Miles Lewis the evolution of the timber frame Entramado en Madera, Su Evolución

Universidad de Chile
November 2007

pillared halls Recintos sobre Pilares

3 Altintepe 2 Hattusas 1 Troy 4 Persepolis

Troy VI, c1800-1200 BC; Hattusas, c 1250 BC; Altintepe; Persepolis
Base plan: Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History (Harmondsworth [Middlesex]1967), p 35

Building C, Troy VI (c1800-1200 BC) with central timber columns / con columnas al centro
Robertson, Greek and Roman Architecture, p 24

Hattusas: remains of building D, Restos del Edificio D Büyükkale, c 1250 BC: view & plan Vista y planta
Miles Lewis Akurgal, Ancient Civilizations, p 300

Büyükkale. A Guide to Bogazköy (Ankara. p 27 . Hattusas.presumed cross-heads building D. C13th plan of surviving foundations planta de fundaciones aún existentes reconstruction plan with columns Planta reconstruida con columnas reconstructed interior view Reconstrucción de vista interior Kurt Bittel. no date).

Turkey. C8th. reconstruction by M Akok / reconstrucción por M. p 122 .Urartu Temple at Altintepe. Akok Temizer. Museum of Anatolian Civilisations.

Monuments de l'Antiquité.Persepolis: aerial view Stierlin. no page .

p 219 . Ancient Orient.Persepolis Plan / planta Frankfort.

Ancient Orient.Persepolis construction of a column from the Treasury / Construcción de una Columna del Tesoro Frankfort. p 221 .

pl 186 . Persépolis. Ancient Orient. vista reconstruida Frankfort.Hall of the Hundred Columns. reconstructed view Salón de las Cien Columnas. Persepolis.

Persepolis Hall of the Hundred Columns. p 222 Middle Eastern Studies. reconstruction of a column double-headed bull capital / reconstrucción de una columna con capitel de doble cabeza de toro Frankfort. Ancient Orient. no 27 .

p 255 industrial timber Construction / Construcción Industrial en Madera square posts / Columnas de Sección cuadrada chamfer-stopped arrises / aristas chanfleadas spreaders / barras beams (later barrups) / vigas . 1776 C A Hewett. English Historic Carpentry (London 1980). London. Bromley-by-Bow. Newham.House Mill.

Portarlington Flour Mill. by Andrew McWilliams. spreader & beam (later wedges) Detalle de poste con capitel chanfleado. 1857 detail of chamfer-stopped post. Australia. barra y viga (cuñas posteriores) Miles Lewis 1987 .

scarfed and braced joints. Carpentry Made Easy (Philadelphia 1859). 1859 Uniones en ángulo y de machi-hembrado W E Bell. USA. plate 13 .

Framing: a Practical Manual (Chicago 1909). p 240 .general framing for a heavy barn / Entramado general para un granero W A Radford.

and Sons. Mills and Mill-Work (4th ed. pl XV . London 1878 [?c 1860]). before 1863: sections William Fairbairn.a pioneering example of the ‘shed’ principle Ejemplo pionero del principio “shed” the Oriental Spinning and Weaving Company's cotton mill near Bombay by William Fairbairn.

'Geelong Wool Stores' fig 4. from Melbourne University Archives Miles Lewis 1984 . Australia Jacob Pitman's section & roof plan / corte y planta de techo modern view of the show floor Vista actual del área de exhibición Selenitsch. Geelong.Dennys Lascelles wool Stores.

Dalgety Wool Stores. Geelong: the 1901 portion Miles Lewis 1985 . Gheringhap Street & Western Beach.

'Geelong Wool Stores' fig 4. 1901 building. trussed beams (barrups) and a sawtooth roof mostrando capiteles. from Melbourne University Archives . showing cross-heads. cerchas y techo en forma de serrucho Selenitsch.Dalgety Store. show floor.

Crystal Palace. showing queen post barrups Complejo de Techumbre.the Crystal Palace. mostrando vigas maestras Brino. 1850-1 the roofing system. London. by Joseph Paxton. p 43 .

trussed beams (barrups) Cerchas G L Sutcliffe [ed]. pp 396. London 1900). IV. London 1903). p 87 . The Modern Carpenter Joiner and Cabinet-Maker(8 vols. Building Construction and Drawing (5th ed. 387 C F Mitchell.

p 73 . Walsh Bay.No 8 wharf Warehouse. Warehouse and Woolstores. Sydney: detail of roof framing Detalle del entramado de techo Balint.

Sunshine Harvester Works. Devonshire Road. Sunshine: view in 1906 Science Museum of Victoria .

Sunshine Harvester Works. details of trussed beam and droppers Detalles de cerchas y elementos intermedios Miles Lewis 1987 .

showing timber pillars and cross-heads Mostrando pilares del entramado y capiteles ICOMOS recommendations on Sewell. Chile. Sewell. April 2006 square timber pillars cross-heads angle braces .Class C housing.

South China Sea &c .earthfast construction Construcción con elementos hincados en suelo Neolithic buildings in Europe Edificios neolíticos en Europa Palisades / Empalizadas stave churches / Iglesias en base a duelas huts in / cabañas en Africa. Gilbert Islands. Bangladesh.

p 562 .the forested areas of Northern Europe Áreas boscosas del norte de Europa Vaclac Mencl. Lidova Architektura v Ceskoslovensku (Prague 1980).

Denmark Construcción de Empalizadas en Dinamarca Gorm Benzon. p 19 .palisade construction. Gammelt Danske Bindingsværk (Copenhagen 1984).

early stave building. Gotland. Sweden Edificio antiguo en base a duelas MUAS 5. Hemse.284 .

From Early Times to Fall of Ancient Empires (Oxford 1954). Volume I. 'Building in Wattle.palisade construction earthfast post & wattle construction reconstruction of a typical long house. Wood. Germany. A History of Technology. c 4000 BC Reconstrucción de una casa alargada típica John Bradford. Neolithic village of KölnLindenthal (near Cologne). and Turf'. p 309 . in Charles Singer et al [eds].

reconstruction of a Neolithic house at Haldon. Timber Building in England. England Crossley. p 75 .

p 82 . The Plan of St Gall in Brief (Berkely [California] 1982). Netherlands. C4th-C3rd BC sectional perspective reconstruction by Price & Schwarz (earthfast post and wattle construction) Corte en perspectiva reconstruido Lorna at Ezinge (Groningen).

House of Romulus. Rome: reconstruction drawing Frank Sear .

Takayuka hut. AD 200 J H Acland. Kyushu South China Sea. Medieval Structure: the Gothic Vault (Toronto 1972). p 11 .

Africa MUAS 12.Hut / cabaña in the South Camerouns.068 .

p 126 . Pacific Ocean John Hockings. Traditional Architecture in the Gilbert Islands (St Lucia [Queensland] 1989). Gilbert Islands.initiates' hut.

Bangladesh Dilshad Ara .construction of a house in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.

a house in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bangladesh Dilshad Ara .

evolution of the box frame the mortice & tenon / caja y espiga the ground sill / sobrecimiento the brace / abrazadera fachwerkbau half timbering / media madera .

vol I. in Charles Singer et al [eds].earthfast versus ground sill construction Construcción empotrada vs de solera de asiento John Bradford. p 320 . Wood. A History of Technology. and Turf'. 'Building in Wattle. From Early Times to Fall of Ancient Empires (Oxford 1954).

the failure of an unbraced frame: the need for triangulation La falla de un marco no arriostrado: la necesidad de triangulación .

the mortice & tenon joint Unión de caja y espiga .

England. and Turf'. Wood. c 200 BC overlapping ends of two planks with square mortices for wattles. in Charles Singer et al [eds]. vol I. p 320 . 'Building in Wattle.Glastonbury. A History of Technology. and a larger one presumably for a corner post John Bradford. From Early Times to Fall of Ancient Empires (Oxford 1954).

interpretation of a structure from Valkenburg. Studies in Building History (London 1961). Netherlands. of the Roman period framing and wattling in trenches E M Jope [ed]. p 21 .

p 21 . Studies in Building History (London 1961). Netherlands.decay DECAY interpretation of a structure from Valkenburg. of the Roman period framing and wattling in trenches E M Jope [ed].

excavation of a structure at Valkenburg. of the Roman period. Studies in Building History. p 21 .Netherlands. indicating framing and wattling on sole plates Jope.

p 21 . Studies in Building History. with framing and wattling on sole plates Jope.reconstruction of a structure at Valkenburg.

the rediscovery of the ground sill conjectural reconstruction of a Saxon Hall. say 10th century El redescubrimiento del sobrecimiento. s. reconstrucción supuesta de un salón Sajón.858 .X MUAS 15.

p 199 . Gammelt Danske Bindingsværk.sulehaus frame Denmark Benzon.

building frame. extraido de Bedford Hours Donald Matthew. (supposedly Noah’s ark) from the Bedford Hours. p 145 . early C15th Sistema de entramado (supuestamente del Arca de Noé). Atlas of Medieval Europe (Oxford 1983).

207 .second box frame jetty (or corbel) box frame masonry plinth English box frame house. cutaway view Entramado inglés de una casa. vista interior MUAS 10.

English half-timbered box frames half-timbered house in Hildersham, Cambridgeshire; House in Winchester, C16th; Speke Hall, Lancashire Ejemplos de entramado en media madera
MUAS 8,381, 637, 10,949

Compound farmstead/ Conjunto rural from Klein-Hoeselt, Limburg, C16th-18th, now in the Bokrijk Museum
Marc Laenen, no 94

Granary/ granero Bokrijk Museum Belgium

Marc Laenen no 71

French half timbered pigeon houses/ Palomares en media madera francès
Midi-Pyrénées region; border of the Tarn, Garonne & Lot departments
Bertrand de Vivies, Pigeon-Houses of the Midi Pyrenees Region (Albi 1994), pp 11, 25

cutaway view Vista interior entramado inglès MUAS 10.207 .English box frame house.

fig 231 . The British Carpenter (London 1753). p 49. Building Construction (London 1877).eighteenth century timber framing and nineteenth century trussed partition Entramado y cerchas siglo 18 y 19 Francis Price. plate C R S Burn.

the diagonal is continuous and the stud is cut En el encuentro entre un pie derecho y una diagonal. and the diagonals are important members el marco es como una cercha. casi siempre más largos where a diagonal meets a stud.the roles of the brace and the stud in a box frame El rol de la abrazadera y el pilar en el sistema de entramado de cajón the frame is like a truss. often much larger Las diagonales son al menos del mismo largo que los pie derechos. la diagonal es continua y el pie derecho es el que se corta . y las diagonales son elementos importantes the studs merely fill in the panels in between Los pie derechos son elementos intermedios en los paneles the diagonals are at least as large as the studs.

.English barn design. The Carpenter's Pocket Directory. containing the Best Methods of Framing Timber Buildings .. with the Plan and Sections of a Barn (London 1781). plates i & iid . 1781 Diseño de granero inglés William Pain.

1807 Granero en madera Robert Lugar. plate 20 . The Country Gentleman's Architect (London 1807).timber barn.

'Barwon Bank'. Chilwell (Geelong). by T R Yabsley. 1852-3: detail of hall partition wall / detalle del tabique Miles Lewis 1981 . Riversdale Road.

5 Hickson Road. by W W Wardell. Sydney.Australasian Steam Navigation Co. 1883: details of a partition on the upper floor Detalle del tabique en el piso superior Miles Lewis 1991 .

Glenmaggie. Victoria. c 1871 Miles Lewis 1994 .'Glenown'.

view of rear wall / vista del muro trasero Miles Lewis 1994 .'Glenown'.

'Glenown'. compared with a butting joint on display at Carpenters Hall. showing the square corner stud and the housing of the brace. Philadelphia Miles Lewis 1994 & 1992 . top corner joint in the rear wall.

'Glenown'. the bracing of the rear wall. and the base. showing stud and brace descending below floor level Miles Lewis 1994 .

house at the Bokrijk Museum. Belgium Marc Laenen. no 59 .

1776 Elevación de dos cabañas pequeñas. facing p 263 house at the Bokrijk Museum . Hints to Gentlemen of Landed Property (2nd ed. London 1776). by Nathaniel Kent.'Elevation of two studd work cottages of the smallest size. with brick gables'. con frontones de ladrillo Nathaniel Kent.

'Elevation of two studd work cottages of the smallest size. 1776 Nathaniel Kent. facing p 263 . Hints to Gentlemen of Landed Property (2nd ed. by Nathaniel Kent. with brick gables'. London 1776).

Chicago. Space. p 345 . Cambridge [Massachusetts] 1963). 1833 Sigfried Giedion. Time and Architecture: the Growth of a New Traditions (4th ed.St Mary's Church.

Carpentry Made Easy (1859) .balloon frame of a 1½ storey house. c 1845-1859 sills 8 x 8 [200 x 200] studs 2 x 4 in [50 x 100] puncheons 4 x 4 [100 x 100] corner posts undefined ribbon x x 1 or 6 x 1 [100 x 25 or 150 x 25] W E Bell. USA. plate 5 .

Bell’s balloon frame house sills 8 x 8 [200 x 200] studs 2 x 4 in [50 x 100] puncheons 4 x 4 [100 x 100] Kent’s studd-worke cottages studs 3 x 5 [77 x 125] puncheons 5 X 6 [235. plate 5 Kent. W E Bell. Carpentry Made Easy (1859) . Hints to Gentlemen of Landed Property .

Carpentry Made Easy (1859) . plate 5 .balloon frame of a two storey house. USA. c 1845-1859 sills 3 X 10 [75 X 250] W E Bell.

ribbon 4 x 1 [100 x 100] or 6 x 1 [150 x 25] stud 2 x 4 in [50 x 100] puncheon 4 x 4 [100 x 100] sill 8 x 8 [200 x 200] ? corner post unspecified Bell’s balloon frame 1½ storey house .

characteristics of the US balloon frame from Europe Características europeas existentes en el Balloon-frame de USA close studding / pie derechos próximos entre sí the horizontal girt / el trabe horizontal new industrial characteristics nuevas características industriales smaller sizes of timber / dimensiones menores de la madera standardised sizes of timber / piezas estandarizadas simplified timber joints / uniones simplificadas extensive use of nails / abundante uso de clavos .

S. USA I.C. in [vol 14] Carpentry Joinery Stair Building &c (Scranton [Pennsylvania] 1904).balloon frame. fig 72 . 'Carpentry' (1900 [1897]). Reference Library.

factors responsible for the balloon frame in the USA Factores de la aparición del Balloon Frame en USA. high cost of labour / altos costos de mano de obra makes complicated joints and shapes impractical efficient sawmills / aserraderos eficientes make smaller and standardised timber sizes more economic than larger and more varied ones cheap cut and wire nails / clavos a bajo costo make nailed joints cheaper than traditional ones the social acceptability of timber / aceptación de la construcción en madera makes two storey timber houses common .

details of an American balloon frame (simplified joints and skew nailing) R S Burn. 91 . Building Construction (London 1877). pp 90.

Time and Architecture: the Growth of a New Tradition (4th ed. no date [1908]). Space. p 327 . 1908 G E Woodward. Woodward's Country Homes. Cambridge [Massachusetts] 1963).the American balloon frame & Haddon’s illustration of the Australian stud frame. 1869 reproduced in Sigfried Giedion. p 345 Robert Haddon. Australian Archi-tecture (Melbourne.

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