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Causativ e Agent

Incuba tion Period

15 - 45 Days

Mode of Transmission
- Ingestion of food/water that is contaminated by stool containing HEP A virus - You come in contact with the stool or blood of a person who currently has the disease - A person with hepatitis A does not wash his or her hands properly after going to the bathroom and touches other objects or food - You participate in sexual practices that involve oralanal contact - BT - Direct contact with blood in health care settings - Sexual contact with an infected person -Tattoo or acupuncture with unclean needles or instruments - Shared needles during drug use - Shared personal items (such as toothbrushes, razors, and nail clippers) with an infected person

Individual at Risk
-International travel, especially to Asia or South or Central America - Living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center - Working in a health care, food, or sewage industry


Test Done

Preventio n and Control

Proper food handling

Hepatitis A

Hepatits A Virus (HAV)

- Dark Urine - Fatigue - Itching - Loss of Appetite - Low- grade fever - N/V - Clay colored Stool - Jaundice

HAV-AbIgM HAV-AbIgG HAV-Ab total

Hepatitis Hepatitis Virus B B


2 to 6 Months

- Being born, or having parents who were born in regions with high infection rates (including Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean) - Being infected with HIV - Being on hemodialysis - Having multiple sex partners - Men having sex with men

- You may have no symptoms - You may feel sick for a period of days or weeks - You may become very ill (called fulminant hepatitis) symptoms may appear after 6 months - Appetite loss - Fatigue - Fever, lowgrade - Muscle and joint aches -Nausea and vomiting

- Antibody to HBsAg (AntiHBs) - Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (Anti-HBc) -Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) - Hepatitis E surface antigen (HBeAg) -- a positive result means you have a hepatitis B infection and are more likely to spread the infection to others

- All children should receive their first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine at birth, and complete the series of three shots by age 6 months. Children younger than age 19 who have not been vaccinated should receive "catch-up" doses. -Avoid sexual

- Yellow skin and dark urine due to jaundice

through sexual contact or sharing needle

Hepatitis Hepatitis C Virus C


2 to 26 weeks

- BT of infected blood - Sexual Intercourse - Use of infected needles

- Have been on long-term kidney dialysis - Have regular contact with blood at work (for instance, as a health care worker) - Have unprotected sexual contact with a person who has hepatitis C (this is much less

- Abdominal pain (right upper abdomen) - Abdominal swelling (due to fluid called ascites) - Bleeding from the esophagus or stomach (due to dilated veins in the esophagus or stomach called varices

- EIA assay to detect hepatitis C antibody - Hepatitis C RNA assays to measure virus levels (viral load) - Hepatitis C genotype. Six genotypes exist. Most Americans have genotype 1 infection, which is the

contact with a person who has acute or chronic hepatitis B. - Use a condom and practice safe sex. - Avoid sharing personal items, such as razors or toothbrushe s. - Do not share drug needles or other drug equipment (such as straws for snorting drugs). - Clean blood spills with a solution containing 1 part household bleach to 10 parts water. - Avoid contact with blood or blood products whenever possible. Health care workers should follow precautions when handling blood and bodily fluids. - Do not inject illicit

common, but the risk is higher for those who have many sex partners, already have a sexually transmitted disease, or are infected with HIV - Inject street drugs or share a needle with someone who has hepatitis C - Received a blood transfusion before July 1992 - Received a tattoo or acupuncture with contaminated instruments (the risk is very low with licensed, commercial tattoo facilities) - Received blood, blood products, or solid organs from a donor who has hepatitis C - Share personal items such as toothbrushes and razors with someone who has hepatitis C (less common) - Were born

-Dark Urine -Fatigue -Fever -Itching -Jaundice -Anorexia - N/V - Clay colored stools

hardest to treat. - Albumin level - Liver function tests Prothrombin time - Liver biopsy

drugs, and especially do not share needles with anyone. Be careful when getting tattoos and body piercings. - Sexual transmissio n is very low among stable, monogamo us couples. A partner should be screened for hepatitis C. If the partner is negative, the current recommend ations are to make no changes in sexual practices. - People who have sex outside of a monogamo us relationship should practice safer sex behaviors to avoid hepatitis C as well as sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and hepatitis B.

to a hepatitis C-infected mother (this occurs in about 1 out of 20 babies born to mothers with HCV, which is much less common than with hepatitis B)

Hepatitis Hepatitis D virus D


- Can be as short as 30 days or as long as 180 days

- Use of infected needles - Sexual intercourse

- Having a tattoo or body piercing done with dirty tools that were used on someone else, sharing drugs, needles, and having sex with an infected person without using a condom

- Diarrhea, muscle pain, nausea or vomiting, a low-grade fever, exhaustion, weakness, and a loss of appetite

- Liver enzyme tests or tests that look for antibodies the body has made against the hepatitis D virus


15-60 days

Saliva, air, cough, fecal-oral route, surfaces, blood, needles, blood transfusions, sexual contact, mother to fetus

- Exposure to contaminated food or water - Consuming untreated water - Consuming food prepared by an infected person. - Consuming raw produce or raw shellfish (e.g., oysters) - Traveling to countries where hepatitis E is

- Flu-like symptoms -Fever -Fatigue -N/V -Anorexia - Abd Pain - Diarrhea - Jaundice

- Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

- Get the hepatitis B vaccine or avoiding high-risk behaviors such as shooting drugs or sharing toothbrushe s, razors, nail clippers, washcloths, or anything else that could have an infected person's blood on it Avoiding tap water when traveling internationa lly and practicing good hygiene and sanitation. Avoid unprotected sexual contact with a confirmed individual

common and where there is little clean water or proper sewage disposal. Exposure to the stool or blood of an infected person, who is a: - Household member or sexual partner (men who have sex with men are at higher risk). - Child or staff member of a daycare center (including centers for the disabled). - Resident or staff member of a health care center.