During the first half of the nineteenth century, the “Cotton Kingdom” A.

did not rely on large numbers of slaves imported directly from Africa B.was the dominant source of income of the lower South C.still had not adopted the cotton gin, despite the time and resources it saved D.saw wealthy planters outnumber small planters E. was already losing ground to other staples, such as rice and tobacco Prior to 1860, free blacks in the South A.were concentrated in the Deep South B.were jailed when they attempted to play hip-hop C.increased in number in the 1850s as laws encouraged owners to free “surplus” slaves D.were required by law to leave the South E. occasionally attained wealth and prominence and owned slaves themselves Southern white lower-class resentment of the aristocratic system was most likely to be found in A.river and ocean port towns B.the mountain regions C.the Deep South D.the cities E. the upper South The name given to the effort by whites and blacks to help runaway slaves escape was the A.underground railroad B.Frederick Douglass road C.Second Middle Passage D.Fugitive Slave Act E. Cumberland passage The slave codes of the American South A.were rigidly enforced B.banned blacks from attending church C.legalized slave marriages D.defined anyone with a trace of African ancestry as black E. considered it a crime for an owner to kill a slave The South failed to develop a large industrial economy for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

the center of economic power in the South A. the profitability of cotton Which of the following is TRUE of American slave families in the antebellum South? A. due to the uncertainties of their lives E. reduced imports of slave-grown cotton to northern mills.group rebellions E. S. B.shifted westward into the newly opened oil fields of Texas D.forced many northerners to think of slaves as human beings.most slaves who ran away did so to avoid punishment D.little access to liquid capital E.a child of a slave could not be sold after he or she had reached three years of age B.running away C.up to one-third of families were broken apart by the sale of family members C. E.declined markedly as the North became the primary producer of agricultural goods E.the cultural values C.blacks typically had weaker family ties than did whites. D.A. although abolitionism was never popular in the North. Prior to 1860. the most common form of resistance to slavery was A. it: A. newly arrived slaves to a plantation were often shunned by the black community From the selections below.poisoning B.remained as it had been primarily within the upper South C.was in Charleston.increased the adoption rate of slave children whose parents were killed attempting to escape.a shortage of labor D. B. C.the humid climate B. subtle defiance According to the video "Voices of Reform".arson D.C. collapsed completely leading to eventual demands for secession .led to numerous strikes in protest of slavery.brought an end to slavery in the Northwest.

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