. To calculate theoretical strain. P = W + WH.81m/s2.FIRST SET OF OBSERVATIONS : Observations: (SET I) Serial Number Weight W [N] Strain e [m e ] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 NOTE 1: WH = mH g = 0.166kg*9. thickness t=1/8 inch. . or E = 70 × 109 N/m2 for aluminum. M \I = s / y Where. SECOND PART OF THE EXPERIMENT: 1. I is the moment of inertia about the neutral axis of bending. to be verified. we use the following formula. For a cantilever beam with a point load at its end. (P*x) where ‘x’ is the distance between the point of loading and the mid-section at which strain gage is fixed.

rotate the GAGE FACTOR knob so that the display shows a strain value equal to calculated (theoretical) strain. the formula for strain is: e = (6 * P * x) /( E * b* t2 ) 2. 4. due to . Finally. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for rest of the "P" values and tabulate the readings below. Load the beam with hanger and the first value of known standard weight for which theoretical strain is calculated. Convert it into micro strain by multiplying it with 106. Calculate the theoretical strain values for at least 5 known values of "P". P = W + WH You should expect that the gage factor for all the steps in the second part of the experiment be the same irrespective of different values of loads. 5. Keeping the indicator in RUN mode. Note down the initial value (without load) of display on the strain indicator and zero it. 6. However. SECOND SET OF OBSERVATIONS : Serial Number (N) Weight (W) Theoretical Strain (m e ) Gage Factor F = F(e ) 1 2 3 4 5 NOTE: WH = mH g.s is the value of stress at a point which is at a distance of y from the neutral axis and y = t / 2 because the strain gage is fixed to the surface of the beam. 3. This implies that gage factor is a constant for a strain gage and is dependant upon its design. Depress the GAGE FACTOR button and note down the gage factor value. Measure the distance "x" between the loading point and the strain gage (see figure).

the above gage factors will differ somewhat and the average value may be used.different sources of errors. EXAMPLE: FIRST SET OF OBSERVATIONS : Observations: (SET I) Serial Number Weight W [N] Strain e [m e ] 1 2 154 2 4 240 3 5 282 4 7 369 5 9 446 6 10 508 7 12 590 8 14 .

81 2.01 2.15 2. P = W + WH SECOND SET OF OBSERVATIONS : Serial Number Weight W [N] Theoretical Strain (m e ) Gage Factor F = F(e ) 1 2 134.381 2 4 209.280 5 9 395.274 3 5 246.67 2.268 4 7 320.297 .32 2.689 NOTE: WH = mH g.282 Average 2.

Average of all the 5 gage factors is 2.297 .

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