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Haskell 98 Language and Libraries The Revised Report
Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.4 unfoldr . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading Input . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 List transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . . . .4 Library Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21.6 Buffering Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Predicates . . . . . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 File locking . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . 21. 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . . 17. . 21.2. . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. 21. . . .3. . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . 17. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . 17. . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . 21. . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 “Set” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . . . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . .
22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . .1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.1 The RandomGen class. . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Library IO . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . .vi 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
including ourselves. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. 2. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. even more than it is ordinarily. It should be suitable for teaching. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. May 31. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. 5. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. and applications. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. have published something erroneous. a stable foundation for real applications development. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. .” Haskell B. 4. research. Oregon. purely functional programming languages. It should be freely available. including building large systems. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. 3. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. providing faster communication of new ideas. and most of these. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. named after the logician Haskell B. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland.
Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two.4). and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. With reluctance. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. incorporating experimental features. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. and is called “Haskell 98”. As Haskell becomes more widely used. If these program were to be portable. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. By the middle of 1997. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. this stable language is the subject of this Report. Resolve ambiguities. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. much larger than I had anticipated. for the foreseeable future. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. This task turned out to be much.4. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed. making some simpliﬁcations. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. Clarify obscure passages. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. It is not a . it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. together with a standard library called the Prelude.
exceptions. including: pattern guards. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. going well beyond Haskell 98. Control extensions. concurrency. or use Haskell for teaching. including: monadic state. including: . metaprogramming facilities. including: multiparameter type classes.org gives access to many useful resources. existential types. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). recursive donotation. so that those who wish to write text books. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. Type system innovations. lexically scoped type variables. There is more besides.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. Instead. functional dependencies. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. For example. it provides a stable point of reference. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar.
with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. Building the language Haskell was created. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. Tutorial material on Haskell. Details of the Haskell mailing list. University of Nottingham. suggest improvements to. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. Here they are. Applications of Haskell. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. You are welcome to comment on. and continues to be sustained. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. via the Haskell mailing list. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. in particular. Implementations of Haskell. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Microsoft Research Ltd) .x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions.
ML and Standard ML. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Tony Davie. APL. Libor Skarvada. Jan Skibinski. Paul Otto. Orjan Johansen. John Robson. Amir Kishon. Olaf Chitil. Patrik Jansson. Ketil Malde. Larne Pekowsky. Randy Michelsen. and Bonnie Yantis. Sven Panne. . Sergey Mechveliani. Felix Schroeter. Satish Thatte. Nimish Shah. Thomas Hallgren. Arthur Norman. Simon B. Stefan Kahrs. Chris Clack. Henrik Nilsson. Jose Labra. Mark Lillibridge. Bjorn Lisper. Simon Thompson. Klemens Hemm. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Matt Harden. Stuart Wray. and others on the lambda calculus. Paul Callaghan. Simon Marlow. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Pablo Lopez. Østvold. Nick North. Mark Hall. George Russell. Patrick Sansom. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Hans Aberg. Michael Webber. Mike Joy. Kent Karlsson. Mark Tullsen. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Bjarte M. Duke Briscoe. Michael Fryers. Andy Gill. John Meacham. Richard Kelsey. Alexander Jacobson. Andreas Rossberg. Sigbjorn Finne. Michael Schneider.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Ian Holyer. Magnus Carlsson. Josef Svenningsson. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Ian Lynagh. Mike Gunter. Pat Fasel. Rosser. Carl Witty. Tommy Thorn. Curry. Rick Mohr. Finally. some small but many substantial. Christian Maeder. Fergus Henderson. Tom Blenko. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Olaf Lubeck. Stephen Price. Richard Bird. Raman Sundaresh. Malcolm Wallace. Michael Marte. Cordy Hall. Feliks Kluzniak. Jones. Ken Takusagawa. Bob Hiromoto. Marcin Kowalczyk. Julian Seward. Tony Warnock. Graeme Moss. Rinus Plasmeijer. Ross Paterson. Laura Dutton. Clean. Chris Fasel. Jan Kort. In addition. Stef Joosten. Jim Mattson. Wolfram Kahl. Robert Jeschofnik. Gofer. Franklin Chen. Manuel Chakravarty. Pradeep Varma. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Mike Thyer. Ralf Hinze. Backus’s FP [1]. Lauren Smith. Nic Holt. Chris Dornan. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Craig Dickson. Landin’s ISWIM. Ian Poole. Jeff Lewis. Guy Cousineau. Christian Sievers. Randy Hudson. Id. Sisal. Dave Parrott. Stephen Blott. Mark Carroll. Hope and Hope . Sandra Loosemore. Chris Okasaki. Dylan Thurston. Andy Moran. Tom Thomson. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Gary Memovich. Dean Herington. Keith Wansbrough. David Tweed. SiauCheng Khoo. Sten Anderson.
xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge. September 2002 PREFACE .
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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nonstrict semantics. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. 1. a module system. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. described in Chapter 3. 3. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. of which there are several kinds. 1. programs that formally evaluate to ). Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. An expression denotes a value and has a static type.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. Haskell provides higherorder functions. 3 .1 Program Structure In this section. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. described in Chapter 5. compiled. all described in Chapter 4. patternmatching. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. list comprehensions. 2. and a rich set of primitive datatypes.” 4. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. a monadic I/O system. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. arrays. including lists. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. static polymorphic typing. datatypes. and ﬁxity information. type classes. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. At the next lower level are expressions. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. interpreted. etc. deﬁned in Chapter 2.e.
there are several chapters describing the Prelude. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. the concrete syntax.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. or overloading (using type classes). However. the speciﬁcation of derived instances. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. such as for expresin if sions. . Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. literate programming. etc. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. However. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. and Chapter 7. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. for declarations. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel.1. Also. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism.4 CHAPTER 1. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. If these translations are applied exhaustively. 1. In this Report. for types. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. See Section 3. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. as then else . and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers.e. Technically.
Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. There are two constraints on naming: 1. NAMESPACES 5 1. for example.4. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. 2.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values. These are the only constraints.1. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. type constructors. and constructor within a single scope. and module names refer to modules. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. class. . those for type variables.
INTRODUCTION .6 CHAPTER 1.
.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell.. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. However. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. BNFlike syntax is used throughout.]. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ . although usually the context makes the distinction clear. 2.
§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2.{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. / < = > ? \ ˆ  .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) .
the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. In an ordinary comment. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. then any occurrence of {.2. So.3.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments.g. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. as explained in Chapter 11. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. for example. although case is a reserved word. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. Similarly. 2. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. in a nested comment. however “foo” does start a comment. terminated by “}”. and. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. For example. although = is reserved. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. Within a nested comment. because both of these are legal lexemes. cases is not. hence. == and ˜= are not. Instead. 2. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . ) and extends to the following newline. If some code is commented out using a nested comment. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read.
LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. as deﬁned above. Notice that a colon by itself. naMe.. used as wild card in patterns.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers). Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. : :: = \  <. digits.5). However. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. Underscore. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ .> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. all operators are inﬁx.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. and single quotes. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. is treated as a lowercase letter. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound. such as “[]” and “[a.10 CHAPTER 2. : : : .b]”. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. “:”. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. underscores. “_”. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1.
Lexes as this f .g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f .. but not type variables or module names.4. . (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name.5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer.. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme.’) F . also. (two tokens) F. 2. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name. F. This applies to variable. type constructor and type class names. the other four do not. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . . .2.4.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. constructor. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ . Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1.g f. Sample lexical analyses are shown below.2). for example. Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5.g F. .5. F. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms... (qualiﬁed ‘. This f. . g (three tokens) F. Prelude.
but must be escaped in a character. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. 2. octal (e. “new line” (\n). the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next. For example. “backspace” (\b). is parsed as a string of length 1.4. “carriage return” (\r). including control characters such as \ˆX.g. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length.2. \o137) and hexadecimal (e. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. "\SOH". Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. \x37) representations are also allowed. Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. Floating literals are always decimal.1. Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6.1. and strings between double quotes. “horizontal tab” (\t). and “vertical tab” (\v). © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. a double quote " may be used in a character. octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. similarly. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored.12 CHAPTER 2.g. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a).6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. “form feed” (\f). The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). \ must always be escaped. but must be escaped in a string. as in ’a’. as in "Hello".4. Similarly. are also provided.
then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. where the . Because layout is not required. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal.2. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. and \ˆX.e.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. let. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. As an example. Also.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. do. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs.7. a close brace is inserted. For each subsequent line. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. Figure 2.pop. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. a control character. When this happens. Within these explicit open braces. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. insert a semicolon or close brace). the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). an empty list “{}” is inserted. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. let. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). \ \a numeric escape character. by using layout to convey the same information. or of. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where. if it is indented the same amount. which can be freely mixed within one program. that is. Section 9. b and g all part of the same layout list. then instead of starting a layout. 2. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. Informally stated. and if it is indented less. Given these rules.7).
pop. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}.top :: Stack a > a .2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token. and (c) the close brace at the very end.14 CHAPTER 2. top.push :: a > Stack a > Stack a . corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses.(pop Empty) is an error . LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack. size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) .pop (MkStack x s) = (x. Stack a) .(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x . Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x. size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression.1: A sample program module AStack( Stack. push. top. pop. . inserted because the end of the tuple was detected. case s of r > i r where i x = x) .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.top (MkStack x s) = x } . push.pop :: Stack a > (a.push x s = MkStack x s .size :: Stack a > Int .
In the syntax that follows. an associativity variable varies over . . and may have a double (written as a superscript). index: a letter . ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . the nonterminals .Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. where appropriate. Similarly. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . For example. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. Except in the case of let expressions. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions.11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. including their translations into the Haskell kernel. or for left. For example actually stands for 30 productions. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . right. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to.
Sample parses are shown below. . ] ¢ £ ... For example. ] .(f x)) + y let { . The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions.2. Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”. .16 © @§ CHAPTER 3. ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . } in (x + y) z + (let { .f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (. Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. ¦ 2 ' . Figure 4. The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible. . } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing.. } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . } in x + y let { .4. parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or . } ¦ .4. . This f x . .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ ..operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4..1).. let expressions. EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx . Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error.. and conditionals. the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { ...2).
For the sake of clarity. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination. denoted by . It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. That is. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. Operators.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation.1. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. 3. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. When undefined is used. Constructors. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities.3.2 Variables. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. When evaluated. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . 3. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. all Haskell types include . The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. the error message is created by the compiler. when demanded. results in an error. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user.
% ). instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y.1.4). or partially applied using a section (Section 3. Dually.1). where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio. a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. . The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y. EXPRESSIONS () [] (.4.4. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses.2). For example. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. An operator is either an operator symbol. These are described in Section 6. such as + or $$. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. such as ` `. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger . or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes).18 CHAPTER 3. The integers and are chosen so that . Ratio Integer).% constructs a rational from two integers. Similarly. For example.5). one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. as found in the and . If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4.
in the Prelude.will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. and is syntax for negate . .3. where the are patterns.deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4.3. Application associates to the left. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3. the only preﬁx operator in Haskell.17. one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing. if the pattern fails to match. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers. so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . unary . () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). it may be rebound by the module system. Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator .3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > .3. 3. An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . then the result is . ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator . Similarly. ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . page 55). The binary . as with any inﬁx operator. CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3. .1.denotes preﬁx negation. Because tors are allowed. There is no link between the local meaning of the . However. . ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y.operator and unary negation. partial applications of data construc ) of ( .operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of .
However. For example. EXPRESSIONS 3. as described in the preceding section. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because.is treated specially in the grammar. (a+b+) is syntactically correct. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. but (+a+b) is not. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. As another example.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows.20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . Because (+) is left associative. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . () is not a section. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). and similarly for ( ). ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression. ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. but an application of preﬁx negation.
6. as deﬁned in the must be Bool. and otherwise. . ]. ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . The list constructor is :. is a binary operator.3. and must have the same type. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. and the empty list is Lists are written [ . ¥ £ ¡ 3. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ .3. denoted [].1. The type of type of the entire conditional expression.7 Lists [] ( ) : .6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. where . Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.1). is an expression. and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. which is also the Prelude. if is False. ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where .
It is a rightassociative operator. it is considered part of the language syntax.3).1. The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction. § 3.4 and Chapter 8).1.1. . . It is the only member of that type apart from . ) (see Section 4. and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. like [].1.22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3. and may be of arbitrary length . The types of through must all be the same (call it ). ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6.2). then the type of the resulting tuple is ( .2).5). The constructor for an commas. . 3. Translation: ( . . and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. respectively. .1. ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . .9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. ). If through are the types of through . ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude.8 Tuples ¢ S (. Thus (a. . ) Tuples are written ( .b.1. where there are denote the same value. and is equivalent to .4.. Translation: ( ) is equivalent to . . and requires no translation.c) and (. with precedence level 5 (Section 4.2). Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.2).). The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4.. and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4.) a b c tuple is denoted by (. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. . ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( .
and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. § 3.. ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . enumFromTo.10. .10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. . ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. See Section 6. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § . .11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list.1...3. and is an instance of class Enum. . which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ . § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <.. .. where each of the has type . .. ] . enumFromThen. page 83).3. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested. where is a pattern (see Section 3. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] . The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . ] . ] .17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  .4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. ] denotes a list of values of type . ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ ..
y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. } in .xs ] yields the list [4. and introduce a nested.[ [(1.5.x ] [ z  y <.24 CHAPTER 3. let (x.4). [(5. over boolean over declaration lists. The function concatMap.4)].2)] ]. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. As usual. x <. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. . over patterns. Thus: [ x  xs <. over qualiﬁers. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  . Pattern bindings are matched lazily.(3.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities.x) <. ]  <. over listvalued expressions. are deﬁned in the Prelude. expressions. lexicallyscoped. (3. For example.2]. = = = = [ ] [  .are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4.4). mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages).(3.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { .. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. 3.17). A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let .x. z <. and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.2).x. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. Declarations are described in Chapter 4. and over sequences of qualiﬁers. and boolean value True. ok is a fresh variable.
. .4. where and are patterns and expressions respectively. .4.. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . . ..3.. ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case . The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4. using the translation in Section 4. An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { .3. in = } in = = let (˜ .. these identities hold. . which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator. This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . the “” is a terminal symbol. not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation. .3. } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative. . 3.. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = .) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches.13. Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions). CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 . . Once done.13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . .˜ ) = ( . > ¦§ of { } . ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ .
3.26 CHAPTER 3. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. the result is . The alternatives are tried sequentially. Pattern matching is described in Section 3. ¦ 3. the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. matching continues with the next alternative. and then by the guards evaluates to True. The expression case x of { (a. . the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. Each body must have the same type. <let . A note about parsing. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. from top to bottom. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . If matches the pattern in the alternative. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. If no match succeeds. It has a single unambiguous parse. If one of the pattern.17. and hence reject the program. namely case x of { (a._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. ¦ ¨ . therefore.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © . ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. If all the guards evaluate to False. Programmers are advised. .17. and the type of the whole expression is that type. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body.
© The ellipsis ".2) and update (Section 3.15. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype. As indicated by the translation of do. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor..15. consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } . preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure.. This shadowing only affects selector functions.3). © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let .15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. 3. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ .1). ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables..15. because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter. which may be used as a translation into the kernel. select from.BAD Here S is legal but T is not. >>=.OK . do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ". DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities..3.2. passed to fail.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. Within a datatype. To illustrate the last point. and fail are operations in the class Monad.15. 3. When used as a variable.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions." stands for a compilergenerated error message. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. in record construction (Section 3. the functions >>. however. as deﬁned in the Prelude. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope. after eliminating empty : } . } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object.
is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). } labeled construction . it denotes F . .) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. then value .15. is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4.2. these are not subject to layout. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . where F is a data constructor. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. Otherwise. and if appears is . the { and } characters must be explicit. the ﬁeld labels . 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > . The expression F {}. where is the arity of F. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . . Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with .1.28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 .
such as x {f2 = 1. f3.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. f3 = ’x’}. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ .15. f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T..3. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. } labeled update . and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in . Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value.. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . .f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. f4 = ’A’. No label may be mentioned more than once. A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update.
pattern bindings. and case expressions.1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . Translation: 3. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ .4). the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . or not principal type derivable from comparable to. 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: . The value of the expression is just that of .1. do expressions. list comprehensions. } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: .17. they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. As with normal type signatures (see Section 4. the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. the principal type. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than.3. so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. EXPRESSIONS 3. However. function deﬁnitions.4.30 CHAPTER 3.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions.2). where is an expression and is a type (Section 4.1). .
¢ § .17. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right.e. x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. returning a binding for each variable in the pattern.x) = x . return ). value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. case e of { [x. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail.y. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once. For example.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values.17. it may succeed. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) . For example. or it may diverge (i. For example. and allow one to use .3._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x. .ILLEGAL. this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. and outside to inside._. Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 . .
except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . and no binding is done. . The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. 7.are overloaded. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . the functions >= and . where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. (Binding does not imply evaluation. 6. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). Matching the pattern against a value. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. then is matched against . constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . the overall match succeeds. § § § That is. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. .32 CHAPTER 3. so does the overall computation. if all matches succeed. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . depends on the value: against a value. respectively.) Operationally.. If the value is of the form . Matching a numeric. and fails otherwise. depending on the type of the pattern. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. The match diverges if this test diverges. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. and to if matching against fails or diverges. EXPRESSIONS 2. where newtype. Matching the pattern by data. and if the match fails or diverges. then is matched against . depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . resulting in the binding of to . this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. the match diverges. 8. ¦ 32 4. that is.2. The match diverges if the comparison diverges. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge. character. Again. 3.
3). But if [’a’. A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional. or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable.’b’] is matched against [’x’.y) > 0) (\ (x. it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). to .3. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral.b)] > x) [(0.’b’] is matched against [ .1).1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. ]. Here are some examples: 1. is irrefutable). These examples demonstrate refutable vs.˜(a. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match.1). a wildcard. ] (0.’x’]. If the pattern [’a’.b)] > x) [(0. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x.2. irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x.17. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. and the result is a failed match.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. All other patterns are refutable. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . then ’a’ to match against ’x’. then . (a. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. ] (\ ˜[x. If the match of against fails or diverges.
v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression.2 involves the overloaded operator ==. function deﬁnition. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. in f :: (Int. (q). and is a newtype constructor. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants.2: .17. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms.Int.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions. (e). and are booleanvalued expressions. it is not expected that it will use them directly. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4.1–3. and are patterns. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. or pattern binding to which it is attached.1.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x.3. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ .4).2. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written. These identities all preserve the static semantics. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard.2. . (j). For example. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. . In Figures 3. Rules (d). in Figures 3. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed.1–3. 3.y. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code.34 CHAPTER 3. Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). and are variables. Rule (h) in Figure 3. In particular. and are expressions. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative.
PATTERN MATCHING 35 . . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) .3. where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: .17.  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { . . > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . Figure 3. _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . } } .
36 CHAPTER 3. are new variables else } } }. = . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3.) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. character. } > . . _ > } case ( ) of { > . _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . or string literal. _ > } where is if labels the th component of .2: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . _ > } case of { _ _ > . _ > } case of { > . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . _ > } of { > . } > . _ > _ > }} where . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . _ otherwise case of { {} > . _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . _ > } . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . are ﬁelds of constructor . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > .
¦ { . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. . .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . type data newtype class instance default ( . = => => => => . . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . } } © 2§ . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { .
1. consisting of value bindings. those within a let or where construct).4). For example. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. An instance declaration (Section 4. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float. consisting of class. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ . . type signatures.3. instance. A class declaration (Section 4. of the given types.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. newtype.3. and nested declarations. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a . we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5).simplified class declaration for Num .3). but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. . and default declarations (Section 4. For exposition. consisting of type.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. type classes and overloading.38 %§ CHAPTER 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: .e. using normal type and data declarations.2).2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. . and data declarations (Section 4. © 4. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers). whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. deﬁned on it. 5].
6. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes. 4.e. Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. However.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ . then a type of kind . class methods) for (+) and negate. The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i. unlike types.4.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12].0 type system.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where . The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds. negateInt. addFloat.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report.1. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function. ] ) .1. 4.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors.1. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds.
inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). must have kind . Integer.5). The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. Double and Bool are type constants with kind . The declarations data T . and has exactly one value.. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. having form ( ). If is a type of kind type expression of kind . Since the IO type constructor has kind . Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. or newtype T . and treated as types with kind . In general. is identical to the type . (. and so on. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter.9 and 6. Int.40 CHAPTER 4. and so on. Just as data values are built using data constructors. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . The kind of T is determined by kind inference.6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes. 4. also written () (see Sections 3.. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type.1.. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. type values are built from . Unlike data constructors. written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. For example. IO. As with data constructors. and classes. . Maybe and IO are unary type constructors. A parenthesized type. and is a type of kind . ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors .). The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. . to the variable a. The list type is written as [] and has kind . Type application. Type variables. IO a... Float. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind . Their kinds are . 2. Type constructors. For example: Char. type synonyms. a process of kind inference (see Section 4. it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression.). The tuple types are written as (.
the second component of type .8 and 6. and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( .3. . OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > .3). there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. and ).. . In a similar way. the type expression a > a .4). respectively. ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. which is equivalent to the type (. [ ]. “gtycon”. ) where . If is the type of expression or pattern . we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. A context consists of zero or more class assertions. Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ . however. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. For clarity. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. means .1.1. and ( ) have the types ( > ). for example. A class assertion has form .).1. then the expressions (\ > ). A list type has the form [ ]. which is equivalent to the type (>) . the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. (Hence the special production. These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. always denote the builtin type constructors. above. .1)). A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. []. and lists. 3. they cannot be qualiﬁed. . A tuple type has the form ( .1. It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . and so on (see Sections 3. and so on. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). regardless of what is in scope. It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. .) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. For example. the preﬁx type constructors (>).7 and 6.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . For example. 1.4. which is equivalent to the type [] . (). and indicates the membership of the type in the class . When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. [ ]. tuples. 2. (.) where there are commas between the parenthesis.
Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. any of that are free in must also be free in . including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. where is a set of type variables . The outer parentheses may be omitted when . " t ¡§ is identical to . the most general type.1.1. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . The context must only contain type variables referenced in . § § § 4. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context .1).16 and 4. and each of the is either a type variable. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program.4).42 CHAPTER 4. a type is of the form . in more detail.4. also holds. Show a. respectively. may be instantiated at types holds. although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. In any such type. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. we provide informal details of the type system. In general. Therefore. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a.3.3. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. In general. Furthermore. as described in Section 4. we write => even if the context is empty. For example. or the application of type variable to one or more types. For example. the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. For convenience.
and type synonyms (type declarations). the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”.2. This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: .4. double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © .1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)). In this Report. because Int is an instance of the class Num. ! . we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. However. .2. 4. renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module. The user may choose to declare such an instance. in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section. since Num Int holds.
For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a.f2 :: Int.8. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. using the record syntax (C { . A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. For example.3. to the components of a data object. and is described in Section 4. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them.6. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor.. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside.. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances. the declaration data C = F { f1.e.3. }). The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. For example.
6. denoted by an exclamation point. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag.4. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. “!”.2. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in .15. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration.2) if is of the form ! . v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. For example. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over .2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope. Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. The type is equivalent to the type . USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. Lexically. .2. Translation: A declaration of the form 4. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. and function $! (see Section 6.
17). Also. so that is the same as . whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] .3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type.3. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient.2. unlike type synonyms. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types.2). For example. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. The type ( ) renames the datatype .invalid .46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. Unlike algebraic datatypes.3. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. but strictly syntactic. New instances (see Section 4. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3. the newtype constructor is unlifted. 4. Similarly. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . type Rec a data Circ a is allowed.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. this is not so for type synonyms. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable.2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. mechanism to make type signatures more readable. Type synonyms are a convenient. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object.
Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. In particular. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. see Section 4.3. type (type synonyms).4. ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © .3. ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . .3. ( n ( N ) ).1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it.) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . whereas ( n ).3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes). though of course there may only be one ﬁeld. A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax. ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to .3. A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { . and newtype (renaming types. .
the only type variable that may be referred to in is . it must form a directed acyclic graph. Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. the may not constrain .48 CHAPTER 4. a ﬁeld name.. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases.. The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. i. The may constrain only . whose scope extends outside the class declaration. the may contain a default class method for any of the . a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. For example: class Foo a where op1. © The class declaration introduces new class methods .2). op2) = . outside the class declaration. Lastly. it may mention type variables other than . because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. as described below. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition.e. © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . since class methods declare toplevel values. . in particular. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . The superclass relation must not be cyclic. op2 :: a > a (op1. no other declarations are permitted in . or another class method. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. However. is not permitted. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. That is. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. For example: class (Read a.3.
4. in particular.Ix T where range = . Let be a class declaration.) For example. ] > . must not be a type synonym. } .. even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . it may be a qualiﬁed name.2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class.a) where . module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix. and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ . it is not automatically an instance of the subclass. furthermore. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a..a) where . The type type variables distinct. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of .2..4. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations. instance C [[a]] where .range. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple . instance C (Int. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case... but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. ... if a type is an instance of all superclasses. this is legal.. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where .3.3.
As in the case of default class methods (Section 4.6. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. instance (Eq a. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context..1).. the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. Under this assumption. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . Show a) => Foo [a] where .. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1... instance Num a => Bar [a] where . must be an instance of each of . The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where ... the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition. If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where .. In fact. Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed. In other words. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present).. instance (Eq a. Since Foo is a superclass of Bar.50 CHAPTER 4.. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption. The class and type must have the same kind. then the program would be invalid.3. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. This example is valid Haskell. Show a) => Bar [a] where . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints.
2. If the form is included. For example.1. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype.3. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. Show a)." in show x .3. Bounded. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible.3. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a.1. instances for all superclasses of must exist for .. When deriving a class for a type . Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable. then the expression let x = read ". .3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. Show. But this does not hold. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. because the types for show and read. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. Enum. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( .invalid is ambiguous.4 Ambiguous Types. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. 4. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . and Read. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10. 4. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq.4. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. that is. page 83. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. Ord.. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. For example. all mentioned in Figure 6. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived. For example.
Double) The empty default declaration. default (). and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. § ¢ .1. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . ) where .) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. For example. or Bool. turns off all defaults in a module. shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude.. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. where is a class.52 CHAPTER 4.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. an ambiguous type variable. but and are forced to have the same type.2–6. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer.3. and each must be a type for which Num holds. one could write: let x = read ". Such expressions are considered illtyped. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . page 83. and Figure 6. is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class. (that is. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. Only one default declaration is permitted per module.4. It is a static error if no such type is found. Num or a subclass of Num). a static error. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. For example. § ¢ ¢ For example. appears only in constraints of the form . and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. Occasionally. and its effect is limited to that module. .. Such types are invalid." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type.16. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . for the ambiguous expression given earlier. .
to ensure that type inference is still possible.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred.4. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature. 4.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num .4.1. the deﬁning occurrence. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: . However.4. i. in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct.2). Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature. possibly with respect to a context.5.2. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4. including the top level of a module. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. Indeed. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ . it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope.1 Type Signatures . then each use of is treated as having the declared type. . For example. as described in Section 4.4. which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. these declarations contain a static error.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables. even if the signatures are identical. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization.1. Moreover. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. For example.e.5. and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it.) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. or principal type . ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ . (The type of x is dependent on the type of f. A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . this is explained in Section 4. As mentioned in Section 4.
(Class methods are a minor exception. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator.invalid are invalid.1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude.1 are invalid. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. Also like a type signature.2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. non.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. level 9 is assumed. and ten precedence levels. respectively). left. 4. just like its type. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . declares a property of a particular operator. Table 4. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). like a type signature. The following deﬁnition is pathological. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr.and rightassociativity (infix.invalid . and infixr. T a > a. infixl. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself.54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4. . Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). and level 9 binds most tightly). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and.4. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. If the is omitted.
‘Foo. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. >>= $. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. ‘seq‘ Table 4.op‘ q) * 2 in . ‘quot‘ +.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . <. /=.op‘ is infix 3. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration. ‘elem‘.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 ... >=. <=. Here.4. ˆ.. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9. ++ ==. ‘rem‘. ** :. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *.4. $!. ‘mod‘.. /.4.op‘ is infixr 7.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . ‘Bar. ˆˆ. >.) 4. ‘div‘.
.3. the binding is called a function binding.1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. otherwise. and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. namely: .56 CHAPTER 4. For example.4. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where . Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. the latter. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . ¤ 4. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern.
A simple pattern binding has form . in other words. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern.4. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( .2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values. A note about syntax. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is .e.12.3. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. .4.4. a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers. See the translation in Section 3. where a function bindings above. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
¤
4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
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¡
¦
£
¦
£
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¡
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¢ £¡
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
¢
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6
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¢ & ¢
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6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. len1 gets type Int.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. Hence. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num.3.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings. in (f. For example.4. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1). The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. There is no danger of recomputation here. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. and not by any modules that import it. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer.g) = ((+).5. However. module M1(len1) where default( Int. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4.4. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. (If the above code is actually what is wanted. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to.
the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. for instance). 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. in the deﬁnitions above. Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. For example.64 CHAPTER 4. the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . using the default binding .6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference.5. synonym. for any kind . type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). For example. For example.e. in such cases. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . a default of is assumed. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . Instead. a synonym S and a class C. respectively. For example. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. 4. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. respectively. i. to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. . we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. constructors. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype.
Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. one of which. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main. type synonyms. We use the term entity to refer to a value. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). etc. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A.f module A where f = . default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4. and its result (of type ) is discarded. Modules may be mutually recursive. (see Chapter 4). It exports some of these resources. A Haskell program is a collection of modules. or class deﬁned in.. classes. 1 65 . datatypes. by convention. For example. Second. Modules are used for namespace control. and are not ﬁrst class values.3.4). or perhaps exported from a module. must be called Main and must export the value main. module B where f = . and then concatenating all the module bodies1 .5. making them available to other modules.f >> B.. imported into. First.. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations.5) is affected by module boundaries. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). When the program is executed.. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. the computation main is performed. type.
optionally restricting the imported bindings.3) that specify modules to be imported. type synonyms. bf = . The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. There is one distinguished module. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. ( An abbreviated form of module. Prelude. which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5.. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). Chapter 4). A module begins with a header: the keyword module. . the module name. consisting only of the module body. .2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( .6). data types.66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = .. i. MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ .e. ).. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. is permitted. If this is used.1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. . . Section 5. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . . modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies.. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. © 5. CHAPTER 5. classes. ¦ ¦ § 5. etc. (see Chapter 4). 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { .
A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors. . ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration.5. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . which must be in scope. A value. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names..) ( module . should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names. or class method.. or that it imports from some other module. the following is legal module A( Mb. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed. ( .) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). The constructor In all cases. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. .2. names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . all values. A type synonym is in scope. ).) ( (. For example. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. If the export list is omitted. whether declared in the module body or imported. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. may . The abbreviated form (. must be in scope. EXPORT LISTS 67 .Maybe( Nothing. ﬁeld name. but not those that are imported. 3. where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (.8). .. types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported.
module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. For example module A ( C. names the class and some or all of its methods.1). The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). must be in scope. or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f).g. item (1) above). ¡ £ . enqueue. item (2)). The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. or by exporting an entire module (module M.. It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( .f.5.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack. because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. For example. module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. .g) g = f True . item (5)). ). A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax.).. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. This set may be empty.. For example: module Queue( module Stack. dequeue ) where import Stack . 5. In the second form. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. or as an implicitlynamed member (T(. g. one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of . In all cases. item(2)). It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list. a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f.e”. and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name.. C. For example: module Mod1( module Mod1. MODULES The abbreviated form (.68 CHAPTER 5.
3. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ .f and C. and between module B and C.f (assuming B.1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . modules can import each other recursively). . ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ .3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module.. . 5..f are different entities). except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted. the (. ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( .) refers to all of the constructors. . The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. they may also be used as variables. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists.. The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses. rather than Lexically. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration.) ( (. The list may be empty. § 5. in which case nothing except the instances is imported.) ( .) form of import is used for a type or class. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. or ﬁeld names exported from the module.g and g (assuming C.g and g are different entities – remember. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant. hiding ( . methods. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings. When the (. The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported.3.. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 .5. the terminal symbols “as”. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as .
’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude.3. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . the toplevel environment is extended. in fact. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type.+ 1) .1.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5. MODULES 2. In contrast.3. Section 5. or type named C is excluded. .This + differs from the one in the Prelude .3.3) on the import statement. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. exported by the imported module. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. Thus. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. using C in an import list names only a class or type. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. class. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. It is an error to hide an entity that is not.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. If the qualified keyword is omitted.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail. if ported. Hence.3. For example.All Prelude names must be qualified . ).’. Finally. © 5. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . in import M hiding (C) any constructor.5.
y y.y A. A. suppose the module A exports x and y. B.x B. B. A.y (nothing) x. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported . Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x. 5.y A. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A.4).x. A.x x. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer.x. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A.x. A. A.y (nothing) A.y x. y.x.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f. A. A. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5.f. 5.5.3. B. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously.y x. A.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists.x A.x.4.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules.y In all cases.x. y. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module. B. y.
2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as ... The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2. . an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration.5.. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned. whether qualified or not.y = x+1 in . such as f or A. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: . but does bring in any instances visible in M. For example.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. . 5.f x x is legal..1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. g x = M. MODULES module.f x = . therefore. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names.ILLEGAL By an import declaration. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5. that is.. An import declaration. there must be only one binding for f or A.5. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5.ILLEGAL g x = let M.f respectively.5 Name Clashes and Closure 5. it is illegal to write module M where M.3). it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M.4). A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list. Thus.72 CHAPTER 5.f.. Thus: module M where f x = .
2). x) module B( d. and C... The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B..sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. c = .. or x declared in C. module C( d. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved..x or C... For example..sin (F. B.4.. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). There is no reference to y..x. . The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D.. module D( d ) where d = .5. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C.. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4. c. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned. y ) where import D x = . The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b.d. x.. b = . x. y = . and c declared in C respectively.d.. provided that the program does not mention those names. c. b. y ) where import D x = . even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. and can be referred to in A by the names d. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude. d. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B.5. y = .
sin and F. Whether or not T is explicitly exported. MODULES The references to Prelude. called the “Standard Prelude. 5.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes.5. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. However.74 CHAPTER 5. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. That is. That is. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. classes. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. However. the Prelude is contained in the . That is. and functions. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example. For example. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin.” In Haskell. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. 5. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms.
The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. This means.6. arrays. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null.6. but the implementation only gives a scheme. for example. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. which provide less frequently used functions and types. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. however. 5.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. For example: module A( null. 5. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. given in Chapter 8. and they cannot be imported separately. they should be considered part of its implementation. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. just like those from any other module.5. For example. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . There are also many predeﬁned library modules. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes.6. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. not part of the language deﬁnition. and so on. PreludeIO. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. complex numberss. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries.
Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. however. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x.x) g x = (. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. For example. in terms of a different implementation of lists. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed. For example. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. to hide instance declarations in the Prelude.76 CHAPTER 5. MODULES import Prelude statement. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. It is not possible. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. for example. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. push. On the other hand. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType.x) and (. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. 5. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. the use of ++ is not special syntax. 5. For example. pop.
8. Instead. pop.5. they must use push. and empty to construct such values. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. pop. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] . push. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. For example.
78 CHAPTER 5. MODULES .
Numeric types are described in Section 6.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. Eq. Ord. Ord.1. complex numbers. and not. 6. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays.1. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. Show. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read.  (or). Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. When appropriate. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. In this chapter. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given.6. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. types. Enum. The basic boolean functions are && (and). 6. Show. 6.4. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. and 79 . Enum. Eq.
two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. Lists are an instance of classes Read.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. map characters to and from the Int type. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes.’n’. and \n and \LF. Read.) Int Bool Int denote the same type.Int) and (. ’i’.’ ’.7. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. Ord. as described in Section 3. that all their component types are). Show. 6. \f and \FF. \v and \VT. thus. and the \ˆ notation. although with special syntax. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded.. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). Eq. snd. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. (Int. Ord. \b and \BS. Monad. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. are described in Sections 3.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax.1. Each tuple type has a single constructor. thus (x. The same holds for tuple type constructors. However.10 and 3.’t’. All tuples are instances of Eq.’g’] 6.’s’. Bounded. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples.11. of course. Ord.) x y produce the same value. Read.80 CHAPTER 6.6. In addition. \r and \CR. together with the instances for Eq. respectively. ASCII mnemonic escapes. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples.Bool. and uncurry. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). standard functions from class Enum. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. and MonadPlus. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL.y) and (. Bounded. as deﬁned in Section 3. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. and Show (provided. For example. . Functor. and Show. The toEnum and fromEnum functions.8. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. \t and \HT. curry.’r’.1.
IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict.2. Enum. const.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. Read. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. 6.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. the nullary constructor (). (.1. 6. and Part II contains many more. a function argument is evaluated only when required. and MonadPlus.6. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. Enum. 6.1. Read. Monad. Bounded. that is.9. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. The unit datatype () has one non 6. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report.3). flip.1. Show) member. See also Section 3. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. Ord. Ord. Read. Read.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. and until.).1. It is an instance of Show and Eq. Bounded. Ord. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. Ord. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. ($). Chapter 7 describes I/O operations.
3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). However.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. As a consequence.82 CHAPTER 6. or zipWith ($) fs xs. together with the default declarations. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. 6. such as map ($ 0) xs. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . since seq can be used to distinguish them. $! ($).2. 6. $ has low. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. If there is no such comment. Default class method declarations (Section 4.3. rightassociative binding precedence. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. infixr 0 $. . For the same reason.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. because it is available at every type. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. However.
Integer RealFrac Float. Double Floating Float. Float. Integer. Double RealFloat Float. Int. (>) Show All except IO. Double Real Int.3. Ordering. Double Fractional Float. Char. Maybe Functor IO. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. () Ordering. Double Integral Int. Integer. []. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. Float. (>) Read All except IO. Char. Bool. []. Double Monad IO. Bool. Float. Double Bounded Int. IOError Num Int. Integer. tuples Enum (). Maybe Figure 6.1: Standard Haskell Classes .6.
All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. If one is deﬁned. = = = = max x y) = (x. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. If both are deﬁned.3. (>=). Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. then both will loop. each being deﬁned in terms of the other. 6.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). (<=). neither default method is used. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods. All basic datatypes except for functions. . are instances of this class. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. IO. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. and IOError.y) or (y. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=.84 CHAPTER 6.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y.
lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output.. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. are instances of Show and Read.. All Prelude types. except function types and IO types. is also provided. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values.. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec.4). show. rather than between square brackets."") <. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10. This is particularly useful for the Char type.t) <.reads s. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6.6. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show.3. ("".read: ambiguous parse" . where values of type String should be shown in double quotes. A specialised variant.. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function.) For convenience. by providing an instance declaration..3. which uses precedence context zero.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] .. and returns an ordinary String.3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a. (If desired. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" .
lex fails (i. discarding initial white space."")].] [n.3. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum. of a value. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme. The read function reads input from a string. The enumFrom. see Chapter 10. 6. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.e.10). returns []). pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3.) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error.m] [n. If the input string contains only white space. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error.m] . is also part of the Prelude. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: . (Thus lex "" = [(""..] [n..n’.. respectively. used by read.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types. which must be completely consumed by the input process.86 CHAPTER 6. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds).. For example.. It reads a single lexeme from the input. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound.n’. The function lex :: ReadS String..4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ.
The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. the list terminates when . ]. [LT. the list is empty if negative. IO. £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. For example. If the increment is positive or zero. is . the list terminates when the next element would be less than . . empty if is the list [ . Float. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. where the increment. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . . Numeric types: Int.EQ. ]. ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . . or when they become less than for negative . is . all the list elements are the same.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. The list is ¥ § ¦ § . The increment may be zero or negative. Integer. For example. Double.] is the list [LT. and pred subtracts 1. In the case of Float and Double. and Ordering. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . For all four of these Prelude numeric types. Lists.3. ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. Bool. . ¤ . . . If the increment is zero. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment .6. . The semantics of these instances is given next.GT]. and Maybe are in this class. succ adds 1. the digits after the decimal point may be lost.. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. For the types Int and Integer.3. Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . where the increment. The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . For all four numeric types. the list is empty if . all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. ]. 6. .
and IO are all instances of Monad. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression.88 CHAPTER 6. In the Prelude.6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. 6. “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3. lists. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7.14).3. The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . g) id fmap f . Maybe. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f .3). for Maybe returns Nothing.
arbitrary precision integers (Integer). or a special value such as inﬁnity. its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. ().4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). etc. Ordering. but not all. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. In particular. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded.1. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. Some.4. both real and complex. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type.6. an implementation may choose error ( . maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. Figure 6. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type.1. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. and double precision ﬂoating (Double). and all tuples are instances of Bounded. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries.3. since all numbers may be compared for equality. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. The types Int.3. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. Similarly. a truncated value. ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . as deﬁned in the Ratio library. page 83. 6. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6. Char. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. single precision ﬂoating (Float). NUMBERS 89 6. semantically).2–6.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. Bool. indeﬁnite. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. Float is implementationdeﬁned. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int).
See Section 4. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not .4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient.3. div.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. Similarly. and mod apply only to integral numbers. div. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. 6. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones.5. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. ().2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+). An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer.4) apply to all numbers. rem. remainder) pair. (*).4. even .4.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. The class methods quot.90 CHAPTER 6. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. rem. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. see section 3. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint. Ratio Integer). PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6. respectively. The quot.
atan :: a > a sinh. Enum a) quot. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . mod quotRem. tan :: a > a asin. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a.4. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. Part 1 Finally. sqrt :: a > a (**). atanh :: a > a Figure 6. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number.4. cosh. gcd (3) (6) = 3. NUMBERS class (Eq a. div. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. (*) negate abs. Show (+). gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. logBase returns the logarithm of in base . (). acosh. 0** is undeﬁned. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and .2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . cos. logBase :: a > a > a sin. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. tanh :: a > a asinh. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. 6. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. log. rem.6. acos. including zero. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. gcd 0 4 = 4.
Part 2 6. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers.92 CHAPTER 6.a) b b class (Real a. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. isDenormalized. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. isInfinite.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a.4. isNegativeZero. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign.
and: is an integral number with the same sign as . truncate. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. logBase. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number.4. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. and with absolute value less than 1. where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . ¢ ¢ 6.6. The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. Default implementations of tan. and implementation. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . atan2 1. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . then x is equal in value to . and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. tanh. and tangent functions and their inverses. in particular.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. See these references for discussions of branch cuts. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . inclusive.4. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. If decodeFloat x yields ( . floor. floor. NUMBERS 93 6. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. cosine. **. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . and sqrt are provided. the greatest integer not greater than . For real ﬂoating and . The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. truncate. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. and floor . floatDigits. note that is the simplest rational of all. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. and furthermore. pi]. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . discontinuities. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . should return the same value as atan . where is the value radix. ). with in a type that is RealFloat. round returns the nearest integer to . The functions floatRadix.4. The ceiling. respectively.
For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. The functions isNaN. isInfinite. scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. scaled to lie in the open interval . exponent 0 is zero. isNegativeZero. isDenormalized. but rather than an Integer. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. these may all return false.94 CHAPTER 6. Fractional b) => a > b . and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. significand x yields a value of the same type as x.
however. In the case of the I/O monad. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. as deﬁned in the IO library. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. return and linefeed. For example. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. the abstract values are the mentioned above.6) sequentially compose actions.1. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems.2). may read as a single newline character. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6. Some operations are primitive actions. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. and which are described in this section. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ .1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. two characters of input. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude. however.3.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. In the following. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. Actions. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. To achieve this. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. see Section 6. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. Special operations (methods in the class Monad.
) main = interact (filter isAscii) .3) on endofﬁle. For example. Typically.[0. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device.19]]) Input Functions terminal). which is read lazily as it is needed. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. deﬁned the IO library. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output. The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument.96 CHAPTER 7.. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () . a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. 2ˆn)  n <.
main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x. methods in the Monad class. The ﬁle is read lazily.7. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style.1. to the ﬁle. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes.0. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string.[0.. are used to compose a series of I/O operations. To write a value of any printable type. their second argument. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile".2]]) 7.2. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example. for example when it is (). use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. The two monadic binding functions. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . as with print.x*x)  x <. as with getContents. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. on demand. their ﬁrst argument.
getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. . the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. For example. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. The isEOFError function is part of IO library. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. in f = catch g (\e > if IO. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. otherwise.getLine return (c:s) 7. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <.98 CHAPTER 7. For example. User error values include a string describing the error. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions.getLine s <.
(>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21. thus: instance Monad IO where .3.bindings for return. the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6.7. (>>=). .6) raises a userError.3.. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program..
BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .100 CHAPTER 7.
and PreludeIO. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. nor are these three modules available for import separately. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. These modules are described fully in Part II. To take one particular example. and Numeric. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. !!. IO. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. and to improve efﬁciency. an implementation is free to import more. These functions are: take. of the Library modules. That is. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. Monad. indicated by names starting with “prim”. PreludeList. of course. length. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. Declarations for special types such as Integer. PreludeText. 101 .. given with class declarations. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. such as Char. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. An ellipsis “. drop. or less. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. These imports are not. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here.. Prelude. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. The default method deﬁnitions. Some of these modules import Library modules. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). as it pleases. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. and three submodules. such as Integral a or Num a. This structure is purely presentational. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude.
. for example genericLength. with the preﬁx “generic”. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt.102 CHAPTER 8. The more general versions are given in the List library. and replicate.
(>=). until. asin. return. Maybe(Nothing. divMod. recip. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . acosh.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. realToFrac. abs. Bool(False. (>>). rem. fromEnum. significand. seq.Unicode primitives .)).)((. lcm. curry. signum. Enum(succ.. (). (**). id. maybe. (). enumFromThenTo). fromIntegral. Integer. pred. sequence_. fail). tan. sin. (>). (=<<). sequence. tanh. toInteger). floor). Integral(quot. floatRange. Ordering(LT. (<). isInfinite. RealFrac(properFraction. Fractional((/). mapM. Char. asinh. isIEEE.)((. Real(toRational). acos. (. decodeFloat. (*). fromInteger). max. cos. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. (<=).Contains all ‘prim’ values . (ˆ). enumFromThen. Monad((>>=). Just). quotRem. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). ($). asTypeOf. min). exponent. encodeFloat. floatDigits. (ˆˆ). atanh). exp. scaleFloat. toEnum. IO. Bounded(minBound. Num((+). isNegativeZero. gcd. truncate. uncurry. negate. otherwise. Float. const.). either. Functor(fmap). error. etc. log.)). isNaN. Rational. round. div. and cannot legally appear in an export list. but are denoted by builtin syntax. subtract. mapM_. enumFromTo. maxBound). GT). List type: []((:). Floating(pi. cosh. Ord(compare. undefined. enumFrom. isDenormalized. atan2). Either(Left. odd. fromRational). module PreludeText. fst. logBase. atan. flip. (&&). sqrt. RealFloat(floatRadix. not.. Double. mod. Right). even. True). EQ. (. ceiling. []) Tuple types: (. Int. String. module PreludeIO. (/=)). sinh. snd.
(>=).  . <=.note that (min x y. >=. ‘mod‘ +.Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). (/=) :: a > a > Bool . /=. (<=). >>= =<< $. <. /. classes. min :: a > a > a . ˆ. > &&  >>.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==).a fixity declaration.Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare . instances and related functions . $!. ‘seq‘ . (>) :: a > a > Bool max.104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. ˆˆ. max x y) = (x. ** *.The (:) operator is builtin syntax. STANDARD PRELUDE . ‘rem‘. ‘div‘.Standard types.y) or (y. and cannot legally be given . ‘quot‘.Using compare can be more efficient for complex types.x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y . compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .
. Show a) => Num a where (+). fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x.Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ..] [n.. (subtract 1) ..] [n. (+1) .y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a.n’.. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x .Minimal complete definition: toEnum. fromEnum y .Numeric classes class (Eq a.105 .. signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a .m] [n. ().. pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. fromEnum . except x .] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a . Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational .m] .NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs.] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x . fromEnum y .Minimal complete All.n’. fromEnum pred = toEnum .. succ = toEnum .
logBase :: a > a > a sin.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . atan asinh. atan :: a > a sinh.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q.a) a > Integer . mod quotRem. acos. sin. acosh. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8.Minimal complete definition: pi.106 class (Real a. exp. cosh. log. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0. acos.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. tan :: a > a asin.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. cos. cosh asin.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. sinh. acosh. Enum quot.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. cos. atanh :: a > a . rem div. sqrt :: a > a (**). log. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . tanh :: a > a asinh.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1.
r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n .5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .107 class (Real a.r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = . round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.0._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.1 else n where (n.Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .a) b b .
must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .floatDigits x) where (m.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) . even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. isNegativeZero.Minimal complete definition: All except exponent. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m. significand. scaleFloat. return a NaN (via +) .n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi . isInfinite. odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not . STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a. isDenormalized.x or y is a NaN.108 CHAPTER 8.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.Numeric functions subtract subtract even.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y .
109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a. Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a. Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational . Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude. Num b) => a > b = fromInteger .list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f .ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a.Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) . toRational . toInteger :: (Real a.The xxxM functions take list arguments.Minimal complete definition: (>>=). but lift the function or .
Read.Function type .identity function id :: a > a id x = x .Boolean functions (&&). Ord.(useful in continuationpassing style) ($).flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f.constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x . g = \ x > f (g x) .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq..function composition (. Bounded) .. ’a’  ’b’ . Ord. Enum.Not legal Haskell.110 .rightassociating infix application operators ..) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f . flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = . True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True .. for illustration only . . Enum. .Character type data Char = .Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ . ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x . Show. STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq..Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8.. Bounded) .Primitive .
. fromEnum c’ . return = . Ord. fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c.. fail s = ioError (userError s) .. Read... . fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] .Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y . Read..abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return . f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = .IO type data IO a = .Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.. Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing . Ord.111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c ..
.......112 ... .Ordering type data CHAPTER 8.. ....far too large.......... . ... data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound ..... instance Eq Integer where ...be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be . 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 .. . Bounded) .. instance Integral Integer where ... ...... instance Enum Integer where . instance Ord Integer where .. Ord..... . .. data Integer = . where where where where where where where where . Read.. .. 1  0  1 .. . . .. .. . Enum... .. . ... data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where . . instance Real Integer where . .. instance Num Integer where .Standard numeric types.. The data declarations for these types cannot ... Show. STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. ... maxBound .... ...
roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious. The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int.Not legal Haskell. depending on how 0. truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo . truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ . However. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger .may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. 0.1 is represented. Ord) .. Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) .0.1 . This example may have either 10 or 11 elements.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq.may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger .95]. Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] . The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0.
b) > b = y .error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError . until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .Not legal Haskell.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error . Ord.b.(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second.asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const. and its typing forces its first argument .(NB: not provided for triples. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude. It is usually used .114 .messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined . for illustration only . STANDARD PRELUDE (a.b) deriving (Eq.c) = (a.undefined" . Bounded) (a. Ord.Tuples data data CHAPTER 8.until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.Misc functions . b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) .uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.as an infix operator. curry :: ((a.c) deriving (Eq. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a.b. quadruples.y) = x snd snd (x. etc.component projections for pairs: . Bounded) .b) > a fst (x. asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const .appears.) fst :: (a. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.b) = (a.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function. .y) :: (a.
scanl.8.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . foldr. init. tail. rather than the beginning.1 Prelude PreludeList . replicate. null. and. notElem. (!!). break. foldl. which must be nonempty. concatMap.1.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. last. scanl1. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. concat. scanr. iterate. of a list.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. cycle. length. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. elem. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. foldr1. head. foldl1. unlines. sum. or. minimum. repeat. any.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . zip3. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. filter. words. zip. unzip. span. product. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. maximum. splitAt. all. take. respectively. scanr1. reverse. zipWith. lines. dropWhile. lookup. ‘notElem‘ . drop. (++). zipWith3. unwords. takeWhile.
last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. x2.. scanl1 is similar. .] == [z. . and a list.] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude. . from left to right: foldl f z [x1....length returns the length of a finite list as an Int. and thus must be applied to nonempty lists. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1.. x2..((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘. reduces the list using the binary operator.] == [x1.. applied to a binary operator. STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude. length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l . z ‘f‘ x1. xn] == (.. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1. a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator)...) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument...foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] .List index (subscript) operator. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2... x1 ‘f‘ x2. scanl is similar to foldl.] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs.116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude.!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude. .!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl.. x2.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False . .
foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude.foldr. foldr1. .repeat x is an infinite list.iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: . repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs .above functions. returns the prefix of xs of length n. f x. with x the value of every element.on infinite lists. It is the identity . and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . drop n xs).the infinite repetition of the original list. or xs itself if n > length xs..iterate f x == [x.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) . splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 . scanr. cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude. .8..1. or equivalently.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements.foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs .cycle ties a finite list into a circular one. applied to a list xs. or [] if n > length xs. Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = .] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) . f (f x).
break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. Similary. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p.xs) where (ys. while break p uses the negation of p.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s .zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not . :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a]. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines. s’’) = break Char.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.zs)  otherwise = ([]. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. words breaks a string up into a list of words. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. The resulting strings do not contain newlines. dropWhile p xs). applied to a predicate p and a list xs. drop n xs) takeWhile.[a]) span p [] = ([].[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. which were delimited by white space. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix.[a]) = (take n xs. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l. p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters.
the list must be finite. any. .e. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 . usually written in infix form. map p .sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. and.which must be nonempty. or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False . reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite. notElem is the negation. for all.disjunctive dual of and. and of an ordered type. results from a False .True.of the list satisfies the predicate. any determines if any element . or is the .Applied to a predicate and a list. finite.y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys .reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order.8.and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. elem.1. For the result to be . sum.b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) . False. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. however.maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude.g.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. . Similarly.elem is the list membership predicate.lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list.. maximum. x ‘elem‘ xs. map p all p = and . . all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or .minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs . minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .
c:cs)) ([].[]) .b. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.b)] > ([a].) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a.b.c)] > ([a].c)] = zipWith3 (.cs) > (a:as. excess elements of the longer list are discarded. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.[]) :: [(a.b)] = zipWith (.[]. For example.120  CHAPTER 8.[b]. If one input list is short.b.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.[b]) = foldr (\(a.[c]) = foldr (\(a.b:bs)) ([].c) ˜(as.b:bs.. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. instead of a tupling function.bs) > (a:as. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.b) ˜(as. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.bs.
lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . showString. readSigned. Maybe. Ordering . showList). shows. readDec. shows x .String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . readl’ u] . lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a.s) pr where readl s = [([]. lex.u) (xs. showChar.u) readl’ s = [([].t) [(x:xs. showInt.t) [(x:xs. readParen. reads t.v)  (".". readLitChar.2.t)  ("]". read.t) (xs. Show(showsPrec. readList). isAlpha. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS. showParen ) where . ShowS.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r. isAlphaNum. Read(readsPrec. isDigit.hs import Char(isSpace.t) (x. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8.’ . readFloat. Either. show.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude. showLitChar. showl xs .t)  ("]".8. shows x .u)  (x.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’. showFloat.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. reads.
lex t ] . showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x. t)  (ch.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .u) <.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&".This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax.’\’’:t) <.u)  ("(". u)  (ch. STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. <.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&"."") <.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.lex r. (str. ."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’". <.s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.s) (x.t) <. p .optional s.lexStrItem s.lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"".122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8.t) <.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .lexLitChar s.read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude. ("".t) <. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str.reads s.t) (")". t)  (str.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("".
s)] <.t) <.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.u)  (c:t) [(e:ds.s)] [(c:sym.t) <.lexDigits (c:cs).lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .[span isDigit s]..possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .readsPrec p r] .t) <.lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].Reading at the Integer type avoids .[span isSym s]]  (nam.lexDigits t] ++  (ds.bad character lexFracExp (’. (fe.u)  (ds.’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.[s].t) [(c:nam.t) [(c:ds++fe. t)  (i.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds. (ds.t) lexExp s = [("". c ‘elem‘ "+".’:ds++e.s) <.u) <.t) <. toInteger .2./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.u) <.lexFracExp s ] .8. (e.t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.Converting to Integer avoids .t) <.t) <.
showChar ’)’ instance (Read a.t) (".s) (x.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x.t)  (’\’’:s.124 CHAPTER 8. Read b) => Read (a. reads s.readLitChar s.t)<. (cs.readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList .Tuples instance (Show a.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.lex r. STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((). showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c. showLitChar c .u) (y.".lex r. (l. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" . Show b) => Show (a.t)  ("(". w)  ("(".readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("".t) <.w) .Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r. shows x . (")".lex r._) <.s) <. showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c . t) <. showChar ’.y) = showChar ’(’ .b) where showsPrec p (x. showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ .s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs. reads u.lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ .t)  (’"’:s.t) <. (c.u)  (c . shows y .’ . lex v ] ) .y)."\’") <.v) (")".u) <. lex t.
print... readIO. getContents. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. interact. catch..8.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. putStrLn. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <..3. getLine. putStr. IOError. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String . Eq IOError where .getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents . appendFile. getChar. readFile. writeFile.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . userError. putChar. ioError.
"") <.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.readIO l return r .The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.getLine r <. ("".t) <. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.126 CHAPTER 8.getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .reads s.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.
with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). Similarly. and may have a double index: a letter . an associativity variable varies over . . with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . this is the “maximal munch” rule. the nonterminals . right. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ .1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. . there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. this means that conditionals.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. Thus. In the lexical syntax. resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). for example actually stands for 30 productions. letexpressions. In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. In the contextfree syntax. or for left.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9.
.{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9.2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . / < = > ? \ ˆ  . SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .
4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9. . .> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : .2. .. . : :: = \  <. ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  .
u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . with the following additional tokens: – If a let. provided that . or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. the token is inserted after the keyword. do.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. – A positive integer. where. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed.) A stack of “layout contexts”. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report.e. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. If the innermost context is 0. (NB: a string literal it is not. nor before the . preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2.3 Layout Section 2. the programmer supplied the opening brace.. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. because it is not preceded only by white space. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9.130 CHAPTER 9. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. in which each element is either: – Zero.6. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context.
9. For the purposes of the layout rule. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. However. To determine the column number. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. to avoid visual confusion. the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. and “ ” for the empty stream. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. The deﬁnition of is as follows. width as an ASCII character. not 0. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ .3. all start a new line. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. Tab stops are 8 characters apart. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ . . . where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . ﬁxed.
although they could be: for example let }. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. so empty braces are inserted. Note 3. y = x in e’ is valid.e. If none of the rules given above matches. ¤ ¥ Note 6. then the block must be empty. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. For example let x = e. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. Note 4. The token is replaced by .132 CHAPTER 9. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). any pending closebraces are inserted. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. because it translates to let { x = e. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. Note 5. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. because doing so involves ﬁxities. For example. and a nonlayout context is active. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. then parseerror is true. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. Note 2. At the end of the input. By matching against 0 for the current layout context.15). we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. then the algorithm fails. ). since the close brace is missing.4. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . If not. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1.
LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse. Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative.9.3. .
It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. For example. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. all other lines are comment. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. 8 8 ¥¥8 . is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. all other lines are comment. By convention. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. with “.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. Using this style.134 CHAPTER 9. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. though it may be stylistically desirable. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. of course). SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. In this convention. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program.
. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n.4..n])  n <. product [1.20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials.[1.. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.9.
} } © 2§ . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . hiding ( .. . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 .. as .) ( module . SYNTAX REFERENCE . = => => => => . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . . .. } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9.. A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . . ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. . . . } .) ( (. 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . .) ( (.) ( . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . . .
. } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . ] ) . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . . . . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . .5. . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . .
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. . . SYNTAX REFERENCE negative literal arity as pattern arity labeled pattern £¡ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¨§ ¦ 32 { . 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 § 3 2 ¦ 43¤ § ¤ © 4 © 3¢S¤ ¦ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ¢ £¡ ¦ § ¢ ¦ ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¡ 2©¦32 ¡ § ¦ 2 8 ¥8¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£¡§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¡ v§ v§ ¤ v 2 ©¦32 § ¢ ¡ ¢£¡ p ¢ § §e 2 ¡ !¡ ¤¥ ¡ § ¦ v § £¡ ¢ § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ ¢ ¡ v £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ § v £¡ ¢ § v ¢£ 7¡ ¨ ¡ v§ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ § 140  CHAPTER 9. } § 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¦ 2 ¤ y _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ) . ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ . ) ] ¢ § 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 = § () [] (. ) ) variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator ) ) ) ` ` ` ` 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § : 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¤¢ ¢ ¦ 32 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 ¢ 6 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¢ ¤ ¤ ¡ £¡ § v ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § v § ¢ £¡ . .
Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
. (v. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v.lex s.w) <.1: Example of Derived Instances .Precedence of :ˆ: .the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.Application has precedence one more than .readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 . (m.lex r.t)  ("Leaf". SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " .s) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u . (":ˆ:".readsPrec (up_prec+1) r.t) <.t) <.w)  (u.s) <. v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.146 CHAPTER 10.
pragmas appear as comments. This chapter summarizes this existing practice.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . 11. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. For example. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. . 11. Lexically. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma.
factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations. .148 CHAPTER 11. COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
Read.. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . (%)..Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio... there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . Ratio is an abstract type.. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator.. and Show. Fractional (Ratio a) where ... Num. Enum. Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where . numerator. Rational. For example. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2... the results may be unpredictable.. Real.. RealFrac.Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = . Fractional. RealFrac (Ratio a) where . Show (Ratio a) where . Real (Ratio a) where . a) => Read (Ratio a) where .. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. In each case.. Ord (Ratio a) where . these are in reduced form with a positive denominator. Ord. denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a.. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . For each Integral type .. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive.. The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. Ratio is an instance of classes Eq. Num (Ratio a) where . The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. denominator... Enum (Ratio a) where .. If is a bounded type.
A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon .152 CHAPTER 12. 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ . RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational. applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon.
12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module.g. E. numerator. Rational.12.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y . (%). approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator. denominator.1.Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio..1 Library Ratio . LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor.
truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude. r:%y) where (q.t) <.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise .u) <. (y.u)  (x. RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y. showString " % " . showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .154 CHAPTER 12.r) = quotRem n d (q’.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q.r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r .readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x . ("%".s) <.r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .lex s.
a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . the entire number is . in the range .. The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. Put another way. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . magnitude. if the magnitude is zero.. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle . This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is . conjugate. phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. and the phase. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar.. . imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. imagPart. polar..Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)).. .. (RealFloat a) realPart.. realPart.. phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude. mkPolar. cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ).. . .. cis. . then so is the phase...
mkPolar.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x . magnitude. imagPart.156 CHAPTER 13. conjugate. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. polar. whereas signum has the phase of . 13. cis.Read. realPart. abs is a number with the magnitude of . The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way.Show) (RealFloat a) realPart.a) = (magnitude z. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. but unit magnitude. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. but oriented in the positive real direction.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)).
(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = . LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .1.max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 .13.
158 CHAPTER 13.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .u’) else (u’.z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 . COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .v) = if x < 0 then (v’.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.
showHex. showSigned. readDec. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . readFloat. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showGFloat. showFloat. showInt. floatToDigits. showFFloat. showIntAtBase.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. readInt. showOct. readHex. readSigned. readOct. showEFloat.
999. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string. and 16 respectively. showFFloat.999. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. is the value to show. . the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. 0.String)] 14.0015). showInt. 245000. floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. if is Just . and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. many of which are used in the standard Prelude.g. In the call showSigned .45e2. In what follows.160 CHAPTER 14. showOct. showEFloat. plus an exponent. is the precedence of the enclosing context. 1. 8. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . and is a function that can show unsigned values. 2. if is Nothing. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. More speciﬁcally.g.5e3). Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits.1 and 9.
array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( .2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. readDec. showFloat. is the base. ( ( isDigit. given a reader for an unsigned value. octal. in decimal. showHex. denominator ) (!). readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. intToDigit ) (%). showFFloat. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. isHexDigit digitToInt. readDec. readInt. showOct. readFloat. Array.) 14. In the call readInt . numerator. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. readHex. showEFloat. In the hexadecimal case. showGFloat. showSigned.14. and converts a valid digit character to an Int. showIntAtBase. readSigned. 14. readOct. and hexadecimal notation respectively. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. showInt.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. floatToDigits. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. readOct.2. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. isOctDigit.
p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) .162 CHAPTER 14.Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers. Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x.Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until . _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 . minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn . .Fractional instances of Float and Double.that we got from the scaling. .it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat). fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0. This should be used in the . p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x.fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .first. scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational. .p . NUMERIC .a first guess of the exponent.Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .Conversion process: .Handle exceptional cases . or p (the exponent) <= minExp.p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’. p) .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .This converts a rational to a floating.
showInt. readPos str] . showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x . maxExpt]] 163 .but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever. LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x.t)  ("". integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else . .2ˆn)  n <.s) (x.Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b."") <<<< lex r. showOct.base > (Int > Char) .4. showOct.maxExpt) [(n.Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a .showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’.digit to char > a . .14.[minExpt . read’’ s] lex r.number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric. showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt..s)  (str.t) read’’ r = [(n. let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l .s) (n.
readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral .readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base. NUMERIC . readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported.r) <.164 CHAPTER 14. digToInt) ds).Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere. r)  (ds. .These are the format types. readOct.nonnull isDig s ] .Unsigned readers for various bases readDec. . data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric .
is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’.’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing .0e0" [d] > d : ".’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.14. LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) . e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.4.
base1]) . b. . . ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. is) > (1. K.when the format specifies no . Dybvig.digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. is) > (0.This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0.166 CHAPTER 14.and an exponent. e) . is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" .ab. not . [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0.’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. It should be improved.. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. Int) ." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > . .Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. In general. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls. not 34. Burger and R.. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. is) (1.34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’. 0:ds) else (0... if floatToDigits r = ([a.’ : s . The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator.Print 34. in PLDI 96.Print 0.G. NUMERIC ++ ’. []) f d (i:is) = let (c. z].then r = 0. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0.34.
Adjust for this. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . e0+n) else (f0.logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . b) else (f*be*2. 1) else (f*2. mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2.the following will err on the low side. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. f :: Integer e :: Int (f. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then .Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . s. (p .Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p.4. bˆ(e)*2. . e0) (r. be.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n .the fraction will make it err even more. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([].14. 2.the real minimum exponent . e) = let n = minExp . Ignoring . be*b. b.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn).will have an impossibly low exponent. 2*b. 1. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. mUp.p 167 . be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. bˆ(e+1)*2.
t)  ("Infinity". True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False.lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’. (ds’. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’.[span p s]] .t)  (k. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)). (k.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds).lexDigits r.point than the Haskell lexer.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("".s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.t) <.t) <.d.This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating . k) in .s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’). NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn.t) <.readFix r. True) > dn+1 : ds (True. False) > dn : ds (False. t)  (ds.168 CHAPTER 14. t)  ("NaN".t)  (n.t) <.t) <. length ds’.lex r] ++ [ (1/0.s) <. The ‘. rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.d) <.t)  (cs@(_:_).’ is optional.t) <.
..rangeSize (l.. instance instance instance instance (Ix a. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a. and inRange.a) > (a.Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range. index. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.. to an integer. inRange.. where ...a) > (a. The index operation maps a bounding pair.u) i == i ..u)] 169 . and a subscript.a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers. The Ix class contains the methods range. .when i is in range inRange (l..u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l.u) map index (range (l. The range operation enumerates all subscripts. .a) > (a.u)) == [0. index.... Ix b) .u) !! index (l.et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where .b) where where where where . . It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16)..
For an enumeration. whose constituent types are instances of Ix. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15. For example.3.Blue) index (Yellow. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.1.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow.Green. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow.e.170 CHAPTER 15.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive.Blue] 1 False .3).
u’) + index (l’.. i’ <...l2. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a. Ix a2. Ix ak) => Ix (a1. Ix b) => Ix (a.u’) i’ .range (l2..range (l.u2.l’)..(u1..l’). ..uk) ik Figure 15..i2.u2).lk)...lk)..i2.ik) = inRange (l1. && inRange (lk..(u1.uk)) = [(i1.i’) = inRange (l.u2. ik <.u2.uk) ik + rangeSize (lk......u1))) inRange ((l1.u).(u.b) where range ((l...uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1...i’)  i <.. index (l1...ak) where range ((l1.uk1) * ( .uk) * ( index (lk1...uk)) (i1...uk)) (i1.a2.l2..ik)  i1 <.instance (Ix a1.uk)] index ((l1...u’)) (i.u’) i’ inRange ((l...(u.u1).i’) = index (l.ik) = index (lk.(u.u’)] index ((l.15. ...u2) i2 && ....range (lk..u’)) = [(i.l2.Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: .lk)..u) i * rangeSize (l’...1..l’). i2 <.i2.range (l’.u) i && inRange (l’. ....(u1.u1) i1 && inRange (l2..1: Derivation of Ix instances .u’)) (i.range (l1.
as derived Ix () .fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.2). For example.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m.n) = [m.2) <= (2. inRange.n] = = = i . INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .index: Index out of range. b) .as derived.Ix b) => Ix (a.a) > [a] index :: (a.m error "Ix.a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a..but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.index: Index out of range. index.n] index b@(c.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.n) = [m.as derived Ix Ordering . rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.as derived .a) > Int rangeSize b@(l. (1.172 CHAPTER 15.n] index b@(m.(2." inRange (c.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci .1) .h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.n) i = [m. for all tuples Ix Bool .fails if the bounds are tuples.." inRange (m.m)  otherwise = error "Ix.n) index b@(m.index: Index out of range..a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.
ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !. .a) > [(a.a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a..c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.. a..a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a. array. bounds. accumArray.. assocs. Show b) Read a... indices.b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a. . . accum.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a. a.b)] > Array a b (a. .Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix.. 173 .a) > [(a. elems. (!).export all of Ix for convenience Array. a.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a. (//). Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where . listArray. // => Array a b = . :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => ... Ix b) => (a..b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a. ...Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a.
arrays are treated as data. in that order. and assocs. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound.10)). Figure 16.e. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. elems. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. in index order. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. in any dimension. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. ). An association (i. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. respectively. The array is undeﬁned (i. For example. not as general functions. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. accumArray. Thus. each of the index type of the array. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. The functions indices.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function. Typically.[2.. 16. . or associations. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list.1.(10.1).1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. Since most array functions involve the class Ix. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list.e.174 CHAPTER 16. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. then the array is legal. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. return lists of the indices. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. ). x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. ). elements.1) : [(i.100) ((1. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. in particular. Because the indices must be checked for these errors. If.10). but nonstrict in the values. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. i * a!(i1))  i <. An array may be created by the function array.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list. but empty. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. If any two associations in the list have the same index.e. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. 16. when applied to an array. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i.
Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. Num b) => (a. n by n matrix.n]] is the same matrix. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict. z)  i <. Thus.Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i.16. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function . unlike ordinary arrays.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a. 0)  i <. 1)  i<is.. (As with the array function. then accumArray is strict in the values. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES . accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive. if m is a 1origin.2. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. as for the array function. given a list of values of some index type. the second is an initial value. 16. in the association list. then m//[((i.range b] = bounds a 175 .[1. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. i)  i <.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a. For example.1: Array examples function. except with the diagonal zeroed. a!i * x)  i <.) For example.i). as well as the indices.range b]) 0 0 .range b] where b = bounds a . hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.
_)) = bounds x . ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !. elems.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a. respectively. ARRAYS .2: Derived array examples 16.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) .176 CHAPTER 16.u’) (\j>(i. (//). The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right. array.A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a.a) (a > b) deriving () . (!). // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones. assocs.export all of Ix Array. Ix b) => a > Array (a.(_. Figure 16.y)>x) Figure 16.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix.2 shows some examples. accum.u) (\i>(i. 16. .(u. listArray.l’).c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x. indices.j)) x where ((_. bounds.a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l.i)) x where ((l._).u’)) = bounds x . with the mapping that the original array embodies.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b. accumArray.
a) > [(a. Ix b) => (a. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where .c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.16. f) instance (Ix a.range b]) :: (Ix a.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array.indices a.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn . a ! f i)  i <.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.z)  i <. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.a) > [(a._) <.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.4.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.ivs. a!i)  i <. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.b)] = [(i.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i._) <.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.a!i)  i <.v) > a // [(i.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.v) <.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.
ARRAYS instance (Ix a. Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16. Read a.t) <.178 instance (Ix a. Show a. u)  ("array".lex r.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 .u) <.s) <. (b. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as. showChar ’ ’ .readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) . (as.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) . Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " .
179 .
zipWith. and. zip7. words. unfoldr.[]((:). scanr. genericDrop. foldr1. zip5. any. (++). sort. partition. (!!). foldl1. last. mapAccumL. intersect. zipWith7. product. insert. scanr1. transpose. replicate. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . takeWhile. iterate. unzip4. genericLength. maximumBy. zip. head. genericTake. scanl. cycle. (\\). or. foldr. take. tail. all.This is builtin syntax map. mapAccumR. reverse. . zipWith4. groupBy. group. zip4. drop. genericSplitAt. isSuffixOf. genericReplicate. dropWhile. unzip7. unlines. zip6. unionBy. break. nubBy. length. filter. intersperse. inits. concat. zip3. lines. repeat. []). isPrefixOf.180 CHAPTER 17..and what the Prelude exports . deleteBy. notElem. splitAt. sortBy. sum. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. unzip5. . unzip6. insertBy. lookup. zipWith3. find. intersectBy. findIndex. deleteFirstsBy. unzip. null. nub. elemIndices. findIndices. minimum. minimumBy. elem. span. zipWith6. union. genericIndex. init.. maximum. foldl. tails. unwords. concatMap.. zipWith5. scanl1. delete.
d.b.[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.[b].c.g)] > ([a].b.c.d.[b].[d].f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.b.[d].f. c)) > a > [b] > (a.b.[c].b.d.d. .[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.c.e.[b].e.c.c.e)] > ([a].d)] > ([a].181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].[f]) :: [(a.[c].[b].e.d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.d.[e]) :: [(a.c.[e]. c)) > a > [b] > (a.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[c].g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].b.[c].[d].[d]) :: [(a.c.d.c.[e].b.e.f)] > ([a].[f].[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.b. [c]) (a > b > (a.f. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.
e.4.6. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list.4] ‘intersect‘ [2. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative).4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument.3] = [1. For example: nub [1.182 CHAPTER 17. findIndex returns the corresponding index. findIndices returns a list of all such indices.3.1.. In the result of xs \\ ys.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence. 17. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. (\\).2. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates. giving the occurrences of val in list.g. if there is no such element. e.g.g. if any.4. e. nub removes duplicate elements from a list. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs. of val in list as Just index.4] .3.. [1. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys. union is list union. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list). "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. LIST UTILITIES 17. or Nothing.8] == [2. delete. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate..3.3. Thus. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type.
.3].6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate. "c".d. longest ﬁrst. filter (not . which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation.b. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M". adjacent elements.c. i. LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17. partition p xs == (filter p xs.[4."pp".. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order).e.g.5]. 17. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value. group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal. mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright.5."ab". tails "abc" == ["abc".3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument. e.17. transpose [[1.6]] == [[1. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function.""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn. e.. shortest ﬁrst.2.[2."ss". intersperse ’."a".[3. For example: ."i".e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list.’ "abcde" == "a.4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value.3."i"."i".g."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list.4]. "bc"."ss". respectively. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm. inits "abc" == ["".
deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\).6 The “By” operations By convention. .y) f’ z = Nothing 17. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. The library does not provide elemBy. deleteBy. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. f x)) In some cases. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. sufﬁx) of the second argument. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate.184 CHAPTER 17. elemIndices. sortBy. isPrefixOf. insertBy. For example. minimumBy. 17. maximumBy. groupBy. intersectBy. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. unionBy. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However.
genericIndex (the generic version of !!). genericTake. 5. 6. genericSplitAt. zip3.17. unzip. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. and zipWith3. . genericLength is a generalised version of length. For example. The List library provides these same three operations for 4.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. unzip3.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function.7. zipWith. The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. genericDrop. and 7 arguments. genericReplicate.
unlines. splitAt. concat. null. zip7. zipWith7. deleteFirstsBy. mapAccumL. deleteBy. transpose. isPrefixOf. zip4. unzip5. concatMap. foldl. scanr. unzip4. scanl. drop. group. (!!).. take.186 CHAPTER 17. find. zip. and. length. lines. nub. takeWhile. break.i) <. iterate. elem. cycle. []). sort. zipWith. maximumBy. unionBy. last. partition. union. repeat. inits. zipWith4.9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. genericDrop. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . zipWith3. lookup. all. insertBy. zip3. genericReplicate. intersperse. product. or.[]((:). LIST UTILITIES 17.This is builtin syntax map. scanl1. init. intersect. genericLength. span. sum. groupBy. zipWith6. notElem. scanr1..].and what the Prelude exports . unzip. replicate. minimum. sortBy. (++). unwords. unzip7. words. nubBy. maximum. genericTake. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. zip6. zipWith5. tails. dropWhile. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . tail. insert.. findIndex. zip5. minimumBy. delete. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . unzip6. intersectBy. mapAccumR. reverse. elemIndices. foldr. .. unfoldr. isSuffixOf. (\\). findIndices. genericIndex. genericSplitAt. any.zip xs [0. head. . foldr1. foldl1. filter.
xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.[5]] .17. filter (not . p) xs) ."i"."ss".Note that [h  (h:t) <.g.9. e.xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ .xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.3].2].5].[3.group "Mississippi" == ["M". LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <. adjacent .elements. .[2.[a]) = (filter p xs.transpose is lazy in both rows and columns. any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs .group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal."pp".4].."i"."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) .[]] = [[1. transpose [[1.xs."i"."ss".4.For example.
"bc". [c]) = (s. c)) > a > [b] > (a.e.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) . LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys. ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs.""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a. "c". shortest first.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a.tails xs returns the . c)) > a > [b] > (a.zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs.y:ys) where (s’. tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17. [c]) = (s. y:ys) where (s’’.b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a. ["".g."ab".b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert ..y ) = f s’ x (s’. longest first. []) = (s’’.. y ) = f s x (s’’."a". []) = (s’’.g.e. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) . ["abc".inits xs returns the .
[b]) = ([].[]) = = = (x:xs’.xs’’) error "List.genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.xs) = ([].genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].9.17.maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .
[].[].c.d) ˜(as.c..e)] = zipWith5 (.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.c....c..b.b.d..[b].[c].genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.....ds) > (a:as.f.[d]) = foldr (\(a.g)] = zipWith7 (.b.c.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17.d)] > ([a].b.f)] = zipWith6 (.e.c:cs.d.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a..cs.d:ds)) ([].[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.d.. LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.e..b.b.b:bs..c.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.bs.d)] = zipWith4 (.
c.e.es) > (a:as.d.g)] > ([a].d:ds.e:es.f:fs)) ([].[].b:bs.b.b.d.[e].c.c.[c].d.es.ds.ds.f:fs.[d].[e].bs.17.[].[b].f.bs.[e]) = foldr (\(a.[c].cs.d.e)] > ([a].[b].g) ˜(as.9.b.cs.c:cs.fs) > (a:as.bs.d.[].[]) unzip7 unzip7 .gs) > (a:as.[].ds.d.e.g:gs)) ([].e) ˜(as.c.[f]) = foldr (\(a.[].e:es.[].[c].[d].b.[g]) = foldr (\(a.[b].[].[].c:cs.d:ds.b:bs.[].d:ds.[f].e.c.cs.e.es.[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.c.e:es)) ([].[].f) ˜(as.b. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.[].f.[]) :: [(a.c:cs.f)] > ([a].[d].[].b:bs.fs.b.
192 CHAPTER 17. LIST UTILITIES .
193 . Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. maybeToList. fromMaybe. which would cause the expression to become monadic. and without using IOError from the IO monad. . mapMaybe...Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. listToMaybe. A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. fromJust. maybe ) where isJust. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. catMaybes. as would happen if error were used. Just). isNothing..
maybeToList. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not .. isNothing. map f . isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe.194 CHAPTER 18.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . listToMaybe..fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <. . fromJust.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. fromMaybe.. Just). catMaybes. mapMaybe. MAYBE UTILITIES 18.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.
toLower.. isSpace. isDigit. isLower. isControl. intToDigit.. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. isAlpha. isDigit. isOctDigit. isAlphaNum. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. For the purposes of Haskell. toUpper. and other printable characters. isAlpha. isPrint. String ) where isAscii. isLatin1. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library. isOctDigit. any 195 . showLitChar. ord. numeric digits. isLatin1. isSpace.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. digitToInt. isUpper. lexLitChar. isHexDigit. . lower case alphabetic. chr.and what the Prelude exports Char. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isLower. readLitChar.. isControl. isUpper. isHexDigit. other alphabetic. isPrint. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set.
leaving any other character unchanged. and title).. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. lower. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit.15. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. "Hello")] [(’\n’. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed.196 CHAPTER 19. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. isOctDigit.. For each sort of Unicode character.. .’f’.. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. Similarly. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions.e.’9’. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit. ’0’.’F’). intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char. leaving any other character unchanged. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n". and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. ’a’. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes. ’A’. CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. The function readLitChar does the same.
digitToInt: not a digit" . readLitChar. .fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c . isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" .fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. isPrint. lexLitChar. isDigit. toLower... isPrint..and what the Prelude exports Char. isSpace. isControl. isLatin1. isOctDigit. isAlphaNum. isHexDigit. isOctDigit.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower . ord.Charactertesting operations isAscii.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii.’A’.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . readOct. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19. import Numeric (readDec.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c .’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum .1.’Z’ . String ) where import Array . showLitChar. isLower. chr. .Source of primitive Unicode functions. isSpace. intToDigit. digitToInt. isAlpha.’a’.Used for character name table. isLatin1.. readHex) import UnicodePrims . isDigit. isUpper.19. isLower. isHexDigit.. isControl. lexDigits. isAlpha. toUpper. isUpper.
readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.s’)  (c.t) <.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys .table.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.10) error "Char.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.ord ’@’).readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum . s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.intToDigit: not a digit" . t)  (n.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c . t)  (n.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’. mne) <.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a]. t)  (n.t) <.s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’. ([].t) <.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.s’) <.
"ENQ". 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ .1.s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "US".s)] [] .s)] . "EM". "SYN". ’ ’) ["NUL". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’.c]. "GS". "DC3". "DLE". "SOH". "HT". s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t.s) = (c:t. "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". "DC1". "STX". "LF". protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f .Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "ACK". "SUB". "RS". "BEL". "FS". "FF". "ETB". "BS". "ETX".19. "VT". "DC2". "SO".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. "NAK". "SI". "CR". "CAN". "DC4". "ESC".
200 CHAPTER 19. CHARACTER UTILITIES .
201 .
c)) > [a] > m ([b]. mapM. zipWithM_. mplus).. sequence.. mapAndUnzipM. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. zipWithM. when.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). fail).. guard.202 CHAPTER 20. sequence_. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. . liftM4. Functor(fmap). msum. (>>). foldM. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . unless. filterM. join. (=<<). liftM. liftM3. ap. liftM5. mapM_. liftM2. return.
20. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . 20. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()).1. So. for example.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. and provides some useful operations on monads. Thus. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class.
putStrLn line) [1. For example. liftM2 (+) [0. the input list should be reversed.2. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure. and otherwise do nothing.1.f a1 x1 a3 <. . xm ] == do a2 <. The function arguments are scanned left to right. returning the result as a pair of lists. preﬁxing each line with its line number. x2.. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required.1] [0.. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. MONAD UTILITIES 20. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle..] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl. For example. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <. .3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations.f a2 x2 .. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True. foldM f a1 [x1.2] = [0. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad. The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions.204 CHAPTER 20.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. which promotes function application..3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator.. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. putStr ": ".
xn 205 . FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ ..3..20... ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 .
liftM. liftM3. ) where .206 CHAPTER 20. liftM2.The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . guard. unzip . zipWithM_. foldM..Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) . msum. Functor(fmap). mapM. (=<<). zipWithM.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. unless.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=).4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. ap. sequence_. (>>).. join. mapM_. sequence. [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . mplus). filterM. . liftM5. when. liftM4. fail).. return. mapAndUnzipM. MONAD UTILITIES 20.
d’ <. b’ <. b’ <. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <. ys <.b.b.e. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.p x.d.20. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } . b’ <.a. c’ <. b’ <.a.c. c’ <. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <. e’ <. c’ <.a.4.filterM p xs.c. d’ <.a.b. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.b.a.d. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <.c. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <.
208 CHAPTER 20. MONAD UTILITIES .
209 .
hPutChar. getContents. ioeGetHandle.. Show) stdin. putChar. isPermissionError.and what the Prelude exports IO. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . hWaitForInput.. interact. hClose. writeFile. getLine.. isUserError.RelativeSeek. ioeGetFileName.. hReady. IOMode(ReadMode. hIsClosed.. Enum. hGetPosn. putStr.. stdout.210 CHAPTER 21.SeekFromEnd). readFile.implementationdependent . . Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq. instance Eq Handle where . Ord. hPutStr.. readIO.ReadWriteMode). Ord. hIsWritable. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek. Ord. isEOF. hSeek. putStrLn. Bounded. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . HandlePosn. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . isDoesNotExistError.. hLookAhead. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. Bounded. Ix..implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. hIsEOF. bracket_. userError. isIllegalOperation.. appendFile. ioError.LineBuffering. hFlush. Read. catch. instance Eq HandlePosn where . bracket. hSetPosn. hIsReadable.implementationdependent . hGetChar. Enum. instance Show Handle where . isFullError. data HandlePosn = . isAlreadyInUseError.implementationdependent . hSetBuffering. hGetLine.. print. stdin. hFileSize. stderr. FilePath. hIsSeekable. ioeGetErrorString.WriteMode. stdout.BlockBuffering). isEOFError. Read. hIsOpen.AppendMode. isAlreadyExistsError. getChar. hGetBuffering. hPutStrLn. IOError. BufferMode(NoBuffering. hGetContents. openFile. try. Read. Ix. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. hPrint..
This library contain more advanced I/O features. Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. Some related operations on ﬁle systems .211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report.
This is an abstract type. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value.212 are contained in the Directory library. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. and False otherwise. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. CHAPTER 21. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. and Nothing otherwise. All these functions return a Bool. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. which is already being used (for example. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). The bracket function captures a common allocate. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. the string is implementationdependent. compute. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . for all other errors.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. In some cases. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail.
directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. and normally reside on disk. Physical ﬁles are persistent. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). likewise. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both. or enabled on a line or block basis. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel.2. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. whether the object is seekable. or any other object recognised by the operating system. whether it is open. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. although it could in fact be a communication channel. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. a buffer (whose length may be zero). closed or semiclosed. 21. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. whether buffering is disabled.21. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. represented by values of type Handle. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. For simplicity. ordered ﬁles. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. Files can be opened. In some implementations. . yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. These handles are initially open. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. File and directory names are values of type String. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects.2.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
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21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
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21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
¥
Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
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If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
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Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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SeekFromEnd: the position of
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CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT
to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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21.10.9. 21. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 21. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion .9. the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § .10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § . 21. EXAMPLES 219 21. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for .10. blocking until a character is available. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline.21. which is made semiclosed.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer.9.
the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.10.220 import IO CHAPTER 21.x2 readNum = readLn 21.getArgs h1 <.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer . INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.f2] <.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase. using string I/O is: . This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <. This version uses characterlevel I/O. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.
LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.before rs <.21. Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.getArgs s <.export list omitted } where .try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .f2] <. try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.f return (Right r)) (return .before rs <.11.actions that IO exports.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.11 Library IO module IO {.
INPUT/OUTPUT .222 CHAPTER 21.
223 .
> > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . doesDirectoryExist.. getPermissions.. getCurrentDirectory. executable.. renameDirectory. . writable. doesFileExist.. setCurrentDirectory. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. searchable ). setPermissions. renameFile. . writable. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where . executable. createDirectory.. getDirectoryContents.. removeDirectory. readable.224 CHAPTER 22. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. ... removeFile.
inaccessible. renaming to an existing directory. it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. it is atomically replaced by the directory. or may not be in use by other processes). The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to .” under POSIX). If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. in particular. all other permissible errors are described below. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes).. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ .” or “. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. or have some administrative function (for instance. however. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. or across different physical devices).). removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . In some operating systems. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. Entries in subdirectories are not.1. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. removes an existing directory . Error reporting. directory etc. Error reporting. If the object already exists. Some entries may be hidden. removal of the root directory). it is atomically replaced by the object. the directory has to be empty. A directory contains a series of entries. If the directory already exists. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. Note that. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. but the constraints must be documented. as described in Section 21. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. “. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. considered to form part of the directory contents. The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance.
The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. makeReadable f = do p <. a construct on the following lines must be used. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. not as an absolute path. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. respectively. but not all permissions. Note that to change some. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. Each entry in the changes . The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. the executable ﬁeld will be False. doesFile(Directory)Exist. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . and False otherwise. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. but not to examine the directory contents. and False otherwise. Error reporting.226 CHAPTER 22. Error reporting. ¦ ¦ . getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. but the constraints must be documented. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. Error reporting. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. For directories. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. renaming across different physical devices). get(set)Permissions. Error reporting. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.
. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory.227 does not exist.
DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .228 CHAPTER 22.
Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). as described in Section 21. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. getProgName. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. getArgs. Ord. 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). all other permissible errors are described below. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . ExitSuccess indicates successful termination.1. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. exitWith. If variable is undeﬁned.ExitFailure). system. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. getEnv. Read. Note that. In particular. in particular. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value .
¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. could not recover. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. returning to the program’s caller. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. Otherwise.230 CHAPTER 23. Before the program terminates.
231 .
tdMonth. instance Eq ClockTime where .. tdMin.Wednesday.Saturday). ctSec.September.Friday. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear.May.November. tdMin. ctIsDST). instance Ord ClockTime where . Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. Day. Read. Show) . TimeDiff(TimeDiff.March. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . getClockTime. Integer. ctMin.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. Day(Sunday. Bounded. tdDay. tdDay.. ctYDay. Enum. diffClockTimes. Ix.June.August. Read. ctHour. toUTCTime. Int. Ord. String.October. Enum. Bounded. Int. ctPicosec. tdYear. calendarTimeToString.. addToClockTime. tdHour. ctDay. tdSec. Read. toCalendarTime. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. Ord. Int. July. . Month(January. Ord. tdPicosec). tdSec :: Int. ctMin. toClockTime.. tdMonth. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. Month. ctTZName. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay.February. Ix. Read.232 CHAPTER 24.Monday. ctWDay.December). ctMonth. ctYear. Ord.April. tdHour. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime..Tuesday.Thursday.. ctHour. ctTZ.
Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. Because of this dependence on the local environment.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). used for the system’s internal clock time. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion.233 . The returns difference may be either positive or negative. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. ClockTime is an abstract type. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. including timezone information. and False otherwise. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time.
instance Ord ClockTime where .defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = .April. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. ctPicosec. Enum.Friday. Ix. ctTZ. Ix. tdDay. tdMin.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. toCalendarTime. ctIsDST).234 § CHAPTER 24. ctTZName.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime. diffClockTimes. getClockTime. Enum. t © S§ 24. ctDay. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format. Read. . tdMonth. Bounded. Read. tdSec.Wednesday. ctYear.September.. addToClockTime. tdYear. toClockTime. . ctMonth. and ﬁelds.November. July..August.October. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string. . ctHour.. Bounded.Tuesday.. ctWDay. toUTCTime. tdPicosec).. CalendarTime(CalendarTime.March. Month(January.Monday.Saturday). TimeDiff(TimeDiff. instance Eq ClockTime where .Thursday. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § . toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the .February. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(..May. ctSec.December). tdHour.. calendarTimeToString. Day(Sunday. Ord. ctMin. Ord. ctYDay.).June.
tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. Ord. Read... Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. ctMin. .. > ClockTime > ClockTime .. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = . :: ClockTime = .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . tdDay. :: ClockTime = . tdMin.... tdHour. LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay..Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . tdMonth.. Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. . Ord..Implementationdependent > CalendarTime . Int. Month. Read. tdSec :: Int. :: ClockTime = .1.24. Int.Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = . Day. Integer. ctHour. String.. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime . Int..
.fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week. .236 CHAPTER 24.Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 . DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec ..1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . days) = (yday + 7 .
show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10). intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’. show2’. LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 . intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 .1.1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2.24.if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
At present. Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. 239 . String)].Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. amPm :: (String.).. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. dateTimeFmt. it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library. months :: [(String. String). Ord. dateFmt. timeFmt. String)].
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. or by supplying a seed from some other source. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. . AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation.Default method genRange g = (minBound. 27. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. For example.1 The RandomGen class. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points). or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. g) split :: g > (g. and a new generator. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. g) . and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS.27. This is very useful in functional programs (for example. ¦ ¡ ¡ . then .Int) next :: g > (Int.4] are the only examples we know of). but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. – genRange – If genRange .1.
. then g1 and g2 should be independent. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. by mapping an Int into a generator. Programmers may. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... In addition. of course. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g.. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g.3]. In general. Until more is known about implementations of split.. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . split g = (g. Implementation warning. The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed). instance Read StdGen where . all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. It is required that read (show g) == g. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string. .246 CHAPTER 27. supply their own instances of RandomGen. variantOf g) Here.. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator.. . the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = ... Again. instance Show StdGen where ..
. .g’) = random g randomRs = . . ... – For Integer.. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 . g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a.2. – For bounded types (instances of Bounded. together with a new generator. the range is normally the whole type. and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval . random does the same as randomR. a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a. THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27... randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where . . a) > g > (a. The plural versions.. but does not take a range. the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int. – For fractional types. produce an inﬁnite list of random values.a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a . . and do not return a new generator. randomRs and randoms..27. randomR takes a range and a random number generator . For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced.similar.2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand.. g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a... depending on the implementation and the interval... such as Char). It is unspeciﬁed what happens if ...Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x. but they may be. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a.. .
and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. July 1998. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. Oct 1988. respectively. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). use the global random number generator (see Section 27.3 The global random number generator There is a single. and KW Miller.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. Comm ACM. pp8788. “Distributed random number generation”. For example. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions.3). . To get deterministic behaviour. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. and returns the other. or Linux’s kernel random number generator. “Random number generators . [2] SK Park. The Web site http://random. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. [3] DG Carta.mat.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. [4] P Hellekalek. pp11921201. 2(2):203212. for example. updates it with one of the results. setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. 33(1).248 CHAPTER 27. 27. implicit. Journal of Functional Programming. by using the time of day. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. April 1992.at/ is a great source of information.ac. global random number generator of type StdGen. use setStdGen. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. randomRIO and randomIO. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. Comm ACM 31(10). Jan 1990. pp8289.sbg.
J. Milner. Addison Wesley. Austin. 1958. Amsterdam. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. [11] Unicode Consortium. N. Yale University. [2] H. 2000. Combinatory Logic. January 1995. [3] L. [12] P. 2002. San Francisco. 5(1). January 1982. Jr. 146:29–60.B. September 1981. Jones. [7] Mark P. 21(8):613–641. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Peyton Jones. August 1978. Principal type schemes for functional programs. pages 248–256. Hudak. 1987. Fasel.Bibliography [1] J. Paris. pages 207–212. Englewood Cliffs. MA. [9] P. Backus. Texas. A gentle introduction to Haskell. and J.0.R. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. Blott. Typing Haskell in Haskell. New Jersey. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. pages 60–76. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901.M. [10] S. [8] Mark P. May 1996. Haskell Workshop. Wadler and S. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. Hindley. Penﬁeld. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. Damas and R.. Version 3. December 1969. Feys.L. October 1999. The Unicode Standard. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. Journal of Functional Programming. [6] P. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. January 1989.. CACM. Albuquerque. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. 249 . Jones. Peterson. NorthHolland Pub. [4] KF. Reading. Co. Curry and R. e [5] J. PrenticeHall International. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
175–177 /=. 81. 206 apat. 55. 173. 233. 186. 129 any. 55. 92. 55. 109 ==. 55. 142 :. 62 and. 173. 55. 106 addToClockTime. 173. 30 <. 81. 80 :+. 104. 139 algebraic datatype. 55. 104. 126 AppendMode. see function application operator. !. 153 &&. 105. 119 ANYseq. 141 all. 31. 235 aexp. 175. 109 ˆˆ. 110 $!. 81. 140 appendFile. 90.Index font. 9. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 91. 202. 110 /. 142 <=. 91. 104. 115 . 104. 104. 90. 76 accum. 9. 80 (. 139 ambiguous type. 109 >>=. 129 ap. 106 acosh. 88. 19 function. 177 acos. 82. 12 \t. 79. 55. 20–23. 9. 12 \n. 104. 177 !!. 139 alts. 109 _. 55. 84. 90. 92. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 104. 55. 91. 91. 43. 104. 151. 51. 119 ANY. 110 ˜. see lambda abstraction \&. 105 **. 12 \r. 88. 156 ::. 97. 25. 142 >>.). 55. 55. 92. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 104. 91. 173. 110 %. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 104. 55. 104. 84. 55. 12 \v. 88. 151. 104. 110 (. 12 . 116 $. 129 any. 174. see aspattern [] (nil). 104. 80 (). 91. 16. 55. 91. 91. 177 accumArray. 84. 55. 84. 109 @. 55. 80 \\. 82. 104. 142 >=. 230 ˆ. 106 //. 55. 115. 105. 91. 45. 12 \\.). 142 =<<. 180. 97. 104.. 182 \a. 90. 44. 119 alt. 55. 66 abs.. 12 \f. 92. see also + pattern ++. 187 \. 67. 12 \b. 104. 55. 104. see also negation . 25. 55. 176. 55. 217 abstract datatype. 97. 214 application. 17. 104. 93. see trivial type and unit expression *. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 79. 106 +. 104. 104. see wildcard pattern . 155. 55. see operator application approxRational. 104. 91. 142 >. 174.
39. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 129 ascSmall.252 arithmetic operator. 105 derived instance. 155. 80 Array (datatype). 230 catMaybes. 91. 176 array. 90 arithmetic sequence. 136 Bool (datatype). 136 cntrl. 18. 221 break. 38. 66. 33 ascDigit. 174. 79 Bounded (class). 12 character set ASCII. 155. 235 case expression. 18. 93. 176. 118 btype. 93 comment. 173. 177 aspattern (@). 197. 48 class environment. 69. 129 closing a ﬁle. 7 ascLarge. 195. 9 nested. 161. 215 closure. 40. 9. 9 endofline. see pattern binding simple pattern. 174. 155. 115 conditional expression. 91. 142 Complex (module). 174. 12. 194 cdecl. 25 INDEX catch. 106 atype. 173. 11. 106 assocs. 173 accumulated. 197 array. 156 con. 48. 17. 129 asin. 130 ASCII character set. 92. 235 calendarTimeToString. 130 chr. 211. 9. 10. 137 ceiling. 84. 115 concatMap. 140 . 130 character. 12. 143 instance for Char. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 12. 161. 130 conjugate. 91. 37 function. 233. 226 Char (datatype). 173. 232. 114 atan. 42 class method. 93. 47. 17. 221 bracket_. 234 char. 137 cdecls. 174 Array (module). 232. 9 comment. 104. 108 atanh. 38. 110 Char (module). 177 bracket. 140 concat. 125. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 79. 9. see ASCII character set transparent. 130 coercion. 156 class. see transparent character set charesc. 21 conid. 92. 31. 110 boolean. 129 ascSymbol. 38. 47 class. 234 closecom. see simple pattern binding body. 106 atan2. 49 clock time. 195. 89. 95 binding. 9. 156 conop. 41. 40. 51. 47. 137 basic input/output. 47. 91. 9. 129 compare. 98. 38. 111 bounds. 211. 9. 41 class declaration. 121. 177 asTypeOf. 107 changing the directory. 79 literal syntax. 74 cname. 193. 12. 23. 137 class assertion. 129 ascii. 67 with an empty where part. 173. 79. 106 asinh. 198 cis. 174 derived. see function binding pattern.
106 cosine. 38. 232. 26. 141. 226 curry. 106 divMod. 81. 110 constr. see data declaration recursive. 224 Double (datatype). 232. 115. see instance declaration within a class declaration. see data declaration default. 130 decl. see class declaration datatype. 195. 180. 224 div. 93. 137 context reduction. 47 within a let expression. 182. 186 elemIndices. 129 digitToInt. 51. 187 deleting directories. 239. 38. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 106 cosh. 93. see import declaration instance. 49 declaration group. 59 cos. 145 default declaration. see also instance declaration deriving. 235 ctHour. 104. 138 decimal. 117 dashes. 224 doesFileExist. 91. 180. 10. 97 doDiv. 92. see algebraic datatype declaration. 180. 43 data declaration. 41 context. 81. 182. 80. 137 decodeFloat. 11. 58 decls. 130 context. 173. 224. 9. 234 dclass. see ﬁxity declaration import. 224 Directory (module). 41. 240 dateTimeFmt. 106 do expression. 40 consym. 92. 114 Curry. 56. 55. see newtype declaration dateFmt.INDEX const. 50. 225 creating a ﬁle. 138 diffClockTimes. 235 ctIsDST. 214 ctDay. 137 declaration. 240 delete. 186 elems. 112 drop. 232. 235 current directory. 184. 235 ctMin. 89. Haskell B. 213. 108 default class method. 58 derived instance. 111 elem. 240 Day (datatype). 43. 90. 233. 174. 129 data constructor. 119 elemIndex. 9. 93 CPU time. 43. 241 CPUTime (module). 225 deleting ﬁles. 55. 91. 138 constructor class. 235 digit. 232. 239. see abstract datatype algebraic. 180. 38 constructor expression. 111 either. 27. 37 class. 118 dropWhile. 43. 197 directories. 239. 184.. 232. 241 createDirectory. 182. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 91. 138 constrs. 108 . 167 Either (datatype). see recursive datatype renaming. 43 datatype. vii cycle. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 187 deleteBy. 151. 24 within an instance declaration. 180. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 225 denominator. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 43 abstract. 153 dependency analysis. 43. 81. 91. 92. 118 e. 177 encodeFloat. 48.
30. 67. 142 instance for Char. 86. 212 False. 138 ﬁle. 207 find. 86. 229 . 51. 104 derived instance. 43. 111 instance for Double. 99. 33 floatRadix. 24–26. 97. 229 exitFailure. 91. 17 error. see class environment type. 215 entity. 92. 81. 113 instance for Float. 229 exitWith. 105 superclass of Ord. 180. 88. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 108 Floating (class). 86. 109. 105 enumFromThenTo. see label. 114. 213 ﬁle buffering. 136 export list. 93. 108 exception handling. 48. 182. 186 ﬁxity. 29 ﬁelddecl. 89. 139 exp. 92. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 89. 16. 125 filter. 92. 177 instance for Char. 16. 92. 105 enumFromTo. 28 selection. 112 ﬂoat. 105 enumFromThen. 108 exponentiation. 229 ExitFailure. 15 case. 202. 67. 81 Eq (class). 106 enumeration. 130 even. 4. 17. 163 f. 98 executable. 93. 108 floatToDigits. 110 superclass of Num. 54. 82. 154 superclass of Integral. 4. see unit expression expression typesignature. 164 ﬁeld label. 167 fail. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 142 instance for Array. 51. 186 findIndex. 49. 12. see type expression unit. 136 v INDEX expression. 215 ﬁle system. 229 EQ. see case expression conditional. see type environment environment variables. 105 environment class. 27 update. 51. 79 fbind. 108 floatRange. 106 instance for Complex. 44 construction. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 229 ExitSuccess. 115 filterM. 186 findIndices. 86. 105 derived instance. 86. 12 floatDigits. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 30. 91. 93. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 106 exponent. see conditional expression let. 19. 91 export. 52 expt. 162 expts. 19. 139 fexp. 113 instance for Ratio. 170 enumFrom.254 end of ﬁle. 38. 224 execution time. 21. 28. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 139 exp. 230 escape. 54 flip. 92. 18 ﬁxity. see simple case expression type. 91. 159. 104 error. 66 exports. 16. 65 Enum (class). 180. see let expression simple case. 110 Float (datatype). 89. 180. 94.
9. 18. 130 hexit. 92. 189 genericTake. 81 function binding.INDEX floor. 217 fmap. 177 instance for IO. 140 Fractional (class). 81 gtycon. 224. 86. 162 fromRational. 90. 94. vii. 125 getClockTime. 25. 18. 91. 96. 193. 235 getContents. 41 functional language. vii Functor (class). 210 handles. 181. 187 groupBy. 219 getArgs. 87 funlhs. 189 genericIndex. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 111 instance for Maybe. 224. 92. 25. 91. 89. 114 function. 25. 138 gendecl. 159. 80. 18. 210. 113 instance for Array. 181. 225 getEnv. 87. 206 Handle (datatype). 162 fromRat’. 105 fromInteger. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 181. 244. 55. 202. 92. 244. 190 genericLength. 233. 181. 184. 49. 106 instance for Complex. 109 instance for []. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 40. 91. 194 fromMaybe. 34 guard. 129 255 . 9. 125 getCPUTime. 3 formatCalendarTime. 93. 40. 176 foldl. 165 formfeed. 47. 96. 96. 181. 153 superclass of Floating. 244. 4 hClose. 12. 111 functor. 229 getLine. 129 group. 181. 137 guard. 181. 190 genericSplitAt. 38. 189 genericReplicate. 3 Haskell kernel. 18. 193. 108 gcon. 138 gap. 248 graphic. 129 fpat. 188 GT. 140 gconsym. 215 head. 181. 229 getChar. 189 genRange. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 23. 11. 42 generator. 138 gdpat. 117 formal semantics. 18 gd. 105 fromIntegral. 117 foldr1. 207 foldr. 224 getProgName. 116 foldM. 115 hexadecimal. 23 genericDrop. 130 gcd. 91. 225 getDirectoryContents. 202. 54. 109 fromJust. 140 fpats. 139 gdrhs. 248 getStdRandom. 229 getStdGen. 31. 90. 116 foldl1. 183. 137 generalization. 194 fromRat. 31. 106 fst. 9. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 233. 56. 157 instance for Ratio. 125 getModificationTime. 59 generalization preorder. 56 function type. 87. 224 getPermissions. 109. 213 Haskell. 56. 107 fromEnum. 236 formatRealFloat.
219 hPutChar. 169. 211. 212 isJust. 214. 92. 173. 138 instance declaration. 98. 69 impspec. 211. 187 intersperse. 4. 197 isIllegalOperation. 163 Integral (class). 12 integer literal pattern. 195.256 hFileSize. 218 hIsWritable. 9 ifthenelse expression. 211. 211. 212 id. 49 Int (datatype). 38. 219 inRange. 57 isAlpha. 125 IOMode (datatype). 137 identiﬁer. 69. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 96. 211. 211. 211. 110 idecl. 188 insertBy. 212 ioeGetFileName. 218 hIsReadable. 211. 211. 187 intersectBy. 218 I/O. 116 inits. 197 isAlphaNum. 215 isAscii. 215 hFlush. 169. 214 irrefutable pattern. 171. 211. 212 isFullError. 210 I/O errors. 211. 189 inst. 137 idecls. 195. 181. 69. 217 hGetChar. 193. 210 input/output examples. 184. 217 hiding. 219 hPrint. 219 hPutStr. 217 hWaitForInput. 210. 181. 195. 136 import declaration. 34. 218 hGetPosn. 106 interact. 125. 181. 81. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 194 . 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 112 Integer (datatype). 212. 218 hGetContents. 50. 174. 147 INDEX input/output. 111 IO (module). 218 hSeek. 155. 38. 184. 171. 211 hReady. 38. 181. 58 hIsClosed. 91. 71 with an empty where part. 218 hIsEOF. 195. 211. 112 integer. 216. 49. 198 IO. 211. 126 intersect. 183. 211. 183. 219 hGetLine. 211. 69. 33 integerLogBase. 211. 156 impdecl. 49. 49. 195. 211. 136 index. 195. 218 hIsSeekable. 211. 211. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 92. 217 hSetBuffering. 215 isEOF. 33. 212 isHexDigit. 215 hIsOpen. 219 hPutStrLn. 212. 172 insert. 49. 211. 81. 183. 218 hLookAhead. 24. 211. 211. 136 impdecls. 177 init. 181. 211. 216 hSetPosn. 197 isControl. 210. 181. 81. 211. 172 indices. 211. 212 ioError. 210 IO (datatype). 197 isDoesNotExistError. 211. 211. 212 ioeGetHandle. 215 isEOFError. 188 inlining. 217 hGetBuffering. 136 import. 89. 211. 211. 182. 89. 211. 187 intToDigit. 211. 197 isDigit. 211. 212 IOError (datatype). 66. 195. see conditional expression imagPart.
27 lambda abstraction. 129 last. 31. 91. 232. 109 mapMaybe. 64 kind inference. 12. 181. 129 literal pattern. 40. 169. 168 lexeme. 156 Main (module). 197 isLower. 189 Maybe (datatype). 183. 9. 116 layout. 207 liftM5. 50. 88. 26 in list comprehensions. 139 libraries. 177 listToMaybe. 45. 194 literal. 197 isNothing. 195. 40. 7 lexLitChar. 180. 186 list. 173. 41 listArray. 193. 172. 106 logarithm. 195. 122 lexDigits. 32 literate comments. 129 lexical structure. 206 mapM. 194 mapM_. 197 isSpace. 127 maximum. 183. 80 list comprehension. 195. 23 lex. 202. 173. 130. 195. 91. 239 log. 197 isPermissionError. 202. 173. 212 iterate. 176. 16. 81 length. see also offside rule lcm. 234. 176. 202. 21. 207 liftM4. 117 Ix (class). 91. 172 instance for Int. 202. 109 Left. 193. 89. 197 isSuffixOf. 104. 207 v 257 liftM2. 80 list type. 171. 88. 13. 9. 207 linear pattern. 65 main. 188 isPrint. 44. 159. 234 ixmap. 19. 19 large. 84. 202. 81 magnitude. 184. 199 . 225 map. 64 label. 115 mapAccumL. 92. 181. 119 maximumBy. 181. 81. 24 in do expressions. 119 . 45. 210. 86. 177 join. 118 List (module). 116 let expression. 188 isUpper. 176. 31. 56 linearity. 207 liftM3. 202. 169. 181. 140 LT. 202. 9. 172 Ix (module). 40. 81 kind. 195. 172 derived instance. 239. 109 match. 105. 50. 197 isUserError. 240 locale. 170 instance for Char. 212. 215 isPrefixOf. 198 max. 211. 142 maxBound.INDEX isLatin1. 219 lookup. 9. 134 Locale (module). 155. 39. 19. 106 lookahead. 143 maximal munch rule. 44. 206 Just. 211. 188 mapAccumR. 31. 92 magnitude. 174. 193. 181. 65 making directories. 194 isOctDigit. 172 instance for Integer. 195. 23. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 56 lines. 91 logBase. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 74 liftM. 195.
9. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 18. 38. 225 moving ﬁles. 187 null. 143 minimum. 111 instance for Maybe. 105 instance for Complex. 206 instance for Maybe. 79. 246 mod. 11. 105 ord. 194 maybe. 115. 52. 55. 193. 32. 51. 113 octal. 129 openFile. 206 monad. 225 mplus. 194 method. see qualiﬁed name special. 10. 17. 232. 91. 19. 155. 104. 244. 202. 140 opencom. 214 operating system commands. 81. 186 nubBy. 206 instance for []. 181. 55. 159. 105. 10 ncomment. 130. 54. see class method min. 198 Ordering (datatype). 26. 91. 33. 184. 11 translation of literals. 129 odd. 106 superclass of Real. 197 numeric type. 11. 32–34. 214 opening a ﬁle. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 151. 189 mkPolar. 91. 153 superclass of Fractional. 136 module. 61 Month (datatype). 104. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 116 Num (class). 90. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 20 newconstr. 90 numericEnumFrom. 153 superclass of Real. 180. 108 offside rule. 54.258 Maybe (module). 16. 129 newStdGen. 202. 137 or. 178 instance for Char. 119 minimumBy. 121. 19 ops. 206 msum. 136 Monad (class). 111 maybeToList. 245 nonnull. 119 Nothing. 5. 84. 9. 34. 244. 130 octit. 27. 109 instance for []. 142 minBound. 112 ¢ ¦ . 84. 234 moving directories. 182. 81. see also layout op. 60. 89. 105 number. 119 Ord (class). 9. 89 literal syntax. 66. 61 monomorphism restriction. 195. 168 not. 57 name qualiﬁed. 9. 206 monomorphic type variable. 106 modid. 193. 248 newtype declaration. 90. see special name namespaces. 89. 13. 88. 66. 18 numerator. 142 instance for Array. 105 negation. 244. 129 negate. 91. 230 operator. 153 Numeric (module). 46. 104 derived instance. 206 mzero. 206 + pattern. 184. 156 mkStdGen. 110 notElem. 46 INDEX next. 161. 19. 88. 206 Monad (module). 19 operator application. 95 MonadPlus (class). 202. 81 nub. 157 instance for Ratio. 9. 210. 138 newline. 65 module. 89. 202. 113 instance for IO. 111 instance for Ratio. 186. 202. 180.
151 Ratio (module). 229 program name. 54 polymorphism. 244. 96. 244. 229 program structure. 125 product. 91. 156 polling a handle for input. 155. 18. 140 qconsym. 247 randomR. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 106 qvar. 91. 25. 244. 103. 125 PreludeList (module). 153. 31. 151. 51 partition. 187 . 161 Rational (type synonym). 11. 247 randomRs. 11. 140 qvarid. 103. 151. 30 @. 244 random. 130 qconop. 107 putChar. 140 qconid. see also ﬁxity pred. 125 putStrLn. 247 randomRIO. 43. 115 PreludeText (module). see linear pattern + . 125 qcon. 121 principal type. 23. 147 precedence. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 96. 75 Prelude (module). 90. 244. 3 properFraction. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 140 pat. 11. 155. 130 qvarop. 75. 171. 169. see wildcard pattern constructed. 247 range. 125 PreludeIO (module). 225 pattern. 143 instance for [a]. 247 random access ﬁles. 38 overloaded pattern. 11. 213 pi. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 11. 55. 91. 18. 11. 106 quotRem. 110 overloaded functions. 181. 129 v 259 program arguments. 140 qvarsym. 245 randomIO. 51. 57 patternmatching. 85. 103. 125 putStr. 96. see patternmatching overloading. 18. 70. 130 qtycon. 96. 224 phase. 140 qtycls. 53 print.INDEX otherwise. 104. see irrefutable pattern linear. 31. 42. 121 derived instance. see + pattern refutable. 140 path. see aspattern _. 9. 119 program. 218 polymorphic recursion. 156 physical ﬁle. 169. 130 Random (class). 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 172 Ratio (datatype). 217 RandomGen. 93. 41 quot. 172 rangeSize. 247 Random (module). 247 randoms. 72 qualiﬁer. 151 Read (class). 79. 103. 18. 34 Permissions (datatype). see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 130 qual. 103. 11. 244. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 153 rational numbers. 171. 92. 139 qualiﬁed name. 18. 19. 23 quantiﬁcation. 47 defaults. 106 polar. 244. 30 overloaded constant. 183. 124 instance for Array. 130 qop. 4 pragmas.
92. 91. 123 instance for Float. 214 separate compilation. 10. 46 refutable pattern. 225 renaming ﬁles. 130 return. 164 readIO. 85. 224. 137 searchable. 110 sequence. 109 reverse. 159. 164 readParen. 88. 123 instance for Int. 226 Show (class). 10. 119 . 124 instance for Double. 156 realToFrac. 225 removing directories. 81 round. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 164 readEsc. 159. 159. 130 reservedop. 104. 107 roundTo. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 163 readsPrec. 224. 164 reading a directory. 85. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 155. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 224 readDec. 123 instance for Ratio. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 214 Real (class). 226 reading from a ﬁle. 104. 153 superclass of Integral. 121 derived instance. 105 instance for Ratio. 139 rhs. 138 Right. 92. 85. 91. 166 . 117 scontext. 224. 159. 159. 214 readFloat. 126 ReadMode. 198 readFile. 122 readSigned. 122 readable. 218 readInt. 159. 76 seq. 162 scanl. 92. 56. 10. 96. 20. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 106 recursive datatype. 92. 51. 89. 121. 123 instance for Integer. 126 readList. 224 setStdGen. 85. 85. 108 RealFrac (class). 225 renaming directories. 55. 121. 225 removing ﬁles. 198 readLn. 88. 109 sequence_. 81. 93. 195. 31. 225 setPermissions. 90. 225 renameDirectory. 224. 91. 94. 224 section. 248 setting the directory. 244. 116 scanl1. 93. 107 instance for Ratio. 217 rem. 126. 224.260 instance for Char. 86. 96. 117 replicate. 88. 154 read. 117 reservedid. 97. 143 ReadWriteMode. 16. 217 semantics formal. 214 readOct. 107 RealFloat (class). 168 readHex. 33 RelativeSeek. 108 realPart. 225 renameFile. 116 scanr. 121 reads. 109 recip. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 92. 143 readLitChar. 85. 106 removeDirectory. 225 removeFile. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 143 instance for [a]. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 225 repeat. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 210. 117 scanr1. 108 scaleRat. 86.
215 small. 159. 106 size of ﬁle. 45. 163 showInt.INDEX instance for Array. 210. 199 showOct. 124 instance for Double. 80. 229 tab. see type signature signdecl. 245 splitAt. 123 instance for Float. 86. 163 showIntAtBase. 46. 62 simpleclass. 122 sign. 235 tdMonth. 9. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 121 shows. 195. 164 showFFloat. 188 sortBy. 210. 117 takeWhile. 93 tanh. 85. 12 transparent. 235 261 . 91. 129 span. 210. 232. 235 tdMin. 85. 246 stdin. 80. 12. 123 instance for Int. 123 instance for Ratio. 164 showGFloat. 26. 163 showList. 188 take. 143 showString. 45 strictness ﬂags. 92. 164 showHex. 91. 122 showEFloat. 118 tan. 163 showsPrec. 85. 237 show2’. 237 showChar. 26. 74. 41. 129 tail. 48. 138 sin. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 232. 244. 183. 49 symbol. 130 subtract. 159. 9. 181. 118 sqrt. 181. 164 showFloat. 178 instance for Char. 159. 108 signum. 137 simpletype. 183. 106 standard handles. 129 snd. 129. 127 System (module). 129 split. 85. 85. 232. 237 show3. 57. 213 StdGen (datatype). 235 tdPicosec. 106 sine. see also Prelude stderr. 139 strictness ﬂag. 229 system. 114 sort. 130 synonym. 92. 159. 213 standard prelude. 105 show. 181. 232. 82 String (type synonym). 121. 121. 115 tails. 244. 108 succ. 235 tdHour. 93 sinh. 188 space. 159. 9. 43. 86. 159. 53 significand. see transparent string string. 163 showParen. 139 stmts. 154 superclass of Num. see type synonym syntax. 159. 79 literal syntax. 121 show2. 232. 122 showSigned. 213 stdout. 118 special. 94. 9. 91. 92 signature. 143 showLitChar. 106 tangent. 213 stmt. 91. 184. 111 string. 119 superclass. 159. 91. 210 instance for Integer. 91. 159. 105 sum. 106 tdDay. 9. 105 simple pattern binding.
41. 17. 119 until. 53 for an expression. 92. 103. 197 uniDigit. 187 unionBy. 235 transpose. 206 unlines. 181. 240 to12. 130 uncurry. 106 toLower. 81 True. 41 tycls. 120 unzip4. 9. 46 tyvar. 38. 191 userError. 86. 49. 22 uniWhite. 40 type renaming. 182. 130 varop. see newtype declaration type signature. 66. 49 value. 232. 198 toUTCTime. 221 tuple. 40. 4 var. 38. 107 try. 10. 11. see tuple type type. 11. 114 unfoldr. see numeric type principal. 43 type environment. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 114 undefined. 114 unwords. 130 type. 187 trigonometric function. 187 uniSmall. 93. 232. 43 topdecl (default). 130 tycon. 129 unless. 181. 140 . 93 trivial type. 137 type class. 140 varid. see monomorphic type numeric. 235 terminating a program. see function type list. 91. 224. 42 type expression. 232. 129 uniLarge. 40. 235 toEnum. 81. see class type constructor. 198 topdecl (class). 239. 41. 79 truncate. 233. see expression typesignature type synonym. 4. see trivial type tuple. 42 ambiguous. 93. 191 unzip7. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 45 topdecl. 105 toInteger. 105 toUpper. 11. see also datatype recursive. 239. 67. 22. 202. 233. 47 topdecl (data). 185. 136 toRational. 235 toClockTime. 239. 129 union.262 tdYear. 49. 224 Time (module). see constructed type function. see principal type INDEX trivial. 49 topdecl (newtype). 9. 42. 236 toCalendarTime. 98. 190 unzip5. 235 timeFmt. 80 tuple type. 120 unzip3. 46 topdecl (type). 17. 180. 9. 191 unzip6. 195. 129 uniSymbol. 9. see list type monomorphic. 9. 232 time12Fmt. 230 the ﬁle system. 119 unzip. 181. 22. 18. 125 valdefs. 232 time of day. 39. 181. 184. 183. 17. 195. 40. 211. 233. see ambiguous type constructed. 180. 4. 136 topdecls. 45. 181. 18. 129 unit datatype. 188 Unicode character set. 234 time. 38. 181. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 51 topdecl (instance). 80. see trivial type unit expression. 11. 7.
190 zipWithM. 181. 130 vertab. 129 whitestuff. 181. 80. 181. 207 zipWithM_. 181. 202. 120 zip4. 206 whitechar. 190 zip7. 97. 137 varsym. 207 263 . 190 zipWith6. 118 writable. 38. 202. 190 zipWith7. 190 zipWith5. 9. 181. 181. 185. 190 zip6. 31 words. 120 zipWith4. 129 whitespace. 9. 185. 129 when. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 120 zipWith3. 126. 120 zip3. 224 writeFile. 214 WriteMode. 181. 53. 9. 9.INDEX vars. 10. 181. 190 zipWith. 214 zip. 202. 190 zip5.