1st SAMUEL Introduction 1.

1SA records the transition from the time of the judges to the monarchy (ACT 13:19-23). a. Ruth is 8th book of the Bible and suggests a new beginning. Ruth introduces the new era of the Davidic monarchy leading up to the reign of Christ, the son of David. b. Compare the introduction of this new era with the introduction of the kingdom of heaven in the time of Christ. i. The Davidic monarchy was introduced with two women destitute of offspring: the barren Hannah and the widow Ruth. ii. The kingdom of heaven was introduced with two women destitute of offspring: the barren Elizabeth and the virgin Mary. iii. God used lowly instruments to accomplish His great purposes. 1. Ruth was a poor widow. 2. Hannah was barren and persecuted. 3. Elizabeth was old and barren. 4. Mary was poor. 2. Principle characters: Hannah, Eli, Samuel, Saul, Jonathan, and David. Chapter 1:1-2:11: Hannah’s Prayer and Vow 1. Note problems in having more than one wife. 2. The family partook of the sacrifice (DEU 12:4-14; 14:22-27; LEV 7:11-21). 3. The adversary provoked when Hannah went to God’s house to worship. 4. What did it gain Peninnah to provoke Hannah? 5. Fret- To distress oneself with constant thoughts of regret or discontent. 6. Hannah handled stress by fervent prayer to God. 7. In seeking something from God, seek it for His glory and service. 8. Belial – worthlessness. 9. What she loaned to God He richly recompensed. 10. “Praise is our rent, our tribute. We are unjust if we do not pay it.” Matthew Henry 11. She glories in the Giver rather than the gift. 12. Hannah’s horn was exalted. a. Fame of her name: Hannah, Anna, Anne.

b. Fame of her son. What do we know of Peninnah’s children? 13. Considering the changes Hannah referenced, talk proudly no more (JER 9:23-24; 1CO 4:7). 14. Weakness, hunger, barrenness, death, poverty, and lowliness are no hindrances for God. Hannah experienced this firsthand. 15. Hannah was first to use the expression his anointed, i.e. his Christ. 16. Hannah prophesies of the Lord’s Christ at the house of God. Cp. LUK 2:36-38: same name, same place, same theme! 17. Cp. Hannah’s praise with Mary’s in LUK 1:46-55. 18. This is the threshold of the inauguration of God’s kingdom in the hand of the sons of David culminating in the reign of Christ (1CH 28:5; 2CH 13:8; LUK 1:31-33; EPH 1:2023). 19. The grand scheme of the reign of Christ over all things to His church began with a woman who went to the house of God and prayed! 20. Samuel commences the service to which he was dedicated. Chapter 2:12-36: The Sin and Judgment of the House of Eli 1. The faithful house of Elkanah is put in contrast to the unfaithful house of Eli. 2. Eli’s sons were priests that did not know the Lord, which explains their evil practices. 3. The priests’ custom was in direct conflict with the word of God. 4. The priests were practicing extortion, which is the action or practice of wresting anything, esp. money, from a person by force or by undue exercise of authority or power. This compares with the religious leaders of our Lord’s time (MAT 23:25). 5. But Samuel ministered before the Lord. Samuel was not corrupted by their evil influence. 6. Ephod – A Jewish priestly vestment, without sleeves, slit at the sides below the armpits, fastened with buckles at the shoulders, and by a girdle at the waist. 7. Hannah received quite a return on her loan. 8. Eli’s sons used their position of power to exploit the women. 9. Eli’s sons sinned against God in the very things used to make reconciliation. 10. Grace withheld from the sons of Eli was granted to Samuel. 11. Eli is singled out by the 2nd person singular verb honourest and charged. 12. Eli failed to restrain his sons when they made themselves vile (1SA 3:13). 13. The plural pronoun ye shows that Eli had been participating in the sin of his sons. a. Eli had an eating problem that put him in a compromised position and eventually contributed to his death (1SA 4:18).

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b. Deal with your problem or it will deal with you. 14. Cp. the principle of government announced in v. 30 with PSA 18:20-26; GAL 6:7-9. 15. Honour contrasts with lightly esteemed. 16. “See how this answered to the sin. Eli’s sons must have the best pieces of flesh, but their sons will be glad of a morsel of bread.” Matthew Henry Chapter 3:1-21: God Reveals Himself to Samuel 1. The opening word and connects this narrative with the foregoing further showing the contrast. a. Unlike Eli’s sons, Samuel faithfully ministered unto the Lord before Eli. b. In this chapter God will honour Samuel who honoured Him. 2. In those days there was no revelation of God to the public. 3. Eli’s failing vision corresponds to the darkness of the times (cp. ISA 29:9-14). This compares to the times of our Lord (LUK 1:78-79). 4. Compare this setting with the prophecy of Malachi and the advent of our Lord. a. The corrupted priesthood of Samuel’s childhood resembles the corrupted priesthood of Malachi’s time. Neither was offering God the best of the sacrifices. b. Over against the dark background of a corrupt priesthood, Samuel is introduced, the forerunner of David. Over against the dark background of a corrupt priesthood, Malachi introduces John the Baptist, the forerunner of Christ. c. There was no open vision at this time. After Malachi, we have no more vision and hear no more prophets until the coming of Christ (LUK 1:67, 76; 2:36). d. As the word of the Lord came to Samuel, so also did it come to John the Baptist (LUK 3:2). 5. Three times when the Lord called Samuel, Samuel thought it was Eli calling. 6. Samuel did not yet have a personal knowledge of God through His word. a. One can know about God without personally interacting with Him in His word. b. Hence, Samuel did not recognize God’s voice. c. Yet Samuel was already an object of God’s grace (1SA 2:26). The Lord knew him by name before He knew the Lord (EXO 33:12). d. Many, when hearing the word of God, do not discern it as such and thus hear only a man speaking. i. Such was the case with the Jews (JOH 8:43-47). ii. It was otherwise with the Thessalonian believers (1TH 2:13).

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7. Per Eli’s advice, Samuel took the place of a servant and thus received the word of God as the word of God (JOH 7:17). 8. If we would learn, we like Samuel must set ourselves to hear (PSA 85:8; HAB 2:1; ACT 10:33; PRO 8:32-34). 9. Meekly taking that place of a servant, more was revealed to Samuel (MAT 11:29; ACT 9:6; PSA 25:9; PRO 11:2; JAM 1:21). 10. Samuel’s first prophetic message was one of judgment upon the house of Eli, a message which Samuel feared to shew him. a. tingle – Said of the ears: to be affected with a ringing or thrilling sensation at the hearing of anything. b. This would try Samuel and prove whether he would be faithful to deliver the word that God gave him or not. c. Men of God do not take delight in bearing evil tidings (2CO 2:1-4). 11. It speaks well of Eli that he wanted to hear the word from God regardless of its message. 12. Eli’s adjuration indicates that ministers who fail to proclaim the word of judgment bring judgment upon themselves (EZE 33:7-9). 13. Samuel proved himself a faithful minister of the word in that he did not shun declaring “all the counsel of God” (ACT 20:26-27). 14. It further speaks well of Eli that he acquiesced to the Lord in this matter. a. There was a silver lining in the black cloud of judgment that came over Eli’s house: i. God had not extinguished the light of revelation. There was a prophet in Israel. ii. As surely as God judged the house of Eli as He said, so surely would He raise up a faithful priest as He said. b. This is one should humbly submit to God’s word of judgment. Just as surely as His word of judgment stands, so surely stands His word of blessing. 15. How blessed to grow with the presence of God. 16. Cp. Samuel all Israel acknowledging Samuel as God’s prophet with all people acknowledging John the Baptist as a prophet (MAT 14:5; 21:26). 17. Having been faithful with the revelation that he had received, God revealed yet more to Samuel (MAT 25:28-29). Chapter 4:1-22: The Ark of God Taken By the Philistines 1. The sign that God gave to Eli came to pass in this chapter (1SA 2:34). 2. Consider the importance of the ark to Israel.

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When Israel rebelled against God’s provision. Hence. 35). It was the ark of testimony because God's testimony. it was removed. 6. they were plagued (EXO 32:1-6. JAM 1:22. ii. b. i. The ark was called God's strength and glory (PSA 78:61). This compares with those who trust the church or its ordinances or its ministers to save them. when the ark was removed Eli’s daughter-in-law said: “The glory is departed from Israel. a. When Israel rebelled against God’s men. 46-50). Trust only in God for salvation (PSA 62:5-8). they were plagued (NUM 16:1-3. they were plagued (NUM 11:4-6. 33). a.a. iv. Israel depended upon the ark. was in it. God forsook His tabernacle in Shiloh. God's manifests His strength and glory in and with His word (PSA 80:12). a. The Philistines converted the fear they had of the ark into hostility and resolved to act like men and fight to avoid servitude. Merely having and hearing the law does not secure the blessing (JER 8:8. b. Israel thought the mere possession of the ark would save them. and God’s provision (HEB 9:4). rather than upon the God of the ark to save them. 1st Samuel – Page 5 of 46 . 25). The ark was the place of the Divine Presence where God met and communed with man (EXO 25:21-22). i. God’s man. Therefore. 1TI 6:17). His law. b. Scripture repeatedly warns against trusting creatures (PSA 146:3. d. 4. d. The ark of His presence never returned there. When Israel rebelled against God’s law. the piece of furniture. iii. ROM 2:23. and golden pot that had manna representing God’s government. The relationship that God sustained with His people as their Shepherd was represented in that ark (PSA 80:1) ii. Aaron’s rod that budded. But the ark would avail them nothing without obeying the law that it contained.” 3. c. Israel’s thinking was like the thinking of the heathen. c. The ark contained the tables of the covenant. 5. PSA 78:58-64 is a commentary on this event. The Philistines called the ark God.

Who came down from heaven into this earth and reentered heaven with an immortal humanity (EXO 16. ACT 13:34-37. 24:19. The ark is a type of the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. The unbroken tablets of stone within the ark point to Christ. trusting to it while they disobeyed the law (JER 7:1-16). HEB 2:9). Christ is the place of the divine presence (COL 2:9). 2. The manna stored in the golden pot in the ark in the holiest of all. iii. The Bread of God. 1. As God met man at the ark so God and man meet in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ (1TI 2:5). 8. 1st Samuel – Page 6 of 46 . The times were so evil that Eli’s daughter-in-law derived no joy from the birth of her son. vii. Christ consists of two natures. ii. The gold. Consider the typology of the ark of the covenant. The shittim wood comes from a tree that grows in the arid desert and points to the humanity of Christ. REV 1:18). Christ is the righteousness of God for His people (ROM 10:4). 1. a. suggests Christ’s deity. 3. iv. the very substance of the heavenly city (REV 21:18). 1. Who kept all the law (MAT 5:17). Any unused manna held over to the next day became corrupt. The resurrection vindicated God’s rejected Son. 9. The ark was made of gold and shittim wood (EXO 25:10-11). so was the law within the heart of Christ (PSA 40:8). 2. LUK 23:29). 1. 2. Aaron’s rod that budded points to Christ Who rose from the dead just as Aaron’s lifeless rod brought forth the fruit of life (NUM 17). As the law was within the ark.b. The golden pot that had manna portrays Christ. 2. crowned with glory and honour (EXO 25:11. The ark had a crown of gold round about pointing to Christ as King. i. a type of heaven. whose heart trembled for the ark. The Saviour spoke of such times to come in Israel when the glory departed from them (MAT 23:38. 7. divine and human. The budding rod vindicated God’s chosen priest who had been rejected by the people. JOH 6:32-33. vi. which was “as a root out of a dry ground” (ISA 53:2). 1TI 6:15. v. To his credit Eli. The nation of Judah made the same mistake with the temple of the Lord. did not become corrupt. died at the news of the loss of the ark rather than the loss of his sons.

10. which correspond to the four gospels or the testimony of Jesus Christ. The ark was borne by God’s chosen servants. life. The face of the man corresponds to the gospel of Luke presenting Christ as the Man (cp. The ark is a type of the gospel of Christ. 2CO 4:4. The cherubims have four faces. God's presence and power are with the preaching of the glorious gospel. When Christ withdraws from a church. d. iii. This pointed to God’s throne. ii. When the gospel of Christ and His grace is gone from a church. as the gospel is proclaimed by God’s chosen ministers (2TI 2:3-4). JER 23:5). a. the Levites. Bearing in mind the significance and typology of the ark we can relate this event to the church of the New Testament. ix. the testimony of Jesus Christ (MAT 28:18-20. The ark was flanked by the golden cherubims in the mercy seat. 3. ISA 4:2). The face of the lion corresponds to the gospel of Matthew presenting Christ as the King (cp. Christ’s body was bathed in His own blood to atone for all the sins of God’s elect (HEB 9:12). The mercy seat upon the ark was sprinkled with blood to make atonement for all the sins of the children of Israel (LEV 16:14-16). the glory is departed. a. b. c. which reveals Christ’s person and work. where we find the cherubims (EZE 1.viii. 2. c. 3:16-17. 1. 2. When the sacred text of God’s word written by God is removed from a church. b. The face of the eagle corresponds to the gospel of John present Christ as God (cp. and immortality (ROM 5:20-21). 1. the vail. b. and the ceiling curtains. 1st Samuel – Page 7 of 46 . the glory is departed (REV 2:5. The face of the ox corresponds to the gospel of Mark presenting Christ as the Servant (cp. The cherubims are associated with the divine revelation since they are found connected with God’s testimony. i. ACT 1:8. ZEC 6:12). 1PE 1:12). In Christ God’s children have righteousness. HEB 4:16). upon the ark is the mercy seat (cp. the glory is departed. 10. Hence. 20). ZEC 3:8). REV 4).

or His gospel may well be named Ichabod! Chapter 5:1-12: The Ark of God Among the Philistines 1. b. felt God’s heavy hand of judgment. b. The same ark that was a blessing to Israel was an occasion of death to the Philistines. Dagon falling before the ark of God demonstrates the words of ISA 42:8: “I am the LORD: that is my name: and my glory will I not give to another. Dagon was represented as a merman having the upper body of a man and the lower body of a fish. When a city where the ark was. PSA 115:8 They that make them (idols) are like unto them. So shall the kingdom of Satan fall before the kingdom of Christ.” c. The places to which the ark was sent were smitten with deadly destruction and those who died not were smitten with emerods in their secret. b. a.” M. a. Chapter 6:1-21: The Ark of God Returned to Israel 1. God judged Dagon. It appears from v. 6. b. A church without the word of God. “When the interests of religion seem to be run down and ready to sink. the men of the place wanted it sent away. so is every one that trusteth in them. Indeed. Compare this with the Egyptians (EXO 12:33). b. 4. yet even then we may be confident that the day of their triumph will come. This compares with gospel preachers (2CO 2:15-16). The Philistines might defeat Israel. a. a. Henry 2. but they will not defeat Israel’s God. the god of the Philistines. neither my praise to graven images. idolaters are without understanding (ISA 44:18-20). When impenitent hearts feel God’s judgment. This reveals their confusion regarding God’s means of atonement. 5. The Philistines hallowed the threshold where Dagon’s head and hands were cut off. they want God removed from them rather than seeking His favour (cp MAR 5:16-17). 1st Samuel – Page 8 of 46 .d. The priests and diviners of the Philistines advised returning the ark with a trespass offering of five golden emerods and five golden mice according to the number of their lords. In this chapter we see God awaking to defend His ark (PSA 78:65). when they put the ark by it. 3. hinder parts (PSA 78:66). a. 18 that more than five mice ended up being sent. or Christ.

b. 13-16). 2. What an example of the divine preservation and transmission of the sacred text! 6. Henry. c. d. The cows would have no one to lead them. where it would abide (PSA 78:67-68). ii. The natural tendency of the cows would be to return to their homes and calves. The Philistines gained nothing and lost much by stealing the ark. which were trophies of God’s victory over the Philistines and tokens of their perpetual shame. Seeing the ark returned they returned to Ekron. and restored it to His people. b. This was the case even though it was set upon a great stone rather than in a beautiful sanctuary. a. Beth-shemesh was a city assigned to the priests out of the tribe of Judah (JOS 21:9. Thus the ark was removed from Shiloh in the tribe of Ephraim and directed to the tribe of Judah. Returning the ark by the means they devised they would prove whether it was the Lord that had smitten them or a chance that happened to them. The lords of the Philistines had followed the ark to verify its return. a. Thus the ark returned with the coffer of golden images. 3. The ark was received with rejoicing and service to God. “The intrinsic grandeur of instituted ordinances ought not to be diminished in our eyes by the meanness and poverty of the place where they are administered. b. God Himself through His judgments and guiding hand brought the ark out of its captivity. The cows took the way to Beth-shemesh lowing (mooing) as they went. a. They seemed to have some conception that the trespass offering should reflect the curse. the natural man wants to believe that God has no hand in the judgments that befall him. The severe judgment of the people of Beth-shemesh for looking into the ark dramatically emphasizes the inviolable holiness of God and His law. 70:2-3. God preserved the text of His word. 1st Samuel – Page 9 of 46 . It was the ark of God regardless of the outward surroundings and as such was to be treated with reverence. If at all possible. i. The men of Beth-shemesh found a joy greater than the joy of harvest.i. b. even though it had been in the hands of enemies.” M. 4. b. 7. 5. ISA 42:17). a. ii. But “without shedding of blood is no remission” (HEB 9:22). c. PSA 6:10. a. This fits the pattern of God’s enemies being turned back and put to shame (2CH 32:21.

b. 11. to feel) profound grief. 8. 2. Having been given repentance unto the acknowledging of the truth. the forerunner of David. 2CO 7:10 For godly sorrow worketh repentance unto salvation not to be repented of. The ark was moved to Kirjath-jearim. It was when Samuel gathered the people together for prayer that the Philistines attacked. People who get right with God get right with the man of God (2CO 7:6-16). Satan resists any attempt on our part to get right with God. Their failure to obey this commandment was the cause of their defeat (PSA 78:58-62). Samuel. How this exemplifies human nature! Chapter 7:1-17: Israel’s Victory Over the Philistines 1. 12. to mourn passionately. The repentance Samuel taught consisted of turning from their sins and turning unto the Lord. 7. they submitted to the government of the man of God. The great thunder would throw the Philistines in consternation giving Israel the advantage against them. This compares with the gospel call to repentance (ACT 14:15. the forerunner of the Son of David. 4. It was when Israel lamented after the Lord that Samuel presented to them the message of repentance. Israel’s experience in this chapter is an illustration of pathway to victory for the believer. 1TH 1:9). 9. As the people turned to God it is said that Samuel judged them. God shall also thunder against the enemies of His church (REV 16:17-21). Samuel was making ready a people prepared for the Lord as John the Baptist would do (LUK 1:17). 3. which means city of forests or woods (PSA 132:6). HEB 7:25. proclaims the message of repentance just as John the Baptist. 10. Israel now placed their trust in God to deliver them. Ashtoreth was the female consort of Baal. Ashtaroth is the plural of Ashtoreth and Baalim is the plural of Baal.8. a. c. Lament – To express (also. Note that serving the Lord calls for preparation of the heart. 9:24-28). As Samuel sacrificed a lamb and interceded for Israel God delivered Israel. 6. 1st Samuel – Page 10 of 46 . simply. This points to salvation through the sacrifice and intercession of Jesus Christ (ROM 8:32-34. Israel recovered themselves from the captivity of the enemy (2TI 2:24-26). 5. a. a. b. Samuel’s message confirms the words of Moses’ law in DEU 6:13-15. The men of Beth-shemesh swung from the extreme of being too familiar with the ark to not wanting it among them at all. Being repentant with a godly sorrow.

but a king in a purple robe. PRO 28:13: “He that covereth his sins shall not prosper: but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall have mercy. would look great: and such a one they must have. but he handled it as he should have by taking it to God rather than taking it out on others. but it provided him with the emotional stability to deal with it. b. 4. though conversant in the visions of the Almighty. a. b. This was revival as PSA 85 describes revival. i. Israel’s greatness lay in the fact that they were distinct from all the nations (DEU 4:5-8). b. looked mean in the eyes of those who judged by outward appearance.b.” Always a Winner by Cyril Barber & John Carter 13. a. This request revealed their rejection of God and His government. who would be a king but unlike those of the nations (DEU 17:14. 1st Samuel – Page 11 of 46 . and judges to deliver them. 14. This was yet another manifestation of a sad history of rebellion. God assured Samuel that the issue ran deeper than the rejection of Samuel. 6. 2.” M. Compare this experience with the formula of JAM 4:6-10. Thus the problem became the Lord’s rather than Samuel’s. “A poor prophet in a mantle. ii. Samuel’s prayer did not change the situation. Yet they would be like the nations. His sons had their sights set on money rather than justice. restoration. Israel had been a Theocracy. d.” c. c. Consider how well they had fared under the administration of Samuel. justice. 5. Chapter 8:1-22: Israel Asks for a King 1. God had provided them with a constitution in His law. and religion. priests and Levites to teach them. “The essence of Christianity is that God is able to give us victory in the place of our former defeat. Under Samuel’s government Israel found peace. Samuel’s age and the perversion of judgment by Samuel’s sons gave rise to the request for a king. c. When the system becomes corrupted. with his guards and officers of state. This request hurt Samuel. God had anticipated this moment and eventually wielded it to the placing of His man upon the throne. ISA 59 vividly describes the state of society in the absence of justice. people tend to look for a knight in shining armour to cure all the ills and in so doing they court tyranny as was the case here. Henry 3. a. GEN 49:10).

for he spoke the word of God. And it was the servant.” M. 1st Samuel – Page 12 of 46 . Henry Chapter 9:1-27: God’s Providence in Providing Israel with a King 1. a. There is something in these chapters applicable to us today. 8. c. Israel would be forced to learn the hard way (2CH 12:8). 5. The book of Esther. They understood that the function of a king was to command the military to save them from oppression without and to execute justice to save them from oppression within. Saul’s servant. 2. God sometimes denies us in love and sometimes gratifies us in wrath. God is at work in ordinary events as much as in extraordinary displays of His power. but Israel’s in the ambition of the people to be ruled. 7. c. Saul asked Samuel the way to the Seer’s house. 9. in which the name of God never appears. 1CO 4:8). 5. but in so doing He was judging them (HOS 13:9-11). d. This choice would cost them their freedom. The Bible reveals the working of God in history. We approach this chapter and all the others from the premise of ROM 15:4 & 2TI 3:1617. 2PE 1:11).7. b. 11. and now God spoke in Samuel’s ear. “Most governments begin in the ambition of the prince to rule. 8. The Bible is a history book covering 4000 years of history and prophesying the course of the remainder. Cp. a. The one that would save was the one that would rule (cp. The search for Israel’s king begins with lost asses. Those that want what the world has ought to consider the price (1TI 6:9-10). b. 81:11-16. c. ROM 1:24. not Saul. Going to the prophet was going to inquire of God. knew the whereabouts of the man of God. EZE 20:23-26. 10. 6. 3. Trace in this chapter how God works through very ordinary events. b. PSA 78:26-31. a. Do not despair if the course of your life appears very ordinary. God hereby reveals how He works in the affairs of this world. who suggested inquiring of the man of God. not Saul. is an excellent example of this fact. Compare this account of the making of a king with the believers position as a king and priest serving in the church of God (REV 1:5. God gave them what they wanted. 2TH 2:10-11. 4. 1PE 2:9. Samuel had spoken in God’s ears (1SA 8:21).

10. it was the Lord that anointed Saul. 12. the desire of Israel was upon him. PSA 2:6-7. 2. a concise sentence. Hence. 9. 25). that is. Saul’s family had apparently not been very attentive to public worship. Saul was anointed king by the prophet of God. He did not know Samuel. Samuel gives Saul several signs to watch for so that when they come to pass he may know that the Lord is with him. Samuel told Saul where his father’s asses were before Saul said anything about them. The manifested the Spirit of God upon him. 3. 11. Since Saul was the man God had chosen for that position.a. Proverb . a. God turned Saul into another man and gave him another heart. Christ is a prophet and king. b. b. This is an example of God directing men by imposing boundaries upon the free actions of men (PRO 21:1 w/ JOB 26:10). 12). God sent Saul to Samuel. b. c. This compares with EZE 36:26-27 and EPH 4:22-24. Samuel kissed the king (cp. as he had opportunity. As Saul went forward he met with worshippers of God.A short pithy saying in common and recognized use. Saul was still subject to the word of God and the man of God. b. often metaphorical or alliterative in form. The monarchy begins well. 8. 4. Samuel told Saul to do as occasion served him. who acted by the word of God. Samuel obviously appeared very ordinary. a. which his held to express some truth ascertained by experience or observation and familiar to all. Samuel ordered Saul to go before him to Gilgal and tarry for seven days until Samuel came to offer sacrifices. 5. Samuel began to advance Saul by assigning him the best place and the best portion at the meal. 1st Samuel – Page 13 of 46 . The desire of Israel was for a king (1SA 12:13). Chapter 10:1-27: Saul Is Made King 1. 7. 9. Samuel did this despite the fact that it meant an eclipsing of his position of leadership. The fact that Israel’s new ruler prophesied compares with the seventy judges set over Israel that also prophesied when the Spirit came upon them (NUM 11:16-17. This was spoken in connection with the Spirit of God coming upon him. 6. The worship of God played a significant part in the setting up of the monarchy. a.

EPH 3:16. c.” M. They were with Saul whose hearts God had touched (ct. Saul will have a continual problem with fear. JDG 3:10. Henry d. c. Henry 13. PSA 72:1011. 14:6). b. MAT 12:40). 11:29. MAT 2:2. To bring presents to a king is an act of submission to him (1KI 4:21. God’s Spirit raises a standard against the enemy of God’s people (ISA 59:19). ROM 8:13. Compare the varied responses to Saul’s kingship with the various responses to Christ. Saul called the people to come after himself and after Samuel. Have we presented to King Jesus anything (ROM 12:1-2)? Chapter 11:1-15: Saul Delivers Jabesh-Gilead and His Kingdom Is Renewed 1. 7. will resort to ruthless means to secure it. “So little fond was he now of that power which yet. Samuel called a solemn assembly of all the tribes before the Lord to present to Israel their king. 12. c. 4. 11. 5. God’s Spirit stirred in Saul a righteous indignation b. 2. a. a. Sons of Belial will not acknowledge God’s king. We also must have God’s Spirit to overcome our enemies (ACT 1:8. There would be a public witness as to whom God had chosen. The opposition of the Ammonites was the reason that Israel demanded a king (1SA 12:12). like the shadow. 6:34. 1JO 4:4). He was apparently afraid to take on this responsibility that God had placed upon him. “Honour. b. he could not without the utmost indignation think of parting with. a. Without one to save us we are at the mercy of cruel lords.” M. Saul had hidden himself among the stuff. 6:10-12.” 3. when he was in possession of. 1st Samuel – Page 14 of 46 . The fact the Nahash gave them a reprieve of seven days indicates his confidence in his advantage against them. The condition that Nahash placed upon the men of Jabesh in order to make a covenant with them illustrates the words of PRO 12:10: “The tender mercies of the wicked are cruel. 13:25. but flees from those that pursue it. Saul tended the herd in the field. 11). People who are insecure and fearful will either run from challenging positions or if in such a position. Not yet having any business as a king.10. Saul was moved to lead Israel against the Ammonites when the Spirit of the Lord came upon him (cp. follows those that flee from it. 6.

in all such conditions you must employ elite troops to burst into the enemy's ranks. JDG 5:23 & JER 48:10. a. b.” Introduction to The Art of War by Sun Tzu 11. when near he makes it appear that he is far away. Spiritually empowered people walk according to the word of God. The command to come after Saul and Samuel was enforced with the penalty of having one’s oxen hewn to pieces. b. when far away. Empowered by the Spirit of God Saul would have Samuel accompany him. The day the Lord wrought salvation was not a day to put a man to death. and a time to heal” (ECC 3:3). that would throw the Ammonites off guard. 10. b. "Now. The fear of God makes for a good army. A skilled general must be master of the complementary arts of simulation and dissimulation. c. This was milder than the penalty leveled in JDG 21:5. The men of Jabesh led the Ammonites to believe they would comply with their terms. lure him in the north and strike in the south. “There is a time to kill. 8. When capable he feigns incapacity. The fear of God moved the people to come out with one consent. a. a. Saul had the upper hand. there was no need to take vengeance on those who doubted him.a. “The possibility of greatness in Saul is manifested in that he refused thus to mar the days of God’s victory. while creating shapes to confuse and delude the enemy he conceals his true dispositions and ultimate intent. we realize how great was his fall. b. Saul was a good military strategist. “All warfare is based on deception. c. This was a holy cause. Therefore. b. he sought by every means in his power to destroy David. The people perceived more at stake here than merely the ambition of Saul. 13. The king and the prophet both led in this battle. that he is near. When we contrast this attitude of the man with that of the days when. c." Wu Ch'I 12. Be seen in the west and march out of the east. Samuel being the source for the word of God. Drive him crazy and bewilder him so that he disperses his forces in confusion. He had proven himself. a. the evil spirit being upon him." Meng. 9. a. Saul divided his forces into three groups. Saul gave God the credit for the victory. Cp. Campbell Morgan 1st Samuel – Page 15 of 46 . This was an appearance of surrender. "Lay on many deceptive operations.” G. b. then divide your troops to follow up.

4:1. 2CO 1:12.” M. b. He would punish them for rebellion. with confidence. Samuel’s government had not been oppressive. Samuel reasoned before the Lord. which would bear on their behaviour from henceforth. The faculty of reason is that intellectual power which is ordinarily employed in adapting thought or action to some end. or logical manner. 1TI 1:19). God would deal with them as He had dealt with their fathers. It was this God that Israel had rejected for a king like the nations. Samuel calls God and Israel to bear witness of his integrity and manner of governing. "Reason" means to think in a connected. i. 4. tell another of his sin. 1st Samuel – Page 16 of 46 . a. ii. “He that will. d. This was an inauguration with the worship of God and rejoicing. Unlike the government that Saul would execute. reason would dictate that it was to their advantage to obey God and not rebel against His commandment. which He did to them and to their fathers. Samuel was about to reprove the nation for their sin in asking for a king. sensible. 6. The new king was fully instated and walking before them. a. must see to it that he himself be clear. a. b. 3. 2CO 12:19. The change in government was complete. He would deliver them. 2. Therefore. Samuel began his sermon affirming that God set up men in authority over His people and God delivered His people. 10.14. Henry. or in a particular instance). How could he reprove a government that was like his own? e. Samuel’s reasoning aimed at bringing the people to the conclusion of vs. Samuel reasoned of all the Lord’s righteous acts. 2TI 2:14. c. b. b. 13-15. The presence of God was acknowledged in this sermon. 5. These righteous acts included His deliverances and His judgments throughout their history. Chapter 12:1-25: Samuel’s Sermon at the Renewal of the Kingdom 1. c. In his sermon Samuel reasoned with Israel. The testimony of a good conscience is a great support and gives one a position of strength from which to speak (1TH 2:5. to employ the faculty of reason in forming conclusions (in general. if they turned from their sins and served Him. a. Cp.

which was to make them His people. 14.” M. 1st Samuel – Page 17 of 46 . Being enabled to continue following God is a sure sign of His favour toward us. 11. and obey the Lord. Both sermons urged the people to serve the Lord in sincerity and truth considering what great things God’s had done for them. God showed Israel how He could fight against them if they provoked Him (1SA 2:10. b. JER 15:1). 1CO 9:27. b. To cease to pray for the people of God is a sin unless God specifically instructs one not to do so (JER 7:16). 10. Rain at the time of harvest would threaten the nation’s economy. c. This instruction of this sermon delivered by Samuel as an old man greatly resembles Joshua’s sermon of JOS 24 delivered when he was an old man. Let us so live that we may meet for our Master’s use rather than being a castaway (2TI 2:20-21. 15. a. But Samuel taught them how to make the best of the situation. 6). In fact. To allay their fear Samuel points them to God’s faithfulness to act for His name’s sake and according to His pleasure. then they would continue following the Lord. They had just seen how effectual his prayers were. This occurred in answer to Samuel’s prayer (cp. By means of a sign of thunder and rain the Lord confirmed Samuel’s word that Israel had committed great wickedness in desiring a king. 13. ISA 63:9-10). b. a. 8. Joshua’s sermon was just before the time of the judges and Samuel’s sermon was at the end of the time of the judges. a. 16.7. serve. 17. Their choice of a king would not be undone. Samuel became renowned as a man of effectual prayer (PSA 99:6. JOH 15:2. 7:10. Henry 9. Anything we turn aside to from the wholehearted service of God is a vain thing that cannot profit nor deliver. b. Convinced of their sin the people sought the prayers of Samuel. This chapter demonstrates the truth of PSA 99:8. a. 12. If they would fear. “We mistake if we think that we can evade God’s justice by shaking off his dominion. A change in the form of government did not change His calling as a man of God. Obedience leads to more obedience (ROM 6:19). JAM 5:16-18). Samuel would continue his ministry of prayer and teaching. c.

d. He should have given the benefit of the doubt to the tried and proven man of God. iii. Saul was motivated by fear. strait – fig. How many desert the cause of Christ in such a frame of mind. A narrow or tight place. 2. When Saul saw the people being scattered from him. Chapter 13:1-14:52: Saul’s Rash Behaviour in Israel’s War With the Philistines 1. a time of sore need or of awkward or straitened circumstances (inadequate means). i. Contrast this state of mind with that expressed in PSA 3. d. e. a. Saul twice fails on this point. We are told Saul’s specific purpose in choosing this band of 3000 men. This was an act of faith. a. 5. That he forced himself indicates he was aware that he was venturing out against Samuel’s instructions. he forced himself and offered a burnt offering. God is still the Supreme Governor and His principles of government remain the same (PSA 119:142). Jonathan turned the tide of the battle to victory with but himself and his armourbearer. Saul acted in haste without patience. 6. The lesson is this: Although forms of government and administrations change. a. 1st Samuel – Page 18 of 46 . Saul did not have that much longer to wait. b. b. How this describes those who feel overwhelmed by circumstances. c. This was in violation of Samuel’s express instructions as the man of God speaking the commandment of the Lord God. ii. When Samuel did not show up on time. Tarrying seven days at Gilgal until Samuel came to offer the sacrifices was a standing rule. c. 3. iv. Jonathan’s attack of a garrison (a military post) of the Philistines in Geba ignited a massive offensive on the part of the Philistines against Israel. In face of such a massive threat. He will continue to have a problem with this. 4. Saul proceeded to do what Samuel said he would do in offering sacrifices. Religious exercises are not a substitute for obedience. Considering when Samuel showed up.c. The fearful lack faith (MAR 4:40). the men of Israel began to desert. a difficulty or fix. It would be then that Samuel would show Saul what to do. . Distressed – In sore straits.

precipitancy. the quality or capacity of so suffering or enduring. b. REV 3:11). c. Putting away faith Saul will make shipwreck (1TI 1:19). Patience . It is difficult for fearful people to be patient. oxen used in ploughing. EPH 5:15). Haste – Such quickness of action as excludes due consideration or reflection. trouble. Coulter – The iron blade fixed in front of the share in a plough. As this time Israel was plundered and disarmed. a. etc. Saul is an example of one who started out well. iii. want of deliberation. It would not continue. pointed at one end or fitted with a sharp spike and employed for driving cattle. 2TH 2:15. b. d. HEB 4:14. 2PE 3:17. At the root of the problem with haste is a lack of faith (ISA 28:16). Mattock – A single-headed pickaxe with a point on one side and a broad edge on the other for digging and cutting. COL 2:6-7. All Israel had for battle was their agricultural implements. Saul mounted no offensive. a. rashness. b. 8. but remained at Gibeah with his meager army of 600 men. 11. which is then sifted horizontally by the share. 1st Samuel – Page 19 of 46 . i. For this sin Saul’s kingdom was condemned to be only temporary. processes. 10.” M. Share – The iron blade in a plough which cuts the ground at the bottom of the furrow. a. Beware! A few moments of folly can have long term damaging consequences. Being hasty in spirit Saul acted foolishly and sinned (PRO 14:29. 9. 1PE 5:9. iv. 7. Saul ceased acting by faith and acted rather upon his emotions. Henry b. quiet and self-possessed waiting for something.. or evil) with calmness and composure. The calm abiding of the issue of time. it makes a vertical cut in the soil. The Philistines understood that to keep a people in subjection it was necessary to disarm them. hurry. c. ROM 8:25. 19:2.The suffering or enduring (of pain. esp. “Saul lost his kingdom for want of two or three hours’ patience. ii. God restrained the Philistines with their vast forces from falling upon Saul’s little band and destroying them (PSA 124).i. See LAM 3:26. but did not continue in well doing (GAL 5:7). 10:23. They can’t wait because they are afraid of what will happen. The many admonitions of Scripture to continue stedfast in our faith indicate the danger of letting it slip under pressure (GAL 6:9. Goad – A rod or stick. ii.

he attacks when it is abundant. How like fickle human nature that is! 19. This first slaughter of twenty men ignited trembling among the Philistines. Compare this challenge with the later challenge of Goliath. 18. c. Discomfiture – Complete defeat in battle. In his haste to subdue the enemy Saul made an unwise move is placing anyone under a curse who ate any food until Saul was avenged upon the Philistines. It involved Jonathan in a transgression of ignorance when he tasted the honey. Jonathan’s resolve to go over to the Philistines with his armourbearer is encouraged by two facts: a. He chose rather to capitalize on the confusion of the Philistines. i. he was not tempting God by so acting. b. The Lord is not restrained by numbers is saving. 21. rout.” This gave Israel the psychological advantage against the enemy. If the Philistines were presumptuous enough to bid them come to them. Who were these uncircumcised Philistines to defy the armies of the living God? iii. It hindered the pursuit of the Philistines by weakening the people. Saul’s rash oath had three bad results: a. a. The enemy melted away (became gradually smaller) and trampled on one another trying to get away. ii. b. ii. Hence. c. 15. Offence is the preferred form of combat because it pursues a positive aim. 14. the possibility of victory in the attack. “Invincibility lies in the defence. Saul did not take the time to find out what happened to Jonathan and his armourbearer. 20. ISA 59:1-2). they were not God’s covenant people. By means of a sign Jonathan would know whether the Lord would work for them or not. there is sin (PSA 66:18. One defends when his strength is inadequate. When the Lord does not answer prayer. i. His faith had a basis in the word and works of the Lord.” Sun Tzu. overthrow. 17. 1st Samuel – Page 20 of 46 . 16. The Philistines were uncircumcised. then Jonathan would take that as a sign of God’s salvation and would mount the offensive. The deserters rejoined the ranks when circumstances were favourable. It occasioned the sin of the people in eating blood. David would similarly be encouraged to go and fight with Goliath. b. 13. which together with the earthquake resulted in “a very great trembling.12. that is.

b. This could all be traced back to Saul’s problem with haste. 24. But he failed to conquer himself (PRO 16:32). 2TH 1:6). 2CO 2:4. JER 13:15-17. a. LUK 19:41-44). 1st Samuel – Page 21 of 46 . Saul’s taking unto him any strong or valiant man that he saw hearkens back to 1SA 8:11. a.” 6. had been God’s instrument is working salvation in Israel (HEB 11:33-34). 23. which curse came (PSA 64:8). Saul had war with the Philistines all his days. 2. 7. 16. God will execute vengeance on those that attack His church (DEU 32:43. He was an excellent warrior (2SA 1:22-25). Jonathan. b. The people rescuing Jonathan is an excellent example of a people resisting the abuse of power by a government. Saul was being commissioned to avenge a longstanding quarrel that God had with Amalek in fulfillment of the Law of Moses. Saul turned back from following the Lord. Saul backed up his intent to kill Jonathan with a curse upon himself. c. Time taken out for the trial suspended the pursuit of the Philistines so that the victory was incomplete. 3. 5. 27. 25. a. b. 4. Samuel’s grief over Saul’s downfall reminds us of others of God’s servants and of our Lord (PSA 119:136. 26.22. Saul’s military conquests are recounted. Compare what God commanded in His words with what Saul actually did and it will be seen that he did not hearken “unto the voice of the words of the Lord. He traded off this honour because he feared man rather than God (PRO 22:4). A distinction was drawn between the Amalekites and the Kenites based on their treatment of Israel (NUM 24:9). God having sent Samuel to anoint Saul king over Israel was advanced by Samuel as the reason for Saul to hearken to the voice of the words of the Lord (LUK 12:48). the man of faith. Chapter 15:1-35: Saul’s Disobedience and Rejection from Being King 1. Not performing God’s commandments. Saul was to execute God’s wrath (1SA 28:18). The Kenites must depart from among the Amalekites if they would not receive of their judgment (REV 18:4). He failed in exactly the point stressed by Samuel in 1SA 12:14.

However. or partners. and passed on. “Saul’s actions imply that ‘If it’s good for me. 12. 14.” b. “Those that boast most of their religion may justly be suspected of partiality and hypocrisy in it.” M. a. Saul was celebrating his victory with a monument (“he set him up a place”) and a parade (“he…is gone about. In his defense Saul admitted that these sheep and oxen “should have been utterly destroyed. Saul defended himself saying that the people spared of the best of the sheep and oxen to sacrifice to the Lord. b. He had wept all night before. that will not confess its guilt.8. v. “It is the sorry subterfuge of an impenitent heart. It is not that God has no delight in sacrifices or that it is not good to sacrifice. a. 9. too. a. a. Good intentions do not compensate for disobedience. Samuel brings a hard message to Saul. To fly upon – to spring with violence upon. Saul’s supposed obedience was on his terms rather than God’s terms. Shall we say that this was Saul’s interpretation of the Bible? 13. Henry 11. c. d. a. The hypocrite who feigns great devotion to God majors in the minors and overlooks the weightier matters of the law (MAT 23:23). rush upon. attack with fury. it’ll be good for God.’” Always a Winner by Cyril Barber & John Carter c. a. b. What most delights God should be the aim of all we do (EPH 5:5-10). This was covering his sin as Adam (JOB 31:33. Upon meeting Samuel Saul was very forward to proclaim his obedience. or only followers in it. Henry 10.” M. GEN 3:12). PRO 20:6 Most men will proclaim every one his own goodness: but a faithful man who can find? b. but it was the one he received from the Lord. Saul persisted in his claim that he had obeyed the Lord. It is rather that God has more delight in obedience and obedience is better than sacrifice. 1st Samuel – Page 22 of 46 . b. and gone down to Gilgal”). 9 states that Saul and the people spared them. to lay the blame on those that were tempters. Samuel was not having fun doing this. Obedience is a weightier matter of the law than sacrifices. Having been straightly charged of his sin in no uncertain terms. c. Saul had abused the power God had given him and used it to serve his own interests.

b. This was Saul’s second failure on this point. the exercise of supernatural power supposed to be possessed by persons in league with the devil or evil spirits. a. 2. This is said of a man who openly professed to be obedient. David will be advanced and Saul will wane. Saul had been lured into Satan’s trap by the temptation to put his self-interest before his duty to God. 14:26-27. b. Rejecting the word of God for other words can cost one the kingdom (EPH 5:5-6). Rebellion. like witchcraft. Religious observances should be a true expression of our spiritual and moral condition rather than a cover for wickedness (PRO 21:27). e. 16.c. b. a. 18. Saul was acting under the influence of Satan when he rebelled against the word of God just as a practitioner of witchcraft and idolatry is doing. 17. JOH 8:31-32. ii. Saul finally admitted that he had transgressed because he feared the people. Sacrifice was to be a means to continue obeying the Lord rather than a substitute for obedience. is a grab for power. ii. Self-interest was at the heart of the temptations Satan presented to Christ in the wilderness (LUK 4:1-13). His sins were equal to witchcraft and idolatry. Witchcraft . iii. 15. a. 1.” Then that’s it! He will not go back on it as a man might. i. 1st Samuel – Page 23 of 46 .The practice of a witch or witches. God would not repent and turn from this judgment. In 1SA 13:14 God had said Saul’s kingdom would not continue. Self-denial is the path that leads to freedom from Satan’s bondage (LUK 9:23-25. God made no provision to repent of this as in JER 18:7-8. Here the kingdom was rent from him that very day. c. Stubbornness is as idolatry in that the self claims sovereignty and thus tries to usurp His place. a. i. REV 12:11). If God ever says “That’s it. Saul admitted obeying the voice of the people rather than the voice of God. Saul was guilty of rebellion and stubbornness. d. After this. b. The practitioner of witchcraft seeks Godlike power. Again we see Saul’s continual problem with fear. This sin cost Saul the kingdom (PRO 16:12). c.

Samuel drew a wrong conclusion in identifying the Lord’s anointed. 7. The first 13 verses of this chapter treat of the manifestation of the Lord’s anointed to Samuel. b. 3. 1st Samuel – Page 24 of 46 . Sanctification of oneself is required to approach God (GEN 35:2-3. Not telling all was the wise thing to do in this case if Samuel wanted to live (PRO 13:3. Chapter 16:1-23: David Anointed to be King and an Evil Spirit Comes Upon Saul 1. c. the Nazarite son of a barren woman. 19. It is obvious that one is not required to tell everything in order to tell the truth. Being a shepherd David knew whereof he wrote in PSA 23. Agag’s behaviour illustrates that the cruelest of people can become ever so gentle when it is they that that are in jeopardy. the king of the Jews was born in Bethlehem (LUK 2:4-11. EXO 19:10-11. JER 17:10. Saul was still concerned about being honoured before the people.c. 1CH 28:9). God provided a king for Israel in Bethlehem. If Saul would have killed his own son. 11. 20. JAM 4:8). As it was. 5. the Nazarite son of a barren woman. b. 2. Unlike man. The rejection of Saul did not mean the end of God’s kingdom. MAT 2:1-2). so it is! 8. the Lord sees the heart. David was out keeping the sheep. The preacher showing up unexpectedly caused the people to fear. 4. He removed his mercy from Saul (2SA 7:15). c. He got the same training as Moses. 2CH 36:15-16). 10. Being with the sheep David learned valuable principles for leading men who are like sheep. It was time for Samuel to accept the verdict of his Lord and cease mourning. Beware of passing the space of repentance beyond which there is no remedy (REV 2:21. The seed of God’s Messiah. JOS 3:5. and deals with him accordingly (HEB 4:12-13. was in the loins of that youth (ACT 13:22-23). PRO 29:11). the Saviour of mankind. God told Samuel how to conceal his mission from Saul. 6. d. a. 2TI 2:20-21. Not acting per divine revelation. God’s resources are never exhausted. 1CO 11:28-31. PSA 26:4-7. a. knows a person for what he really is. Jesus Christ. 9. he would have killed Samuel. In following the Lord’s instructions Samuel would be shown what to do (PRO 4:18). The story compares with the manifestation of the Lord’s Christ (Anointed) to John the Baptist.

b. In this he compares with John the Baptist (JOH 3:30). 17. d. was able to learn firsthand the ways of court. Our Saviour came from the only son of Jesse that was missing at the table. 17-18. The Spirit of God came upon Christ at His baptism (MAT 3:16). Compare “this is he” with JOH 1:30. ISA 35:10). is God’s Beloved. 1CH 25:1-3. 15. AMO 6:1. b. God turned Saul over to Satan. There is music that shuts God out and inclines the mind toward Satan (EXO 32:16. Jesus Christ. c. Samuel fades out of the picture to be scarcely mentioned again. 14. strong. 12. the man after God’s own heart. MAT 26:30. a. a. The following passages show the role of God’s music in the defeat of Satan’s kingdom (2CH 20:1-28. 13. f. PSA 149. b. the one that Jesse overlooked. ACT 16:25-34. Some folks just “have it all. 3-6). David was manifested to him. When this sweet chant they hear. David was talented in music. Indeed “the pow’rs of darkness fear. The Spirit of God came upon David at his anointing. EPH 5:17-20). intelligent. After David is anointed. Samuel’s anointing of David compares with John’s baptizing of Jesus Christ.” M. ISA 5:11-12. His David (MAT 3:17). 1SA 10:7). As John the Baptist did what he was sent to do. a warrior. and spiritual. Henry d. c. courageous. who was destined to be king. As Samuel’s did what he was sent to do. “Music…may shut up the passages by which he (the devil) has access to the mind. 25. g. David. e. 33-34. REV 5:6-9. It was David that was God’s choice and David means beloved. Christ was manifested to him. It is obvious from this account that some music hinders and resists satanic activity. a. Satan took over (ct. In the providence of God David.” 16. In the absence of God’s presence. f. e. There is music that inclines the mind toward God and His truth (2KI 3:15. obviously played godly music. God’s chosen. May Jesus Christ be praised!” 1st Samuel – Page 25 of 46 . The evil spirit would trouble Saul and make him ill.d. handsome.

12. Coat of mail – A piece of defensive armour covering the upper part of the body. Rather than become entangled in a foolish argument with his brother. Satan tries to intimidate us with the big and the imposing. we read in this chapter how Providence made him much more famous in the camp. His spear's head weighed about 15 lbs. Greave – Armour for the leg below the knee. Israel was faced with a challenge. a. by both. he could return and feed his father’s sheep. David had learned obedience before he became a commander. c. There would be no victory until the giant was conquered.” M. 6. Nothing worthwhile in life goes unchallenged (1CO 16:9). 3. Goliath was big! a. 4. David was encouraged by past deliverances that God had granted him.” Shakespeare in Richard III. b. not only marked him for a great man. and. His coat of mail weighed about 125 lbs. He was about 9 3/4 feet tall. Henry 9.” M. c. a. There were several skirmishes between Israel and the Philistines. a. 7. 1st Samuel – Page 26 of 46 . 8. Henry 2. Providence made him famous in the court. “You cannot reason with a man who is full of dread.A light round shield or buckler.Chapter 17:1-58: David’s Victory Over Goliath 1. “Fear blinds the eye and debilitates the will. Those who lack faith and courage are quick to criticize. quilted with interlaced rings or overlapping plates of steel (brass). 5. 11. David turns from him and continues to speak as he had spoken.” Cyril Barber & John Carter a. b. d. b. b. Having been a favourite at court. after he (David) was anointed. “We read in the foregoing chapter how. David brings a message of encouragement to Israel’s soldiers. When faced with an adversary. David's brother sought to discourage him by attacking his motives. concentrate on the major point of contention. 10. b. nor that deserved it better. composed of a linen or leathern jacket. and yet none more dead to it. “None more fit for honour than he. Target . but fitted him for the throne for which he was designed. Character assassination is an ancient ploy (PSA 35:11). David was faithful wherever his lot was cast.

Saul’s fear was an effect of the Spirit of the Lord departing from him. DAN 11:32). or implying that the action is done on account or on behalf of some other person or persons. David believed and loved his God. v. Saul and Israel could not defeat the giant Goliath because they feared him.” Hudson Taylor f. 17. c. a. David did not use Saul's armour since he had not proved it. David put his theology to practical use. iii. Saul’s assessment of David’s odds left God out. It is the difference between the way Israel and David reacted to Goliath. “It doesn’t matter. ii. One conquers fears by meeting them head on. it only matters where the pressure lies. iv. the persons of the Godhead. or devotion to. PHI 4:13. a. 3:20-21. In one's name. Faith and love breed toughness (1TH 5:8). David was the one most in touch with reality and. God’s Spirit is not a spirit of fear (2TI 1:7). a. Use what you have proved (1TH 5:21). in the name of one: In phrases expressing invocation of. This explains why some people thrive under tribulation while others collapse under it. d. David would not be discouraged even when Saul sought to discourage him. How one reacts to stress depends upon how he mentally interprets the situation. by contrast to this. e. Denoting the use of another's name to give authority or countenance to one's acts. ii. The mind can respond either by trusting God for the victory or by seeing oneself as a helpless victim of circumstances. There were five giants of Gath (2SA 21:18-22). We must focus on God's power rather than on the bigness of the obstacle (EPH 1:15-23. 14. They focused on Goliath’s words and size. the one with the correct take on the situation. therefore. David hasted toward the Philistine (2SA 22:38). David chose five smooth stones. reliance upon. 15. Hence. 6:10. 1st Samuel – Page 27 of 46 ." 18. "in one's own name. It all came down to a battle for the mind. By contrast. i. He focused on God's power rather than on the giant or his threats. David trusted God and defeated Goliath (HEB 11:32-34). b. iii. iv. Lacking courage Saul failed to lead the people to victory as he had before. i. how great the pressure it. 16. b. really.13.

committed. they fled. He loved David even though David would be advanced above him (1SA 20:3031. Jonathan loved David. From this victory all the earth would know that there is a God in Israel. a. Doubtful. 46 with REV 19:11-21: Christ will give his enemies to the fowls of the air. 23:17). enthusiastic people influence others to take on challenges. The battle was really between God and the devil. Let a man be mightily used of God and the adversary will assault him (1CO 16:9). 23. 1st Samuel – Page 28 of 46 . ROM 6:6-13. David's enemy was put under his feet. 24.b. Jonathan being submissive to the will of God accepted second place. a. Compare this with Christ's victory over Satan (GEN 3:15). 25. too. c. REV 12:11). REV 12:10-11). Christ hath wrought for His people a great salvation (HEB 2:3). Confident. David victory over Goliath wrought a great salvation for all Israel (1SA 19:5). David prevailed over the giant by a wound in the head. discouraging. fearful people destroy initiative in others (NUM 13:3114:3. Indeed. 28. ii. Christ conquered Satan through death (HEB 2:14). Rather than become Israel’s servants. 22. Christ's victory over evil makes our victory possible (1CO 15:57-58. Jonathan did not envy because Jonathan did not desire vainglory (GAL 5:26). Saul did not. 21. is it with the Christian (LUK 9:23. Compare this with 1CO 15:25. 2. b. David's service to God involved death to himself. this story has gained worldwide fame. In this chapter we see conflict following upon the heels of David’s great victory. So. 19. 27. i. David's victory came when he put his life in his hand (1SA 19:5). the Philistines were not true to the terms of the duel. Love does not envy (1CO 13:4). 20. iii. 8:37. David's victory over Goliath paved the way for Israel to defeat the rest of the Philistines. When Goliath was killed. Compare v. 26. David's victory influenced Israel to do combat. b. Those who are of a good courage will have their heart strengthened (PSA 27:14). a. Chapter 18:1-30: Saul Fears David and Becomes His Enemy 1. DEU 20:8).

b. he will be willing to be bound to Christ. i. 19). 3. Aristotle said. Envy destroyed that. 2. “He that bears an honest mind startles not at assurances. Talk about someone giving another “the shirt off his back. He who later reigned first served faithfully (1SA 19:4. David’s faithful service is connected with his wise behaviour. 1.” f. Recall that Saul formerly loved David greatly (1SA 16:21). study David’s behaviour. so he obeyed Saul. Jonathan's soul was knit to David's.” M. they made a covenant thus pledging themselves to one another. c. 22:14). b. A humble soul accepts the punishment of his iniquity (LEV 26:41). Saul’s enmity against David was really an enmity against God. b. 4. a. a. e. Therefore. This kind of love provides comfort for those who share it (COL 2:2). True love desires to be constant.” d. ii. Henry ii. who was hated without a cause (JOH 15:15).iv. the Son of David. Jonathan and David had a lot in common. c. Wise people respect and submit to authority (PRO 10:8). Because Jonathan so loved David. e. Envy prompted the chief priests to deliver up Christ. g. Jonathan loved David as his own soul (DEU 13:6). “Friendship is a single soul dwelling in two bodies. Saul envied David because the Lord advanced David over him. David faithfully served Saul and behaved himself wisely. As he had obeyed his father. who like David had done nothing amiss (MAR 15:10). David compares with Christ. Saul obviously was not accepting God’s discipline in rejecting him from being king. 1st Samuel – Page 29 of 46 . If you want to know what it is to behave wisely. d. Jonathan gave the clothes and weapons he had on to this poor shepherd. David gave Saul no cause to hate him (PSA 35:7. i. Neither one tried to assert himself in a self-serving way. Both were valiant men who acted upon their faith in God. c. He was firmly attached to David. No man can stand before envy (PRO 27:4). i. The relationship of Jonathan and David provides an excellent example of true friendship. ii. If one loves Christ.

11. b. so very low (PRO 29:23). e. Saul did not have the security that comes from a right relationship with God. As Saul's fear and enmity increased. Saul declined so far that David’s godly music did not refresh him as before. b. 10. Wise and good people are powerful people. He pretended to be doing David a favour (PSA 55:20-21. Saul kept a close eye on David. David’s behaviour was a continual conviction of Saul. Behind the scene was the attack of Satan upon the Messianic seed line (GEN 3:15). PRO 26:24-26). Learn from this to “despise not the chastening of the Lord” (PRO 3:11). Being humble. a. so David’s wise behaviour increased. Saul was tormented by fear (1JO 4:18). Saul sought to set David up. a. Saul did not give David his daughter to wife as he promised. Learn from this how to really make people fear you. ii. c. Saul’s pride will bring him low. Saul was afraid of David because the Lord was with David and David behaved himself wisely. and fame did not go to his head (PRO 27:21). d. Saul’s enmity against David was aggravated by an evil spirit. advancements. 5. David did not think himself worthy to be the king’s son-in-law. Not aspiring to attain a position of prestige. Lacking love. d. Saul was like Cain (1JO 3:11-12). 7. who had not behaved wisely. David could handle the disappointment of Saul’s broken promise. 1st Samuel – Page 30 of 46 . 12. Saul was very insecure in himself and this fed his fear of David. c. When David slew Goliath and when he fought the Philistines. 8. 6. Therefore. Saul's problem was with God. He would have welcomed the discovery of a fault so as to have something with which to attack David (PSA 64:6). 9. It disturbed Saul that he couldn’t get anything on David. Saul removed David from him because the Lord was with David. b. ii. i.i. The envy in Saul’s heart gave Satan the advantage against him and stands in marked contrast to the wisdom David displayed (JAM 3:14-17). a. Saul has a problem with pride. It says much for David’s character that his victories.

a. b. even an enemy of His cause. a. b. This attempt was made under the influence of the evil spirit. However. not accepting God’s punishment. i. Henry b. The fourth attempt came when Saul sent messengers to Ramah to take David. which reveals that David’s faith and communion with God were uninterrupted by Saul’s malicious scheme. yet in PSA 59:16 David says he will sing aloud of God’s mercy in the morning. 3. 1st Samuel – Page 31 of 46 . However. The first attempt came when Saul ordered Jonathan and all his servants to kill David. a. Saul came himself to Ramah. i. Perhaps David’s success on the battlefield had rekindled Saul’s envy. This was David’s second time in escaping Saul’s javelin. Jonathan foiled this attempt by reasoning with Saul. in this case Michal became David’s protector. b. 2. That being unsuccessful. c. one used of God can expect to be assaulted by the devil. a. c. As in this chapter. d. even though Saul backed it up with an oath. 4. This is the pattern of someone who lacks the godly sorrow that works true repentance (2CO 7:10). b. NUM 22:28-30. This attempt followed David’s successful campaign against the Philistines. JOH 11:49-52). Saul was assaulting God Himself when He attacked God’s man. ii. Saul’s intent was that David would be slain in the morning. Javelin – A light spear thrown as a weapon of war or in hunting.13. whom Saul had given David to be a snare to him (1SA 18:21). 24:14-16. This attempt was foiled by Michal. because the root issues of pride. In his high tower David was beyond the reach of Saul. God can cause any creature. This attempt was foiled by the Spirit of God causing David’s pursuers to prophesy. this temporary reprieve will not last. “Often is the devil out-shot with his own bow. The third attempt came when Saul sent messengers to David’s house to slay him. and envy were not corrected. a. The second attempt came when Saul sought to smite David to the wall with his javelin. c. Chapter 19:1-24: The Foiling of Four Attempts by Saul to Kill David 1.” M. to speak His truth (cp. Saul’s attempts against David’s life will fail because David is divinely protected (2SA 22:1-3). David wrote PSA 59 on this occasion. Again. ii.

This was a covenant for David to show the kindness of the Lord to Jonathan and his house. This was not bearing false witness against his neighbour. c. “It will be a kindness to ourselves and ours to secure an interest in those whom God favours and to make his friends ours. 1st Samuel – Page 32 of 46 . The sign Jonathan devised whereby David would know Saul’s intentions would serve should it not be expedient for Jonathan to communicate to David by word of mouth. Saul’s lying down naked all that day and night shows how God can put someone to shame who dares defy His will. The thief on the cross also sought the favour of an Outlaw. 8. Jonathan. This compares with Christ’s friendship to us (JOH 14:13). David urged Jonathan to perform this kindness for him because of the covenant of the Lord between them. Who had done nothing amiss. 3. 2. will do whatever David wants. Jonathan. Henry b. This covenant would be binding on David’s descendants. b. God was a party in this covenant. This covenant secured mutual kindness between David and Jonathan. believing God. This should be the expression of our friendship to Christ (JOH 15:14). which he recognized as a King (LUK 23:39-43). the true friend. 4. 5. We can learn something of the kindness of God to us by studying David’s kindness to the house of Jonathan because of this covenant (2SA 9). a. 6. Imagine going to such lengths to secure the friendship of an outlaw! 1. Lying to protect an innocent life is permitted in Scripture. 7. a. God makes like use of an oath in His promises to us (HEB 6:17-18). Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David on behalf of his posterity. b. Chapter 20:1-42: David’s Departure After Jonathan Discovers Saul’s Mind Toward David 1. Jonathan lied to protect David. c. Jonathan was grieved for the shame Saul had done to David rather than the reproach that Saul had heaped upon him. Jonathan made this binding covenant with David because he loved him. 9. a.” M. Jonathan confirmed with an oath his promise to David to inform him of Saul’s intentions. Over against Jonathan’s objection David expressed with an oath his certainty that Saul was determined to kill him. a. Jonathan could be so free in his offer because he knew David was an honest man who would not take undue advantage of the offer. b.c. saw in this outlaw the anointed of the Lord. 2.

b. a. 6. b. These narratives of David’s troubles are written to set forth David. Their loyalty to one another would remain intact despite the separation. The bread was also in a manner common in that it was no longer on the table before the Lord. 3. v. Abilmilech could honestly say he knew nothing of David’s intentions if he were interrogated. iv. the shewbread could be given them. who was one of the prophets. he first went to the house of God to inquire of the Lord. In this chapter David lied to Abimelech the priest. 4. Therefore. we have His sworn covenant for our consolation. This was an act to sustain life. This is not the last chapter of David’s life! b. b. a. caution was observed in stepping over this restriction of the use of the shewbread. 23:23). David left the house of God nourished and armed for conflict. 1st Samuel – Page 33 of 46 . he and his men ate the shewbread. This was not an act of defiance! c. Chapter 21:1-15: David Before Abimelech the Priest and Before Achish the King of Gath 1. As David began his exile. The events of this chapter exemplify the hierarchy of God’s laws. the men were considered sanctified as was the case in EXO 19:14-15 and JOE 2:16. Some laws of God outweigh others (MAT 5:19. This was a lie to protect an innocent life from a murderer. iii. ii. 5. and David feigned himself mad before Achish the king of Gath. as indeed he was (1SA 22:13-15). as “an example of suffering affliction. The present is not always an accurate gauge of the future.10. ii. one should obey the weightier law. a. Therefore. which was lawful only for the priests. It was to protect Abimilech that David did not tell him the truth. David feigning himself mad before the enemy was a means to save his own life. The man destined to wear the crown over Israel now flees his country for his life. Jonathan and David could separate in peace for they had the sworn covenant that would bind them and their houses together forever. i. i. and of patience” (JAM 5:10). 2. While absent from the Lord. Since David and his men needed food and since there was no other bread to give. Having been kept from women about three days. When two laws come into conflict in a situation. a.

Compare the kind of men that came to David to be ruled by him with those who come to Christ to be ruled by Him (MAT 11:28-30. becomes the controlling principle of life.c. and leads one to neglect duty. LUK 7:40-47. There is a fear that is necessary for our safety. Lying to protect an innocent life from a murderer is not the same as lying to cover one's own sin or to lead others into sin! f. b. These were good men. David used means to his deliverance. 4. 5. b. This Psalm makes it clear that David did not sin in deceiving the Philistines. c. The problem arises when fear crowds out faith. 7. 1st Samuel – Page 34 of 46 . David providing for the care of his parents in his rejection reminds us of the Son of David providing for his mother while he was upon the cross (JOH 19:27). PSA 142. Chapter 22:1-23: David’s Escape to the Cave of Adullam and Saul’s Paranoia 1. 2. 8. 2CO 12:9). g. 6. PSA 57 was written at this time and shows David looking above the situation to God and being determined to praise God. d. David’s flight for fear of Saul and his reception by the Philistines at Gath occasioned the composition of PSA 56. Three of David’s mightiest men came to him in this cave (1CH 11:15-19). David waited for the Lord to know what He would do with him (PSA 37:5-7). but he gave God the credit for it. a. written upon this occasion. Feeding the hungry outweighs ceremonial restrictions. 7. Christ receives the lowly and makes them mighty (PRO 3:34. Better to be in a cave with David than in a palace without him. a. Saving an innocent life from a murderer outweighs the obligation to tell the truth. e. b. Saul’s fear so overwhelmed him that he became paranoid and suspected innocent men of conspiring against him. The attraction to David was not because of where he was but because of Who he was. This Psalm reveals how David managed his fear. ISA 55:1-3). expresses the hope that the righteous would compass him about. 3. The unfortunate men came to David. David’s being driven away from the Philistines when he changed his behaviour occasioned the penning of PSA 34. d. So it is with Christ. Giving hallowed bread to hungry men because that is all that is at hand is not the same as presuming upon holy things just to prove one can do it. a. Deception in warfare is not the same as deception to obstruct justice.

Abiathar escaped and fled after David. 1PE 4:12-13). b. David was directed by the prophet Gad. Guilty men often accuse others of what they themselves are guilty of (ROM 2:1). 10. This time in David’s life fits the pattern of the cross before the crown. Doeg told Saul the truth as to what Ahimelech had done. b. his seer. David subdued his fear by faith whereas Saul was controlled by his fear. “Though Saul was unrighteous in doing this. 13. JOH 14:1-3). b. b. cutting. Abiding with David he would be in safeguard and would have no need to fear. a. c. a. 9. his words in this context were mischievous. yet God was righteous in permitting it.a. Abimelech did not begin to inquire of the Lord for David when he came to him at Nob. b. David would also be given the opportunity to render good for evil according to teaching of the Son of David. 1st Samuel – Page 35 of 46 . Saul accused David of lying in wait against him when it was Saul that lay in wait against David. This fulfilled the word of judgment spoken to Eli in 1SA 2:31 & 3:11-12. Although Doeg told the truth. back to the land of Judah. a. People who trust in wealth rather than God are liable to do abominable things. their families. He had done so before. a. From the Psalms written during this time of his life. of suffering before glory (LUK 24:25-27. who spared Agag and the best of the sheep and oxen of the Amalekites. b. This compares with our relationship to Christ to Whom we have fled for refuge (PSA 9:7-9 with ACT 17:31. 1TI 6:4). but he told it in such a context that Saul would put the wrong construction upon it. According to this chapter he was used of God in Judah to defend Keilah. Saul’s suspicions were imagined and totally without reason (ZEC 9:17. spared nothing of the priests. 2TI 2:12. PSA 52 was penned on this occasion. Henry 12. So why should this make him suspect? 11. Chapter 23:1-29: David Defends Keilah and Is Betrayed by the Ziphites 1. and devouring. deceitful. 14. Saul’s fear drove him to become a merciless tyrant under whose government no one was safe. 8. a. Doeg strengthened himself in his wickedness in that he went from slandering the priests to actually murdering them. Saul.” M. or their livestock. it may be seen that David maintained communion with God throughout these distresses. HEB 6:18-20.

c. i. 10. God did not deliver David into Saul’s hand. when he came down to destroy Keilah. they would overcome us (ROM 7:23-25. c. Saul misread the will of God from circumstances seemingly favourable to his desires. Although Saul did not actually come to Keilah and the men of Keilah did not actually betray David. ROM 1:24-26). 2PE 2:9. God provided David with the priest and the ephod to guide him (NUM 27:21). Sound familiar? 6. “True love takes delight in repeating it engagements.” M. 8. a. By this David knew that God favoured him (PSA 41:11). Campbell Morgan 7. “To be in the will of God among men who disobey that will.” 9. a man is hidden. PSA 81:11-12. is it with us. David knew what it was like to be rewarded evil for good (PSA 35:12). Jonathan strengthened David’s hand in God. b. 5. David’s adversary sought him every day. a.” G. “knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptation. b. a.” (JOH 2:23-25. 4. a.” and how to render to “every man according to his works. b. PSA 25:9). Had He done so. Saul would have prevailed. 3. God knows how strong our gratitude and loyalty really are. giving and receiving fresh assurances of the firmness of the friendship. When we see David in hiding it reminds us of PRO 28:12: “When the wicked rise. So. a. REV 2:23). The hands and knees are strengthened to withstand and perform when the heart is assured by instruction (JOB 4:3-4). God guides the humble soul that trusts in Him (PRO 3:5-6. Note in this chapter how careful David is to proceed according to the word of the Lord. God knowing all things. which are our enemies. c. Henry 1st Samuel – Page 36 of 46 . is inevitably to be persecuted. The Lord knew the men of Keilah would betray David and his men and deliver them to Saul. too. If God delivered us to our lusts. In this he was like Christ (JOH 10:32). When Saul heard that David was in Keilah he assumed that God had delivered him into his hand. ii. God often delivers us from what might have been. For the third time Jonathan and David made a covenant. God knew they would if occasion served. Isaiah recommends the very method Jonathan employed (ISA 35:3-4). He did this by instructing David with words of the truth of God. b.2.

PSA 54 was composed on the occasion b. our Friend. 4. Indeed. David practiced the very teaching of his Son and our Lord (MAT 5:44). When David cut off the skirt of Saul’s robe his heart smote him. Rather than being overcome of evil. b. David did not misread the will of God from seemingly advantageous circumstances. 6. In not killing Saul when he could have. a divide that Saul could not get over. David could well have had this incident in mind when he composed PSA 124. it is a sign that conscience is awake and tender. 8. David delivered him that without cause was his enemy (PSA 7:4). This place became a symbol of the great divide between Saul and David. 2. David overcame evil with good (ROM 12:2021). David did not treat Saul as Saul had treated him but as he would have had Saul to treat him (MAT 7:12).b. d. c. “It is a good thing to have a heart within us smiting us for sins that seem little. David left the vengeance with God to Whom it belongs (ROM 12:19). a. 7. f. Satan’s aim is to provoke us to stoop to the behaviour of our enemy.” 12. We should renew our commitment to God. a. Henry 5. David composed PSA 63 whilst he was in the wilderness of Judah. David is grieving over this when he could have done far worse! b. David’s men assumed this to be the will of God. David dealt with Saul as the Lord’s anointed rather than his enemy. 3. David returned good for evil to a man who had rendered him evil for good (1TH 5:15). Because Saul was in a position to be easily destroyed by David. The Ziphites betrayed David to Saul. And has not our Lord Jesus spared us who were His enemies? c. Chapter 24:1-22: David Spares Saul 1. If Saul was heeding slanderers. 11. 1st Samuel – Page 37 of 46 . e. and will be the means of preventing greater sins. for he had indeed escaped “out of the snare of the fowler.” M. then that said something about his character (PRO 17:4). God was David’s Helper on this occasion and provided a diversion for Saul when he was about to close in on David. a. Unlike David’s men and unlike Saul.

for I wait on thee. David referred to a proverb of the ancients. such as Nabal was. Because of Nabal’s ingratitude David considered that his kindness to Nabal had been in vain. Mark the contrast! The righteous David suffers need and the wicked Nabal abounds. Where did that leave Israel for counsel and leadership? 2. What glory is it to hunt down and vanquish a dead dog or a flea? 11. i. but he did not expect that from Nabal. 8. Yet God is kind to the unthankful and the evil (LUK 6:35). 15. 6. he would have killed Saul. for help. 1PE 5:8). 5. 2SA 23:6-7). PSA 25:21 Let integrity and uprightness preserve me. 20-27). A churlish man is rude and stingy (ISA 32:5-8). 13. the woman of understanding. David resolved with an oath to avenge himself rather than leaving vengeance to God to Whom it belongs (DEU 32:35). a. for he will pursue David again. taking matters into his own hands. Rail – To utter abusive language. cannot be reasoned with (PRO 23:9. Possessions do not make the man. Chapter 25:1-44: David Abused by Nabal and Saved from Avenging Himself 1. 7. According to this proverb. Be always watching against the unexpected assault for that is the one that will often cause you the most problems (MAT 26:41. One of Nabal’s servants appealed to Abigail. David’s greatest deliverance in all his afflictions was the deliverance from stepping ahead of God. Samuel died and David went down to the wilderness of Paran. 3. 16. Nabal treated David like a nobody and like a runaway slave. David could expect Saul to requite him evil for good. 12. if David had been wicked. This chapter clearly illustrates the difference between a wise person and a fool and shows the end of them both. David rose above personal revenge and swore to protect the posterity of his enemy. This unexpected affront caused David to lose it for a while. A son of Belial. In justifying himself. How many times has a wise woman been married to a fool? 4. 10. 14. Acknowledging David would be king. Saul’s tearful admissions did not yield a true repentance. Saul admitted what God had said in 1SA 15:28. 10. EPH 6:18. b. 9. and avenging himself (2SA 22:1. Saul appealed to him to protect his seed after him. ii. 1st Samuel – Page 38 of 46 .9.

than her foolish husband took: she gave him provisions and addressed him respectfully. a. Oaths do not bind us to sin. Not having shed blood causelessly and not having avenged himself. Consider that we often reason the same way today in dealing with difficult people. 13. 20. “God is to be acknowledged in all the kindnesses that our friends do us either for soul or body.11. 22. David acknowledged that it was the Lord that had sent Abigail to keep him back from this evil. David did not follow through with his evil resolve even though he had confirmed it with an oath. 14. was very liberal toward himself.” M. a. How will I feel about it the morning after? 18. Abigail charged the whole matter to her oversight and begged to be forgiven. b. 25:12). Because David was a humble and good man who was open to God’s direction even if it rebuked him. 16. Henry b. who was so stingy toward David and his men. God restrained David from sinning. b. comfort. a. If we become lifted up with pride and refuse God’s direction. David blessed the woman who rebuked his rage. took the exact opposite measures with David. When tempted we should always consider how something is going to affect us when we look back on it. or seasonable reproof. direction. 15. Abigail. David could well have had this event in mind when he penned PSA 141:1-5. c. the restraint will be removed (PSA 81:11-12. Nabal was a son of Belial (worthlessness) and a fool. How quickly we could resolve conflicts if we looked for ways to take responsibility for them rather that blaming others. Nabal’s merriment ended in deep. 21. d. caution. But sinful oaths should be repented of and avoided. Note how a person of understanding reasons about sin. Nabal. debilitating depression (ECC 7:6). Let us concentrate on fighting the Lord’s battles and keeping ourselves pure and God will surely make us what He wants us to be. 17. JAM 4:6-7). 12. Why would David set so much by what a man like that said? b. this would be no grief of mind nor offence of heart to David in the future. Whoever meets us with counsel. She wished that David’s enemies might be as powerless to do him hurt as Nabal. 1st Samuel – Page 39 of 46 . a. Abigail pleads with David not to regard Nabal but to consider the source. Being bound in a bundle is the opposite of being slung out. which tells us that David was a wise and obedient man (PRO 9:8. 19. the woman of understanding. we must see God sending them.

Abishai. 10:27). b. Chapter 26:1-25: David Spares Saul Again 1. This day can be sooner or later depending on one’s personal constitution and behaviour (PRO 9:11. 25. This is a common error. In Nabal’s case David had been sufficiently shown that God would vindicate him without his taking vengeance. The Lord could smite him as He did Nabal. d. And has not our David sent and communed with the children of wisdom concerning His good will for them? And ought not they also to respond thus humbly and hasten after Him? 26. The Lord avenged David of Nabal. 4. be as Nabal. Abigail.” 24. This is the day when the body breaks down and can no longer contain life (ECC 12:6-7). His day could come to die (JOB 7:1 w/ PSA 90:10). misread the will of God from seemingly advantageous circumstances. ii. The sleep that fell upon Saul and his men was so deep that David and Abishai could walk and talk among them without awakening them. She married David in faith believing He would be king as God had said though now he was a poor fugitive. As Abigail said. a. Sleep comes from God upon men (PSA 127:2). i. Abigail became the wife of Israel’s future king. 1SA 23:19). The Ziphites betrayed David again (cp. 1st Samuel – Page 40 of 46 . God sometimes withholds sleep (PSA 77:4). Saul took another shot at David in giving his wife Michal to another. let those “that seek evil to my lord (David).23. b. Beware lest God in judgment pour out upon you the spirit of a deep sleep so that you cannot understand His word and are thus in danger of error (ISA 29:10-14). 3. like Saul in 1SA 23:7 and like David’s men in 1SA 24:4. clearly shows that Saul could perish one of three ways: a. 2. a. c. The conjunction or. b. This woman of understanding responded to David’s proposal of marriage with remarkable humility like that of Christ Himself Who washed His servants’ feet. devised liberal things and by liberal things she stood (ISA 32:8). which sets forth alternatives. 5. the liberal. In this condition Saul and his men were vulnerable to danger. 27.

b. b. If the Lord had stirred up Saul against David. David’s voice crying out awakened them. Saul’s attempts against David had not thwarted that expectation at all. PRO 22:3 A prudent man foreseeth the evil. When David removed himself a great space from Saul and his men. 3. Hence. G. 14. Chapter 27:1-12: David Flees to the Philistines 1. “The thing he (David) feared was guilt and his concern respected his innocence more than his safety. and hideth himself: but the simple pass on. Being reconciled to God leads to being reconciled to others (PRO 16:7. When David fled to Achish king of Gath before. If David had not himself been so faithful to God. and are punished. Campbell Morgan wrote: “In these words we have a perfect autobiography. That this is an alternative to the other two means of dying shows that one does not have an unalterably fixed moment to die. This time he had at his command an efficient fighting force of 600 men. 7. Driving David out of the Lord’s inheritance was tantamount to saying. 9. he was a lone refugee. David was no more a threat to Saul than a flea.” M. the ill treatment he received from God’s people might have prompted him to seek another religion. 15. 12. David thus escaping obvious danger was not necessarily a lapse in faith as some have supposed.” a. c. “Go. 10. 11. He would die in battle. 1st Samuel – Page 41 of 46 . David had heard this before. a. COL 3:12-15). a. b. all sinners are foolish (TIT 3:3). The words of PSA 7:4 were fulfilled again in this incident. Saul admitted that he had sinned. David would have God deal with him as he had dealt with Saul. Jesus eluded those who would have killed Him before His time (JOH 7:1.iii. Saul acknowledged that David would still prevail. that enmity could be settled with a sacrifice. serve other gods. 8. 6. Henry. 11:54).” 13. David knew where the right church was even if its members did not always do right. The divine sedative had worn off. that he had played the fool and erred exceedingly. David did not believe Saul when he told him he would do him no more harm. To sin is to play the fool. To reject one that God has received is to court the curse of God (3JO 1:9-10). 2.

The Spirit of God communicated through dreams and he had so grieved the Spirit that He had departed from him. During the time that David dwelled in Ziklag a great host came to him (1CH 12:1-22). a. 6. David made an evasive reply that Achish mistook. a. Chapter 28:1-25: Saul Consults the Witch at Endor 1. “Thus many seem to leave their sins. This indicates that he might have sought David had he still been in the land. He had so provoked God that God would not be inquired of him (EZE 20:3). i. If David was out of the will of God at this time in his life. He had not heeded Samuel the prophet. and the Kenites. He had killed the Lord’s priests and forced the surviving priest with the Urim to flee. Saul. He utterly destroyed those he attacked so as to allow no report to Achish. i. they would persist in them if they could. why did the Spirit of God move Amasai to pronounce peace unto him (1CH 12:18)? 4. ii. When Achish told David he would go out with him to battle against Israel. who had set at nought all God’s counsel. b. Upon hearing that David was fled to Gath Saul pursued David no more again. iii.” M.31). 1CH 10:14 says that Saul inquired not of the Lord. 3. Saul had before now forfeited the means of inquiry. David was given Ziklag to dwell in. b. a. Henry 5. which is no inquiry God will hear (JAM 1:5-8). but really their sins leave them. a city that properly belonged to Judah (JOS 15: 20. ii. now called upon God in the day of his distress only to find that the Lord would not be inquired of by him (PRO 1:24-30). 2. This is one of the most terrifying chapters in the Bible in that it graphically demonstrates how low one call fall when he is out of the will of God. While stationed at Ziklag David did exploits for Israel against their enemies. 1st Samuel – Page 42 of 46 . b.c. 7. the Jerahmeelites. but he let Achish think he had attacked these places instead of the ones he actually attacked. That he inquired of one with a familiar spirit shows the inconstancy of his inquiry to God. 8. The nations David attacked were indeed south of Judah. Thus in a brilliant stroke of military strategy David secured a place for himself and his men.

A person with a familiar spirit is someone in league with a devil. Saul. When the Lord is not communicating to you through His word that indicates that you have grieved His Spirit and are out of the will of God. Saul lamented God’s departure from him when he was in great distress. It had been better for Saul to humbly confess the justice of God in not answering him than to seek counsel from a witch in defiance of the law of God. 5. What help can a man of God be to one. c. but afterwards to be themselves overcome by them. d. He went to this woman at night in a disguise. But he forged ahead in his sin and that with an oath. 1st Samuel – Page 43 of 46 .iii. c. Compelling him to eat was much as Saul’s friends could do for him now. PRO 28:9 He that turneth away his ear from hearing the law. ROM 16:19 …yet I would have you wise unto that which is good. 8. b.” M. We are not told what incantation or spell or charm the witch used. and simple concerning evil. who had put away out of the land those with familiar spirits. Remembering Saul’s problem with pride in not accepting God’s discipline let this be a warning as to how low a man’s pride will bring him (PRO 29:23). Small comfort! Chapter 29:1-11: David Disallowed From Fighting with the Philistines Against Israel 1. then there is no inquiry of God no matter how much a man may attempt it. 12. “It is common for men to inveigh (protest) severely against those sins which they are in no temptation to. 6. She was accustomed to dealing with devils that impersonated men. 7. even his prayer shall be abomination. It is not for us to know the depths of Satan (REV 2:24). Saul sought to be informed of what he should do but was rather told what he had done and what would be done unto him. 9. He was fulfilling the judgment of a fool (PSA 107:17-18). 4. b. Henry d. a. 11. e. Saul lost his appetite. David was in a great strait. When Samuel appeared the witch was shocked. he was reminded of his edict against them. now sought after a woman with a familiar spirit. If God will not be inquired of. This was indeed a work of darkness. a. when God has departed from him and become his enemy? 10. At the very time Saul was inquiring of a witch.

when David invaded the Amalekites. 1st Samuel – Page 44 of 46 . And. the Gezrites. Achish never did find out what David did against the Geshurites. David was his own therapist. but carried them away captive. b. 4. Saul’s failure to utterly destroy the Amalekites only left them to cause more problems. as the next chapter reveals. To refuse to fight with Achish. Imagine the horror and grief that seized these men when they found their city burned and all their families taken away by an enemy. b. David was a refugee from his own country. On the other hand. Thus God made the wrath of man to praise Him (PSA 76:10). David encouraged himself in the Lord his God. a. In this case God restrained the wrath of the Amalekites (PSA 76:10). b. he saved neither man nor woman alive (1SA 27:8-9). Do you think David was really that disappointed that he could not fight with Achish against Israel? His disappointment was more likely feigned or perhaps he was disappointed that he could not do what the princes of the Philistines feared he would do in battle. inspirit. To fight against Israel. 4. Henry 3. animate. David Pursues Them and Recovers All 1. 5. Encourage – To inspire with courage. In Achish’s opinion David was as good as an angel of God. When it says David was greatly distressed. “It is dangerous to put confidence in a reconciled enemy.” M. David was thereby sent back to Ziklag not a moment too soon. 5. Their reasoning on this point was sound. In all this great distress.a. The Amalekites slew not any. The princes were wroth against Achish for allowing David to come to the battle. Chapter 30:1-31: The Amalekites Spoil Ziklag. 2. who had greatly favoured David. his city was burned. he was unwanted by the Philistines on the field of battle. David had him hoodwinked. and the Amalekites (1SA 27:8-12). b. 3. a. a. the nation over which he was destined to reign. 2. he was indeed greatly distressed. would have been treachery against Israel. a. a. God thereby delivered David from his great strait. No wonder they wept until they couldn’t. b. b. and now his own men turned against him. his wives were taken captive. would have been treachery against Achish.

c. 27:1-3. 11. the figs and raisins served to spike the faint Egyptian’s blood sugar and thus to give him energy. Campbell Morgan. 1. pray and read your Bible! b. God having given them this spoil. “When he was at his wits’ end he was not at his faith’s end. If David had some wicked men of Belial in his group. David made it an ordinance to divide the spoil with the two hundred men who were so faint that they could not go over the brook Besor. let us not be surprised to find them among us. it was not right that they should be selfish with it. 1SA 12:25). 25. Being thus encouraged.” G. a. 2. David did not push the two hundred faint men beyond their ability. much more those members of the body. ISA 43:10). Though likely unknown to them. are necessary. “They had done their utmost. 12. b. it is accepted according to that a man hath. The two hundred were still serviceable to the congregation. “The darkest hour of the night is just before day. 1st Samuel – Page 45 of 46 . c. Those who went all the way had done no more. Henry 6. 9. This is one thing that you surely can and ought to do about the situation. 10.” 8. People are needed to abide by the stuff as much as to go forth to battle. 2CO 8:12 For if there be first a willing mind. Chapter 31:1-13: The Death of Saul 1. It was during this time when things were at such a low ebb for David. 1. which seem to be more feeble. a. Thus the way was cleared for David’s accession to the throne. 23:1-6. d. That Israel fled before their enemies said something about their spiritual condition (DEU 28:15. that Saul fell. 2. David recovered all that was lost and more. The two hundred had done as much as they could do. b. 1CO 12:22 Nay. and not according to that he hath not. a. In a time of great distress.” M. 7. David drew encouragement from his relationship with God as his God (PSA 3:13. David took the next step: He prayed for guidance applying himself to the revelation of God’s will.

8. a. requited his kindness by bravely recovering the bodies of Saul and his sons and burying them. Where was that king that Israel wanted to deliver them now? God had given Saul in His anger. Self is our most dangerous enemy. Such losses teach us that our all is in the Lord (PSA 16:5. b. 6. A man who has not repented opposes himself (2TI 2:24. In the preceding chapter David lost something and recovered it. To become a true follower of Christ. perhaps. This great loss occurred just before David’s times of greatest usefulness. Saul never recovered from his failures because he failed to recognize that fact.2. his best friend. a. c. Saul killed himself. the comparing of which two together will teach us to prefer the honour that comes from God before any of the honours which this world pretends to have the disposal of. whom Saul had helped against the Ammonites. “So Saul died” (1CH 10:13). “In the final analysis. after many trials and misfortunes. that David was triumphing over the Amalekites. Hence. 73:25). that men may see what comes of trusting in God and what comes of forsaking him. one must deny himself (MAT 16:24). he destroyed himself. The men of Jabesh-gilead. were the Philistines triumphing over Saul.” M. “This book began with the birth of Samuel. Saul’s head was fastened in the temple of Dagon (1CH 10:10). Henry 11. “The very same day. b. but now it ends with the burial of Saul. We will not grow as long as we blame others and circumstances for our sins. ii. True repentance means siding with God against ourselves (PSA 51:4). Throughout his life Saul abused what God gave him and. One is set over against the other. ACT 18:6. each man chose his own destiny.” Always a Winner by Cyril Barber & John Carter 1st Samuel – Page 46 of 46 . 10. 4. God had departed from Saul. iii. 7. never to recover him in this life. Fearing what the enemy would do to him. b. in the end. a. Only then are we truly prepared for the comfort of the gospel. His mind and emotions were shattered and his body was mutilated. he was powerless before the enemy. 5. The enemy that finally destroyed Saul was himself. with nowhere to turn. 9.” M. But David. In this chapter David lost Jonathan. PRO 8:36). was ready emotionally and experientially to become Israel’s king. Henry 3. Now He took him away in His wrath (HOS 13:10-11). Saul had nothing left but fear of what the enemy would do to him. i.