PHARMACEUTICS DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS: : DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS: Hazards is a situation that posses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment. Any real or potential conditions produced by industries that can cause injury or death to personnel or loss of product or property. 2 TYPES OF INDSTRIAL HAZARDS: : TYPES OF INDSTRIAL HAZARDS: Fire and Explosion Hazards. Chemical Hazards. Electrical Hazards. Mechanical Hazards. Miscellaneous. 3 FIRE HAZARDS: : FIRE HAZARDS: 4 SOURCE OF FIRE HAZARDS: : SOURCE OF FIRE HAZARDS: Combustible and flammable liquid. Heat utilizations equipments. Chemical process equipment. Lighting. Oven and furnaces. Dehydrator and dryers. Reactors. Welding and cutting. 5 CAUSES OF FIRE: : CAUSES OF FIRE: Improper storage of flammable oils, greases and fluids, combustible wastes etc. Smoking by employees. Poor housekeeping. Defective heating equipment, electrical equipment and wiring. Explosive gas leakage. Ignition of gas vapours or combustible dusts. Inadequate of electric motors. Sparking in electric wires and equipment 6 PROTECTION AND PREVENTION: : PROTECTION AND PREVENTION: Following are the safety measures against fire and explosion hazards. Prohibition of smoking in manufacturing area. Not operating electrical switches, when gas is smelled in the area. Safety posters should be put on the notice boards. Ventilation facility. Proper storage of combustible materials and removal of waste materials. 7 Slide 8: 6) Eliminating the ignition sources: Electrical sparks & arcs Flames such as burner flames, matches & cigarette lighters & heaters. Hot surface such as heated wires, rods or fragments. Lasers. 7) Factory building should be made of fire resistant material like steel and ferroconcrete. 8) In order to exit in the emergency suitable exit facility to be provided. 9) Following all safety rules and precautions. 10) Fire alarms and fire extinguishers to be installed. 8 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS: : FIRE EXTINGUISHERS: Fire extinguishers work by: Removal of oxygen from the site of fire. Removal of heat by cooling with water or other extinguishing agents. Water based fire extinguishers. (soda - ash extinguisher) Water based foams. ( chemical foams and mechanical foams.) Dry chemicals. (sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate.) 9

Negligence. Periodic check-up to be carried out of all machines. Recheck the lines everyday. Improper maintenance of equipment. Use protective equipment. Overhead electrical wire should have extra care. 14 ELECTRICAL HAZARDS: : ELECTRICAL HAZARDS: Contact with power lines. Stop and lock button for machines. Improper use of extension and flexible cords. Dangerous Parts. Turn key system for cleaning and for repairing. All materials should be resistance to chemicals. Recheck the equipment everyday. 19 Hazards in Lab: : . Path to ground missing or discontinuous. 16 MECHANICAL HAZARDS: : MECHANICAL HAZARDS: Insecurely fixed machines. Piping and storage tank should be colour code. To wear proper dress. nose etc Cancer Irritation on wind pipe 13 PROTECTION AND PREVENTION: : PROTECTION AND PREVENTION: Personal protective cloth. Proper training to workers. Failure of SOP. Following strictly SOP. 15 SAFETY MEASURES FOR ELECTRICAL HAZARDS: : SAFETY MEASURES FOR ELECTRICAL HAZARDS: Implement a safe electrical work programme.Slide 10: 10 CHEMICAL HAZARDS: : CHEMICAL HAZARDS: Toxic Corrosive Irritant Carcinogenic Mutagenic 11 SYMBOLS USED IN CHEMICAL HAZARDS: : SYMBOLS USED IN CHEMICAL HAZARDS: 12 EFFECT OF CHEMICALS ON EXPOSURE: : EFFECT OF CHEMICALS ON EXPOSURE: Skin burn Ache Anthrax Ulcer in hand. Safety features should be written on the notice boards. 17 SAFETY MEASURES FOR MECHANICAL HAZARDS: : SAFETY MEASURES FOR MECHANICAL HAZARDS: Machine should be fitted with emergency shut down system. Leak proof connections. Flammable & explosive chemicals should keep at proper distance. 18 Slide 19: Operator must have a safe distance from the machine. Explain Do¶s and Dont¶s to the new workers. Warning and Symbols. Pressure regulators and relief valves. Equipment not used in manner prescribed. Use warning labels. Wear rubber shoes and gloves.

Evacuation and smoke detection system. SOP Heating Stirring Cooling 22 Risk management: : Risk management: Requires a risk management approach -identifying. protective gear. 25 REFERENCE: : REFERENCE: How to practice GMP by P. removing. Assessment of hazard risk level. Check leakage. P. Highly toxic components swept away with carrier gas Hydrogen. Determination of reasonable methods to eliminate or control risks. Carcinogen processes. training & information. 26 . Appropriate labels. 20 CHEMICAL HAZARDS:Safety measures : CHEMICAL HAZARDS:Safety measures Use glass ware when necessary Volatile solvent in fume cup board Laminar air flow Dust mask Eg: Hydrogen sulphide : desensitizes the senses. Follow SOP 21 EQUIPMENTS HAZARDS:Safety measures : EQUIPMENTS HAZARDS:Safety measures Vacuum or pressure in lab causes hazards. Emergency provision first aid. 24 SAFETY MEASURES: : SAFETY MEASURES: Obtain material safety data sheets.youthkiawaaz. controlling potential hazards 23 HOW TO DO ? : HOW TO DO ? Identification of all hazards. Safety http://www.openlibrary. Employee health surveillance and records. Follow standard procedures.Hazards in Lab: FIRE HAZARDS: Safety measures Locating fire extinguishers and other protective gears in lab. Emergency exit. Instruments should be properly earthed. propane etc. Pouring from the bottle. Alarm. Identify foreseeable hazards. Sharma. Avoid prohibited substances. Emergency equipment in hand.

Flashpoint information may be found on product labels or MSDS sheets. Flammable liquids are considered flammable because their flashpoints are < 100ºF.. Combustible liquids have a flashpoint at or above 100ºF. An NFPA diamond on a can of gasoline would have a 3 in the red section indicating that gasoline could ignite at normal working temperatures.fires that occur in ordinary material such as wood. titanium.. the greater the risk for ignition.involved electricity in any form. Class E fires:. How do I tell what¶s flammable?: NFPA classification system The NFPA diamond is an easy way to determine the safety risks associated with hazardous materials. sodium etc«..INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FIRE ACCIDENT: INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FIRE ACCIDENT By : Vijay Baria First Year M.. Storing Flammable and Combustible Liquids: . This means that flammable liquids burn easily at normal working temperatures. paper rages. The following numbering system is used to indicate flammability 0 . These liquids are less hazardous than flammable liquids but still pose a risk. Class D fires:.: NFPA Classification System Continued. What¶s a Flashpoint? The flashpoint of a liquid is the lowest temperature at which the liquid gives off enough vapor to be ignited. It is actually the vapor created by flammable and combustible liquids that ignites and burns. Slide 5: Flammable and combustible liquids are potential fuel sources for fires and are present in almost every workplace. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Flammable and Combustible Liquids Continued. To determine a materials flammability refer to the red section of the diamond.will not burn 1 must be preheated to burn 2 -ignites when moderately heated 3 -ignites at normal temperature 4 extremely flammable How do I tell what¶s flammable? For example...with combustible metals such as magnesium.: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Continued. gasoline etc««. rubber and rubbish.Pharm Preformulation & Production Management Department of Pharmaceutics Shree Devi College of Pharmacy 11 th March 2011 CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES: CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES Class A fires:. lithium.. It is important to understand what materials in your work area are flammable and combustible so that you may properly store and isolate them from ignition sources. A number in this section will indicate the flammability rating of the material. The lower the flashpoint.with gases and vapours . Class C fires:. NFPA Diamond NFPA Classification System Continued.. paint.with flammable material like oil. The volatility of flammable and combustible liquids requires special storage and handling requirements. Class B fires:.. Where can I find NFPA diamonds? Product labels Material Safety Data Sheets (ask your supervisor for them) How do I determine the flammability of chemicals that don¶t use the NFPA classification system? The flashpoint of a chemical may be used to determine its flammability.

and storage cabinets. As a general rule. Identify the fire hazards Identify: Sources of ignition Sources of fuel Sources of oxygen The fire triangle: The fire triangle Sources of ignition: Sources of ignition ARSON Smokers materials Naked flames Electrical. gas. Fire Prevention Goals The Strategy of Preventing a Fire : The Strategy of Preventing a Fire A fire must have three things to ignite and maintain combustion: Fuel Heat Oxygen The basic strategy of fire prevention is to control or isolate sources of fuel and heat in order to prevent combustion. Protection of Operations By preventing fires and limiting damage we can assure that work operations will continue. portable heating equipment Hot processes. If all three are not present in sufficient quantities a fire will not ignite or a fire will not be able to sustain combustion PREVENTIVE STEPS TO AVOID FIRE ACCIDENT : PREVENTIVE STEPS TO AVOID FIRE ACCIDENT Smoking is strictly prohibited inside the factory. 1. Room storage limits of flammable and combustible materials depend on various factors such as sprinklers.Storing Flammable and Combustible Liquids Flammable liquids must be stored away from ignition sources in cool. welding Lighting equipment Sources of fuel: Sources of fuel Flammable liquid based products Packaging materials Waste products Stationary Soft furnishings and furniture Some construction materials Sources of Oxygen: Sources of Oxygen The air around us Air conditioning Some chemicals Oxygen supplies ± cylinder storage Pyrotechnics General Fire Precautions: General Fire Precautions Reduce the risk and spread of fire Ensure means of escape at all times Fire fighting measures on premises Fire detection and warnings of Action in the case of fire Training and instruction Measures to mitigate the effects Slide 14: Life Safety The primary goal of fire safety efforts is to protect building occupants from injury and to prevent loss of life. Property Protection The secondary goal of fire safety is to prevent property damage. Do not allow the formation of an . Do not heat a flammable liquid above its flash point.paint stripping. well ventilated areas away from incompatible materials Limit the amount of flammable and combustible liquids to the minimum amount necessary. No more than 10 gallons of flammable materials should be outside of approved flammable liquid storage cabinets or approved storage rooms. Refer to the table on the following slide for storage guidelines. Identify the fire hazards: 1.

liquids and gases are kept to a minimum and stored properly Do not keep flammable solids. windows and other openings when not required for ventilation Shut down inessential ventilation systems Do not store oxidising materials next to heat sources or flammable materials Control use of oxygen cylinders Remove or reduce the hazards ± to people: Remove or reduce the hazards ± to people Ensure that any risks remaining to people are controlled Provide systems to warn people and allow them to escape in the event of fire Provide adequate exits for the number of people present Fire detection and warning systems: Fire detection and warning systems System will depend on the size and layout of the building It should provide adequate warning in the event of a fire Automatic or manual? You may/will need special arrangements for people with disabilities Fire-fighting equipment and facilities: Fire-fighting equipment and facilities Can reduce the risk of a small fire (waste paper bin) developing into a larger one Controlling a fire in the early stages can reduce the risk to people There should be enough portable extinguishers suitable for the risk They should be sited throughout the premises at suitable locations Extinguishing media for each type of fires: Extinguishing media for each type of fires Class A fires:.sources of ignition Replace potential sources of ignition with an alternative Replace naked flame and radiant heaters with fixed convector heaters or central heating Separate ignition sources and fuels Check areas after hot work has taken place Take precautions to avoid arson Remove or reduce the hazards .inflammable mixture anywhere in the plant with air or oxygen.foam and carbon dioxide Class C fires:. and train Review Remove or reduce the hazards . instruct.water and foam type extinguisher Class B fires:. inform. remove or reduce. Toxic gases or liquids s hould not be depressurized into the atmosphere. plan. and protect from risk Record.sources of fuel: Remove or reduce the hazards . Before opening a line or equipment containing inflammable gas or liquid consult production superintendant.carbon dioxide and dry chemical powder Class . Avoid the use of open flame in the area where combustible material are handled.sources of ignition: Remove or reduce the hazards . liquids and gases together Remove combustible waste daily Store waste materials securely away from buildings. Any gas leak in the equipment or pipeline should be brought to the notice. Remove or reduce the hazards ± sources of oxygen: Remove or reduce the hazards ± sources of oxygen Close all doors.sources of fuel Ensure flammable materials. Fire safety risk assessment: Fire safety risk assessment Identify the fire hazards Identify the people at risk Evaluate.

A.dry chemical powder and carbon dioxide Dry sand can used as an extinguishing media for all fires Type Of Extinguisher: Type Of Extinguisher Soda ± Acid Water-Gas/Light Water Foam Halon or Halogenated Hydro Carbon CO2 Extinguisher Dry Powder Fire Hazards²Fire Extinguisher Facts: Use for small fires ONLY! Operation: P.S. safely and immediately usable at all times Adequate for the number of people Free from any obstructions. slip or trips hazards Available for access by the emergency services Escape routes: Escape routes Suitable: Fire resistant construction Escape routes should not go through other occupiers premises Doors should open in the direction of travel Be fitted with vision panels if over 60 people Signs and notices: Signs and notices Comply with British or European standards Not mixed Be fire resistant British Standard European Standard Why do we close fire doors?: Why do we close fire doors? Why we do close fire doors: Why we do close fire doors Slide 34: We don¶t want to end up like this Slide 35: Or this REFERENCE: . Pull the pin Aim Squeeze Sweep Fire Hazards² Fire Extinguisher Facts Fire-fighting equipment and facilities: Fire-fighting equipment and facilities Co2 Foam Powder Water Other facilities: Other facilities Can include: Access for fire engines and fire-fighters Fire-fighting shafts and lifts Fire suppression systems ± sprinklers Smoke-control systems Dry or wet rising mains and firefighters inlets Information and communication systems Fire-fighters switches Escape routes: Escape routes Escape routes should be: Suitable Easily.S.only by dry powder extinguisher Class E fires:.D fires:.

..authorstrem..!: Thank You.. Shayamala Bhaskaran Thank You.REFERENCE INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY By Dr.scribd.V.! . PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT By C. www. Subramanyam ..