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Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . .1 Inlining . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . . . . . . . 16. .1 Library Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . .4 Library Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . .2 Derived instances of Enum .1 Array Construction . . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . 170 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 160 161 161 161 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 17. . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 “Set” operations .1 Flushing Buffers . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . .2 Closing Files . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . 21. . . . . .6. . . . . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading Input . . .2. .4 Library Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . 17. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . 17. . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . .3 File locking . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . 17. 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . .3 List transformations . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . 21. 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. .9. . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . .4 unfoldr . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . 17. . .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Predicates . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Handle Properties .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Library List . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . 21. . . . . . . .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .
. . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Time . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . .10. References . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Library IO . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21.1 The RandomGen class. . . . . .
PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. including ourselves. 5. and applications. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. 3. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. providing faster communication of new ideas. named after the logician Haskell B. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. Oregon. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. 2. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. It should be suitable for teaching. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. and most of these. have published something erroneous. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. research. purely functional programming languages. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. 4. even more than it is ordinarily. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. It should be freely available. including building large systems. a stable foundation for real applications development. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. May 31. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. .” Haskell B.
It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report.4.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. If these program were to be portable. making some simpliﬁcations. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. It is not a . The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. As Haskell becomes more widely used. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. Resolve ambiguities. Clarify obscure passages. By the middle of 1997. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. for the foreseeable future. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. much larger than I had anticipated. this stable language is the subject of this Report. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed. This task turned out to be much. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. With reluctance. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. and is called “Haskell 98”. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. incorporating experimental features. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear.4). The original Haskell Report covered only the language. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. together with a standard library called the Prelude. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam.
functional dependencies. lexically scoped type variables. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). Instead. exceptions. including: pattern guards.org gives access to many useful resources. For example. including: monadic state. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. Type system innovations. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. concurrency. including: multiparameter type classes. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. including: . it provides a stable point of reference. There is more besides. metaprogramming facilities. or use Haskell for teaching. Control extensions. so that those who wish to write text books. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. recursive donotation. existential types. going well beyond Haskell 98. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes.
by an active community of researchers and application programmers. suggest improvements to. University of Nottingham. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. and continues to be sustained. in particular. Tutorial material on Haskell.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. Applications of Haskell. Details of the Haskell mailing list. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. Building the language Haskell was created. Here they are. Microsoft Research Ltd) . via the Haskell mailing list. You are welcome to comment on. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. Implementations of Haskell.
Randy Michelsen. Sandra Loosemore. . Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Dave Parrott. Rinus Plasmeijer. Mark Tullsen. Bjarte M. Wolfram Kahl. Dean Herington. Alexander Jacobson. Felix Schroeter. Nick North. Cordy Hall. Sigbjorn Finne. Mark Carroll. In addition. Tony Davie. Libor Skarvada. Amir Kishon. Ross Paterson. Ian Holyer. Tom Thomson. Simon Thompson. Ralf Hinze. Robert Jeschofnik. some small but many substantial. Richard Kelsey. Graeme Moss. Raman Sundaresh. Laura Dutton. Klemens Hemm. Stephen Price. Ketil Malde. Jan Kort. Pat Fasel. Gofer. Richard Bird. Backus’s FP [1]. Sten Anderson. Christian Sievers. Simon Marlow. Stef Joosten. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Dylan Thurston. Marcin Kowalczyk. Christian Maeder. Chris Fasel. Craig Dickson. Andy Gill.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Sergey Mechveliani. Pablo Lopez. and others on the lambda calculus. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Jeff Lewis. Mark Hall. Sisal. Fergus Henderson. APL. Andreas Rossberg. John Meacham. Lauren Smith. Nic Holt. Curry. Sven Panne. Rosser. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Satish Thatte. Magnus Carlsson. Henrik Nilsson. Tony Warnock. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Arthur Norman. Gary Memovich. Thomas Hallgren. Chris Dornan. Malcolm Wallace. Stephen Blott. Østvold. Bjorn Lisper. ML and Standard ML. Patrick Sansom. Tom Blenko. Hans Aberg. Stuart Wray. Ken Takusagawa. Andy Moran. Feliks Kluzniak. Bob Hiromoto. Larne Pekowsky. Jan Skibinski. Pradeep Varma. Michael Fryers. Rick Mohr. Stefan Kahrs. Mike Gunter. Michael Schneider. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Keith Wansbrough. Clean. Paul Otto. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. David Tweed. Landin’s ISWIM. Michael Marte. SiauCheng Khoo. Matt Harden. George Russell. Ian Poole. Jose Labra. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Julian Seward. and Bonnie Yantis. Id. Jones. Olaf Chitil. Josef Svenningsson. Kent Karlsson. Jim Mattson. Paul Callaghan. Mike Thyer. John Robson. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Orjan Johansen. Franklin Chen. Mark Lillibridge. Chris Okasaki. Nimish Shah. Chris Clack. Ian Lynagh. Michael Webber. Duke Briscoe. Patrik Jansson. Olaf Lubeck. Tommy Thorn. Hope and Hope . Simon B. Randy Hudson. Carl Witty. Mike Joy. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Manuel Chakravarty. Guy Cousineau. Finally.
September 2002 PREFACE .xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge.
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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” 4. and ﬁxity information. Haskell provides higherorder functions. deﬁned in Chapter 2. of which there are several kinds. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. 1. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. arrays. type classes. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. described in Chapter 5. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. static polymorphic typing. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. 1. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. nonstrict semantics.1 Program Structure In this section. interpreted. described in Chapter 3. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. programs that formally evaluate to ). datatypes. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. a module system. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. 3. list comprehensions. 3 . etc. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. 2. including lists. a monadic I/O system. compiled. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. patternmatching. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules.e. all described in Chapter 4.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. At the next lower level are expressions. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes.
Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. . it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. 1. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. etc. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers.4 CHAPTER 1. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. See Section 3. or overloading (using type classes). there are several chapters describing the Prelude. Technically. In this Report. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . If these translations are applied exhaustively. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. the speciﬁcation of derived instances.1. as then else . The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced.e. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. However. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. and Chapter 7. However. Also. for types. such as for expresin if sions. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. the concrete syntax. literate programming. for declarations.
Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. type constructors. NAMESPACES 5 1. class.1. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. These are the only constraints. and module names refer to modules. those for type variables.4. for example. 2. . There are two constraints on naming: 1. and constructor within a single scope.
INTRODUCTION .6 CHAPTER 1.
7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ . source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell.. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium.. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report.]. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell. although usually the context makes the distinction clear.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. BNFlike syntax is used throughout. 2.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. However. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [.
. / < = > ? \ ˆ  .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2. LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2.
the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance.g. 2. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. Instead. == and ˜= are not. Similarly. however “foo” does start a comment. terminated by “}”. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. although = is reserved. ) and extends to the following newline. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. as explained in Chapter 11. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. For example. Within a nested comment. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. If some code is commented out using a nested comment.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. because both of these are legal lexemes. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. in a nested comment. So.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. and. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. hence. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error.3. cases is not. In an ordinary comment. 2. for example. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. then any occurrence of {. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. although case is a reserved word.2. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e.
In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. : :: = \  <. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation.b]”.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers). LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. “_”. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. However. such as “[]” and “[a. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. Underscore. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. all operators are inﬁx. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. and single quotes. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor..5). “:”. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound. naMe. underscores. is treated as a lowercase letter. Notice that a colon by itself.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. used as wild card in patterns.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. : : : . digits. as deﬁned above.10 CHAPTER 2. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer.
This applies to variable. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme.5.4. constructor.. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. . F..+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals.’) F . . 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ . This f. also. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer. . but not type variables or module names. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms. (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f .g F. (qualiﬁed ‘. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name.2. . Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. for example. Lexes as this f .4. type constructor and type class names.g f.2).. Prelude. 2. g (three tokens) F.5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. the other four do not. F. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . . (two tokens) F..
The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). and strings between double quotes.g. but must be escaped in a character.1. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. are also provided. octal (e. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. and “vertical tab” (\v).6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes.g. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. similarly.1. as in "Hello". Floating literals are always decimal. Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next. "\SOH".12 CHAPTER 2. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. “form feed” (\f). The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). \o137) and hexadecimal (e. “horizontal tab” (\t). 2. a double quote " may be used in a character. octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. “carriage return” (\r). LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. “new line” (\n).4. but must be escaped in a string. Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. is parsed as a string of length 1. as in ’a’. \ must always be escaped. “backspace” (\b). \x37) representations are also allowed. Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. including control characters such as \ˆX. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. Similarly.2. For example.4. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character.
The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. a close brace is inserted. or of. Within these explicit open braces. Also. Figure 2. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. Informally stated. \ \a numeric escape character. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. For each subsequent line. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. do. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. an empty list “{}” is inserted. insert a semicolon or close brace). and if it is indented less. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). Because layout is not required.2. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. 2. a control character. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. Given these rules. that is. As an example.pop. by using layout to convey the same information. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. then instead of starting a layout. When this happens. let. let. b and g all part of the same layout list.7. Section 9. where the . and \ˆX.7).1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. which can be freely mixed within one program. if it is indented the same amount.e. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where.
top :: Stack a > a .(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x .1: A sample program module AStack( Stack. top.pop (MkStack x s) = (x. top. push. and (c) the close brace at the very end.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.size :: Stack a > Int . .pop :: Stack a > (a. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) . size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a.(pop Empty) is an error . inserted because the end of the tuple was detected.push x s = MkStack x s .size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] . (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression.push :: a > Stack a > Stack a . push. corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token. pop.top (MkStack x s) = x } .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. case s of r > i r where i x = x) .14 CHAPTER 2.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}. LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack. size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) . pop. Stack a) . Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x.
. the nonterminals .Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. or for left. In the syntax that follows. and may have a double (written as a superscript). “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . For example actually stands for 30 productions. an associativity variable varies over . Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. index: a letter . there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . where appropriate. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to.11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. including their translations into the Haskell kernel. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . Except in the case of let expressions. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. For example. Similarly. right.
} in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”. EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. Figure 4. . Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse..16 © @§ CHAPTER 3. . it has the same precedence as the inﬁx . ] ¢ £ . .(f x)) + y let { .f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (. ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) ..operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions.1). .. This f x . Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell..2. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ .2). and conditionals. The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible... parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or . Sample parses are shown below.. Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error.4. the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { . let expressions.. } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing. } in (x + y) z + (let { . } ¦ . ¦ 2 ' . ] . } in x + y let { ..4. . For example.
1. Constructors.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. When evaluated. 3. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. 3. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. when demanded. results in an error.2 Variables. For the sake of clarity. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. When undefined is used. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation.3. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. That is. all Haskell types include . Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. the error message is created by the compiler. denoted by . implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. Operators. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination.
production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. Dually. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y.1).2). Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes). where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio. or partially applied using a section (Section 3. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. Similarly. such as + or $$. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y.1. a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. EXPRESSIONS () [] (. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio.4. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger . and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. For example.% constructs a rational from two integers. . where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. These are described in Section 6. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses.18 CHAPTER 3. For example. such as ` `.4. as found in the and .4). The integers and are chosen so that . ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation. An operator is either an operator symbol.5).% ). Ratio Integer).
Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator .17.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of . CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3.denotes preﬁx negation. as with any inﬁx operator. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . it may be rebound by the module system. where the are patterns. Similarly.operator and unary negation. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers. The binary . then the result is .deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4. There is no link between the local meaning of the .3. ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. . one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing. Because tors are allowed. () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). However. partial applications of data construc ) of ( . An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator .in the Prelude. so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. if the pattern fails to match. the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3. ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. unary . 3. and is syntax for negate . . and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that.1. Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . .3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > .4 Operator Applications £ The special form . page 55). Application associates to the left.3.3.will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude.
( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . () is not a section. (a+b+) is syntactically correct. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid.is treated specially in the grammar. As another example. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. For example. ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression. but an application of preﬁx negation. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . Because (+) is left associative. but (+a+b) is not.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. EXPRESSIONS 3. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). as described in the preceding section. However. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. and similarly for ( ).20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3.
and otherwise.7 Lists [] ( ) : .6. where .1. The list constructor is :. The type of type of the entire conditional expression. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. and the empty list is Lists are written [ . £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . as deﬁned in the must be Bool.1). CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. ]. ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . is a binary operator. and must have the same type. denoted [].6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ .3. which is also the Prelude.3. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. if is False. ¥ £ ¡ 3. is an expression. . and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > .
If through are the types of through . .b. Thus (a. . It is a rightassociative operator. with precedence level 5 (Section 4.8 Tuples ¢ S (. Translation: ( ) is equivalent to . . ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ .5). . ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. it is considered part of the language syntax. like []. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. .) a b c tuple is denoted by (. The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction. ) Tuples are written ( .1. The constructor for an commas. ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4... . and may be of arbitrary length . where there are denote the same value. ) (see Section 4.4. It is the only member of that type apart from .1. then the type of the resulting tuple is ( . § 3. as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6. .22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3.).3).2).1.c) and (. . .2). and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4. and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. respectively.2). 3.1.1. The types of through must all be the same (call it ).2). and requires no translation. ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude.4 and Chapter 8). and is equivalent to .1. ). Translation: ( .9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression.
.11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards.. enumFromTo. The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] . . ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. ] . ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ .10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. . § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <. . § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ ..4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics..17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ .. ] . § 3. . and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. ] .. page 83). where each of the has type .3.1. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested.3. enumFromThen.10. and is an instance of class Enum.. . which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. ] denotes a list of values of type . See Section 6. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § . . depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list. where is a pattern (see Section 3.
2). are deﬁned in the Prelude.5.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. let (x. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3.2].x ] [ z  y <. Declarations are described in Chapter 4. z <.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { .4). and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. over listvalued expressions. and over sequences of qualiﬁers. x <. Pattern bindings are matched lazily. and introduce a nested. ok is a fresh variable. .2)] ]. lexicallyscoped.4). The function concatMap. As usual. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. Thus: [ x  xs <.24 CHAPTER 3. expressions.xs ] yields the list [4. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  . and boolean value True. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. For example. 3.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . (3. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages). ]  <. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.. = = = = [ ] [  .(3.(3. If a qualiﬁer is a guard.[ [(1. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let .x. } in . [(5. over qualiﬁers.4)]. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities. over patterns.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4.x. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. over boolean over declaration lists.x) <. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations.17).
.3. these identities hold. The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4.4.. .3. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative.. ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case .. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = .13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { . Once done. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . . CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 . which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator.13. . where and are patterns and expressions respectively. using the translation in Section 4. the “” is a terminal symbol.3.. in = } in = = let (˜ . } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures. .) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches.4. . Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . > ¦§ of { } . . . This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. 3... not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation.˜ ) = ( . Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions). ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ . .
<let .17. It has a single unambiguous parse.26 CHAPTER 3. namely case x of { (a.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. the result is . If one of the pattern. therefore. If no match succeeds. and then by the guards evaluates to True.3. Pattern matching is described in Section 3.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © ._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. and the type of the whole expression is that type. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. ¦ ¨ . and hence reject the program. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. Programmers are advised. ._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. matching continues with the next alternative. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3. ¦ 3. A note about parsing. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. . the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. If all the guards evaluate to False. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative.17. If matches the pattern in the alternative. from top to bottom. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. The expression case x of { (a. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . The alternatives are tried sequentially. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. Each body must have the same type.
because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let .15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. >>=. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ". } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . as deﬁned in the Prelude. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. the functions >>.15. To illustrate the last point. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ . a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors. however.15. which may be used as a translation into the kernel. This shadowing only affects selector functions.15.2) and update (Section 3. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. select from. © The ellipsis ". and fail are operations in the class Monad.. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. When used as a variable..BAD Here S is legal but T is not. As indicated by the translation of do. 3. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name. in record construction (Section 3. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct.." stands for a compilergenerated error message.15. after eliminating empty : } .. preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure. passed to fail. 3.3. Within a datatype.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype.3). consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } .2.1).OK .
A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . Otherwise. 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > . is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . the { and } characters must be explicit. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . then value . it denotes F . is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3.2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . where is the arity of F. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above).) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . . and if appears is .28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. where F is a data constructor. .15. Unlike the braces used in declaration lists.2.1. The expression F {}. } labeled construction . these are not subject to layout. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. the ﬁeld labels .
v is the set of constructors containing all labels in .f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ ...15. and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where .3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. f3 = ’x’}.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . such as x {f2 = 1. f4 = ’A’. Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value. No label may be mentioned more than once. . At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update. } labeled update . An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels.15.3. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels. f3.
where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. or not principal type derivable from comparable to. the principal type. However.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions.17. EXPRESSIONS 3.1. The value of the expression is just that of .30 CHAPTER 3.4.1). so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. function deﬁnitions.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: . } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: . they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . do expressions. Translation: 3. As with normal type signatures (see Section 4.4). the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. list comprehensions. 3. pattern bindings.2).3. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than. .1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . and case expressions. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ .
x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail.x) = x . and outside to inside.ILLEGAL. For example. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 .e. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right.17. this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x. . or it may diverge (i._. return ).y. it may succeed. ¢ § . and allow one to use . . For example. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. case e of { [x.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. For example.3.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values.17. Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) . PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it.
The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern.) Operationally. The match diverges if this test diverges. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . 8. then is matched against . the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge. 7. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . and fails otherwise. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. depending on the type of the pattern. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. EXPRESSIONS 2. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. If the value is of the form . if all matches succeed. respectively. Matching a numeric. depends on the value: against a value. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. where newtype. 6. the functions >= and . character. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. Matching the pattern by data.32 CHAPTER 3. . subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. the match diverges. Again. The match diverges if the comparison diverges.are overloaded. . and to if matching against fails or diverges. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. so does the overall computation. ¦ 32 4. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. and if the match fails or diverges. this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. resulting in the binding of to . the overall match succeeds. 3. then is matched against . Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. Matching the pattern against a value. § § § That is.2.. that is. (Binding does not imply evaluation. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. and no binding is done.
Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . then . a wildcard. ] (0. All other patterns are refutable. ].3.’x’]. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. is irrefutable).’b’] is matched against [’x’. where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable. (a.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3.b)] > x) [(0.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match.1). The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable.1).’b’] is matched against [ .3).2. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x. ] (\ ˜[x. then ’a’ to match against ’x’. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns.˜(a. it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). But if [’a’.b)] > x) [(0. If the match of against fails or diverges. Here are some examples: 1. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. These examples demonstrate refutable vs. If the pattern [’a’.17. to . attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. and the result is a failed match.y) > 0) (\ (x.
and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed. and are booleanvalued expressions. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions.2. . and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities. For example. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards. or pattern binding to which it is attached. function deﬁnition. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written.1–3.Int. in Figures 3. and are variables. . Rule (h) in Figure 3. (q).1. it is not expected that it will use them directly. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4.2 involves the overloaded operator ==.17.4). The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code. In Figures 3. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ . Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x. 3. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched.y. In particular.1–3. in f :: (Int. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. and are patterns. (e).2: . (j). and are expressions.2. Rules (d). an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. and is a newtype constructor.34 CHAPTER 3.3. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. These identities all preserve the static semantics.
3. }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . } } . _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . Figure 3.17. . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . PATTERN MATCHING 35 . > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > .  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { . . _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: .
_ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . _ > } case of { _ _ > . _ > } of { > . = . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . _ > } case ( ) of { > . . _ > } .2: Semantics of Case Expressions.36 CHAPTER 3. _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ otherwise case of { {} > . } > . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . _ > } where is if labels the th component of . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. are ﬁelds of constructor . _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . are new variables else } } }. _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . } > . _ > _ > }} where . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . character. _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . or string literal. _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . _ > } case of { > .
we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . = => => => => . .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. . . ¦ { . type data newtype class instance default ( . . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . } } © 2§ .
1. For example. . .simplified class declaration for Num .2). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). and nested declarations. and data declarations (Section 4. consisting of class. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float.e. we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a .4). of the given types. . type classes and overloading. newtype. consisting of type. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ . type signatures. Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers). and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4.3.3). These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. instance. using normal type and data declarations.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. © 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. For exposition.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code.3. 5]. An instance declaration (Section 4. and default declarations (Section 4.38 %§ CHAPTER 4. deﬁned on it. those within a let or where construct). A class declaration (Section 4. consisting of value bindings.
simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where .simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1.4.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds.6. The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i. unlike types. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function.0 type system. addFloat. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where . is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ .1. ] ) . However. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds.e. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language.1. then a type of kind .2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( .” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. 4. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions.1. 4. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. negateInt. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions. class methods) for (+) and negate.
. Int.). the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters.40 CHAPTER 4. is identical to the type . and classes. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. Integer. The declarations data T . Type constructors. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . The function type is written as (>) and has kind . Type application. ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. and treated as types with kind .. A parenthesized type. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. to the variable a. 2. IO a. Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter. 4. or newtype T . and so on. must have kind . Float. Since the IO type constructor has kind .). For example: Char. Just as data values are built using data constructors. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. also written () (see Sections 3. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)).. written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. Unlike data constructors. and so on. In general.1. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. The kind of T is determined by kind inference. IO. Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. Double and Bool are type constants with kind . The tuple types are written as (. .9 and 6. type synonyms.5).. a process of kind inference (see Section 4. As with data constructors. and has exactly one value. (. For example. Type variables. The list type is written as [] and has kind . it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. type values are built from . Their kinds are . having form ( ). and is a type of kind . Maybe and IO are unary type constructors.. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind . .6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes.
[]. . and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . [ ]. and lists. . and ). (. ) where . ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. (). above. For clarity. It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3.1. “gtycon”.1. [ ].1. their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . always denote the builtin type constructors. Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. 2.) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. For example. 1. regardless of what is in scope. A class assertion has form . OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . (Hence the special production.7 and 6. then the expressions (\ > ).1)). A tuple type has the form ( .. . the preﬁx type constructors (>).3). which is equivalent to the type (>) . we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. the second component of type . . the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. and so on. which is equivalent to the type [] . ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. A context consists of zero or more class assertions.3. however.8 and 6. and indicates the membership of the type in the class . ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ . These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. and so on (see Sections 3. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5).).3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . A list type has the form [ ]. . means . the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. respectively.1. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. which is equivalent to the type (. and ( ) have the types ( > ). tuples. For example. the type expression a > a .4). In a similar way. A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. 3. If is the type of expression or pattern .) where there are commas between the parenthesis. for example. they cannot be qualiﬁed. When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float).4.
respectively. and each of the is either a type variable. The outer parentheses may be omitted when . in more detail. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. For convenience. The context must only contain type variables referenced in . (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. § § § 4. Furthermore. any of that are free in must also be free in . we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context . the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. we write => even if the context is empty. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type .3. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment.1).42 CHAPTER 4. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. For example. In general. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. Therefore.4). For example. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. may be instantiated at types holds. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type. In any such type. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause).1. also holds.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. we provide informal details of the type system. " t ¡§ is identical to . although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a).16 and 4. In general. The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . as described in Section 4. the most general type. where is a set of type variables . Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions.3. a type is of the form .1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. Show a. Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). or the application of type variable to one or more types.4.
This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: . in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. The user may choose to declare such an instance.2. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © . the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”. because Int is an instance of the class Num. since Num Int holds. An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module. . because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num .2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section.4. ! . and type synonyms (type declarations). double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). 4. double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). In this Report. However. 4. renamed datatypes (newtype declarations).1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)).2.
}).6.. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq .e.3. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. the declaration data C = F { f1.f2 :: Int. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances. using the record syntax (C { . features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v .8. to the components of a data object. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint.. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor. For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. For example. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. For example. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside.3. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them. and is described in Section 4.
4. . it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration. The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. Lexically. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. denoted by an exclamation point.2.2. and function $! (see Section 6. whether or not F was declared with record syntax.2) if is of the form ! . the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. The type is equivalent to the type .15. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . For example. It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type.6. “!”. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . Translation: A declaration of the form 4.
invalid . Similarly. but strictly syntactic. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3.2. For example. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable.46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4.3.2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym. unlike type synonyms. so that is the same as . Also. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. Type synonyms are a convenient. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. New instances (see Section 4. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type.2). E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . this is not so for type synonyms. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. mechanism to make type signatures more readable. The type ( ) renames the datatype .3. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. 4.17). type Rec a data Circ a is allowed. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. the newtype constructor is unlifted.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. Unlike algebraic datatypes. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] .invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ).
( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to . whereas ( n ).3. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes). and newtype (renaming types. ( n ( N ) ). . . © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { . though of course there may only be one ﬁeld. A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax. In particular.4. ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to .1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it. see Section 4. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration.3.3.3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © . ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42.3. Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. type (type synonyms).) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ).
The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition.. the may contain a default class method for any of the . Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names.3. However. in particular. . in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . That is. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. outside the class declaration. op2 :: a > a (op1. as described below. Lastly. The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . it may mention type variables other than .2).48 CHAPTER 4. no other declarations are permitted in . The may constrain only . the may not constrain . © The class declaration introduces new class methods . a ﬁeld name. it must form a directed acyclic graph. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. or another class method.. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. For example: class (Read a. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). i. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of .e. is not permitted. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. since class methods declare toplevel values. the only type variable that may be referred to in is . whose scope extends outside the class declaration. For example: class Foo a where op1. op2) = . 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . The superclass relation must not be cyclic.
and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ .3.. in particular. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case. instance C [[a]] where . this is legal.2. The type type variables distinct.. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ .Ix T where range = .. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope.. . if a type is an instance of all superclasses.. furthermore.2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class.3. it may be a qualiﬁed name..4.. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5. it is not automatically an instance of the subclass.a) where .range. 4. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part. module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix. ] > . instance C (Int. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations. Let be a class declaration. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple .) For example. even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where . } .. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of .a) where . must not be a type synonym.
1)... the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed.. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where . must be an instance of each of . but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context.. Show a) => Foo [a] where . The class and type must have the same kind.. In fact.. the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition. instance Num a => Bar [a] where . The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1. Show a) => Bar [a] where . Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . instance (Eq a. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints.. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration.. Under this assumption.6... A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program.3. This example is valid Haskell. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed. In other words. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4. then the program would be invalid. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). instance (Eq a. Since Foo is a superclass of Bar. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num.50 CHAPTER 4.
TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. For example. 4. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause.3.1. Ord. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived.. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration.. For example. For example. If the form is included. But this does not hold. page 83. Enum. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. .4 Ambiguous Types. all mentioned in Figure 6. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type.4. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. Show. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes.1. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. then the expression let x = read ". since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. 4. instances for all superclasses of must exist for . Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable.invalid is ambiguous. Bounded. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( .3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10. Show a). and Read. When deriving a class for a type . data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=.3. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. because the types for show and read." in show x . that is.2.3.
) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. one could write: let x = read ". For example. default (). Such expressions are considered illtyped. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. . § ¢ . turns off all defaults in a module.1. Double) The empty default declaration.. appears only in constraints of the form . there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. It is a static error if no such type is found. for the ambiguous expression given earlier. ) where . and Figure 6. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . page 83. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. but and are forced to have the same type. an ambiguous type variable. is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class.16. and its effect is limited to that module.52 CHAPTER 4. or Bool.. (that is. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . Num or a subclass of Num). rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered.4.2–6. Only one default declaration is permitted per module. where is a class. This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . § ¢ ¢ For example. shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. ." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type. Such types are invalid. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. and each must be a type for which Num holds. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. For example.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. Occasionally.3. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. a static error.
if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. However.5.1 Type Signatures . the deﬁning occurrence. even if the signatures are identical. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. these declarations contain a static error. As mentioned in Section 4. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature. or principal type . every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature.4. 4.4.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables. including the top level of a module.2).1. it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4. ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ .) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . Indeed.1. i.2. For example. .4. this is explained in Section 4. which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ . to ensure that type inference is still possible. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: . (The type of x is dependent on the type of f. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of .e. possibly with respect to a context. Moreover. as described in Section 4.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. then each use of is treated as having the declared type. in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct. For example. and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization.5.4.
Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable).2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr.4. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. and ten precedence levels. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . Table 4.1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. and infixr. declares a property of a particular operator. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level.54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4.and rightassociativity (infix. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. infixl. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. level 9 is assumed.invalid are invalid. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator. If the is omitted. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. Also like a type signature. For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . 4. left. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to .invalid . . A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. T a > a. respectively). non.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). The following deﬁnition is pathological. (Class methods are a minor exception. like a type signature.1 are invalid. and level 9 binds most tightly). ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. just like its type.
‘elem‘. ** :. ‘div‘. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *.. ‘Foo.4. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. ‘quot‘ +. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9. ++ ==. ‘Bar. >=. ‘rem‘.. /. <. ˆ. <=.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 .. ˆˆ. ‘mod‘.op‘ q) * 2 in .op‘ is infix 3.. ‘seq‘ Table 4. Here.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = .4. /=.op‘ is infixr 7.) 4. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration. $!.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators .op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. >>= $. >.
Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. the binding is called a function binding. the latter.1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where .4.3. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. For example.56 CHAPTER 4. and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . namely: . The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern. ¤ 4. otherwise.
3. See the translation in Section 3. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .e. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is . as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it.12.4.4. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values. A note about syntax. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . in other words. . but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue. A simple pattern binding has form . a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers. where a function bindings above.4.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
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4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
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¡
¦
£
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£
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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¢ & ¢
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading.4. For example. (If the above code is actually what is wanted.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings.5. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem.3. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete.g) = ((+). len1 gets type Int. Hence. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1). and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. and not by any modules that import it. There is no danger of recomputation here. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. in (f. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded.4. module M1(len1) where default( Int. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. However. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g.
i. For example.5. Instead. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . synonym. 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. respectively. respectively. 4. in the deﬁnitions above. For example.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . a default of is assumed. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). For example.64 CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. for any kind . all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. a synonym S and a class C. the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. using the default binding . in such cases. For example.6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . constructors. . and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7].e. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . for instance).
one of which. imported into.. or perhaps exported from a module. 1 65 . Modules may be mutually recursive. classes. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. First. It exports some of these resources. module B where f = . and its result (of type ) is discarded. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name.Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. etc. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7).. When the program is executed. A Haskell program is a collection of modules.4). It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. or class deﬁned in. by convention. For example.. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main. type synonyms.3. the computation main is performed.. Second. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 .5) is affected by module boundaries. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. must be called Main and must export the value main. We use the term entity to refer to a value. default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. datatypes. and are not ﬁrst class values.f module A where f = . making them available to other modules.f >> B.5. Modules are used for namespace control. (see Chapter 4). type.
then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. etc. If this is used.e. is permitted. A module begins with a header: the keyword module. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. type synonyms.3) that specify modules to be imported. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive.. CHAPTER 5. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). Chapter 4). The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( .1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. bf = . ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 .66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = .. ). .6). data types. the module name. . (see Chapter 4). Prelude. . i. There is one distinguished module. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5.. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . classes. © 5. ¦ ¦ § 5. optionally restricting the imported bindings.. ( An abbreviated form of module. consisting only of the module body. . The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat.2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ . Section 5. .
. or class method. because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors.) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration. where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . all values. ). types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1.) ( (. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. or that it imports from some other module. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed. but not those that are imported.) ( module . Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names.8). A type synonym is in scope. . the following is legal module A( Mb. .5. ﬁeld name. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. must be in scope.. which must be in scope. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . The abbreviated form (. EXPORT LISTS 67 . may . For example. 3. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. ( . one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of .. should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares.Maybe( Nothing. If the export list is omitted. whether declared in the module body or imported.. The constructor In all cases.2. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. A value.
5.g) g = f True . MODULES The abbreviated form (. C. The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. or as an implicitlynamed member (T(.e”.. and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. ). A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. dequeue ) where import Stack . or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). For example. one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of . It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list. ¡ £ .). must be in scope. item (5)).g.68 CHAPTER 5. In the second form.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list.f. For example module A ( C. a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack. item(2)). or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f).. or by exporting an entire module (module M. This set may be empty.1). For example: module Mod1( module Mod1. item (1) above). item (2)). ..an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. In all cases. names the class and some or all of its methods.5. enqueue.. g. because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. For example: module Queue( module Stack.
Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings. and between module B and C.1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1.g and g (assuming C. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C.3. rather than Lexically. When the (. 5. The list may be empty. they may also be used as variables. in which case nothing except the instances is imported. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration. hiding ( . .) form of import is used for a type or class.. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as .) ( (.. . ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( . The list must name only entities exported by the imported module.f and C. The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses.f are different entities). The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. methods. the terminal symbols “as”.3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration.3.f (assuming B.) refers to all of the constructors. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant. the (.) ( . ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. or ﬁeld names exported from the module. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . . ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists.g and g are different entities – remember. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 . “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a .5. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ . § 5. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted... modules can import each other recursively).
MODULES 2. . in fact. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. Hence.3.3.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail. If the qualified keyword is omitted.3. Finally.5. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type. Thus. the toplevel environment is extended.1. In contrast.3) on the import statement. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. exported by the imported module. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module. or type named C is excluded. Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. if ported. in import M hiding (C) any constructor. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5.This + differs from the one in the Prelude .2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. class.All Prelude names must be qualified .’. © 5.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. using C in an import list names only a class or type.3. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. Section 5. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . ). It is an error to hide an entity that is not.+ 1) .70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. For example.
x A. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A. y.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists.y In all cases.5.x. y. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x.x x. B. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously.x. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A. A.x.4). suppose the module A exports x and y. y. 5.x.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f. A. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module. A.4.y A. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported . B.y (nothing) x.f. B. 5. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer.x B.y x. A. A. B. A. A.y y. A.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules.x.y x.y A.x.y (nothing) A.3.
For example.f.72 CHAPTER 5.ILLEGAL By an import declaration. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5. Thus: module M where f x = .f respectively. it is illegal to write module M where M. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. that is.. g x = M. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M.4). an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration. 5.. such as f or A.1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. whether qualified or not. there must be only one binding for f or A. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as ..ILLEGAL g x = let M.5.. MODULES module. Thus. therefore..5 Name Clashes and Closure 5. An import declaration. The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name.. A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2.f x = . For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned. but does bring in any instances visible in M. .y = x+1 in .f x x is legal. .5.3). it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: .
..x or C. For example.sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. There is no reference to y.5. y ) where import D x = . and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4. c... The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed.. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D. y = . The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B..2).d.. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned... .. c. y ) where import D x = . and C. or x declared in C. module C( d. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. d. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. x. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude.4.. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved. b = . module D( d ) where d = . c = .d. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B.. and c declared in C respectively. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b.x.. y = . x.5. B. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). provided that the program does not mention those names. b. and can be referred to in A by the names d.sin (F. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C.. x) module B( d.
5. That is. That is. However. called the “Standard Prelude.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes.74 CHAPTER 5. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. That is.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. For example. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin.” In Haskell. 5. MODULES The references to Prelude.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program. However. the Prelude is contained in the . The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. 5. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. and functions.sin and F. Whether or not T is explicitly exported. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer. classes. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms.
and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. which provide less frequently used functions and types. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. For example. for example. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. however. just like those from any other module.6. arrays. and so on. 5. complex numberss. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. given in Chapter 8.5. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. but the implementation only gives a scheme. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. not part of the language deﬁnition. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the .6. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. This means. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. 5. For example: module A( null. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. and they cannot be imported separately. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. they should be considered part of its implementation. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. PreludeIO.6. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null.
Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. For example. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. pop. in terms of a different implementation of lists. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. For example.x) and (. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported. 5. For example. MODULES import Prelude statement.76 CHAPTER 5. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. the use of ++ is not special syntax. however.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. 5. for example. It is not possible. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. On the other hand. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. push.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). to hide instance declarations in the Prelude.x) g x = (.
and empty to construct such values. pop. pop. For example. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. Instead. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. push.8. they must use push.5. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] .
MODULES .78 CHAPTER 5.
The basic boolean functions are && (and).  (or).1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. Eq.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude. Numeric types are described in Section 6.1. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. and 79 . The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. 6. When appropriate. Ord.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. 6. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. In this chapter. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given.4.6. types. Enum. Show. Enum. Ord. Show.1. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. Eq. 6. and not. complex numbers.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type.
1. Ord. Show.) x y produce the same value.. Bounded. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL. and \n and \LF. In addition. \f and \FF. ’i’. that all their component types are). The ﬁrst constructor is the null list.’ ’.80 CHAPTER 6. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. However.y) and (. All tuples are instances of Eq. together with the instances for Eq.6.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. Each tuple type has a single constructor. and Show. and uncurry. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple.’r’. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. Functor. Read. Bounded. map characters to and from the Int type. The toEnum and fromEnum functions.Int) and (.’s’.1.) Int Bool Int denote the same type. \r and \CR. 6. as described in Section 3. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. standard functions from class Enum. . but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). of course. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. as deﬁned in Section 3. Lists are an instance of classes Read. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. although with special syntax. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. thus (x. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15. ASCII mnemonic escapes. and the \ˆ notation.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax.’t’. Read. \t and \HT. and Show (provided.’n’.8. For example. curry. are described in Sections 3. and MonadPlus. respectively. snd. Ord. Eq. thus. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors.11. The same holds for tuple type constructors. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. \b and \BS. \v and \VT. Ord.7. Monad.Bool.10 and 3.’g’] 6. (Int.
Ord.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . Chapter 7 describes I/O operations. Read. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world.). Show) member. that is. the nullary constructor (). Read.3). The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. The unit datatype () has one non 6. Monad. and MonadPlus. Read. Ord. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. and Part II contains many more. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. 6. Enum. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. a function argument is evaluated only when required. 6. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. It is an instance of Show and Eq. Bounded. and until. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.6.9. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. (. Ord.1. const. 6.2. flip.1.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. Read. See also Section 3. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user. Ord.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. Bounded. ($).1. Enum.1.
Default class method declarations (Section 4.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes.2.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application.82 CHAPTER 6. infixr 0 $. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. because it is available at every type.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. rightassociative binding precedence. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . 6.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. . However. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). As a consequence.3. $! ($). Strict datatypes (see Section 4. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. $ has low. or zipWith ($) fs xs. 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. If there is no such comment. such as map ($ 0) xs. since seq can be used to distinguish them. together with the default declarations. However. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. For the same reason. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods.
[]. Integer. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. Integer.6. Double Bounded Int. Double Real Int. IOError Num Int. Char.3. Bool. Int. Float. Bool. Double Floating Float. Integer RealFrac Float. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. Double RealFloat Float. tuples Enum (). Ordering. Float. Maybe Figure 6.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Double Integral Int. (>) Read All except IO. () Ordering. []. Double Fractional Float. (>) Show All except IO. Float. Maybe Functor IO. Char. Integer. Double Monad IO.
The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. If one is deﬁned. IO. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. and IOError. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. If both are deﬁned. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. (<=). The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. neither default method is used. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods. (>) :: a > a > Bool max.3.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==.84 CHAPTER 6. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord.x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. . (>=).y) or (y. = = = = max x y) = (x. each being deﬁned in terms of the other.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). then both will loop. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. are instances of this class. All basic datatypes except for functions. 6.
String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . All Prelude types. except function types and IO types. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6. by providing an instance declaration. This is particularly useful for the Char type.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output.6.) For convenience. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes. and returns an ordinary String..4). is also provided.reads s.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. rather than between square brackets.. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings.3.. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. ("". a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function. show. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" . (If desired. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values.3..t) <."") <. A specialised variant. which uses precedence context zero. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10.3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a..read: ambiguous parse" . are instances of Show and Read. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec..
Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds). which must be completely consumed by the input process. returns []). The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error.86 CHAPTER 6..] [n.] [n. is also part of the Prelude. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. discarding initial white space. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. It reads a single lexeme from the input. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3.. The enumFrom.m] .. respectively. of a value.10)."")].n’. used by read.. The read function reads input from a string.e.m] [n.. For example. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error. If the input string contains only white space.4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ.. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type. (Thus lex "" = [("". The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme. see Chapter 10. The function lex :: ReadS String. lex fails (i.n’.3. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: . enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. 6.
¥ ¢ For Float and Double. all the list elements are the same. The semantics of these instances is given next. the list terminates when the next element would be less than . empty if is the list [ . ]. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment .6.EQ. ]. For all four numeric types. If the increment is positive or zero. The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10.] is the list [LT. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above.3.GT]. For the types Int and Integer. Integer. is . It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. . For example. . and Maybe are in this class. the list terminates when . In the case of Float and Double. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). is . For example.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. where the increment. succ adds 1. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . ]. The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. the list is empty if . the list is empty if negative. IO.. . Numeric types: Int. ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . For all four of these Prelude numeric types. Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. 6. and Ordering. . The increment may be zero or negative. Double. . the digits after the decimal point may be lost. where the increment. . based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. . If the increment is zero. . and pred subtracts 1. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . ¤ .3. Float. [LT. Lists. Bool. all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. . or when they become less than for negative . The list is ¥ § ¦ § .
Maybe. g) id fmap f . The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . lists.6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3.3.14). for Maybe returns Nothing. In the Prelude. and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7.3). 6. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads.88 CHAPTER 6. and IO are all instances of Monad. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws.
The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned. (). the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. indeﬁnite.2–6.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. 6. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. The types Int. page 83. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int).1. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. etc. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. an implementation may choose error ( . The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. Similarly. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. a truncated value. In particular.4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. since all numbers may be compared for equality.3. Char.6. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. but not all. semantically). The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6. Ordering. ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision.4. single precision ﬂoating (Float).3. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). Bool. or a special value such as inﬁnity. Float is implementationdeﬁned. and double precision ﬂoating (Double). it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. Figure 6. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. NUMBERS 89 6. Some.1. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. both real and complex.
Similarly. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. The quot. See Section 4. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. Ratio Integer). see section 3. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. rem.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+). rem.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. The class methods quot. div. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint. respectively. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient.4) apply to all numbers.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. remainder) pair. and mod apply only to integral numbers.4. 6. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. even .4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity.5. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6. ().90 CHAPTER 6.3. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. (*). div.
4. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. div. Part 1 Finally. mod quotRem. rem. (*) negate abs. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. NUMBERS class (Eq a. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . logBase :: a > a > a sin. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. log. cosh.4. gcd 0 4 = 4. sqrt :: a > a (**). acosh. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. including zero. tanh :: a > a asinh. Show (+). 6.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. atanh :: a > a Figure 6. atan :: a > a sinh.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. tan :: a > a asin. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. Enum a) quot. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. gcd (3) (6) = 3. (). logBase returns the logarithm of in base . 0** is undeﬁned. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. acos. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. cos. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide.6.
Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.a) b b class (Real a. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. isNegativeZero. isDenormalized.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a.4. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6.92 CHAPTER 6. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. isInfinite. Part 2 6.
4. If decodeFloat x yields ( . inclusive. Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. tanh. logBase. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. respectively. For real ﬂoating and . floatDigits. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. and sqrt are provided. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. NUMBERS 93 6. ¢ ¢ 6. floor. discontinuities. cosine. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. and furthermore. Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. should return the same value as atan . The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations.4. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. atan2 1. and with absolute value less than 1. The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . the greatest integer not greater than . The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. truncate. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. with in a type that is RealFloat.4. See these references for discussions of branch cuts. and: is an integral number with the same sign as . and implementation. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). in particular. and floor . The functions floatRadix. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. **. where is the value radix. ). atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. The ceiling. A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. truncate.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. round returns the nearest integer to . then x is equal in value to . where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and .6. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . pi]. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . Default implementations of tan. note that is the simplest rational of all. floor. and tangent functions and their inverses. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling.
Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard.94 CHAPTER 6. exponent 0 is zero. these may all return false. scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. isNegativeZero. isInfinite. significand x yields a value of the same type as x. isDenormalized. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. The functions isNaN. Fractional b) => a > b . but rather than an Integer. scaled to lie in the open interval .
and which are described in this section. the abstract values are the mentioned above. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude.2).3. Actions. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. two characters of input. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. may read as a single newline character. For example. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. To achieve this. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . however. return and linefeed. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented.1. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. as deﬁned in the IO library. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. Some operations are primitive actions. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. In the case of the I/O monad. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6. see Section 6. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies.6) sequentially compose actions. In the following. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. however. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities.
For example. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () ..19]]) Input Functions terminal). The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. which is read lazily as it is needed. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. deﬁned the IO library. Typically.3) on endofﬁle. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string.96 CHAPTER 7.) main = interact (filter isAscii) . The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. 2ˆn)  n <.[0. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library.
A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. their ﬁrst argument. their second argument. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. on demand.2. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. The two monadic binding functions. are used to compose a series of I/O operations.x*x)  x <. for example when it is ().1.0. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst.[0. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string.2]]) 7. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x.. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. to the ﬁle. methods in the Monad class. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". as with getContents. The ﬁle is read lazily. To write a value of any printable type. as with print. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class.7.
For example. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. For example. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar.getLine s <. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. otherwise.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. The isEOFError function is part of IO library. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. in f = catch g (\e > if IO.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g. User error values include a string describing the error. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. . userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch.getLine return (c:s) 7.98 CHAPTER 7.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.
.bindings for return.3.6) raises a userError. (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21. the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program..7. thus: instance Monad IO where . (>>=). . The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program.3.
100 CHAPTER 7. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .
These modules are described fully in Part II. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. and PreludeIO. such as Char. or less. An ellipsis “.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. and three submodules. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. !!. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. Monad. as it pleases. of the Library modules. such as Integral a or Num a. drop. Declarations for special types such as Integer. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method.. length. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). The default method deﬁnitions. an implementation is free to import more. and to improve efﬁciency. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. IO. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. 101 . The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. To take one particular example. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. indicated by names starting with “prim”. given with class declarations. These imports are not. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. nor are these three modules available for import separately. This structure is purely presentational. PreludeText. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid.. PreludeList. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. These functions are: take. Prelude. That is. Some of these modules import Library modules. of course. and Numeric.
STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt.102 CHAPTER 8. and replicate. with the preﬁx “generic”. . The more general versions are given in the List library. for example genericLength.
(&&). (). toEnum. isIEEE. EQ. Just). negate. Right). encodeFloat. lcm. max. quotRem. pred. Rational. module PreludeIO. floatDigits. String. and cannot legally appear in an export list.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. const. (). True). snd. Maybe(Nothing. (>>). IO. div. (. atanh). ($). Bool(False. module PreludeText. undefined. cosh. Integral(quot.)). etc. tanh. List type: []((:). acos. gcd. Real(toRational). otherwise. enumFromThenTo). (<). exp. seq. error. uncurry. isDenormalized.)((. scaleFloat. Int. fromRational). fromEnum. mod. subtract. Functor(fmap). either. (<=). enumFromTo.Unicode primitives . fromIntegral. ceiling. tan. atan2). Float. exponent. id.. recip. cos. maybe. Ord(compare. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . log. acosh. sequence_. Either(Left.)((. []) Tuple types: (. asinh. RealFrac(properFraction. toInteger). (/=)). sinh.. sin. Num((+). decodeFloat. Enum(succ. until. sqrt. divMod. (ˆ). (*). (**). isInfinite. RealFloat(floatRadix.Contains all ‘prim’ values . Char. round. atan.)). (>). Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). (=<<). truncate.). asTypeOf. Fractional((/). return. Floating(pi. Ordering(LT. Double. Monad((>>=). realToFrac. not. logBase. sequence. min). isNaN. enumFrom. Integer. (>=). mapM_. even. abs. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. curry. (. mapM. isNegativeZero. (ˆˆ). rem. fst. maxBound). flip. asin. significand. Bounded(minBound. but are denoted by builtin syntax. floatRange. odd. GT). signum. fail). floor). fromInteger). enumFromThen.
Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). >>= =<< $. $!.Using compare can be more efficient for complex types. > &&  >>. <. max x y) = (x. and cannot legally be given . ‘div‘. ˆ. ‘quot‘.  . <=.Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare .note that (min x y. (<=). ˆˆ.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==). (>=). (>) :: a > a > Bool max. /=. /.a fixity declaration.x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y .The (:) operator is builtin syntax. classes.y) or (y. ‘seq‘ . min :: a > a > a . >=. ‘mod‘ +.104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8.Standard types. (/=) :: a > a > Bool . compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . ‘rem‘. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. ** *. STANDARD PRELUDE . instances and related functions .
fromEnum y . fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a . pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n.] [n.. succ = toEnum . fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x .m] .n’. fromEnum .] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x . fromEnum pred = toEnum ....m] [n. fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x.NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum. Show a) => Num a where (+). (subtract 1) .n’.] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x.Minimal complete All..Numeric classes class (Eq a.Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ.. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational .105 ..y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a. except x . (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs. (). signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a . fromEnum y ..Minimal complete definition: toEnum. (+1) .] [n.
Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. cos.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. sqrt :: a > a (**). acosh. sinh. exp. acos. logBase :: a > a > a sin. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. cosh asin. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. log. mod quotRem. cos.a) a > Integer . rem div. sin.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . atan asinh. tan :: a > a asin.Minimal complete definition: pi. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a. atan :: a > a sinh. Enum quot.106 class (Real a.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. atanh :: a > a . tanh :: a > a asinh. acos.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q. acosh. cosh. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . log. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0.
round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.0.107 class (Real a._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.a) b b . floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.1 else n where (n.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = . Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n .
must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m. isInfinite. significand.n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi . return a NaN (via +) .Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer.Numeric functions subtract subtract even. odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not . STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a. scaleFloat. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y .108 CHAPTER 8.x or y is a NaN.floatDigits x) where (m. isNegativeZero. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) .Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. isDenormalized. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .Minimal complete definition: All except exponent.
109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a. Num b) => a > b = fromInteger . but lift the function or .Minimal complete definition: (>>=). toInteger :: (Real a.ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a. toRational . return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) . Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a.list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f . Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude. Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational .The xxxM functions take list arguments.Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a .
Character type data Char = . ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x . Show.(useful in continuationpassing style) ($).. g = \ x > f (g x) . Ord.110 .function composition (.Primitive .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq. Bounded) .. Enum.Boolean functions (&&).. Bounded) .Not legal Haskell. True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True .constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x . . Read. .Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8.identity function id :: a > a id x = x . flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = .rightassociating infix application operators ..Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ ..flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f. for illustration only . STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq. Enum. ’a’  ’b’ . Ord..) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f .Function type .
. return = . Read.IO type data IO a = .. fail s = ioError (userError s) ..111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c ... fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c. Ord. f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = . Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y . fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] .Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.. Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing . .Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.. Ord.abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return .. fromEnum c’ . Read.
. Bounded) ..... ... . . data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound .. Enum.. Ord.. ...far too large. ..... 1  0  1 ... . .. maxBound .. .... The data declarations for these types cannot .. .... ......... where where where where where where where where . . . instance Eq Integer where .. instance Enum Integer where . instance Num Integer where . data Integer = . 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 . instance Integral Integer where ... . instance Ord Integer where ....... ... Read...... .... . instance Real Integer where .be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be . . STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.. ....Ordering type data CHAPTER 8.Standard numeric types. .. ... Show....112 . . data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where ...
truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo .may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) . 0.Not legal Haskell.1 is represented. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger . The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ . This example may have either 10 or 11 elements.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq.1 . for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] .. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious.may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger . The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0.95].113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual. depending on how 0.0. Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. Ord) . However.
asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const. STANDARD PRELUDE (a. Ord.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error . Bounded) (a.messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined . etc. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) .b) > a fst (x.b.Not legal Haskell.as an infix operator.Tuples data data CHAPTER 8. It is usually used .component projections for pairs: .b) deriving (Eq. curry :: ((a.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function.b) = (a.Misc functions . Ord.(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second.y) :: (a.(NB: not provided for triples.c) deriving (Eq.) fst :: (a.appears. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.undefined" .until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.114 . y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a.y) = x snd snd (x. asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const . for illustration only . and its typing forces its first argument .c) = (a. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude. until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.b) > b = y .b. Bounded) . . quadruples.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError .
lines. last. sum. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. any. (++). respectively. takeWhile. tail. foldl1. reverse. concatMap. unlines. words. cycle. filter. maximum. scanl1. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. foldr. splitAt. scanr1.1. length. head. iterate. zip3.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. replicate. dropWhile. foldr1.8. unwords. and. or.1 Prelude PreludeList . span. notElem. zipWith. null. rather than the beginning. minimum. foldl. unzip. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. repeat. ‘notElem‘ . init. concat. all.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . break. take. scanr. elem. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. product. lookup.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . drop. zipWith3. which must be nonempty. zip. (!!). of a list. scanl.
z ‘f‘ x1.. applied to a binary operator.... x1 ‘f‘ x2.. .!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1. .. STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude..) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument.116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8. x2.] == [x1. .] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude. .((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘.. length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l .last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. .. and thus must be applied to nonempty lists. a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator).] == [z. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1..List index (subscript) operator..!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude. scanl is similar to foldl. scanl1 is similar. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False . and a list.. from left to right: foldl f z [x1.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int. x2..foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] . xn] == (. x2. reduces the list using the binary operator..] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs..
foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs .] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) .8.cycle ties a finite list into a circular one. It is the identity . drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements.repeat x is an infinite list.on infinite lists. scanr. or [] if n > length xs.1.iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: . applied to a list xs.. splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs.above functions. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs . cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude..the infinite repetition of the original list.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) . or xs itself if n > length xs. drop n xs). PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 . with x the value of every element. foldr1. foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude. and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . returns the prefix of xs of length n.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. f x.foldr. or equivalently. f (f x). .iterate f x == [x. Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = . .
s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. s’’) = break Char. The resulting strings do not contain newlines. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix.zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not . break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. while break p uses the negation of p. words breaks a string up into a list of words. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8. p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w.xs) where (ys. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a]. which were delimited by white space. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s . Similary.[a]) = (take n xs.zs)  otherwise = ([].[a]) span p [] = ([]. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. applied to a predicate p and a list xs. dropWhile p xs). returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. drop n xs) takeWhile.
value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. map p all p = and . or is the . usually written in infix form..reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. map p . reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite.elem is the list membership predicate. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. results from a False .and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. however. maximum.8. and of an ordered type.b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x.minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs .g.Applied to a predicate and a list. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or .True. for all.disjunctive dual of and. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 . any.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. x ‘elem‘ xs. the list must be finite. finite. .y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys . False. . and. Similarly.of the list satisfies the predicate. minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude.lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list.maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude. elem. For the result to be . . sum. any determines if any element .which must be nonempty. notElem is the negation. or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False .1.e. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .
c:cs)) ([].b.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a.b)] = zipWith (.c)] > ([a].c)] = zipWith3 (.unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.[]) .[b].b.c) ˜(as. excess elements of the longer list are discarded.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.b)] > ([a].cs) > (a:as. instead of a tupling function. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.b:bs)) ([].[]. If one input list is short.[b]) = foldr (\(a.[c]) = foldr (\(a. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.120  CHAPTER 8.b.bs) > (a:as. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples.. For example. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .bs.b) ˜(as.[]) :: [(a.b:bs.
u)  (x. shows x . reads t.hs import Char(isSpace.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude.t) [(x:xs. shows x .u) (xs. showLitChar. isAlpha. Show(showsPrec.The instances of Read and Show for Bool.2.’ . Either. Maybe.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r. shows. readLitChar. reads. readFloat. showList).Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’. show.t)  ("]". readl’ u] .String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a. readList). readDec.t) (xs. showFloat.". showl xs . showInt.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[".u) readl’ s = [([].t) (x.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS. readParen.8. lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8. readSigned. read. lex. ShowS. Ordering . Read(readsPrec. isAlphaNum. showParen ) where .s) pr where readl s = [([].t)  ("]".t) [(x:xs. readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s. isDigit. showChar. showString. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s.v)  (".
u) <.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.t) <. . (str.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("". STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.lexStrItem s.lexLitChar s. t)  (ch.u)  ("(".t) (")". <.optional s.s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude. t)  (str.lex r.lex t ] ."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’". showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .reads s.t) <. u)  (ch.’\’’:t) <.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&". ("".This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&".lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"".s) (x.read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude."") <. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str.t) <.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8. p . <.
t) [(c:ds++fe.bad character lexFracExp (’.t) [(c:nam.t) <.lexFracExp s ] . (ds.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .u)  (c:t) [(e:ds.. c ‘elem‘ "+". (fe.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.t) <.u)  (ds.lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.2.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .t) lexExp s = [("".t) <.s) <. (e.’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.t) <.t) <.[span isDigit s].Reading at the Integer type avoids .8.lexDigits (c:cs).s)] <.u) <.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.lexDigits t] ++  (ds.readsPrec p r] . PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c]. t)  (i./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.[s].s)] [(c:sym.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.’:ds++e.Converting to Integer avoids . toInteger .t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".[span isSym s]]  (nam.u) <.t) <.
readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("". shows y .v) (")".lex r.124 CHAPTER 8.lex r. (c.s) (x. t) <.u) (y.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r.t)  (’\’’:s.lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ .lex r. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .y) = showChar ’(’ . showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ . (")".t)  ("(". (l.".readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList .s) <.s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs.b) where showsPrec p (x.readLitChar s.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.u) <.Tuples instance (Show a."\’") <.w) ._) <. Read b) => Read (a.t) <.u)  (c . STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((). reads u. showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x. reads s.t)<. showChar ’)’ instance (Read a. shows x .t) <.y).t)  (’"’:s.t) (".’ . showLitChar c . lex t. Show b) => Show (a. showChar ’. lex v ] ) . w)  ("(". showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c . (cs.
catch..The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . getChar.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents .. print. putStrLn. writeFile. putChar. appendFile. getLine.. Eq IOError where . readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String .. IOError. ioError. readIO. getContents. interact. putStr.8.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. readFile. userError.3. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <.
STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .getLine r <. ("".getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile ."") <.126 CHAPTER 8.reads s.t) <.readIO l return r .raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.
or nonassociativity and a precedence level. this means that conditionals. . an associativity variable varies over . Similarly. In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. In the contextfree syntax. the nonterminals . A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. this is the “maximal munch” rule. for example actually stands for 30 productions. Thus. right. and may have a double index: a letter . . proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. letexpressions. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . In the lexical syntax.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). or for left.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible.
{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9.˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9. SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) . . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .
¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  .> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . . .. LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : .4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9. : :: = \  <. 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . .2. . .
The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. the programmer supplied the opening brace.130 CHAPTER 9. If the innermost context is 0.3 Layout Section 2. nor before the . The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. where. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ .7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. the token is inserted after the keyword. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i.) A stack of “layout contexts”.. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {.e. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. provided that . "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill. (NB: a string literal it is not. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. – A positive integer. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme.6. do. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. in which each element is either: – Zero. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. because it is not preceded only by white space. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9.
3. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . not 0. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ . ﬁxed. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . However. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . and “ ” for the empty stream. width as an ASCII character. Tab stops are 8 characters apart. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. to avoid visual confusion.9. . . assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. For the purposes of the layout rule. The deﬁnition of is as follows. To determine the column number. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. all start a new line.
so empty braces are inserted. then the algorithm fails. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. ). the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. then parseerror is true. The token is replaced by . The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. since the close brace is missing. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. y = x in e’ is valid. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. ¤ ¥ Note 6.15). because doing so involves ﬁxities. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. Note 3. At the end of the input. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. Note 2. For example. then the block must be empty.132 CHAPTER 9.4. any pending closebraces are inserted. and a nonlayout context is active. If none of the rules given above matches. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. Note 4. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. If not.e. because it translates to let { x = e. For example let x = e. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. Note 5. although they could be: for example let }. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error.
9.3. LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative. . Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations.
a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. 8 8 ¥¥8 . To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. though it may be stylistically desirable. Using this style. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. all other lines are comment. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. all other lines are comment. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. of course). In this convention.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle.134 CHAPTER 9. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. By convention. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. with “. For example.
\begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n.4. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle. product [1... LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials. .[1.20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension.n])  n <.9.
. ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . } } © 2§ . 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( . } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. .. .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . . as ..) ( module . . } . . . ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. .) ( .) ( (. . .) ( (. ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. hiding ( . A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 . = => => => => . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9. . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 .. SYNTAX REFERENCE .
) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . . } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . . . ] ) . . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( .5. . . ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. .
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Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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4. If
is Enum, the type must be an enumeration.
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is one of Eq, Ord, Enum, Bounded, Show, or Read. holds for each of the constituent types .
4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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deriving (
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142
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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instance (
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) =>
where {
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
lex r. (m.w)  (u.t) <.Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .t) <.1: Example of Derived Instances .s) <. (v. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " . . (":ˆ:".Application has precedence one more than .the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10. v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .w) <.146 CHAPTER 10.readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 .lex s.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r.s) <.Precedence of :ˆ: .t)  ("Leaf".
11. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . . but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. Lexically.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. For example. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. 11.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. This chapter summarizes this existing practice.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics. pragmas appear as comments.
factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations. .148 CHAPTER 11. COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
For each Integral type .. Show (Ratio a) where . RealFrac. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. Num. denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a. Enum.. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ... The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers.. Fractional.. and Show. In each case.. The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. Ord. Enum (Ratio a) where . 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator... RealFrac (Ratio a) where .Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio.. Real. For example.. denominator.. numerator. Real (Ratio a) where . Ord (Ratio a) where .. these are in reduced form with a positive denominator. Read.... (%).. If is a bounded type. there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type .Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = . Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where ... Num (Ratio a) where . a) => Read (Ratio a) where . Ratio is an abstract type. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. the results may be unpredictable. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. Ratio is an instance of classes Eq. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . Rational. Fractional (Ratio a) where ..
returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ . RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational.152 CHAPTER 12. applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon.
% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y . It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor. (%). LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. numerator.12. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator.g. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module.1. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio. denominator. E..1 Library Ratio .Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. Rational.
showString " % " .readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x .s) <. showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .u) <. truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y.154 CHAPTER 12.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise . r:%y) where (q. RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q.lex s.r) = quotRem n d (q’.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r.u)  (x.r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r . (y.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q. ("%".hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.t) <.
This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is . mkPolar. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. imagPart. . A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar. . . realPart. the entire number is .. phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. in the range .. (RealFloat a) realPart.Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)).. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle .. phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. . polar. . imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. then so is the phase. if the magnitude is zero.. Put another way.... cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo )...a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude. magnitude.. The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. cis.. 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . and the phase. conjugate.
13. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . realPart.156 CHAPTER 13. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. polar.Show) (RealFloat a) realPart. whereas signum has the phase of . mkPolar.Read. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). conjugate. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. abs is a number with the magnitude of . magnitude.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x .a) = (magnitude z. but oriented in the positive real direction. but unit magnitude. imagPart. cis.
max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 . LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .13.1.
COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.u’) else (u’.z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .158 CHAPTER 13.z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.v) = if x < 0 then (v’.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .
showOct. showEFloat. showFFloat. showSigned. readFloat. showFloat. readHex. readDec. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. floatToDigits.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. showHex. readOct. showGFloat. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . showIntAtBase. readInt. readSigned. showInt.
1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string. 1. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e.45e2. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. if is Just .999. More speciﬁcally.String)] 14. plus an exponent. . if is Nothing. In what follows. showFFloat. many of which are used in the standard Prelude. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits.g. is the precedence of the enclosing context. 0.0015). and is a function that can show unsigned values. floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showEFloat. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument. 245000.1 and 9. showOct. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e.g. and 16 respectively. 8.999. showInt. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. is the value to show. In the call showSigned . Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. 2.160 CHAPTER 14.5e3).
numerator. is the base. showFloat. given a reader for an unsigned value. 14. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. showInt. showGFloat. readDec. denominator ) (!). isOctDigit. readOct. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. octal.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. In the hexadecimal case. showIntAtBase. showEFloat. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. floatToDigits. In the call readInt . Array. and hexadecimal notation respectively. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. showHex. readHex. ( ( isDigit. intToDigit ) (%). is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. showOct.) 14.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. and converts a valid digit character to an Int. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. showFFloat. in decimal. isHexDigit digitToInt. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . readFloat. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . readOct.2. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. readInt. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. showSigned. readDec. readSigned. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits.14. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14.
p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’. scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational.that we got from the scaling. minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn .fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .Conversion process: . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) . . p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x.Handle exceptional cases .Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until . . . or p (the exponent) <= minExp. Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x. p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat).To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get .This converts a rational to a floating.Fractional instances of Float and Double.a first guess of the exponent. This should be used in the .Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.162 CHAPTER 14.p .Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent . _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 . NUMERIC . fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0. p) .first.Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers.
Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b.s) (x. showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else .t)  ("". maxExpt]] 163 . .base > (Int > Char) .. readPos str] .showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .2ˆn)  n <.number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric. let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l .14.maxExpt) [(n.[minExpt . .s)  (str."") <<<< lex r.d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x.4. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.s) (n. showOct.digit to char > a .t) read’’ r = [(n.Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a . LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt. read’’ s] lex r.showInt. showOct.
readOct.nonnull isDig s ] .Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere. digToInt) ds). r)  (ds.readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral .Unsigned readers for various bases readDec.r) <. . NUMERIC . .164 CHAPTER 14.These are the format types. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported. data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric .
’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing .0e0" [d] > d : ". is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.4. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0. LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.14. e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) .
’ : s .. []) f d (i:is) = let (c.Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0. Dybvig. z]. Int) .. e) . b. is) > (1. not 34. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. NUMERIC ++ ’..Print 34. 0:ds) else (0.Print 0.This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0. is) (1. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].ab. K." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > .then r = 0.when the format specifies no . In general.’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0.G.and an exponent. . not . if floatToDigits r = ([a. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei. Burger and R.34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’.base1]) . is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" . is) > (0.166 CHAPTER 14. It should be improved. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0. .34. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. . in PLDI 96..digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator.
LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([].the following will err on the low side. b.14. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers .4. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. be. e0+n) else (f0. be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2.the real minimum exponent .Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p.logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . bˆ(e+1)*2.p 167 . e) = let n = minExp . mUp. 1) else (f*2. 1. . f :: Integer e :: Int (f.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn). e0) (r. bˆ(e)*2. be*b. (p . 2*b. b) else (f*be*2. s. 2. Ignoring .will have an impossibly low exponent.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n . Adjust for this. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then .the fraction will make it err even more. mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2.
t) <.lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’.d.point than the Haskell lexer. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’.This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating . False) > dn : ds (False.s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0. t)  (ds.[span p s]] . (ds’.s) <.readFix r. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)). The ‘. t)  ("Infinity".t)  (k. rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("".t) <.d) <.lexDigits r.lex r] ++ [ (1/0. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.t) <. length ds’. t)  ("NaN".t)  (cs@(_:_).t) <. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn.t) <. (k. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds).readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.t) <.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs.t)  (n. k) in . True) > dn+1 : ds (True.168 CHAPTER 14.’ is optional.
index.u) i == i . instance instance instance instance (Ix a... to an integer. index..rangeSize (l. . and a subscript.. where .u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l. .a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a.. The range operation enumerates all subscripts. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l.. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16). and inRange. The Ix class contains the methods range.. inRange. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a. Ix b) .u)) == [0... which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range.u)] 169 .b) where where where where .. The index operation maps a bounding pair. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers.u) !! index (l.Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range.et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where .a) > (a.. .a) > (a.a) > (a...when i is in range inRange (l.u) map index (range (l.
For example. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4.3). For an enumeration. whose constituent types are instances of Ix.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically.Blue] 1 False .Green. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow.e.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.170 CHAPTER 15. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class.1. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i.Blue) index (Yellow. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes.3.
.l’)..uk) * ( index (lk1..ik) = index (lk....(u1.. ik <.(u.. .l2.u2..(u..uk)) = [(i1.l’).u) i && inRange (l’.u’) i’ ...i’)  i <..ak) where range ((l1.l2..i2.uk1) * ( .u’)) = [(i...instance (Ix a1.1..u’)) (i.. Ix a2.range (l2..uk)) (i1..b) where range ((l. i2 <.lk)...range (l1.(u...i’) = inRange (l..u’)) (i..uk) ik + rangeSize (lk..u)... .range (lk..i’) = index (l.uk)) (i1.a2.l’). Ix ak) => Ix (a1.uk)] index ((l1....uk) ik Figure 15. index (l1.i2. .lk)... i’ <.ik) = inRange (l1. Ix b) => Ix (a.l2..range (l.range (l’.15.. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a.u1) i1 && inRange (l2...u2).Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: .(u1.u2.u2.u1)..u1))) inRange ((l1....(u1..i2..u2) i2 && .u’) + index (l’.1: Derivation of Ix instances .u) i * rangeSize (l’.ik)  i1 <... && inRange (lk.lk).u’)] index ((l.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1.u’) i’ inRange ((l.
a) > [a] index :: (a." inRange (c.2) <= (2.as derived.as derived Ix Ordering .n] index b@(m. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range. index. b) ..fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.m)  otherwise = error "Ix.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.n] index b@(c." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.as derived Ix () .n) i = [m.(2.n) = [m.. (1.m error "Ix. For example.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m.as derived .n) index b@(m.but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.1) .a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.index: Index out of range.n] = = = i . for all tuples Ix Bool .n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.Ix b) => Ix (a.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .fails if the bounds are tuples.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci .2). rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a.172 CHAPTER 15.n) = [m..a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a." inRange (m.NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .index: Index out of range.a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.index: Index out of range. inRange.
elems. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => ..b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. bounds. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where . Ix b) => (a..c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a. ... (!). Show b) Read a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.b)] > Array a b (a. . a..b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a. // => Array a b = . assocs. accum. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a.Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix. . listArray. 173 .a) > [(a. indices..export all of Ix for convenience Array. a.. (//).Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a. .a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a..a) > [(a... a.. . array.. accumArray. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !.a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a.a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a.
Since most array functions involve the class Ix. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. Because the indices must be checked for these errors. For example. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function.e.100) ((1.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list. If. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1. elements. elems. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. . The array is undeﬁned (i. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. but empty. ). ).1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array.e. then the array is legal.1. 16. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. and assocs.[2. not as general functions. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. An array may be created by the function array. If any two associations in the list have the same index. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. ).e. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. in index order. accumArray. in any dimension. return lists of the indices. Thus.10). in particular.1) : [(i. but nonstrict in the values. Figure 16. Typically. or associations. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . respectively. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds.. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i.174 CHAPTER 16. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. An association (i. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. arrays are treated as data. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. The functions indices. each of the index type of the array. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. 16. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting.1).(10.10)). in that order. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. i * a!(i1))  i <. when applied to an array. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds.
then m//[((i. i)  i <.[1. except with the diagonal zeroed. given a list of values of some index type. as for the array function. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i. For example. 16. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned. in the association list. if m is a 1origin. 0)  i <. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. a!i * x)  i <.n]] is the same matrix. then accumArray is strict in the values.Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive.2. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict.range b] where b = bounds a . Thus. unlike ordinary arrays.16.range b]) 0 0 . INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES .range b] = bounds a 175 .i). z)  i <. as well as the indices.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a. the second is an initial value. n by n matrix. hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <.1: Array examples function.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a.) For example.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. Num b) => (a.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument.. 1)  i<is. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function . (As with the array function.
16.export all of Ix Array. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !. assocs.A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a.(_.2: Derived array examples 16._)) = bounds x . . (!). accumArray. listArray.a) (a > b) deriving () .3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones. respectively. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b.i)) x where ((l.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.y)>x) Figure 16.176 CHAPTER 16. (//).a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l.u) (\i>(i. Figure 16. indices.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix.l’). array.u’) (\j>(i. Ix b) => a > Array (a. with the mapping that the original array embodies. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) . ARRAYS .A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a.2 shows some examples.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a.(u._). elems. bounds.u’)) = bounds x .j)) x where ((_. accum.
16. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.a) > [(a.b)] = [(i.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.4.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a. f) instance (Ix a. Ix b) => (a. a ! f i)  i <.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.v) <.v) > a // [(i._) <.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.range b]) :: (Ix a.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn .z)  i <.a!i)  i <.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.indices a. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.ivs.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i. a!i)  i <. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a._) <.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a.a) > [(a. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where .
readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) . Show a. Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16.t) <. (as. ARRAYS instance (Ix a.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . Read a.178 instance (Ix a. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a. (b. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) .lex r.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. showChar ’ ’ . Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " .s) <. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as. u)  ("array".u) <.
179 .
LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. scanl1. foldl1. scanr. unwords. mapAccumL. sortBy. and. []). takeWhile. scanr1. intersect. genericDrop. foldr. init.. null. intersectBy. tail. zip6. dropWhile. unfoldr. notElem. last. transpose. head.180 CHAPTER 17. unionBy. (!!). zipWith. zip4. reverse. . zip5. product. span. replicate.and what the Prelude exports . iterate. unzip6. sort. lookup. maximumBy. zipWith4. repeat. scanl. elem. (\\). cycle. . splitAt. intersperse. insertBy. minimum. length.This is builtin syntax map. foldr1. findIndices. findIndex. concat. unlines. genericIndex. isSuffixOf. deleteBy. zip. delete. filter. mapAccumR. zipWith7. lines. (++). deleteFirstsBy. take.[]((:). genericReplicate. elemIndices. unzip5. genericLength. tails. unzip7. insert. nub. partition. genericTake. groupBy. foldl. zipWith3. zip3. union. sum. words. all. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . inits. concatMap. zip7. unzip. any. minimumBy. drop. genericSplitAt. find.. nubBy. group.. break. isPrefixOf. maximum. unzip4. or. zipWith5. zipWith6.
c)) > a > [b] > (a.[d].[c].[c].f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.[d].d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a. [c]) (a > b > (a.b.[f].c.e.f.[b].c. c)) > a > [b] > (a.b.c.[c].d. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.d.b.[f]) :: [(a.[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.g)] > ([a].b.d.[e].c.[c].c.[e]) :: [(a.c.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.b.e.[d]. .f.[e].e.f)] > ([a].d.b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].[d]) :: [(a.181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].d.[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.b.d)] > ([a].[b].[b].c.c.e)] > ([a].b.[b].d.b.e.
union is list union. e. e.182 CHAPTER 17..4] .4. 17.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument.g. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs.2.3. giving the occurrences of val in list. if any.6. For example: nub [1. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list.3] = [1.8] == [2. Thus.3.3. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type. (\\). delete.1. In the result of xs \\ ys.. e.3. LIST UTILITIES 17. findIndex returns the corresponding index. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates. of val in list as Just index.4.g. [1. findIndices returns a list of all such indices. if there is no such element.4] ‘intersect‘ [2.. or Nothing. nub removes duplicate elements from a list. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative).g. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list).
4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value.’ "abcde" == "a.b.[3. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation.g. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm. e. LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M"."i"."ss". adjacent elements. partition p xs == (filter p xs. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value.3]. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list."i".e. i. shortest ﬁrst.. transpose [[1. longest ﬁrst. e.17. group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal. intersperse ’.g.[2.2. inits "abc" == ["". filter (not .6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate. For example: ."ss".c."ab". respectively."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list.4].5. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order). mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright. "bc". tails "abc" == ["abc".e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument.6]] == [[1.."i". 17.3. "c".d.[4."pp".""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn.."a".5].3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument.
isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering.y) f’ z = Nothing 17. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. insertBy. sufﬁx) of the second argument. maximumBy. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp.6 The “By” operations By convention. groupBy. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. The library does not provide elemBy. For example. 17. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). f x)) In some cases. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. isPrefixOf. intersectBy. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. unionBy. elemIndices. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. sortBy. minimumBy. . the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. deleteBy. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would.184 CHAPTER 17.
The List library provides these same three operations for 4. unzip. genericDrop. . The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. unzip3. genericSplitAt. For example.17. zip3. 6. and zipWith3.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17.7. genericLength is a generalised version of length. genericReplicate. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). :: Integral a => [b] > a 17. genericTake. 5. and 7 arguments. zipWith.
[]((:). deleteFirstsBy. product. genericTake. . zip5.and what the Prelude exports . replicate. zip6. elem. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. partition. intersectBy. genericReplicate. scanr. tails.zip xs [0. elemIndices. group. unzip7.186 CHAPTER 17. maximum. zipWith. maximumBy. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . minimumBy. zip7.. any. mapAccumR. find. nubBy. unfoldr. filter. or. foldl1. concat. zipWith6.9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. unzip6. genericDrop. minimum. foldl. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . zip3. foldr. tail. all. concatMap. sortBy. head. zipWith7. genericLength.. genericSplitAt. zipWith4. repeat. (\\). findIndices. iterate. unlines.This is builtin syntax map. last. zip4. scanr1. deleteBy. (++). union. foldr1. break. drop. splitAt. takeWhile. unzip4. isSuffixOf. notElem. span. length. findIndex.i) <. LIST UTILITIES 17. intersect. lines. sort. unionBy. []). cycle. intersperse. delete. init.. zipWith5. dropWhile. unwords. isPrefixOf. insert. reverse. unzip5. unzip. take. zipWith3. scanl1. . null. (!!). groupBy. insertBy. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . mapAccumL. words. scanl.. zip. genericIndex. nub. and. inits. transpose. sum. lookup.].
2]. . e.17."i".xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].g. transpose [[1. LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <. any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs .[3.5].[a]) = (filter p xs. filter (not . p) xs) . adjacent .elements.Note that [h  (h:t) <.For example."ss".group "Mississippi" == ["M".xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.[]] = [[1.4]."i"."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) .9..xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.4."i".[2. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ ."ss"."pp".[5]] .3].transpose is lazy in both rows and columns.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.xs.
b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert ..inits xs returns the . c)) > a > [b] > (a. y:ys) where (s’’. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) . "bc". ["abc"."ab". ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a.b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a. "c". []) = (s’’. [c]) = (s. longest first. y ) = f s x (s’’.g.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a. shortest first. tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17.""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a.e.tails xs returns the .g.zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs.y:ys) where (s’.y ) = f s’ x (s’. [c]) = (s. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) ."a".e. ["". []) = (s’’.."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs. c)) > a > [b] > (a.
xs’’) error "List.xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.[b]) = ([].genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.17.[]) = = = (x:xs’.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .xs) = ([]. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.9.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.
[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .[b].c...c..b.[c].d)] = zipWith4 (.d.e)] = zipWith5 (.[].[].bs.f)] = zipWith6 (..genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.d)] > ([a]..b.e.b.e.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a..c.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.d) ˜(as.c:cs.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.b.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.g)] = zipWith7 (.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17..c..f.c.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.d.cs..b.ds) > (a:as.b:bs.b...d:ds)) ([]...[d]) = foldr (\(a.c. LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List..d.
ds.[].d.d.cs.[b].fs) > (a:as.e) ˜(as.[].[].bs.[g]) = foldr (\(a.b.b.d:ds.b:bs.bs.f:fs.d.cs.bs.c:cs.f)] > ([a].[d].es.e.g) ˜(as.[].[].d.f) ˜(as.b.[].c:cs.ds.c.e:es)) ([].[c].[b].[c].[e]) = foldr (\(a.e)] > ([a].c.d.b:bs.d:ds.e.[f]) = foldr (\(a.[e].b.b:bs.fs.c.c:cs.[d].f.[d].[b].ds.c.[].[]) unzip7 unzip7 .g)] > ([a].[].9.[]. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.c.es) > (a:as.e:es.cs.f.[e].gs) > (a:as.[f].[]) :: [(a.e:es.[].e.b.b.g:gs)) ([].f:fs)) ([].[c].[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.[].d.c.17.e.es.d:ds.[].
LIST UTILITIES .192 CHAPTER 17.
A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. mapMaybe. and without using IOError from the IO monad.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. fromJust. catMaybes. isNothing.. . Just). an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. maybe ) where isJust. which would cause the expression to become monadic.. as would happen if error were used. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. 193 . listToMaybe. fromMaybe. maybeToList..
maybeToList.. MAYBE UTILITIES 18.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . fromJust. mapMaybe. isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe. map f . listToMaybe. fromMaybe.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. catMaybes. isNothing.. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not ..194 CHAPTER 18. Just).1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. .fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <.
and what the Prelude exports Char. isUpper. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. isSpace.. String ) where isAscii. isLower. isLatin1. isLatin1. isHexDigit. any 195 . isPrint. toUpper.. showLitChar. isOctDigit. lower case alphabetic. lexLitChar. and other printable characters. ord. chr. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. isControl. toLower. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. isAlphaNum. . isSpace. isDigit. isDigit. isAlpha. isHexDigit. other alphabetic. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. For the purposes of Haskell. isLower.. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. intToDigit. isOctDigit. isAlpha. digitToInt. isControl.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library. readLitChar. isPrint. isUpper. numeric digits.
returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit. isOctDigit. ’A’.. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. "Hello")] [(’\n’.’9’. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. lower. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. ’0’. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit.. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n". CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. ’a’. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char.. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed.. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes. For each sort of Unicode character. .’F’). leaving any other character unchanged.196 CHAPTER 19. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers.15. Similarly. and title). using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions.’f’. The function readLitChar does the same. leaving any other character unchanged. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0.e.
. isUpper. isAlpha.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char.’Z’ . isLatin1.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower . isControl.. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . toUpper. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19. isLower. toLower. isControl. ord.’A’.’a’.. chr.Used for character name table.Charactertesting operations isAscii.1.19. lexLitChar. readHex) import UnicodePrims . isSpace.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii. isAlphaNum. isDigit. isDigit. readLitChar.. import Numeric (readDec. isPrint. isOctDigit. digitToInt.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . intToDigit.and what the Prelude exports Char... isAlpha. isUpper. isHexDigit. isPrint. isLower. readOct.digitToInt: not a digit" . String ) where import Array . . showLitChar. isSpace.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c .’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum .Source of primitive Unicode functions. isHexDigit. lexDigits. isOctDigit. isLatin1.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c .
s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.t) <.ord ’@’). mne) <.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’. t)  (n. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19.readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c .s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys . ([].s’) <.s’)  (c.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.t) <.intToDigit: not a digit" . t)  (n.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.t) <. s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum .table. t)  (n.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.10) error "Char.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower . CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.
199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. "DC2". "SUB". "ACK".s) = (c:t. "SI". "DC3". "ETX". "SOH". "ETB". "HT". "SYN". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . "ENQ". lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t.19. "NAK". "US". "BS". "BEL". "ESC". "DLE". "VT". "STX". "FF". "DC1". "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT".s)] [] . protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "CAN".1. ’ ’) ["NUL". "FS". "DC4". "LF". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. "GS". "SO". "RS".c]. "EM".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’.s)] .Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "CR".Very crude approximation to \XYZ.
CHARACTER UTILITIES .200 CHAPTER 19.
201 .
(>>). sequence_. (=<<).. when. Functor(fmap). guard. liftM5.. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. mapAndUnzipM.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. zipWithM.202 CHAPTER 20. filterM. liftM4. sequence. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . mapM. msum. liftM2. liftM.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). return. . mapM_. fail).. join. mplus). liftM3. unless. foldM. ap. zipWithM_.
1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()). NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . and provides some useful operations on monads.20. So. Thus.1.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. for example. 20. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus.
The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative.. For example. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. x2.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). which promotes function application.1] [0.. xm ] == do a2 <. preﬁxing each line with its line number. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <.3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. For example. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle. .3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations. . The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions.. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad..f a1 x1 a3 <. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. foldM f a1 [x1. the input list should be reversed.] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl. putStr ": ".. The function arguments are scanned left to right. returning the result as a pair of lists. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. and otherwise do nothing. MONAD UTILITIES 20. liftM2 (+) [0..f a2 x2 .2] = [0. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap.2. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure.204 CHAPTER 20. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments. putStrLn line) [1. projecting its bound argument into the outer level.1. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True.
xn 205 ..3.20. ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 .... FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ .
ap. filterM. liftM. sequence. liftM5. zipWithM_. MONAD UTILITIES 20. unzip . zipWithM. (=<<). when.The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . (>>). mapM. foldM. [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . join. liftM3.. return.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). mapAndUnzipM. unless. Functor(fmap).c)) > [a] > m ([b]. ) where .4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. mapM_.206 CHAPTER 20. liftM4. msum. guard.. . fail).Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. sequence_. mplus)..Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) . liftM2.
b.filterM p xs. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } . return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <.a.p x. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.c. b’ <. ys <.a. d’ <.b. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.20.c.b.a. c’ <.e. b’ <.4.d. c’ <. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <. e’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.a.b.d. b’ <. b’ <.c. d’ <.a. c’ <.
MONAD UTILITIES .208 CHAPTER 20.
209 .
data HandlePosn = .and what the Prelude exports IO.. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek.SeekFromEnd). isAlreadyExistsError.. IOMode(ReadMode. hIsSeekable.. hGetPosn.. hIsOpen. getChar. hFlush.. instance Eq HandlePosn where . hFileSize. isDoesNotExistError.implementationdependent .WriteMode.BlockBuffering). Read. hGetChar. hIsClosed. hWaitForInput. FilePath. try. ioeGetFileName.. catch. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . openFile. print.. Read. stdout. stderr. Enum. Show) stdin. hClose. hIsReadable.. Ix. ioError. ioeGetHandle. hLookAhead. IOError. ioeGetErrorString. stdout. putStrLn. hGetContents. bracket.. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . hIsWritable. Read. hPrint. Ord. HandlePosn.. bracket_. Ix. isEOF. Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq. isUserError. instance Eq Handle where . appendFile.210 CHAPTER 21. Bounded. hSeek. Ord.RelativeSeek. isPermissionError. readFile.ReadWriteMode).AppendMode. Enum. putStr. hPutStrLn. stdin. Ord.implementationdependent . hPutChar.LineBuffering. BufferMode(NoBuffering. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq.implementationdependent . readIO.. Bounded. getContents. hGetLine. getLine. isFullError. hSetBuffering.. isAlreadyInUseError.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. isEOFError. writeFile. isIllegalOperation. hPutStr. hGetBuffering. . putChar. interact. hIsEOF. hSetPosn. hReady. instance Show Handle where . INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . userError.
This library contain more advanced I/O features. Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. Some related operations on ﬁle systems .211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report.
which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . and False otherwise. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. which is already being used (for example. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). for all other errors. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation.212 are contained in the Directory library. This is an abstract type. In some cases. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. The bracket function captures a common allocate. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. and Nothing otherwise. All these functions return a Bool. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. compute. CHAPTER 21. the string is implementationdependent. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad.
A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). Files can be opened.21. Physical ﬁles are persistent. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. ordered ﬁles. File and directory names are values of type String. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. 21. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. In some implementations. For simplicity. whether buffering is disabled. likewise.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes.2. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. closed or semiclosed. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. These handles are initially open. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. a buffer (whose length may be zero). and normally reside on disk. represented by values of type Handle. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively.2. or enabled on a line or block basis. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. or any other object recognised by the operating system. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. whether it is open. although it could in fact be a communication channel. . Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. whether the object is seekable. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
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21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
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21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
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Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
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If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
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Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for . blocking until a character is available.9.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § . EXAMPLES 219 21. 21. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . 21. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § .10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O. 21. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. which is made semiclosed.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline.21.10. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full. the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.9.10.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion .9. 21.
x2 readNum = readLn 21. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <.openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer . This version uses characterlevel I/O.220 import IO CHAPTER 21. using string I/O is: .getArgs h1 <.10. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.f2] <. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .
actions that IO exports. try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.11.export list omitted } where .try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.getArgs s <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.f return (Right r)) (return .f2] <.before rs <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.11 Library IO module IO {.before rs <.21.
222 CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT .
223 .
removeDirectory.224 CHAPTER 22. doesFileExist. renameFile. writable. renameDirectory. readable. doesDirectoryExist.. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime ... executable. setCurrentDirectory. writable. removeFile.. executable. .. getPermissions. . getDirectoryContents.. searchable ).. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where . . getCurrentDirectory. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. createDirectory. setPermissions. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable..
The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. in particular. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists.” or “. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). A directory contains a series of entries. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. or have some administrative function (for instance. it is atomically replaced by the object. considered to form part of the directory contents. it is removed as if by removeDirectory.. inaccessible. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. “. renaming to an existing directory. Error reporting. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . it is atomically replaced by the directory. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. however.1. Some entries may be hidden. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. all other permissible errors are described below. Entries in subdirectories are not. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . but the constraints must be documented. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. directory etc. Note that. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. or may not be in use by other processes). Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. In some operating systems. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. removes an existing directory . The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. as described in Section 21. If the object already exists. removal of the root directory). the directory has to be empty.” under POSIX). or across different physical devices). Error reporting.). The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. If the directory already exists. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path.
Note that to change some. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. Each entry in the changes . and False otherwise. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. the executable ﬁeld will be False. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. not as an absolute path. Error reporting. a construct on the following lines must be used. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. Error reporting. and False otherwise. doesFile(Directory)Exist. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. Error reporting. but not all permissions.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. For directories. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable.226 CHAPTER 22. but the constraints must be documented. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. respectively. Error reporting. ¦ ¦ . renaming across different physical devices). get(set)Permissions. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. but not to examine the directory contents. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. makeReadable f = do p <.
The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory. .227 does not exist. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.
228 CHAPTER 22. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .
if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. getArgs. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . getProgName. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. as described in Section 21. Read. If variable is undeﬁned. in particular. exitWith. Note that. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. system. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). Ord.ExitFailure). In particular. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. getEnv. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation.1. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . all other permissible errors are described below.
then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. Otherwise. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . could not recover. Before the program terminates. returning to the program’s caller. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program.230 CHAPTER 23.
231 .
Bounded. Ord. ctSec.Monday. ctMin. Ix. Day(Sunday. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . July. Month(January. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. Int.March. ctDay. Read. toUTCTime. ctIsDST). ctWDay. String. Read.Friday. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. . tdYear. Ord. Show) .. calendarTimeToString. tdSec :: Int..Tuesday. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. ctTZ. tdHour. Ord. Ix. tdMonth. Int. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. Int. ctPicosec. ctYDay. Ord.February.April.September. Read. Bounded.. tdDay. Read. diffClockTimes. getClockTime. Integer. ctMin.June.. ctHour. Enum.. ctMonth. tdMin.May.August.October.Wednesday. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. tdMin.232 CHAPTER 24. tdSec. Day.December). instance Eq ClockTime where . CalendarTime(CalendarTime.November. addToClockTime. instance Ord ClockTime where .Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. ctYear. Enum. tdHour.Saturday). toCalendarTime.Thursday. ctTZName. tdDay. Month. tdPicosec).. tdMonth. ctHour. toClockTime.
toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. Because of this dependence on the local environment. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation. used for the system’s internal clock time. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. including timezone information.233 . ClockTime is an abstract type. and False otherwise. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way.
calendarTimeToString. ctHour. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. instance Eq ClockTime where .October. Ord. toCalendarTime. ctDay.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime.Tuesday. tdDay. Enum.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = .. Bounded. t © S§ 24. ctTZ. ctTZName. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the .Thursday.234 § CHAPTER 24..March.. tdMin. toClockTime..December). ctWDay. Bounded. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. . and ﬁelds. tdYear.May. July.. tdHour. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. Enum.Friday.August. tdSec. Ix. ctSec. Ix. Read. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § . ctMonth. getClockTime. .Monday.September. Ord. Read.February.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. diffClockTimes. tdMonth.November.. addToClockTime. Day(Sunday. instance Ord ClockTime where .June.April.Wednesday. ctPicosec. Month(January. ctMin. tdPicosec). Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string. ctYDay. .Saturday).).. ctIsDST). ctYear. toUTCTime. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(.
. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = .. Ord..Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . ctMin. :: ClockTime = . tdMonth. Int. Read. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.. Integer.1.Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . String.24. tdHour.. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. tdDay. LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. . Ord.... tdMin.Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = . tdSec :: Int.Implementationdependent > CalendarTime .. Day. Month. Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. :: ClockTime = ...Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime . :: ClockTime = .. Int. Read. > ClockTime > ClockTime . Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. ctHour.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = . . Int.
. DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec .236 CHAPTER 24.fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week.. .Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 . days) = (yday + 7 .1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .
intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . show2’.1.1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 . LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 . show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10).24.
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
String). dateFmt. it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. months :: [(String.. String)]. amPm :: (String.Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. Ord. 239 . At present. timeFmt. String)]. dateTimeFmt. Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions.). defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
1. .1 The RandomGen class. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. then . and a new generator.Default method genRange g = (minBound. by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. g) . The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. ¦ ¡ ¡ .27. AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points). and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits. g) split :: g > (g. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls).maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. or by supplying a seed from some other source. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS.Int) next :: g > (Int. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. 27. and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. For example. This is very useful in functional programs (for example.4] are the only examples we know of). – genRange – If genRange .
.. The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. Implementation warning. Again. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g.. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation.. supply their own instances of RandomGen. .Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where .. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator.3]. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = .. instance Read StdGen where . RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen.. . But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed). the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string.246 CHAPTER 27. then g1 and g2 should be independent. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. split g = (g.. instance Show StdGen where . Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. Until more is known about implementations of split. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string. of course. In addition. variantOf g) Here. by mapping an Int into a generator. It is required that read (show g) == g.. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits.. In general. all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. Programmers may.
a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a.... randomRs and randoms. – For Integer. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 . g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a. together with a new generator. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a.. and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval .. randomR takes a range and a random number generator .g’) = random g randomRs = . a) > g > (a. such as Char)... For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced.2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand. . depending on the implementation and the interval.. random does the same as randomR. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where . – For fractional types.2. and do not return a new generator. – For bounded types (instances of Bounded. but does not take a range.27. .. It is unspeciﬁed what happens if . .similar. but they may be... . THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27. the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int. the range is normally the whole type. . produce an inﬁnite list of random values....a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a .Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x.. The plural versions.. .
Comm ACM. updates it with one of the results. To get deterministic behaviour. “Random number generators .sbg. April 1992. [2] SK Park. use the global random number generator (see Section 27. by using the time of day. Comm ACM 31(10). Jan 1990. Oct 1988.mat. pp11921201. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions. [4] P Hellekalek. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. For example. global random number generator of type StdGen. setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. The Web site http://random. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”.ac. randomRIO and randomIO. use setStdGen. implicit. July 1998. [3] DG Carta. pp8289. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. . respectively. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. “Distributed random number generation”.at/ is a great source of information. 27. or Linux’s kernel random number generator. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. and returns the other. for example. pp8788. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. 33(1).3 The global random number generator There is a single. and KW Miller. Journal of Functional Programming.248 CHAPTER 27.3). 2(2):203212. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”.
In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. August 1978. Hindley.L. 2002. Damas and R. [8] Mark P. 1958. Yale University. Typing Haskell in Haskell. 5(1). January 1995. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. January 1982. Paris. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. A gentle introduction to Haskell.R. NorthHolland Pub. [11] Unicode Consortium.. Penﬁeld. J. Jr. Wadler and S. Jones.M. Peyton Jones. Addison Wesley. The Unicode Standard. Jones. Reading. [12] P. Austin. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages.B. Hudak. Principal type schemes for functional programs. 2000. PrenticeHall International. [10] S. Blott. December 1969. [6] P. October 1999. Milner. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. Co. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901. Englewood Cliffs. pages 248–256. San Francisco. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. [7] Mark P. Version 3. e [5] J. MA. pages 207–212. January 1989. Backus.Bibliography [1] J. Albuquerque. Peterson. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings.. Fasel. May 1996. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. September 1981. CACM. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. and J. 146:29–60. pages 60–76. N. Combinatory Logic. New Jersey. Amsterdam. Texas. [2] H. 1987. Curry and R. 21(8):613–641. Feys. Journal of Functional Programming. [4] KF. Haskell Workshop.0. [9] P. [3] L. 249 .
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
12 \f. 55. 76 accum. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 62 and. 55. 67. 55. 16. 142 <=. 12 \b. 55. 109 >>=. 140 appendFile. 110 /. see function application operator. 233. 55. 88. 91. 55. 55. 106 +. 156 ::. 55. 235 aexp. 126 AppendMode. 55. 173. 80 \\. 12 \r. 92. 206 apat. 84. 104. 104. 88. !. 129 any. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 104. 153 &&. 177 acos. 104. see lambda abstraction \&. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 142 =<<. 91. 55. 109 ==. 19 function. 88. 84. 105 **. 104. 90. 43. 116 $. 82. 142 >>. 110 (.Index font. 177 accumArray.). 187 \. 105. 139 ambiguous type. 91. 151. 105. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 44. 30 <. 104. 82. 151. 97. 55. 139 alts. 91. 110 $!. 176. 174. see trivial type and unit expression *. 90. 91. 182 \a. see wildcard pattern . 173. 155. 55. 80 (). see also negation . 104. 55. 55. 109 _. 55. 177 !!. 109 @. 55. 104. 119 ANYseq. 81. 110 %. 31. 80 :+. 109 ˆˆ. 142 :. 93. 45. 91. 104. 66 abs. 97. 55. 104. see operator application approxRational. 173. 104. 90. 12 \v. 202. 104. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 214 application. 104. 104. 55.. 9. 175. 115 . 81. 104. 106 addToClockTime. 186.). 142 >. 55. 104. 141 all. 25. 104. 175–177 /=. 104. 79. 9. 174. 142 >=. 84. 119 ANY. 12 \\. 17. 79. 9. 51. 20–23. 110 ˜. 91. 81. 12 . 91. 92. 104. 12 \t. 84. 55.. 119 alt. 55. 173. 180. 91. 217 abstract datatype. 104. 25. see aspattern [] (nil). see also + pattern ++. 230 ˆ. 91. 104. 92. 12 \n. 129 ap. 55. 90. 115. 106 acosh. 80 (. 97. 92. 106 //. 129 any. 139 algebraic datatype.
129 ascii. 38. 92. 174. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 17. 18. 232. 47 class. 79. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 106 asinh. 40. 198 cis. 230 catMaybes.252 arithmetic operator. 105 derived instance. 93. 107 changing the directory. 142 Complex (module). 173. 38. 9. 25 INDEX catch. 11. 9 nested. 10. 12 character set ASCII. 115 concatMap. 95 binding. 79 literal syntax. 79. 51. 233. 129 ascSmall. 110 boolean. 9. 114 atan. 104. 155. 67 with an empty where part. 106 atype. 137 basic input/output. 93 comment. 111 bounds. 140 concat. 12. 137 cdecls. 143 instance for Char. 174 Array (module). 125. 12. 9. 49 clock time. 42 class method. 173. 33 ascDigit. 174. 174. 91. 130 ASCII character set. 197. 93. 91. 41. 129 compare. 47. 47. 174 derived. 129 asin. 7 ascLarge. 121. see transparent character set charesc. 173 accumulated. 137 ceiling. 31. 176. 9. 18. 38. see simple pattern binding body. 9 endofline. 234 char. 84. 194 cdecl. 12. see function binding pattern. 195. 221 bracket_. 115 conditional expression. 155. 176 array. 47. 235 calendarTimeToString. 156 con. 9. 69. 215 closure. 156 conop. 193. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 9. 91. 39. 232. 37 function. 197 array. 137 class assertion. 106 atan2. see pattern binding simple pattern. 66. 130 conjugate. 108 atanh. 129 ascSymbol. 156 class. 118 btype. 235 case expression. 195. 98. 48 class environment. 23. 177 aspattern (@). 211. 89. 221 break. 130 coercion. 155. 74 cname. 92. 90 arithmetic sequence. 79 Bounded (class). 110 Char (module). 80 Array (datatype). 12. 173. 9 comment. 17. 40. 140 . 130 chr. 234 closecom. 48. 129 closing a ﬁle. 161. 21 conid. 226 Char (datatype). 136 Bool (datatype). see ASCII character set transparent. 173. 211. 130 character. 106 assocs. 38. 41 class declaration. 161. 136 cntrl. 91. 177 bracket. 177 asTypeOf.
93 CPU time. 145 default declaration.INDEX const. 106 cosh. 111 elem. 9. see also instance declaration deriving. 130 decl. 167 Either (datatype). 184. 11. 187 deleteBy. 51. see ﬁxity declaration import. 119 elemIndex. 186 elemIndices. see abstract datatype algebraic. 138 decimal.. 180. 43 abstract. 38. 38 constructor expression. 232. vii cycle. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 81. 232. 224 doesFileExist. 141. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 235 current directory. 240 Day (datatype). see instance declaration within a class declaration. 81. 43. 241 createDirectory. 118 e. 137 context reduction. 224 Double (datatype). 187 deleting directories. 47 within a let expression. see data declaration recursive. 232. 233. 224 div. 92. 43. 114 Curry. 138 constrs. 40 consym. 92. 111 either. 108 default class method. 235 ctHour. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 97 doDiv. 115. 180. 137 decodeFloat. 234 dclass. 226 curry. 130 context. 235 ctIsDST. 232. 182. 59 cos. 232. 104. 43 data declaration. 138 constructor class. 129 data constructor. 26. 225 denominator. see data declaration default. 151. 92. 89. 137 declaration. 93. 138 diffClockTimes. 182. 235 digit. 43 datatype. 43. 91. 174. 225 deleting ﬁles. 180. 24 within an instance declaration. 110 constr. 91. 197 directories. 9. 41. 80. 239. 58 derived instance. 182. 180. 91. 180. 240 dateTimeFmt. 186 elems. 106 cosine. 106 do expression. 43. 240 delete. 118 dropWhile. 55. 106 divMod. 184. 37 class. 241 CPUTime (module). 235 ctMin. see recursive datatype renaming. 195. 224. 213. 173. 38. 225 creating a ﬁle. 108 . 187 deleteFirstsBy. 117 dashes. 112 drop. 224 Directory (module). 10. 48. Haskell B. 27. 49 declaration group. 50. 129 digitToInt. 56. see import declaration instance. see newtype declaration dateFmt. 93. 81. 177 encodeFloat. 91. 41 context. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 214 ctDay. see class declaration datatype. 239. 90. 239. 153 dependency analysis. 55. see algebraic datatype declaration. 58 decls.
see type expression unit. 79 fbind. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 106 instance for Complex. 109. 54. 215 entity. 21. 104 derived instance. 164 ﬁeld label. 27 update. 113 instance for Ratio. 93. 17 error. 182. 105 enumFromThen. 139 fexp. 86. 136 export list. 92. 207 find. 108 exception handling. 17. 93. 91. 19. 186 ﬁxity. 52 expt. 105 enumFromTo. 229 EQ. 170 enumFrom. 213 ﬁle buffering. 108 floatRange. 93. see unit expression expression typesignature. 229 ExitSuccess. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 180. 30. see type environment environment variables. 51. 180. 86. 105 environment class. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 99. 65 Enum (class). 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 19. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 111 instance for Double. 94. 16. 89. 81 Eq (class). 12 floatDigits. 105 superclass of Ord. 67. 33 floatRadix. 4. 139 exp. 180. 104 error. 92. 4. 29 ﬁelddecl. 51. 67. 88. 86. 82. 110 Float (datatype). 86. 51. 162 expts. 186 findIndex. 43. 114. 136 v INDEX expression. 98 executable. 91. 113 instance for Float.254 end of ﬁle. 92. 28. 215 ﬁle system. 97. 224 execution time. 212 False. 230 escape. 38. 159. 106 enumeration. see label. 115 filterM. 106 exponent. 108 floatToDigits. 16. see class environment type. 167 fail. 91. 48. 49. 18 ﬁxity. 138 ﬁle. 154 superclass of Integral. 177 instance for Char. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 44 construction. 86. 91 export. 30. 229 . 16. 92. 81. see case expression conditional. 112 ﬂoat. 125 filter. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 89. 89. 105 enumFromThenTo. 186 findIndices. 139 exp. 142 instance for Char. 108 exponentiation. 105 derived instance. 54 flip. 92. 24–26. 12. 28 selection. 229 exitWith. 142 instance for Array. 15 case. 229 ExitFailure. 229 exitFailure. 66 exports. 202. see let expression simple case. see conditional expression let. see simple case expression type. 108 Floating (class). 130 even. 110 superclass of Num. 163 f.
42 generator. 244. 9. 25. 109 instance for []. 80. 125 getCPUTime. 189 genericReplicate. 140 fpats. 47. 40. 193. 224 getPermissions. 210. 153 superclass of Floating. 41 functional language. 181. 130 hexit. 207 foldr. 244. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 176 foldl. 248 graphic. 184. 40. 87. 224. 89. 116 foldM. 202. 49. 87 funlhs. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 87. 111 functor. 139 gdrhs. 215 head. 224. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 244. 90. 125 getClockTime. 9. 31. 11. 86. 25. 181. 236 formatRealFloat. 248 getStdRandom. 91. 111 instance for Maybe. 90. 92. 187 groupBy. 56. 210 handles. 229 getStdGen. 140 gconsym. 137 generalization. 129 group. 107 fromEnum. 229 getChar. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 181. 202. 18 gd. 235 getContents. 3 formatCalendarTime. vii. vii Functor (class). 92. 229 getLine. 181. 183. 93. 31. 3 Haskell kernel. 105 fromInteger. 129 fpat. 55. 129 255 . 162 fromRat’. 138 gendecl. 18. 137 guard. 12. 56. 162 fromRational. 56 function type. 25. 189 genRange. 23. 233. 225 getDirectoryContents. 109. 94. 138 gap. 59 generalization preorder.INDEX floor. 188 GT. 219 getArgs. 130 gcd. 194 fromMaybe. 177 instance for IO. 181. 159. 9. 233. 140 Fractional (class). 18. 91. 193. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 190 genericSplitAt. 34 guard. 114 function. 54. 18. 117 formal semantics. 91. 189 genericTake. 18. 138 gdpat. 113 instance for Array. 189 genericIndex. 91. 96. 217 fmap. 116 foldl1. 117 foldr1. 109 fromJust. 157 instance for Ratio. 181. 4 hClose. 224 getProgName. 92. 115 hexadecimal. 206 Handle (datatype). 106 instance for Complex. 194 fromRat. 38. 225 getEnv. 165 formfeed. 181. 213 Haskell. 108 gcon. 96. 125 getModificationTime. 105 fromIntegral. 81 function binding. 190 genericLength. 96. 181. 106 fst. 23 genericDrop. 81 gtycon.
147 INDEX input/output. 217 hGetChar. 211. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 181. 98. 197 isDigit. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 126 intersect. 69. 92. 211. 211. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 197 isIllegalOperation. 49. 182. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 197 isControl. 217 hGetBuffering. 217 hSetBuffering. 49. 195. 4. 211. 92. 89. 125. 183. 211. 211. 33. 49. 211. 96. 210 IO (datatype). 218 hLookAhead. 125 IOMode (datatype). 212 id. 217 hiding. 181. 106 interact. 210 I/O errors. 210. 137 identiﬁer. 218 hIsWritable. 211. 211. 215 isEOFError. 195. 173. 212 ioeGetFileName. 214. 211. 116 inits. 211. 212 isJust. 181. 155. 211. 187 intersectBy. 171. 218 hSeek. 211. 218 I/O. 212 ioError. 211. 211. 110 idecl. 211. 218 hGetContents. 66. 215 hIsOpen. 187 intersperse. 219 hPutStrLn. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 33 integerLogBase. 211. 181. 216 hSetPosn. 71 with an empty where part. 169. 194 . 195. 188 inlining. 215 isAscii. 211. 211. 177 init. 193. 81. 172 indices. 49 Int (datatype). 189 inst. 212 IOError (datatype). 211. 57 isAlpha. 136 index. 81. 9 ifthenelse expression. 211. 211. 211. 111 IO (module). 195. 219 inRange. 211 hReady. 112 Integer (datatype). 181. 183. see conditional expression imagPart. 215 hFlush. 195. 163 Integral (class). 215 isEOF. 38. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 217 hWaitForInput. 181. 211. 81. 137 idecls. 212. 50. 171. 211. 218 hIsSeekable. 24.256 hFileSize. 214 irrefutable pattern. 138 instance declaration. 197 isAlphaNum. 219 hPutStr. 218 hGetPosn. 211. 210. 219 hPrint. 136 import. 195. 187 intToDigit. 188 insertBy. 38. 112 integer. 89. 136 impdecls. 219 hPutChar. 211. 212 ioeGetHandle. 210 input/output examples. 38. 211. 218 hIsEOF. 69 impspec. 211. 212. 212 isFullError. 58 hIsClosed. 91. 218 hIsReadable. 12 integer literal pattern. 69. 156 impdecl. 216. 211. 174. 195. 211. 136 import declaration. 49. 183. 169. 172 insert. 212 isHexDigit. 184. 198 IO. 34. 219 hGetLine. 211. 69. 184.
45.INDEX isLatin1. 65 making directories. 50. 80 list type. 81 magnitude. 195. 7 lexLitChar. 202. 181. 202. 109 Left. 9. 24 in do expressions. 159. 180. 56 lines. 183. 239 log. 92 magnitude. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 27 lambda abstraction. 176. 44. 177 join. 176. 207 liftM5. 170 instance for Char. 193. 81 length. 130. 127 maximum. 173. 122 lexDigits. 212. 116 let expression. 116 layout. 172 Ix (module). 89. 41 listArray. 172. 239. 156 Main (module). 139 libraries. 188 mapAccumR. 91. 19. 186 list. 23 lex. 39. 172 derived instance. 195. 195. 181. 181. 207 liftM3. 119 maximumBy. 169. 19. 176. 197 isLower. 31. 202. 173. 173. 202. 56 linearity. 197 isSuffixOf. 171. 197 isSpace. 129 lexical structure. 211. 195. 9. 202. 115 mapAccumL. 234. 140 LT. 202. 12. 109 match. 117 Ix (class). 109 mapMaybe. 210. 197 isNothing. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 129 last. 188 isPrint. 40. 88. 172 instance for Int. 172 instance for Integer. 211. 155. 198 max. 26 in list comprehensions. 183. 9. 64 kind inference. 32 literate comments. 142 maxBound. 91. see also offside rule lcm. 64 label. 212 iterate. 9. 197 isUserError. 106 logarithm. 194 isOctDigit. 189 Maybe (datatype). 202. 104. 40. 81. 45. 86. 188 isUpper. 181. 234 ixmap. 169. 134 Locale (module). 195. 206 Just. 194 literal. 40. 207 linear pattern. 207 liftM4. 119 . 81 kind. 88. 105. 225 map. 206 mapM. 92. 50. 23. 91 logBase. 181. 168 lexeme. 31. 106 lookahead. 16. 91. 118 List (module). 129 literal pattern. 195. 197 isPermissionError. 215 isPrefixOf. 207 v 257 liftM2. 21. 174. 232. 219 lookup. 193. 31. 143 maximal munch rule. 240 locale. 177 listToMaybe. 13. 74 liftM. 84. 44. 19 large. 193. 65 main. 195. 184. 80 list comprehension. 199 . 194 mapM_.
19 ops. 153 superclass of Fractional. 119 minimumBy. 121. 181. 105 ord. 244. 81 nub. 112 ¢ ¦ . 140 opencom. 142 minBound. 246 mod. see also layout op. 206 mzero. 89. 89. 182. 33. 142 instance for Array. 187 null. 161. 115. 180. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 202. 206 + pattern. 91. 232. 81. 38. 193. 91. 157 instance for Ratio. 66. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 46 INDEX next. 143 minimum. 244. 186 nubBy. 95 MonadPlus (class). 186. 180. 109 instance for []. 20 newconstr. 16. 104 derived instance. 178 instance for Char. 110 notElem. 26. 136 Monad (class). 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 89 literal syntax. 111 instance for Maybe. 129 negate. 138 newline. 91. 90 numericEnumFrom. 9. 189 mkPolar. 137 or. 184. 90. 248 newtype declaration. 153 Numeric (module). 234 moving directories. 10 ncomment. 54. 130. 18 numerator. 214 opening a ﬁle. 105 negation. 119 Ord (class). 104. 153 superclass of Real. 197 numeric type. 113 instance for IO. 206 msum. 55. 206 instance for Maybe. 88. 116 Num (class). 129 odd. 9. 194 maybe. 130 octit. 60. 225 mplus. 19. 51. 129 newStdGen. 32–34. 66. 32. 9. 155. 244. 202.258 Maybe (module). 91. 84. 225 moving ﬁles. 194 method. 210. 104. 105 number. 195. 9. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 202. 129 openFile. 13. 206 instance for []. 55. 106 superclass of Real. 52. 34. 89. 151. 119 Nothing. 159. 214 operating system commands. 168 not. 81. 113 octal. 193. 17. 202. 90. 111 maybeToList. 105 instance for Complex. 156 mkStdGen. 108 offside rule. see qualiﬁed name special. 206 monomorphic type variable. 206 Monad (module). 9. 46. 27. 206 monad. 11. 230 operator. 198 Ordering (datatype). 10. 245 nonnull. 84. 57 name qualiﬁed. 11 translation of literals. 19 operator application. see special name namespaces. see class method min. 136 module. 54. 65 module. 61 monomorphism restriction. 11. 18. 61 Month (datatype). 202. 106 modid. 88. 5. 105. 184. 79. 19. 111 instance for Ratio.
172 rangeSize. 130 qual. 41 quot. 115 PreludeText (module). 51. 18. see also ﬁxity pred. 213 pi. 11. 103. 161 Rational (type synonym). see + pattern refutable. 247 randomR. 103. 31. 151 Ratio (module). 9. 18. 247 randomRs. 31. 217 RandomGen. 85. 140 qvarid. 11. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 19. 96. 91. 11. 140 path. 171. 4 pragmas. 121 derived instance. 169. 53 print. 18. 130 qop. see patternmatching overloading. 55. 225 pattern. 229 program name. 218 polymorphic recursion. 106 quotRem. 103. 34 Permissions (datatype). 25. 90. 155. 79. 92. 51 partition. 130 qvarop. 187 . 43.INDEX otherwise. 130 qconop. 151 Read (class). 18. 125 PreludeIO (module). see linear pattern + . 96. 75. 96. 125 product. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 247 Random (module). see wildcard pattern constructed. 91. 151. 47 defaults. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 121 principal type. 104. 140 qvarsym. 18. 106 qvar. 172 Ratio (datatype). 93. 130 qtycon. see aspattern _. 11. 23 quantiﬁcation. 124 instance for Array. 129 v 259 program arguments. 143 instance for [a]. 11. 153. 156 polling a handle for input. 11. 139 qualiﬁed name. 151. 244. 244. 23. 110 overloaded functions. 140 qconid. 229 program structure. 140 qtycls. 54 polymorphism. 119 program. 103. 130 Random (class). 244 random. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 103. 181. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 107 putChar. 125 qcon. 140 qconsym. 224 phase. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 42. 245 randomIO. 70. 247 randoms. 30 @. 171. 247 randomRIO. 244. 38 overloaded pattern. 147 precedence. 96. 125 PreludeList (module). 125 putStrLn. see irrefutable pattern linear. 244. 153 rational numbers. 57 patternmatching. 72 qualiﬁer. 155. 106 polar. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 156 physical ﬁle. 140 pat. 91. 3 properFraction. 125 putStr. 244. 11. 30 overloaded constant. 183. 75 Prelude (module). 247 random access ﬁles. 244. 169. 247 range.
92. 121 reads. 225 removing ﬁles. 225 renaming ﬁles. 224. 86. 51. 119 . 198 readFile. 126. 10. 214 separate compilation. 104. 121. 56. 154 read. 225 setPermissions. 214 Real (class). 143 instance for [a]. 106 removeDirectory. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 91. 33 RelativeSeek. 16. 92. 137 searchable. 85. 244. 85. 117 reservedid. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 10. 123 instance for Integer. 143 ReadWriteMode. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 218 readInt. 107 roundTo. 93. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 159. 210. 109 recip. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 164 readIO. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 116 scanr. 123 instance for Ratio. 214 readFloat. 224 section. 85. 96. 86. 224. 105 instance for Ratio. 85. 122 readable. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 117 scanr1. 156 realToFrac. 92. 138 Right. 88. 88. 93. 130 reservedop. 81 round. 117 replicate. 159. 90. 126 ReadMode. 122 readSigned. 97. 46 refutable pattern. 162 scanl. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 123 instance for Float. 85. 224 readDec. 224 setStdGen. 159. 163 readsPrec. 117 scontext. 123 instance for Int. 126 readList. 121. 94. 225 renameFile. 224. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 108 RealFrac (class). 159. 225 repeat. 81. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 143 readLitChar. 20. 164 readEsc. 10. 198 readLn. 76 seq. 195. 109 reverse. 225 removing directories. 108 scaleRat. 92. 248 setting the directory. 121 derived instance. 31. 159. 217 rem. 88. 224. 217 semantics formal. 164 reading a directory. 116 scanl1. 225 renameDirectory. 225 renaming directories. 106 recursive datatype. 159. 226 Show (class). 92. 153 superclass of Integral. 91. 104. 109 sequence_. 130 return. 55. 91. 214 readOct. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 225 removeFile. 108 realPart. 168 readHex. 166 .260 instance for Char. 96. 107 RealFloat (class). 139 rhs. 164 readParen. 89. 124 instance for Double. 155. 107 instance for Ratio. 110 sequence. 224. 85.
210 instance for Integer. 106 tangent. 232. see transparent string string. 129 split. 92. 139 strictness ﬂag. 92 signature. 213 standard prelude. 127 System (module). 163 showInt. 91. 188 take. 137 simpletype. 122 showSigned. 121 shows. 26. 246 stdin. 79 literal syntax. 215 small. 41. 118 special. see type synonym syntax. 210. 82 String (type synonym). 43. 115 tails. 199 showOct. 129 span. 118 sqrt. 181. 164 showFFloat. 123 instance for Ratio. 159. 121 show2. 80. 154 superclass of Num. 49 symbol. 91. 159. 91. 163 showList. 26. 106 standard handles. 53 significand. 138 sin. 159. 195. 232. 105 sum. 46. see type signature signdecl. 85. 123 instance for Int. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 129. 237 showChar. 91. 139 stmts. 9. 159. 210.INDEX instance for Array. 130 subtract. 213 StdGen (datatype). 188 sortBy. 45. 143 showString. 235 tdMin. 62 simpleclass. 93 sinh. 183. 85. 92. 108 succ. 235 tdHour. 86. 106 sine. 184. 12. 121. 74. 235 261 . 232. 12 transparent. 9. 178 instance for Char. 85. 124 instance for Double. 45 strictness ﬂags. 163 showParen. 94. 9. 244. 164 showGFloat. 232. 91. 80. 183. 86. 108 signum. 130 synonym. 159. 237 show3. 159. 121. 188 space. 105 show. 111 string. 106 tdDay. see also Prelude stderr. 129 snd. 9. 91. 118 tan. 164 showHex. 105 simple pattern binding. 213 stmt. 235 tdMonth. 159. 123 instance for Float. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 93 tanh. 9. 48. 114 sort. 237 show2’. 164 showFloat. 119 superclass. 106 size of ﬁle. 235 tdPicosec. 159. 229 tab. 163 showsPrec. 122 showEFloat. 85. 245 splitAt. 232. 117 takeWhile. 129 tail. 159. 85. 163 showIntAtBase. 57. 229 system. 122 sign. 143 showLitChar. 210. 244. 213 stdout. 181. 181.
125 valdefs. see trivial type unit expression. 235 terminating a program. see monomorphic type numeric. 230 the ﬁle system. 234 time. see numeric type principal. 188 Unicode character set. 239. 191 unzip7. 4 var. 98. 17. 119 unzip. 40. 41. 91. 22 uniWhite. 107 try. 41. 4. 114 unwords. 11. 103. 114 undefined. 11. see constructed type function. 41 tycls. 22. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 232. 195. see ambiguous type constructed. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 129 unless. 53 for an expression. 187 trigonometric function. 7. 202. 235 toClockTime. 47 topdecl (data). 129 uniSymbol. 114 unfoldr. 120 unzip3. 49 value. see function type list. 40 type renaming. 45. 221 tuple. 198 toUTCTime. 79 truncate. see list type monomorphic. 43 topdecl (default). 187 uniSmall. 18. see trivial type tuple. see also datatype recursive. 80. 197 uniDigit. 120 unzip4. 119 until. 224. 4. 39. 136 toRational. 240 to12. 180. 181. see expression typesignature type synonym. see principal type INDEX trivial. 232. 191 unzip6. 92. 136 topdecls. 11. 49. 105 toInteger. 81 True. 137 type class. 190 unzip5. 184. 106 toLower. 180. 183. 181. 130 varop. 130 uncurry. 43 type environment. 233. 22. 185. 232 time12Fmt. 10. 181. 195. 46 tyvar. 9. 17. 129 unit datatype. 38. see tuple type type. 66. 45 topdecl. 49 topdecl (newtype). 181. 40. 86. 140 varid. 51 topdecl (instance). 239.262 tdYear. 38. 239. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 140 . 93 trivial type. 130 tycon. 233. 17. 130 type. 232. 93. 18. 46 topdecl (type). 181. 129 uniLarge. 235 timeFmt. 38. 80 tuple type. 9. see class type constructor. 81. 129 union. 211. 198 topdecl (class). 42 type expression. see newtype declaration type signature. 93. 49. 42. 206 unlines. 232 time of day. 42 ambiguous. 187 unionBy. 235 toEnum. 182. 235 transpose. 191 userError. 181. 11. 224 Time (module). 233. 9. 67. 9. 9. 105 toUpper. 40. 236 toCalendarTime.
181. 190 zip5. 53. 181. 120 zip3. 9. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 190 zipWith5.INDEX vars. 126. 129 whitespace. 120 zipWith4. 118 writable. 181. 214 WriteMode. 120 zipWith3. 190 zipWith7. 9. 137 varsym. 185. 80. 129 when. 190 zip6. 129 whitestuff. 190 zip7. 206 whitechar. 9. 202. 224 writeFile. 190 zipWithM. 185. 181. 181. 120 zip4. 10. 207 zipWithM_. 130 vertab. 202. 31 words. 38. 190 zipWith. 214 zip. 202. 190 zipWith6. 207 263 . 97. 9. 181. 181. 181.
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