# INDUCTIVE & DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH APPROACH

**Meritorious Prof. Dr. S. M. Aqil Burney
**

Director UBIT Chairman

Department of Computer Science University of Karachi

**burney@computer.org www.drburney.net
**

Designed and Assisted by

Hussain Saleem

hussainsaleem@uok.edu.pk

06th March 2008

**"Well begun is half done"
**

--Aristotle, quoting an old proverb

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Research Types
Deductive Approach
Inductive Approach
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.Research Methods
In research. we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.

Deductive Research Approach
THEORY
HYPOTHESIS
OBSERVATION
Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Conclusion follows logically from premises (available facts)
Waterfall
CONFIRMATION
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. Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down" approach.

HYPOTHESIS Informally. we sometimes call this a "bottom up" approach Hill PATTERN Climbing Conclusion is likely based on premises. Involves a degree of uncertainty OBSERVATION
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.Inductive Research Approach
Inductive reasoning works THEORY the other way. moving from specific observations to broader generalizations TENTATIVE and theories.

Deductive Vs. Inductive
THEORY THEORY
HYPOTHESIS
TENTATIVE HYPOTHESIS
OBSERVATION
PATTERN
CONFIRMATION OBSERVATION
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.

Arguments based on laws.Deductive Vs.
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. while deduction begins with the general and ends with the specific. Inductive
Induction is usually described as moving from the specific to the general. Observations tend to be used for Inductive Arguments. rules and accepted principles are generally used for Deductive Reasoning.

Nadeem Mahmood. Karachi University Journal of Science Vol. many researchers believed that logical reasoning is an essential part of human thought process and this dominates in scientific & Technological research and Development. M. Aqil Burney. humans are not natural logical reasoners
REFERENCE:
S.Logical Reasoning and Human Nature
Historically. PP 61-75 61 CS/IT”
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. However.34 (1) July 2006. “A Brief History of Mathematical Logic Mahmood. and Applications of Logic in CS/IT”.

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.

The study of inductive reasoning is generally carried out within the field known as informal logic or critical thinking.
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. Formal logic has been described as 'the science of deduction'.Reasoning methods and Argumentation
The main division between forms of reasoning that is made in philosophy is between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning.

http://www.html 11
.phac-aspc.ca/publicat/cdic-mcc/18-3/d_e.gc.

Automated Reasoning
• Logic lends itself to automation. • A variety of problems can be attacked by representing the problem description and relevant background information as logical axioms and treating problem instances as theorems to be proved.
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72/98
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Logical Reasoning
Probabilistic Reasoning
Bayesian Networks
Subjective
Objective
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.Logic and Reasoning
Reasoning
Using given knowledge and truth value help us to solve. understand real life problems.

EXAMPLE
• • •
p: All mathematicians wear glasses q: Anyone who wears glasses is an algebraist r: All mathematicians are algebraist
p∧q → r ≡ ( ∼( p∧q) ∨ r)
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.

TRUTH TABLE
Truth Table for the formulae built with the Logical Operators
p T T T T F F F F
q T T F F T T F F
r T F T F T F T F
pΛq ~(pΛq) ~(pΛq)Vr Λ Λ Λ T F T T F F F T T F T T F T T F T T F T T F T T
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thus statements may be simple (atomic) or component. then we need to prove: p∧q → r
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. If p. here statement means an atomic statement. and we know that p and q are true simultaneously then r is valid statement.If r is the conclusion. q and r are independent statements. In real life. the statements are true or false.

False. Unknown. degree of believe. Epistemological Commitment What an intelligent entity believes about the fact. degree believe with ranks (known values)
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.Commitment
Ontological Commitment: What exists in the world: Language of reasoning (Formal). Believe System: True.

Formal Language Propositional Logic Predicate Logic Probability Theory Temporal Logic
Ontology What exists) facts Facts.1] True/False /Unknown
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. objects. relations Facts with change Facts. relation and time
Epistemology True/False /Unknown True/False /Unknown Degree of believe on [0. objects.

time & Space Known interval values with improvement in believe True/False /Unknown
ANN-FL
Spatial Logic
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. relation.Fuzzy Logic
Facts with degree Known interval of believe value Facts with degree of believe with learning Facts. objects.

Evolution of Neuro-Fuzzy Logic
Approximate Reasoning Functional Approximation/ Randomized Search
Fuzzy Logic
Neural Networks
Neuro-Fuzzy Systems
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Albert Einstein
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.“ The whole of science is nothing more than a refinement of everyday thinking”.
.

Trochim. “A refined fuzzy time series model for stock market forecasting”
Elsevier—Science Direct. Physica-A. Tahseen Ahmed Jilani. S.
Karachi University Journal of Science Vol. M.com/locate/physa
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. Aqil Burney.K. “Research Methods Knowledge Base” 2006. January 2008 (in press). PP 61-75
Syed Muhammad Aqil Burney.34 (1) July 2006. “A Brief History of Mathematical Logic and Applications of Logic in CS/IT”.elsevier. Nadeem Mahmood. www.References:
William M.